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# Wolfgang Torge

Muller

Geodesy
4th Edition

DE GRUYTER

Contents

## Preface to the Fourth Edition.

1 Introduction
Definition of geodesy
The objective of geodesy
Historical development of geodesy
The spherical Earth model
1.3.2 The ellipsoidal Earth model
1.3.3 The geoid, arc measurements and national geodetic surveys
Three-dimensional geodesy
1.3.5 Four-dimensional geodesy
Organization of geodesy, literature
National organizations
1.4.2 International collaboration
1.4.3 Literature

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## 2 Reference Systems and Reference Frames

2.1 Basic units and constants
2.2 Time systems
2.2.1 Atomic time, dynamical time systems
2.2.2 Sidereal and Universal Time
2.3 Reference coordinate systems: fundamentals
2.3.1 Celestial Reference System
2.3.2 Precession, nutation
2.3.3 Terrestrial Reference System
2.3.4 Polar motion, Earth rotation
2.4 International reference systems and reference frames
2.4.1 International Celestial Reference System and Frame
2.4.2 International Terrestrial Reference System and Frame
2.4.3 Transformation between celestial and terrestrial
reference systems, Earth orientation parameters
2.4.4 International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service
2.5 Local level systems

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## 3 The Gravity Field of the Earth

3.1 Fundamentals of gravity field theory
Gravitation, gravitational potential
Gravitation of a spherically symmetric Earth
Properties of the gravitational potential
Centrifugal acceleration, centrifugal potential
Gravity acceleration, gravity potential

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Contents
3.2 Geometry of the gravity field
3.2.1 Level surfaces and plumb lines
3.2.2 Local gravity field representation
3.2.3 Natural coordinates
3.3 Spherical harmonic expansion of the gravitational potential
3.3.1 Expansion of the reciprocal distance
3.3.2 Expansion of the gravitational potential
3.3.3 Geometrical interpretation of the surface
spherical harmonics
3.3.4 Physical interpretation of the spherical
harmonic coefficients
3.4 The geoid
3.4.1 Definition
3.4.2 Mean sea level
3.4.3 The geoid as height reference surface
3.5 Temporal gravity variations
3.5.1 Gravitational constant, Earth rotation
3.5.2 Tidal acceleration, tidal potential
3.5.3 Non-tidal temporal gravity variations
The Geodetic Earth Model
4.1 The rotational ellipsoid
4.1.1 Parameters and coordinate systems
4.1.2 Curvature
Spatial geodetic coordinates
4.2 The normal gravity field
4.2.1 The level ellipsoid, level spheroids
4.2.2 The normal gravity field of the level ellipsoid
4.2.3 Geometry of the normal gravity field
4.3 Geodetic reference systems, optimum Earth model
Methods of Measurement
5.1 Atmospheric refraction
5.1.1 Fundamentals
5.1.2 Tropospheric refraction
5.1.3 Ionospheric refraction
5.2 Satellite observations
5.2.1 Undisturbed satellite motion
5.2.2 Perturbed satellite motion
5.2.3 Artificial Earth satellites
5.2.4 Direction, range and range rate (Doppler, DORIS)
measurements
5.2.5 Global Navigation Satellite Systems GNSS
(GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and others)
5.2.6 Laser distance measurements
5.2.7 Satellite
5.2.8 Satellite-to-satellite tracking, satellite gravity gradiometry

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5.3 Geodetic astronomy
5.3.1 Optical observation instruments
5.3.2 Astronomic positioning and azimuth determination
5.3.3 Reductions
5.3.4 Very Long Baseline
5.4 Gravimetry
5.4.1 Absolute gravity measurements
5.4.2 Relative gravity measurements
5.4.3 Gravity reference systems and gravity standard
5.4.4 Gravity measurements on moving platforms
5.4.6 Continuous gravity measurements
5.5 Terrestrial geodetic measurements
5.5.1 Horizontal and vertical angle measurements
5.5.2 Distance measurements, total stations
5.5.3 Inertial surveying, underwater acoustic positioning
5.5.4 Leveling
5.5.5 Tilt and strain measurements
6 Methods of Positioning and Gravity Field Modeling
6.1 Residual gravity field
Disturbing potential, height anomaly, geoid height
Gravity disturbance, gravity anomaly,
deflection of the vertical
Statistical description of the gravity field,
interpolation
6.2 Three-dimensional positioning
6.2.1 Observation equations
6.2.2 Geodetic datum
6.3 Horizontal positioning
6.3.1 Ellipsoidal trigonometry
6.3.2 Reductions to
ellipsoid
6.3.3 Computations on the ellipsoid
6.4 Height determination
6.4.1 Heights from geometric leveling
6.4.2 Trigonometrical heights
6.4.3 Heights from GNSS (GPS)
6.5 Fundamentals of gravity field modeling
6.5.1 The geodetic boundary-value problem
6.5.2 Gravitation of topography, digital elevation models
6.5.3 Gravity' reductions to the geoid
6.5.4 Orientation and scale of gravity field models
6.6 Global gravity field modeling
6.6.1 Spherical harmonic expansion
6.6.2
gravity field models
6.6.3 Combined (high resolution) gravity field models

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6.7 Local gravity field modeling
6.7.1 Gravimetric geoid heights and deflections of the vertical:
integral formulas
6.7.2 Gravimetric height anomalies and surface deflections
of the vertical
6.7.3 The external gravity field
6.7.4 Astrogeodetic geoid and quasigeoid determination
6.8 Least-squares collocation

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## 7 Geodetic and Gravimetric Networks

7.1 Horizontal control networks
7.2 Vertical control networks
7.3 Three-dimensional networks
7.4 Gravity networks

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## 8 Structure and Dynamics of the Earth

8.1 The geophysical Earth model
8.2 The upper layers of the Earth
8.2.1 Structure of the Earth's crust and upper mantle
8.2.2 Isostasy
8.2.3 Plate tectonics
8.2.4 Interpretation of the gravity field
8.3 Geodesy and recent
8.3.1 Geophysical processes and effects on geodetic products
8.3.2 Changes in Earth rotation
8.3.3 Sea level variations
8.3.4 Crustal deformations
8.3.5 Gravity field variations with time

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References

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