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Solved Problems: Motion in Two and Three

Dimensions
~ has magnitude 3.0 m and points to the right; vector B
~ has magnitude 4.0 m and
1. Vector A
~
~+B
~ +C
~ = 0.
points vertically upward. Find the magnitude and direction of vector C such that A
~ = 3 i and B
~ = 4 j.
In this case the two vectors can be written as A
~ is:
The vector C
~ = A
~B
~ = 3 i 4 j
C
~ are:
The magnitude and the direction of the vector C
C =

(3)2 + (4)2 = 5 m


4
= 53 + 180 = 233
= tan1
3

2. Use unit vectors to express a displacement of 120 km at 29 counterclockwise from the x-axis.
Were given the magnitude of the vector, A = 120 km , and the angle = 29. The x and y
components are given as:
Ax = 120 cos 29 = 105 km
Ay = 120 sin 29 = 58 km .
3. A car drives north at 40 mi/h for 10 min, then turns east and goes 5.0 mi at 60 mi/h.
Finally, it goes southwest at 30 mi/h for 6.0 min. Determine the cars (a) displacement and (b)
average velocity for this trip.
a) The car starts off going north at v1 = 40 mi/h for t1 = 10 min , which corresponds to a
distance of r1 = 40 mi/h 10 min = 6.67 mi. It then turns east and drives r2 = 5.0 mi at
mi
a speed of v2 = 60 mi/h , which implies a duration of 2 = 605.0mi/h
= 5.0 min. Lastly, it turns
southwest and moves at v3 = 30 mi/h for t3 = 6.0 min , which corresponds to a distance of
r3 = 30 mi/h 6.0 min = 3.0 mi.

The vectors are:


~r1 = 6.67 j mi
~r2 = 5.0 i mi
~r3 = 3.0 cos 225 i + 3.0 sin 225 j = 2.12 i 2.12 j

mi

The toral displacement is the sum of these vectors,


~rtot = (5.0 2.12) i + (6.67 2.12) j = 2.88 i + 4.55 j = 2.9 i + 4.6 j

mi

b) The average velocity is:


~vav =

2.88 i + 4.55 j mi/h


60 min = 8.2 i + 13 j mi/h
10 min + 5.0 min + 6.0 min

4. An objects velocity ~v = c t3 i + d j is where t is time and c and d are positive constants


with appropriate units. Whats the direction of the objects acceleration?.
The acceleration is:
~a =

d~v
= 3 c t2 i .
dt

The direction of the acceleration is along x-axis.

5. Droplets in an ink-jet printer are ejected horizontally at 12 m/s and travel a horizontal
distance of 1.0 mm to the paper. How far do they fall in this interval? .
We have x0 = 0, y0 = 0, v0 x = 12 m/s, v0 y = 0 m/s and x = 1.0 mm = 103 m.
The total time of flight for the ink drop is:
t =

x x0
103 0
=
= 8.33 105 s
v0 x
12

The position y of the ink drop at time t is:


2

1
y = .8 8.33 105 + 0 8.33 105 + 0 = 3.4 108 m = 34 nm
2

The distance that an ink drop falls is 34 nm.


6. An arrow fired horizontally at 41 m/s travels 23 m horizontally. From what height was it
fired?.
We have x0 = 0, x = 23 m, v0 x = 41 m/s and v0
we also have y = 0 and we have to find y0 .
The total flight time of the arrow is:
t =

= 0 m/s. By taking the origin at the ground,

23 0
x x0
=
= 0.561 s
v0 x
41

The height from which the arrow was shot is:


y0 =

1
9.8 0.5612 = 1.5 m
2

7. Estimate the acceleration of the Moon, which completes a nearly circular orbit of 385000 km
radius in 27 days.
We have v =

2R
T

and the acceleration is:


a =

v2
4 2 R
4 2 385000 103
=
=
= 2.8 103 m/s2
R
T2
27 24 3600

8. A particles position is ~r = (c t2 2 d t3 ) i + (2 c t2 d t3 ) j where c and d are positive


constants. Find expressions for times t > 0 when the particle is moving in (a) the x-direction and
(b) the y-direction. .
The velocity ~v is:
~v =




d~r 
= 2 c t 6 d t2 i + 4 c t 3 d t2 j .
dt

a) To move in the x-direction,


vy = 4 c t 3 d t2 = 0 .
Then t =

4c
.
3d

b) To move in the y-direction,


vx = 2 c t 6 d t2 = 0 .
Then t =

c
.
3d

9. The Singapore Flyer is the worlds largest Ferris wheel. Its diameter is 150 m and it rotates
once every 30 min. Find the magnitudes of (a) the average velocity and (b) the average acceleration
at the wheels rim, over a 5.0 min interval.

j = 75 j m and the initial


Lets take the initial position to be at the lowest point, r0 = 150
2
275
velocity will be ~v0 = 3060 = 0.262 i m/s. After t = 5.0 min, the wheel will have completed
1/6th of its rotation, meaning it will have advanced by 60. The final position will be 30 from the
x-direction, while the velocity will be 60 from the x-direction.

The final position is:


~r = 75 cos(30 ) i + 75 sin(30 ) j = 65.0i 37.5 j m.
The final velocity is:
~r = 0.262 cos(60 ) i + 0.262 sin(60) j = 0.131i + 0.227 j m/s.
10. A particle leaves the origin with initial velocity ~v0 = 11 i + 14 j undergoing constant acceleration ~a = 1.2 i + 0.26 j (a) When does the particle cross the y-axis? (b) Whats its y-coordinate
at the time? (c) How fast is it moving, and in what direction?.
The particle starts at the origin ~r0 = ~0 with an initial velocity ~v0 = 11 i + 14 j and a constant
acceleration ~a = 1.2 i + 0.26 j. The x and y component of the position are:
1.2 2
t + 11t + 0
2
0.26 2
t + 24t + 0
y =
2

x =

a) Solving for the time when x = 0 gives:


t =

2 11
= 18.3 s
1.2

b) Plugging this time in the y position,


0.26
18.33 + 14 18.3 = 300 m
2

y =

c) Plugging this times in for the velocity,


~v =

11 i + 14 j + 1.2 i + 026 j 18.3 = 11.0 i + 18.8 j m/s

The magnitude and direction of the velocity are,


q

(11)2 + 18.82 = 22 m/s


18.8
= 120
= tan1
11.0

v =

11. Standing on the ground 3.0 m from a building, you want to throw a package from your
1.5-m shoulder level to someone in a window 4.2 m above the ground. At what speed and angle
should you throw the package so it just barely clears the windowsill?.
Lets take the origin at the shoulder level, i.e. x0 = 0, y0 = 0, x = 3 m and y = 4.2 1.5 = 2.7 m.

The package attains its maximum height at the window sill. This implies that vy = 0. This
result is used to find the time of flight,
vy = gt + v0

=0

which means t = v0g y .


Inserting the time t into,
1
v0 y
y = 2.7 = g
2
g

!2

+ v0

v0 y
g

gives,
v0

The time of flight to the window will be t =


v0

2 2.7
= 7.27 m/s
9.8

7.27
9.8

= 0.7423 s. Using x = v0 x t + x0 , we get:

x x0
3.0 0
=
= 4.041 m/s
t
0.742

The magnitude and direction of the initial velocity are:

4.0412 + 7.2752 = 8.3 m/s


v0 =


1 7.275
0 = tan
= 61
4.041

12. Your alpine rescue team is using a slingshot to send an emergency medical packet to climbers
stranded on a ledge, as shown in Fig. 3.24; your job is to calculate the launch speed. What do you
report?.

Let x0 = 0 and y0 = 0 the origin of coordinates system be at the slingshot with the stranded
climbers at the point x = 390 m and y = 270 m. Solve Equation y = 12 gt2 + v0 y t + y0 for the
initial speed, given that the initial angle is 0 = 70 . We get:
v0

x
=
cos 0

g
390
=
2 (x tan 0 y)
cos 70

9.8
= 89 m/s .
2 (270 tan 70 390)

13. .A basketball player is 15 f t horizontally from the center of the basket, which is 10 f t off
the ground. At what angle should the player aim the ball from a height of 8.2 f t with a speed of
26 f t/s?.

The initial height of the ball is y0 = 8.2 f t, the final height is y = 10 f t, the initial speed is

v0 = 26 f t/s, and the range is x = 15 f t. These quantities are related by the trajectory Equation:
1 (x x0 )2
+ (x x0 ) tan 0 + y0
y= g 2
2 v0 cos2 0

With origin at the point from which the ball is thrown, the equation of the trajectory, evaluated
at the basket, becomes,
2

1
(15 12 2.54 102 0)
(10 8.2) 12 2.54 102 = 9.8
2
(26 12 2.54 102 )2 cos2 0
+

We get:

15 12 2.54 102 0

1.8 = 1.5 tan 0

tan 0

533
cos2 0

Using the trigonometric identity 1 + tan2 0 = 1/ cos2 0 , convert this equation into a quadratic in
tan 0 . The result is:
7.13 15 tan 0 + 5.33 tan2 0 = 0
where we have divided out the units of ft, leaving us with a dimensionless equation. The answers
are:

!
152 4 5.33 7.13
1 15
0 = tan
= 31.2 or 65.7
.
2 5.33
14. A diver leaves a 3 m board on a trajectory that takes her 2.5 m above the board and then
into the water 2.8 m horizontally from the end of the board. At what speed and angle did she leave
the board?.
Draw a diagram of the situation (see figure below). Because we are given the maximum height (at
which point vy = 0, Equation vy2 = v02 y 2gy can be used to find the y component of the divers
initial velocity, with y = h. The x component of v0 can be found from Equation, x = x0 + v0 x t ,
once the time of flight is known.

At the maximum height, we have:


vy2 = v02 y 2gy = 0
which gives v0

= 7.00 m/s.

To find the total flight time, we solve y = 12 gt2 + v0 y t + y0 with y y0 = 3 m. This gives:
t =

v0 y

v02 y 2g(y y0 )
g

72 2 9.8 (3)
9.8

= 1.77 s

where we take the positive square root because the diver springs upward off the board. Thus, the x
component of the velocity is:
v0
From v0

and v0

x x0
2.8
=
= 1.58 m/s
t
1.77

we find the magnitude of ~v0 is:

1.582 + 72 = 7.2 m/s


v0 =

and direction is 0 = tan1

7
1.58

= 77.3 .