Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 14

A Critical Analysis of Cariyapiaka

1.

Introduction
1

The authenticity of Cariyapiaka came into existence as a


2
separated treatise under the Khuddhaka Nikya Text has been questioned
in the scholars in the Theravda tradition.
Scholars have seen, or questioned about the historical validity
of Cariyapiaka in the following subjects:
As the Cariyapiaka is represented about the Bodhisattas
Enlightenment perfections, however, the lacking of the three perfections
in Cariyapiaka such as Khanti, Viriya and Upekkha to be the ten.
The question is whether the Cariyapiaka earlier than the Jtaka
or not. If earlier, then obviously the argument regarding the historical
authenticity of the Cariyapiaka as a separated treaty as validated; but if
the Cariyapiaka suppose to have a compiled later than Jtaka, then, in
this case, the Cariyapiaka is certainly a debatable and flexible issue
among the modern Buddhist Scholars.
Cariyapiaka is one of the texts of the Khuddaka-Nikya. The
meaning of Cariya is Conduct, Character, Behavior etc.; and
Piaka is Basket. So the English meaning of Cariyapiaka is Basket
3
of Conduct.

Cariyapiaka is a book of Khuddakha-Nikya which have the


Bodhisattas Seven Perfections.
2
The Khuddaka Nikaya, or "Collection of Little Texts"
(Pali khudda "smaller; lesser"), the fifth division of the Sutta Piaka. is a wide-ranging
collection of fifteen books.
3
The title Basket of Conduct, chosen by Dr. E. J. Thomas, Cp, (Oxford:
PTS, 2000), p. iii

referred?

Now, the question is to which, or whom, the Cariyapiaka is

This means, whether the Cariyapiaka is referred to


Bodhisattas Conduct, or the general Conduct of human beings.
According to the texts and authorships indicate that the
Cariyaiaka is referred to the Conduct of Bodhisatta than general human
beings.
The author did not proclaim of the Bodhisattas Condut and
the general human beings Conduct as a similarity.
Why is the Cariyaiaka formed as a separated or a completed
text of the Khuddaka-Nikya?
If it is described of Bodhisattas Conduct, have we a sect of
4
Bodhisattas Conduct in the Jtaka stories?
All the stories of the Cariyapiaka have directly referred to the
similar stories of the Jtaka. And also Cariyapiaka has given references
of Jtakas, but the Jatakas did not give any reference of Cariyapiaka. It
means, we can say the Cariyapiaka has been described as a latecomer
to the Pli Canon.

A critical analysis of the Cariyapiaka will be studied in the following


themes:
1.

Why is the Cariyapiaka formed as a separated treaty of the


Khuddaka-Nikya in the Pli Canon?

2.

Critical Study of Cariyapiaka:


2.1 Scholars disagreement of the text,
2.2 Scholars opinions
2.3 The Cariyapiaka is not a fulfill text.

3.

Comparative Analysis of the stories between Cariyapiaka and


Jtakas.
4

E.B. Cowell, The Jtaka or Stories of the Buddhas Former Births,


Translated From Pli by Various Hands, Ja I-IV, Oxford: PTS, 1995,
5
This questions answer I have given in Introduction.

4.
The Cariyapiaka does not follow the gradual development
towards of the Buddhahood.
The first 3 items will be considered as a critical study, and the
item number 6 and 4 will be a critical analysis.

The Critical study of Cariyapiaka

The present text of Cariyapiaka consists of the thirty-five livesthe story of the Buddha. This text contains same perfections (Pramtas)
6
of the Bodhisatta.
The 35 stories appeared in the Cariyapiaka that has divided
into these pramtas. There are seven pramtas: 1. Dnapramit, 2.
Slapramit, 3. Nekkhammapramit, 4. Adhihnapramit, 5.
7
Saccapramit, 6. Mettpramit, 7. Upekkhpramit.
In Dnapramit included with ten stories: 1. Akitticariya 2.
Sakhacariya 3. Kurudhammacariya 4. Mahsudassanacariya 5.
Mahgovindacariya 6. Nimirjacariya 7. Candakumracariya 8.
8
Sivirjacariya 9. Vessantaracariya 10. Sasapaitacariya.
In Slapramit included with ten stories: 1. Mtiposakacariya
2. Bhridattacariya 3. Campeyyangacariya 4. Cabodhicariya 5.
Mahisarjacariya 6. Rurumigarjacariya 7. Mtagacariya 8.
9
Dhammadevaputtacariya 9. Alnasattucariya 10. Sakhaplacariya.
In Nekkhammapramit included with five stories: 1.
Yudhajayacariya 2. Somanassacariya 3. Ayogharacariya 4.
10
Bhisacariya 5. Soapaitacariya.
In Adhihnapramit included with only one story: 1.
11
Temiyapaitacariya.
6

The term Bodhisatta, (Bodhi) is an enlightenment, (Satta) is (Being).


Traditionally, a bodhisatta is anyone who, motivated by great compassion, has
generated (Bodhicitta).
7
I.B. Horner (tr.), The Minor Anthologies of the Pli Canon III
Chronicle of Buddhas (Buddhavasa) and Basket of Conduct (Cariypiaka),
(Oxford: PTS, 2000), pp. 1-50.
8
Ibidi. Pp. 1-17
9
Ibid. pp. 18-29.
10
Ibid. pp. 30-35.

In Saccapramit included with six stories: 1. Kapirjacariya


2.
Saccasavhayapaitacariya
3.
Vaapotakacariya
4.
12
Maccharjacariya 5. Kahadpyanacariya 6. Sutasomacariya.
In Mettpramit included
13
Suvaasmacariya 2. Ekarjacariya.

with

two

stories:

1.

In Upekkhpramit included with only one story: 1.


14
Mahlomahasakacariya.
According to the Cariyapiaka, we understand that it is
explained about the conduct of the Bodhisatta. This means, it is the
expression of the qualities of the Bodhisatta.
The author of the Cariyapiaka has not mentioned the three
15
qualities of the Bodhisatta, as such: 1. Pa 2. Viriya 3. Khanti. We do
not know the further intention of the author, why he has not included the
other three pramtas.
The question has arisen why Cariyapiaka come into existence
as a separated treatise under the Khuddaka-Nikya, because we have the
entire Jtaka collections. 16 About the previous lives of the Buddha in
where the ten perfections are mentioned.

2.1

Scholars Disagreement of the text:

Cariyapiaka is one of the problematic text on understanding of


the modern Theravda Buddhist literature. Many scholars have suspected
questioned about the original works of Cariyapiaka. Some scholars
noticed that the Cariyapiaka is an incomplete treaty of the Khuddhaka
Nikya. According to the numerical orders, the Cariyapiaka came into
the existence as the last 15 book of the Khuddhaka Nikya. In
Cariyapiaka, there are all together thirty-five stories are found.
11

Ibid. pp.36-38.
I.B. Horner (tr.), The Minor Anthologies of the Pli Canon III
Chronicle of Buddhas (Buddhavasa) and Basket of Conduct (Cariypiaka),
(Oxford: PTS, 2000), pp. 39-45.
13
Ibid. pp. 46-47.
14
Ibid. pp. 48-50.
15
Ibid. pp. 1-50.
16
J I-VI
12

According to the Cariyapiaka, there are only seven perfections


(prams)
are given 1. Dnapramit, 2. Slapramit, 3.
Nekkhammapramit, 4. Adhihnapramit, 5. Saccapramit, 6.
Mettpramit, 7. Upekkhpramit. But in this treaty, three pramitas
are absent. There are namely; 1. Pa pramit, 2. Viriyapramit, 3.
Khantipramit,.
17

All the stories of the Cariyapiaka present to the account of


different pramtas. Although there are lots of work are incompletely
existing within the Jtaka stories, the seven perfections in the
Cariyapiaka have differences but quite similarities. Due to a short
assessment that Im giving an account on Cariyapiaka, therefore, it is not
possible to evaluate, just justified between the stories of Cariyapiaka and
jtakas. The aim of the composing in this short assessment on the
Cariyapiaka is to briefly explain the similarities and differences between
the stories of them.
According to the Theravda Buddhism states that to attain
Buddhahood, one must be fulfilled ten perfections (Dasapramit).18 It is
assumed that Cariyapiaka contains seven perfections Dna, sla,
Nekkhamma, Pa, Viriya, Khanti, Adhihna, Sacca, Metta, Upekkha,
although the three unrepresented perfections Pa, Viriya, Khanti which
appear in the Buddhavasa; Seems Cp19 face the lack of becoming
omniscience or Buddhahood.
Absorbed by D. L. Barua, the more corrected hypothesis would
be assumed the loss of the sections dealing with the three unrepresented
perfections on the grounds that there are mentioned in the Envoi-verses of
20
the Bv, in which Cp forms a kind of appendage, expressly mentioned
ten in Bv. It is more than likely that Ola-leaves were liable to suffer from

17

The term pramit, commonly translated as "perfection," has two


etymologies. The first derives it from the word parama, meaning "highest," "most
distant," and hence, "chief," "primary," "most excellent." Hence, the substantive can
be rendered "excellence" or "perfection."
18
T.W. Rhys Davids & William Stede, (ed.), Pli English Dictionary,
(London: PTS. 1921-1925), p.505.
19
The Cariypiaka Abbreviation Cp, and it is Pli Canon included in
Suttapiaka of Khuddhaka Nikya, as the last of fifteen book.
20
The Buddhavasa is a Chronicle of Buddhas, it is Buddhist Text which
describes the life of Gotama Buddha and twenty seven Buddhas who preceded him. It
is the fourteen book of Khuddhaka Nikya of SuttapiTaka.

the ravages of time, man, and insects besides being sometimes lost or torn
or displaced. Had some such misfortune happened to Cp.21
D. L. Baruas questions the authenticity of Cp. He argues that
the original version or the text of Cp, before compiled, it would have all
the ten perfections but the three unrepresented perfections would have
been suffered from some damaged in various ways, which compiler of the
Cp, could not recognize or identified, therefore, avoided. From this
statement D. L. Baruas main hypothesis is that Cp is an incomplete
22
text.
Therefore, it still essentially manages to cover the ground
necessaries to show as the part of a growing Buddha cult toward complete
fulfillment of all ten perfections to the attainment of Buddhahood. 23
It is very difficult to say that whether the whole stories of the
Cariyapiaka is referring both past and present lives of the Buddha. But it
is suggested that the entire stories of the Cp treats in this eon of the
Buddha. Regarding the previous lives of the Buddha, we have a set of
24
Jtaka collection of the Buddhas former lives in the six volumes.
2.2

Scholars Opinion

The title Basket of Conduct, has chosen for this present


translation, seems a fairly literal rendering of Cariyapiaka, and is the
descriptive name favored by Dr. E. J. Thomas and professor Lamotte. It
25
preserves the usual rendering of Basket for Piaka.
In fact Dhammapla, the commentator, explains that Piaka is
used here either as the traditional teaching, Pariyatti, of the teacher with
regard to his power of (right) conduct, Cariya, in past lives, or it is a
26
textual receptacle for matter connected with his conduct in past lives.

21

I.B. Horner, (tr.) The Minor Anthologies of the Pali Canon, Part III,
Chronicle of Buddhas (Buddhavasa) and Basket of Conduct (Cariypiaka),
(Oxford: PTS, 2000), p.vii.
22
I.B. Horner (tr.), The Minor Anthologies of the Pli Canon III
Chronicle of Buddhas (Buddhavasa) and Basket of Conduct (Cariypiaka),
(Oxford: PTS, 2000), p. vi.
23
Ibid. p. vii.
24
J I-VI, PTS.
25
Ibid. p. iii.
26

Ibid. p. iv.

Dr. Lily De Silva says, there appear to have been many


27
Mahyna works with this designation.
Winternitz draws attention to a Bodhisatva-piaka mentioned in
a Chinese text translated by Hsuan-Tsang consisting of a long list of
28
Mahyna text.
Warder, in expressing the opinion that Cp is a small collection
of Jtakas without knowing parallel unless it be, by opposition of ideas,
29
the Bodhisatva-piaka composed in one of the Mahsagha school.
D. L. Barua finds it strange that it is called Cariyapiaka at all,
since an alternative title under which is perhaps was intended to be known
which was ready to hand: Buddhpadniya, as given in the concluding
statement of Cp itself, and twice in CpA (Cariyapiaka Atthakath). This
title would seem to mean exploits relative to the Buddha, whereas
Bodhisatta might have been more through the course of, there could not
have been Buddhahood had not the Budhisatta already engaged in such
30
heroic conduct as would bring the perfections to complete fulfillment.
D. L. Barua and R. Morris shares the view, however, that the
text of Cp is incomplete as stories exemplifying these three perfections
are entirely lacking. Rhys Davids apparently followed by Morris, suggests
that the compiler had meant to have a hundred stories, ten for each
31
perfection as in the first two divisions.
D. L. Barua also provides a list from which it is easily seen that
32
these j. Tales range from No.35 to No. 547.

27
28
29

Op. Cit.
Op. Cit.

I.B. Horner (tr.), The Minor Anthologies of the Pli Canon III
Chronicle of Buddhas (Buddhavasa) and Basket of Conduct (Cariypiaka),
(Oxford: PTS, 2000), p. iv.
30
Ibid. p. v.
31
Ibid. p. vi.
32
Ibid. p. viii.

2.3

The Cariyapiaka is not a fulfill text

Among the ten perfections we found only seven perfections in


the Cariyapiaka. The three perfections are absent. Even though there are
seven perfections, but those are also did not present in gradual order.
Among the first 5 items will be considered as a critical study
and 3 and 4 will be systematically critical analysis.

3. Comparative Analysis of stories between Cariyapiaka and Jtaka


1.Aki
tticar
iya
Dna
pra
mita
2.M
tipos
akac
ariya

Slap
ram
ita

Cariyapiaka
In this prevent eon the name of
ascetic Gotama was Akitti the
overlord of three fold Heavens
came as disguised of a Brahmin
to collect alms from Akitti.
Akitti gave alms to him in the
33
hope of aspiring Buddhahood.
When Mtiposaka was a lordly
Elephant in one of his previous
life.
His
named
was
Mtiposaka. At that time there
was none, then on earth like
him in respect of (moral)
virtues. A forester having seen
him in the forest informed the
King
about
Mtiposaka
Elephant and the King rejoiced
in his mind, sent an Elephanttamer. Discerning Bodhisatta
Mtiposakas moral virtue, he
looked out for distinguishing
marks. Bodhisatta Mtiposaka
got angry when tamer came to
33

Jkata
1. Akitti- In the Jtaka story (Akitti-Jtaka) it is said
Jtaka that one of the previous birth of the
No.
Buddha was named as Akitti, born as one
480,
of the elite family. He offered all the
Vol.4 properties to the destitute before his
34
renunciation.
2.MtiposakaJtaka.
No.455,
Vol.4

The Budhisatta was born as a white


Elephant in Himlayan region. He was a
magnificent beast, and a herd of 80,000
elephants surrounded him. But his mother
was blind, when he gave his sweet wild
fruit, for his mother then elephants started
to convey her; they did not give her
anything, they ate all themselves. He felt
so sad and at the night, unknown to other
elephants, taken with him out, he departed
to mount Caoraa. Now a certain
forester was crying out loudly because he
lost the way of Benares. Then the elephant
approached to him, but forester fled in fear.
The elephant said dont fear, then elephant
carried him on out of the forest and then

Ibid. pp.1-2.
E.B. Cowell, The Jtaka or Stories of the Buddhas Former Births,
Translated From Pli by Various Hands, Ja IV No.480, Oxford: PTS, 1995, pp.
148-152.
34

catch him, but Mtiposaka was


capable to crush whole men in
the kingdom death. But he did
not change his mind when they
attacked him because he did not
even have been angry with
them for fear of break down his
35
moral core.

3.Yud
haja
yacari
ya

The Bodhisatta was born as a


Kings son named Yudhajaya.
Once he saw a dewdrop fallen
down in the warmth of the sun.
Taking that itself as the sign he
Nekk increased the thrill. He asked
hamm permission for renunciation of
apra his parents and then he
37
mita
renunciate.

3.Yuva
jayaJtaka
No.460,
Vol.4

4.Tem
iyapa
ita
cariy
a

4.MgaPakkhaJtaka
No.
538,
Vol.6

Adhi
hnapra
mita

The kind of Ksi had a son


whose name was Mgapakkha,
but he was known as Temiya
its an interesting thing that
16,000 women gave birth all
were male. Temiya heard and
felt to terrible dread rose in
him, thrilled in mind, he
reached the decision how shall
he release this? A dev
(invisible formal mother) who
was nearby him, desiring his
35

returned. The king elephant of Benares had


died and beaten a drum to find out a fit and
proper elephant for kings riding. Foolish
forester informed to the king about the
white and magnificent elephant. The king
agreed and sent a great troop of followers,
they found Bodhisatta was eating on the
lake. Having seen tamers came to attack
elephant, he got angry and he could scratch
whole men of the kingdom, but he did not
get angry because his virtues will be
36
marred.
The King Sabbadatta had 1000 sons; his
eldest son Yuvajana was the vice-royalty.
One day early in the morning he saw so
many dew drops hanging in the treetops,
grass-tips etc. but in the evening he went to
see that again but dew drops disappeared,
then he asked the reason of disappearance.
Charioteer replied My Lord, as the Sun
rises higher, they all melt down and sink
into the ground. On hearing this, he back
to the palace and he was asking permission
from parents to renunciate, having taken
38
permission he renunciate.
The King Ksi of Benares had sixteen
thousand wives but none sons of them.
Later the chief queen Canddev brought
forth a holy son. He was the Bodhisatta,
named as Temiyakumro. On the same day
five hundred young noble sons were born in
the ministerss houses. The Bodhisatta
having seen a death sentence of four
robbers ordered by his father, a palpitating
fear appeared in him, by the recollection of
his previous births, he remembered that, he
was a King for 20 years in luxurious life and

I.B. Horner, Cp, pp.18-19.


E.B. Cowell, J iv, pp. 58-60.
37
I.B. Horner, Cp, p.30.
38
E.B. Cowell, J iv, pp. 75-78.
36

10

wells, seeing him anguished,


advised him to act about three
kinds of behavior. Dumb, deaf,
and a cripple, he showed 16
years. But his parents were not
able to recognize the facts. No
one equal to him in truth. This
was his determination of
39
perfection.

acted as King action, after passing away, he


fell into Ussada hell. Then he had suffered
80,000 years there. Then he pretended in
three characteristics, e.g. dumb, deaf, and a
cripple continue 16 years, by the advice of a
goddess who had been his mother in a
previous life. Finally Bodhisatta renounced
as an ascetic life, charioteer followed him,
his parent, whole Kingdom and other two
Kingdoms received ascetic life as monks
and nuns, and they followed the
Bodhisattas path. By practicing meditation
40
all of them achieved Brahma realm.
5.Kap Kapirja was birthed a monkey 5.Vanari Once upon a time, when Brahmadatta was
irjac (living in a lair in the cleft of a ndareigning in Benares. The Bodhisatta was
ariya riverbank, flattered by a Jtaka
born as a monkey; he lived in a river bank.

crocodile, Monkey had no No.57,


The couple of crocodile was living
opportunity of going (to the Vol.1
together, female crocodile prospecting and
Sacca island). In that place where he
deserving for the monkeys heart to eat.
pram used to intend (when he had
She begged her lord to catch up the
it
jumped) from the hither bank
monkey for her. He is lurking with the
and descended on the further
rock, The monkey understood that the
(bank), there sat the crocodile,
crocodile is there and monkey said what is
an enemy, a killer, a fierce of
it? Who are you? Replied to monkey, Im
aspect. Crocodile spoke to
a crocodile, waiting to catch you up and eat
monkey, said, Come on, I am
your heart. Open your mouth and catch
going Crocodile said to the
me when I jump. When he opened his
monkey. Stepping on to his
mouth, then his eyes shut and waited with
head, monkey crossed the farther
closed eyes and open jaws! Seeing this, the
bank. No untruth was spoken to
wily monkey made a jump on the
crocodile; he acted according to
crocodiles head, and then with a spring
his word. There was no one to
like lightning, gained the bank. The
equal him in truth this was his
crocodile praised of the Bodhisatta, thus
41
Oh monkey, Buddhisatta possesses the 4
perfection of truth.
virtues to overcome his foes in this world,
and then he returned to his own dwelling42
place.
6.Suv When in a wood he was Sma, 6.Sma- There were two chiefs hunters who were
aas that
created
by
Sakka, Jtaka
dwelling in two villages with fasting
39
40
41
42

I.B. Horner, Cp, pp.36-38.


E.B. Cowell, J vi, pp.1-19.
I.B. Horner, Cp, p.39.
E.B. Cowell, J I, pp.142-143.

11

maca Buddhisatta brought the lions No.540,


riya and tigers in the forest to Vol.6
loving-kindness. Surrounded by
Mett lions and tigers, by leopards,
pram bears, buffaloes and by spotted
it
deer and wild boar, he lived in
the wood. No one was
frightened of him, nor he did
not fear anyone; sustained by
the power of loving-kindness,
he delighted in the forest and
43
wild animals.

7.
Mahl
omaha
sacar
iya
Upekk
hpra
mit

friends, they gave wed both of their son


Duklaka and daughter Prik together.
But the newly husband-wife disinterested
in intercourse and they renounced from
family, went to Himavat at Migasammat.
They lived in ascetic life there, the Sakka
supported them for the necessaries of their
needs. Having seen a danger, the Sakka
requested them to take a son to care of
them in the upcoming future. Followed the
request of Sakka, she bore a son
(Bodhisatta), but not by intercourse, but by
touching Prikas navel with his hand.
After predating, They got blind by a
snakes poison, and the son took care of
the parent. His loving-kindness is the
highest in this world. It is his
44
Mettpramit.
I laid down on a cemetery 7.Lomah Before ninety-one eons ago, the Bodhisatta
leaning against a skeleton. asaset himself to examine into the false
Crowds of rustic children Jtaka
asceticism. So, he became a seclusion,
approached me displayed a No.94, according to the undressed ascetics
great deal of derisive behavior. Vol.1
(jvikas), unclothed and covered with
Others exultant, thrilled in
dust, solitary and lonely, fleeing like a deer
mind, brought (me) offerings of
from the face of men; his food was a small
many perfumes and garlands
fish, cow-dung, and other refuse; his vigil
and a variety of food. Those
might not be disturbed. He followed all the
who caused me anguish and
systems same as others do. He recalled
those who gave me happiness-I
them himself in his mind. But when, after a
was the same to them all;
lifespan in the rigor of this asceticism, the
kindliness, the anger did not
vision of hell, arose in his thought before
exist. Having become balanced
the Bodhisatta lying down, he realized the
toward happiness and anguish,
worthlessness of all his austerities, and in
toward honors and reproaches, I
that supreme moment broken away from
was
the
same
in
all
his delusions, laid hold of the real truth,
46
circumstances-this was my
and was reborn in the heaven of Devas.
45
perfection of equanimity.

43

I.B. Horner, Cp, pp.


E.B. Cowell, J vi, pp. 38-52.
45
I.B. Horner, Cp, P.48.
46
E.B. Cowell, J I, pp. 229-230.
44

12

In this field, at the Criyapitaka and Jtaka view asserted us that both are
in the order, but in the Criyapitaka, it has elaborated with an epitomized
but in Jtaka has an extensive account of numerous stories. It is a
crucially important subject to keep researching while as studious.

Cariyapiaka does not follow the gradual development


towards the Buddhahood.

Buddhas principles arranges through the ordered. But in Criyapitaka is


not maintained the numerically and systematically ordered. It is indicated
to a flexible and eligibility of the redactor. Pan-buddhas teachings should
be through the following to noble lineage. But in the Criyapitaka is
completely absent from it. Such as the paradigm, the dependent
origination those are followed to systematically ordered with each other
47
48
i.e, if there is no Avijj then there is no Sakhra. It is also called as
causality with following by sublime principalities and order rules. They
are interrelated with each other from first to last accordance with
numerical system. Without it, the definite arrangement does not work
with perfect fulfillment of perfection of achievement of the Buddhahood.
The perfection also same as if one could not fulfill giving (dna) then one
could not get support to fulfill virtue (sla) etc.
Giving (Dna) is stated at the beginning, then Virtue (Sla) is
stated immediately after giving. (Nekkhamma) (is mentioned immediately
after virtue, then Wisdom (Pa) is mentioned immediately after
renunciation. Energy (Viriya) is stated immediately after wisdom, then
Patience (Khanti) is mentioned immediately after energy. Truthfulness
(Sacca) is stated immediately after patience, then Determination
(Adhihna) is stated immediately after truthfulness. Loving-kindness
(Mett) is mentioned immediately after determination, then Equanimity
49
(Upekkh) is mentioned immediately after loving-kindness.

47

Narada, A Manual of Abhidhamma Abhidhammattha Sangaha


(Bhadanta Anuruddhcariya), (Buddhist Missionary Society, Malaysia: 1956), p.
360.
48
This is, because that is. This is not, because that is not. This ceases to
be, because that ceases to be.
49
I.B. Horner, (tr), "Chronicle of Buddhas (Buddhavamsa)". The
Minor Anthologies Of The Pali Canon: Part III: Chronicle Of Buddhas
(Buddhavamsa) and Basket Of Conduct (Cariyapitaka), (Oxford: Pali Text
Society, 1975), pp. 199.

13

These are the gradual order of the Pramits should be


understood as explained.
According to Cariyapiaka the seven perfections (Pramtas) are:
1. Dnapramit, 2. Slapramit, 3.
Adhihnapramit, 5. Saccapramit,
50
Upekkhpramit.

Nekkhammapramit,
6. Mettpramit,

4.
7.

Here, the three perfections are shown in the gradual order, after
those three the gradual order is lost. Then, according to Cariyapiakas
view, it is impossible to achieve the Buddhahood by Bodhisatta because
the Cariyapiaka does not follow the gradual development toward the
Buddhahood, this is an another problem.
Conclusion:
The study of the critical researched work on the Cariyapiaka
has shown that there are some critical points, for examples; the Conduct
(Cariya) as prevented in the Cariyapiaka text and the Cariya prevented in
the Jatakas and other relevant text such as Buddhavasa and Apdana
have not been assimilated. Because the Cariya word that appears in the
Cariyapiaka is altogether seven perfections in which the treaties would
have been proclaimed that the Cariyapiaka is completely fulfillment of
perfections to achieve Buddhahood.
We found the three perfections are unrepresented in the
Cariyapiaka. Even though the Cariyapiaka represents to the seven
perfections and also those unmentioned three perfections did not allusions
in the gradual order, but the readers can acknowledge them from the
Jtaka stories, Buddhavasa and Apdana as well.
For the Buddhist practitioners, these are very much essential to
observe critically and moral requisites, as giving, virtue, renunciation,
wisdom, energy, patience, truthfulness, determination, loving-kindness
and equanimity, these are the importantly necessary for the Boddhisatta
who is going to be as an omniscient Buddha.

50

Ibid. pp. 1-50.

14

cariya Dhammapla is the author of Buddhist commentaries


after the cariya Buddhaghosa. cariya Dhammapla has completed all
the incomplete works so perfectly. Even though the Cariyapiaka has
incomplete for some unknown reason, but it should be considered as
complete treatise.
It is a little treaty of Khuddhaka Nikya and a very interesting
text for every reader. Although it contains a little treatise, but it captures
the flavor, the Bodhisatta is a real and an undefeated hero from all
determined figures who intend to be Buddha from Bodhisattas, It is a
challenge for Bodhisatta to be a Buddha without fulfilling the perfections
according to the ordered of Buddhass requirement which has been
mentioned in the several Buddhist texts.
This Paper
Researched By
Dhamma Rakkhita Bhikkhu
Ph.D. Researcher- Plan 1.1
Reg. No: 5701505117
Bangladeshi Student
Date: 28. 10. 2014
IBSC Mahachulalonkornrajavidyalaya University, Wang Noi,
Thailand.