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Laurent series

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A Laurent series is defined with respect to a particular point c and a path of i
ntegration . The path of inte ration must lie in an annulus, indicated here by th
e red color, inside which f(z) is holomorphic (analytic).
In mathematics, the Laurent series of a complex function f(z) is a representatio
n of that function as a power series which includes terms of ne ative de ree. It
may be used to express complex functions in cases where a Taylor series expansi
on cannot be applied. The Laurent series was named after and first published by
Pierre Alphonse Laurent in 1843. Karl Weierstrass may have discovered it first b
ut his paper, written in 1841, was not published until much later, after Weierst
rass' death.[1]
The Laurent series for a complex function f(z) about a point c is iven by:
f(z)=\sum_{n=-\infty}^\infty a_n(z-c)^n
where the an are constants, defined by a line inte ral which is a
of Cauchy's inte ral formula:

eneralization

a_n=\frac{1}{2\pi i} \oint_\ amma \frac{f(z)\,\mathrm{d}z}{(z-c)^{n+1}}.\,


The path of inte ration \ amma is counterclockwise around a closed, rectifiable
path containin no self-intersections, enclosin c and lyin in an annulus A in
which f(z) is holomorphic (analytic). The expansion for f(z) will then be valid
anywhere inside the annulus. The annulus is shown in red in the dia ram on the r
i ht, alon with an example of a suitable path of inte ration labeled \ amma. If
we take \ amma to be a circle |z-c| = \varrho, where r < \varrho < R, this just
amounts to computin the complex Fourier coefficients of the restriction of f t
o \ amma. The fact that these inte rals are unchan ed by a deformation of the co
ntour \ amma is an immediate consequence of Green's theorem.
In practice, the above inte ral formula may not offer the most practical method
for computin the coefficients a_n for a iven function f(z); instead, one often
pieces to ether the Laurent series by combinin known Taylor expansions. Becaus
e the Laurent expansion of a function is unique whenever it exists, any expressi
on of this form that actually equals the iven function f(z) in some annulus mus
t actually be the Laurent expansion of f(z).
Contents
1
2
3
4

Conver ent Laurent series


Uniqueness
Laurent polynomials
Principal part
4.1 Multiplication
5 See also
6 References
7 External links
Conver ent Laurent series
Laurent series with complex coefficients are an important tool in complex analys
is, especially to investi ate the behavior of functions near sin ularities.
e1/x2 and Laurent approximations: see text for key. As the negative degree of the
Laurent series rises, it approaches the correct function.
e1/x2 and its Laurent approximations with the negative degree rising. The neighbo
rhood around the zero singularity can never be approximated.

Consider for instance the function f(x) = e^{1/x^2} with f(0) = 0. As a real fu
nction, it is infinitely differentiable everywhere; as a complex function howeve
r it is not differentiable at x = 0. By replacing x by 1/x2 in the power series f
or the exponential function, we obtain its Laurent series which converges and is
equal to (x) for all complex numbers x except at the singularity x = 0. The grap
h opposite shows e1/x2 in black and its Laurent approximations
\sum_{n=0}^N(1)^n\,{x^{2n}\over n!}
for N = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 50. As N , the approximation becomes exact for al
l (complex) numbers x except at the singularity x = 0.
More generally, Laurent series can be used to express holomorphic functions defi
ned on an annulus, much as power series are used to express holomorphic function
s defined on a disc.
Suppose
\sum_{n=\infty}^\infty a_n ( z  c )^n
is a given Laurent series with complex coefficients an and a complex center c. T
hen there exists a unique inner radius r and outer radius R such that:
The Laurent series converges on the open annulus A {z : r < |z c| < R}. To s
ay that the Laurent series converges, we mean that both the positive degree powe
r series and the negative degree power series converge. Furthermore, this conver
gence will be uniform on compact sets. Finally, the convergent series defines a
holomorphic function (z) on the open annulus.
Outside the annulus, the Laurent series diverges. That is, at each point of
the exterior of A, the positive degree power series or the negative degree power
series diverges.
On the boundary of the annulus, one cannot make a general statement, except
to say that there is at least one point on the inner boundary and one point on t
he outer boundary such that (z) cannot be holomorphically continued to those poin
ts.
It is possible that r may be zero or R may be infinite; at the other extreme, it
's not necessarily true that r is less than R. These radii can be computed as fo
llows:
\begin{align} r &= \limsup_{n\rightarrow\infty} |a_{n}|^\frac{1}{n} \\ {1 \
over R} &= \limsup_{n\rightarrow\infty} |a_n|^\frac{1}{n}. \end{align}
We take R to be infinite when this latter lim sup is zero.
Conversely, if we start with an annulus of the form A {z : r < |z c| < R} and a
holomorphic function (z) defined on A, then there always exists a unique Laurent
series with center c which converges (at least) on A and represents the function
(z).
As an example, let
f(z) = {1 \over (z1)(z2i)}.
This function has singularities at z = 1 and z = 2i, where the denominator of th
e expression is zero and the expression is therefore undefined. A Taylor series
about z = 0 (which yields a power series) will only converge in a disc of radius
1, since it "hits" the singularity at 1.

However, there are three possible Laurent expansions about 0, depending on the r
egion z is in:
One is defined on the disc where |z| < 1; it is the same as the Taylor serie
s,
f(z) = \frac{1 + 2i}{5} \sum_{k=0}^\infty \left(\frac{1}{(2i)^{k + 1}} 
1\right)z^k.
(The technique involves using partial fractions to split the original expression
for f(z) into two simpler fractions and then exploiting the fact that 1/(1z) i
s the formula for the sum of a geometric series with first term 1 and constant m
ultiplier z.)
Another one is defined on the annulus where 1 < |z| < 2, caught between the
two singularities,
f(z) = \frac{1 + 2i}{5} \left(\sum_{k=1}^\infty \frac{1}{z^k} + \sum
_{k=0}^\infty \frac{1}{(2i)^{k + 1}}z^k\right).
The third one is defined on the infinite annulus where 2 < |z| < ,
k}.

f(z) = \frac{1 + 2i}{5} \sum_{k=1}^\infty \frac{1  (2i)^{k  1}}{z^

(The terms above can be derived through polynomial long division or usin
g the sum of a geometric series trick again, this time using \frac{1}{z} and \fr
ac{2i}{z} as the common ratios.)
The case r = 0; i.e., a holomorphic function (z) which may be undefined at a sing
le point c, is especially important.
The coefficient a1 of the Laurent expansion of such a function is called the resi
due of (z) at the singularity c; it plays a prominent role in the residue theorem
.
For an example of this, consider
f(z) = {e^z \over z} + e^\frac{1}{z}.
This function is holomorphic everywhere except at z = 0. To determine the Lauren
t expansion about c = 0, we use our knowledge of the Taylor series of the expone
ntial function:
f(z) = \cdots + \left( {1 \over 3!} \right) z^{3} + \left( {1 \over 2!} \ri
ght) z^{2} + 2z^{1} + 2 + \left( {1 \over 2!} \right) z + \left( {1 \over 3!}
\right) z^2 + \left( {1 \over 4!} \right) z^3 + \cdots
and we find that the residue is 2.
Uniqueness
Suppose a function (z) holomorphic on the annulus r < |z c| < R has two Laurent s
eries:
f(z)=\sum_{n=\infty}^{\infty}a_{n}\left(zc\right)^{n}=\sum_{n=\infty}^{\i
nfty}b_{n}\left(zc\right)^{n}.
Multiply both sides with \left(zc\right)^{k1}, where k is an arbitrary intege
r, and integrate on a path inside the annulus,

\oint_{\ amma}\sum_{n=-\infty}^{\infty}a_{n}\left(z-c\ri ht)^{n-k-1}\mathrm{


d}z=\oint_{\ amma}\sum_{n=-\infty}^{\infty}b_{n}\left(z-c\ri ht)^{n-k-1}\mathrm{
d}z.
The series conver es uniformly on r+\epsilon\leq|z-c|\leq R-\epsilon, where is a
positiv numbr small nough for to be contained in the constricted closed annu
lus, so the inte ration and summation can be interchan ed. Substitutin the iden
tity
\oint_{\ amma}(z-c)^{n-k-1}dz=2\pi i\delta_{nk}
into the summation yields
a_k=b_k
Hence the Laurent series is unique.
Laurent polynomials
Main article: Laurent polynomial
A Laurent polynomial is a Laurent series in which only finitely many coefficient
s are non-zero. Laurent polynomials differ from ordinary polynomials in that the
y may have terms of ne ative de ree.
Principal part
The principal part of a Laurent series is the series of terms with ne ative de r
ee, that is
\sum_{k=-\infty}^{-1} a_k (z-c)^k.
If the principal part of f is a finite sum, then f has a pole at c of order equa
l to (ne ative) the de ree of the hi hest term; on the other hand, if f has an e
ssential sin ularity at c, the principal part is an infinite sum (meanin it has
infinitely many non-zero terms).
If the inner radius of conver ence of the Laurent series for f is 0, then f has
an essential sin ularity at c if and only if the principal part is an infinite s
um, and has a pole otherwise.
If the inner radius of conver ence is positive, f may have infinitely many ne at
ive terms but still be re ular at c, as in the example above, in which case it i
s represented by a different Laurent series in a disk about c.
Laurent series with only finitely many ne ative terms are tamethey are a power se
ries divided by z^k, and can be analyzed similarlywhile Laurent series with infin
itely many ne ative terms have complicated behavior on the inner circle of conve
r ence.
Multiplication
Laurent series cannot in eneral be multiplied. Al ebraically, the expression fo
r the terms of the product may involve infinite sums which need not conver e (on
e cannot take the convolution of inte er sequences). Geometrically, the two Laur
ent series may have non-overlappin annuli of conver ence.
Two Laurent series with only finitely many ne ative terms can be multiplied: al
ebraically, the sums are all finite; eometrically, these have poles at c, and i
nner radius of conver ence 0, so they both conver e on an overlappin annulus.
Thus when definin formal Laurent series, one requires Laurent series with only
finitely many ne ative terms.

Similarly, the sum of two conver ent Laurent series need not conver e, thou h it
is always defined formally, but the sum of two bounded below Laurent series (or
any Laurent series on a punctured disk) has a non-empty annulus of conver ence.
See also
Puiseux series
Mitta -Leffler's theorem
Formal Laurent series Laurent series considered formally, with coefficients
from an arbitrary commutative rin , without re ard for conver ence, and with onl
y finitely many ne ative terms, so that multiplication is always defined.
Z-transform the special case where the Laurent series is taken about zero ha
s much use in time series analysis.
Fourier series the substitution z=e^{\pi i w} transforms a Laurent series in
to a Fourier series, or conversely. This is used in the q-series expansion of th
e j-invariant.
References
Rodri uez, Rubi; Kra, Irwin; Gilman, Jane P. (2012), Complex Analysis: In th
e Spirit of Lipman Bers, Graduate Texts in Mathematics 245, Sprin er, p. 12, ISB
N 9781441973238.
External links
Hazewinkel, Michiel, ed. (2001), "Laurent series", Encyclopedia of Mathemati
cs, Sprin er, ISBN 978-1-55608-010-4
O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Laurent series", MacTutor History
of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews.
Weisstein, Eric W., "Laurent Series", MathWorld.
Laurent Series Module by John H. Mathews
Laurent Series and Mandelbrot set by Robert Munafo
Cate ories:
Complex analysisMathematical series
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