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Kummer's
quartic surface.
3 1924 001 544 406
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http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924001544406
KUMMER'S QUARTIC SURFACE
CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE,
CLAY, Manager.
AVE MABIA LANE,
F.
C.
ILonJon:
ffilaBBofo:
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WELLINGTON STREET.
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THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.
(Mcutta: MACMILLAN AND CO., Ltd.
Iclpjifl:
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BombsE ani
E.C.
[All Rights reserved.]
KUMMER'S QUARTIC SURFACE
BY
R?
W: H: IT HUDSON,
M.A., D.Sc.
Late Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge, and Lecturer in Mathematics
at the University of Liverpool.
Cambridge
at the
University Press
J
9 5
1ty
ffiam&rtoge:
PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A.
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.
PEEFATOEY NOTE.
Ronald William Henry Tuenbull Hudson would have
been twentynine years old in July of
this year;
educated at
St Paul's School, London, and at St John's College, Cambridge,
he obtained the highest honours in the public examinations of the
University, in 1898, 1899, 1900
College in 1900
was elected a Fellow of St John's
became a Lecturer
in
Mathematics at University
College, Liverpool, in 1902; was D.Sc. in the University of
in 1903
and
in the early
London
died, as the result of a fall while climbing in Wales,
autumn
of 1904.
This book was then in course of printing, and the writer had
himself corrected proofs of the earlier sheets, assisted in this
work by
Mr
T. J.
Bromwich, Professor of Mathematics in
I' A.
Queen's College, Galway, and by
Mr H.
Bateman, of Trinity
College, Cambridge; for the remaining portion
myself are responsible
unaltered throughout
to the matter
Mr Bateman and
we have followed the author's manuscript
and gratefully acknowledge the care given
by the University
Press.
Attentive readers can judge what devotion, what acumen,
went
to the
making
of a book of such strength
a book whose brevity grows upon one with
knew
the writer
it
will
study.
and breadth;
To those who
be a reminder of the enthusiasm and
PREFATORY NOTE
VI
brilliance
which compelled their admiration, as the loyalty of his
nature compelled their regard.
of this volume
lives
could
is
A manysided theory such
generally to be
won only by the work
one who held so firmly the faith that the time
ill
is
as that
of
many
well spent
be spared.
H. F.
27 March 1905.
BAKER.
CONTENTS.
CHAPTER
I.
KUMMERS CONFIGURATION.
PAGE
SECT.
1.
2.
Desmic tetrahedra
The group of reflexions
5.
The 16 6 configuration
The group of sixteen operations
The incidence diagram
6.
Linear construction from six arbitrary planes
7.
Situation of coplanar points
3.
4.
...
.......
CHAPTER
12
II.
THE QUARTIC SURFACE.
8.
The Quartic
surface with sixteen nodes
14
9.
Nomenclature for the nodes and tropes
16
The equation of the surface
The shape of the surface
17
10.
11.
19
CHAPTER
III.
THE ORTHOGONAL MATRIX OF LINEAR FORMS.
12.
Preliminary account of matrices
13.
Orthogonal matrices
Connection between matrices and quaternions
14.
...
...
24
26
27
CONTENTS
viii
FAGE
SECT.
28
15.
The
16.
Quadratic relations
17.
The ten fundamental quadrics
The six fundamental complexes
Irrational equations of Kummer's
18.
19.
sixteen linear forms
30
32
surface
CHAPTER
33
....
34
IV.
LINE GEOMETRY.
37
38
20.
Polar lines
21.
23.
Apolar complexes
Groups of three and four apolar complexes
Six apolar complexes
24.
Ten fundamental quadrics
41
25.
Klein's 60 16 configuration
26.
Kummer's 16
42
44
27.
Line coordinates
45
28.
Fundamental quadrics
Fundamental tetrahedra
47
22.
29.
....
39
40
configuration
48
CHAPTER
V.
THE QUADRATIC COMPLEX AND CONGRUENCE.
50
30.
Outline of the geometrical theory
31.
Outline of the algebraical theory
53
32.
Elliptic coordinates
55
33.
Conjugate sets
56
34.
Klein's tetrahedra
35.
Eelations of lines to
36.
Asymptotic curves
37.
Principal asymptotic curves
38.
The congruence
39.
Singularities of the congruence
40.
Relation between
41.
"
57
of second order
4>
58
and
class
....
60
62
63
63
and A
65
66
Confocal congruences
CHAPTER
VI.
flicker's complex surface.
43.
Tetrahedral complexes
Equations of the complex and the complex surface
44.
Singularities of the surface
71
45.
The
72
46.
Shape of the surface
42.
polar line
68
,
69
73
CONTENTS.
IX
CHAPTER
VII.
SETS OF NODES.
SECT>
PAGE
47.
Groupsets
75
48.
Comparison of notations
Pairs and ootads
Eighty Eosenhain odd tetrads
Sixty Gbpel even tetrads
Odd and even hexads
76
49.
50.
51.
5~2.
CHAPTER
77
78
79
80
VIII.
EQUATIONS OF RUMMER'S SURFACE.
53.
54.
55.
The equation referred to a fundamental tetrahedron
The equation referred to a Eosenhain tetrahedron
Nodal quartic surfaces
CHAPTER
81
83
86
IX.
SPECIAL FORMS OF RUMMER'S SURFACE.
56.
The
57.
Multiple tetrahedroids
91
58.
Battaglini's
harmonic complex
Limiting forms
94
98
59.
tetrahedroid
89
CHAPTER
X.
THE WAVE SURFACE.
100
60.
Definition of the surface
61.
Apsidal surfaces
62.
Singularities of the
63.
Parametric representation
64.
Tangent planes
65.
The four parameters
66.
Curvature
67.
Asymptotic lines
Painvin's complex
68.
101
Wave
102
Surface
...
104
106
108
109
110
112
CHAPTER
XI.
REALITY AND TOPOLOGY.
69.
Eeality of the complexes
70.
71.
Six real fundamental complexes
Equations of surfaces Ia Ih Ic
72.
Four
73.
Two
74.
Six imaginary complexes
real
real
115
and two imaginary complexes
and four imaginary complexes
.
118
121
122
125
126
CONTENTS
CHAPTER
XII.
GEOMETRY OF FOUR DIMENSIONS.
SECT.
PAGE
75.
Linear manifolds
76.
Construction of the 15 e configuration from six points in four
77.
Analytical methods
130
78.
The 16e
131
127
dimensions
129
configuration
79.
General theory of varieties
80.
Space sections of a certain quartic variety
132
CHAPTER
134
XIII.
ALGEBRAIC CURVES ON THE SURFACE.
81.
Geometry on a surface
82.
Algebraic curves on
83.
The eequation
84.
General theorems on curves
142
85.
Classification of families of curves
145
86.
Linear systems of curves
146
137
Kummer's
138
surface
of a curve
141
CHAPTER
XIV.
CURVES OF DIFFERENT ORDERS.
87.
Quartic curves
149
88.
Quartics through the same even tetrad
151
89.
Quartics through the same odd tetrad
153
90.
Sextics through six nodes
154
91.
Sextics through ten nodes
157
92.
Octavic curves through eight nodes.
158
93.
Octavic curves through sixteen nodes
159
CHAPTER
XV.
WEDDLE'S SURFACE.
94.
Birational transformation of surfaces
95.
Transformation of Kummer's surface
96.
Quartic surfaces into which
formed
165
97.
Weddle's surface
166
98.
Equation of Weddle's surface
169
Kummer's
160
162
surface can be trans
CONTENTS
CHAPTER
XI
XVI.
THETA FUNCTIONS.
SECT.
99.
PAGE
Uniformisation of the surface
...
173
100.
Definition of theta functions
101.
Characteristics
102.
Identical relations among the double theta functions
Parametric expression of Rummer's surface
Theta functions of higher order
Sketch of the transcendental theory
103.
104.
105.
175
and periods
176
179
180
CHAPTER
182
184
XVII.
APPLICATIONS OF ABEL'S THEOREM.
106.
Tangent sections
107.
Collinear points
190
108.
Asymptotic curves
194
109.
Inscribed configurations
196
188
CHAPTER
XVIII.
SINGULAR KDMMER SURFACES.
110.
Elliptic surfaces
111.
Transformation of theta functions
112.
The
113.
Parametric curves
114.
Unicursal curves
115.
Geometrical interpretation of the singular relation kr12 
invariant
116.
Intermediary functions
117.
Singular curves
118.
Singular surfaces with invariant 5
119.
Singular surfaces with invariant 8
120.
Birational transformations of
Kummer
surfaces into themselves
221
Index
Plate (Rummer's
Surface, see pp. 21, 22)
Frontispiece
;;
CHAPTER
I.
RUMMER'S CONFIGURATION.
1.
DESM1C TETRAHEDRA.
The eight corners of a cube form a very simple configuration
yet by joining alternate corners by the diagonals of the faces we
get two tetrahedra such that each edge of one meets two opposite
edges of the other, and the figure possesses
features
of
the most general pair of
all
the projective
tetrahedra having this
property.
Take an arbitrary tetrahedron of reference XYZT, and any
S whose homogeneous coordinates are as, y, z, t. Draw three
lines through this point to meet the pairs of opposite edges, and
on each line take the harmonic conjugate of S with respect to
the intercept between the edges; in this way three new points
P, Q, R are obtained, making in all the set of four
point
*,
y, z,
),
Q,
(,
z,
),
p.
(, y,
z,t
),
z,
).
P,
S,
Then
PQRS
and
XYZT
x,
y,
y,
are a pair of tetrahedra possessing the
PS and QR
XT
meet both
and YZ, and so on
they are the most general pair, for the preceding harmonic construction is deduced from the fact that, by hypothesis, any face of
one tetrahedron cuts the other in a complete quadrilateral whose,
above property, for
When one tetrahedron is
determined by any one of its corners. Tetrahedra so related are said to be desmic and to belong to a desmic
diagonals are the edges in that face.
given the other
is
system.
h.
KUMMERS CONFIGURATION
[CH.
DESMIC TETRAHEDRA
1]
is also a centre of perspective.
Of the intersections of
the edges, six are the centres of the faces of the cube and are
the corners of a regular octahedron. The remaining six are at
centre
infinity.
It
is
interesting to notice that these twelve points of inter
section are the corners of another desmic system of tetrahedra
formed with the same eighteen edges in the figure the three new
tetrahedra are infinite and wedgeshaped, each being formed by
two opposite faces of the cube and the planes containing their
;
parallel diagonals.
Since the figure
and
by intersecting
defined
is
to every pointtheorem there
lines, it is self
a corresponding
planetheorem in particular, the faces of any two tetrahedra can
be paired in four ways so that the lines of intersection lie in a
face of the third tetrahedron.
The geometrical properties of the
figure are deducible from the identity
reciprocal,
is
(abc + d)(a + bc + d)(ab + c + d)(a + b + c + d)
+ ( a + b + c + d){a b + c + d)(a + b c+d)(a + b + c d)
= IGabcd,
in which the letters
may be regarded
as current coordinates of
either a plane or a point.
The two
The
following results
may be taken
as examples.
twelve centres of similitude of four spheres are the corners of a
desmic system.
If three tetrahedra belong by pairs to different desmic systems, the
maining tetrahedra of the three systems belong to another system.
re
Desmic systems were first investigated by Stephanos* and are so named
because the three tetrahedra belonging to one system are members of a pencil
The general surface of the pencil has
(faisceau, Seoyids) of quartic surfaces.
twelve nodes and is the subject of a memoir by Humbert + ; its equation may
be written in the symmetrical form
X+/i + =0,
where
and the three tetrahedra
the
are
(^ 2)(y2 z2)=0,
sum of the left sides
(y
f2)('2 ^ ) = 0,
is
given
(z2
 2 )(.r2 y s )=0,
For further details and
an application to Spherical Trigono
being identically zero.
references see a paper by Schroeter
metry
by Study .
* Darboux Bulletin (1879),, s6r.
2,
m,
424.
t Liouville (1891), ser. 4, vii, 353.
+ CreHe (1892), crs, 341..
Mathematical Papers, Chicago Congress
(1893), p. 382.
12
rummer's configuration
[ch.
THE GROUP OF REFLEXIONS.
2.
group of operations is a set of operations such that the
number taken in any order is an operation of the
set*; in particular the repetition of a single operation any number
resultant of any
of times
The
number
is
member
equivalent to some
fact that
by successive
of the group.
reflexions in the axes only a finite
of points are obtained from one arbitrary point
that the operations of reflecting belong to a group.
shows
Considered
algebraically the operations consist in changing the signs of
Let the symbol
of the coordinates.
changing the signs of
y, z,
two
denote the operation of
and therefore of changing S into P.
back into
changes
expressed by the symbolic equation
The
repetition of the operation
and
this is
again,
A*=l.
Here
1 denotes the identical operation,
position of the point to which
it is
which does not
applied
we
alter the
infer that it
must
be included in every group to which A belongs. Similarly let the
operation B change the signs of z, x, and G those of x, y. Then
B* = 1 and C" = 1. Further, if B and G are performed successively
in either order the result
are changed in sign
is
when y and z, but not w,
by the symbolic equations
the same as
this is expressed
BG = GB=A.
In other words, B and C are permutable and their product is A.
These equations, with others deduced by symmetry, are sufficient
to show that the four operations
1,
A, B,
form a group, for any combination of them can be reduced to one
of themselves.
The
multiplication table
THE GROUP OF REFLEXIONS
23]
It may happen that some of the members of a group form a
group by themselves. In this case the smaller group is called a
subgroup of the larger. For example (1, A) is a subgroup of
(1, A, B, 0); (1, B) and (1,0) are also subgroups.
When two permutable groups are given, a third group can be
obtained by combining the members of one with the members of
the other in all possible ways, and is called the product of the first
two groups. For example, the group of reflexions is the product
of any two of its subgroups. The order of the product group, that
is, the number of its members, is the product of the orders of the
first two groups.
THE 166 CONFIGURATION.
3.
In space of three dimensions a point or a plane may be represented by four symbols a, ft, y, S used homogeneously. The
condition of incidence of two elements (a, ft, y, 8) and (a, ft", y, 8')
of different kinds may be taken to be
On
account of the perfect reciprocity between point and plane in
projective geometry, every theorem that will be proved has its
correlative
theorem
it
will not
be necessary to state the second
result in every case.
It is
immediately verifiable that the plane
(
kummer's configuration
[ch. I
THE GROUP OF SIXTEEN OPERATIONS.
4.
Let A denote the operation of interchanging a, 8 and at the
same time /3, 7, each letter carrying its sign with it similarly B
interchanges /3 with 8 and 7 with a, and C interchanges 7 with 8
and a with /3. Further let A' denote the operation of changing
Then
those of a, /S.
the signs of /3, 7, B' those of 7, a, and
A', B',
belong to the group of reflexions which has already been
considered, and it is easily seen that A, B, G satisfy symbolic
equations of precisely the same form; in other words (1, A, B, 0)
;
and
(1, A', B',
C)
are two groups having similar multiplication
Since change of order is independent of change of sign,
all the members of one group are permutable with those of the
other, for example AB' = B'A, and consequently the groups themtables.
selves are said to be permutable.
By combining
the members of these two permutable groups
ways we obtain a set of sixteen operations which
evidently form a group containing (1, A, B, G) and (1, A', B', C)
in all possible
as subgroups.
All the sixteen planes of the configuration are
obtained by operating on any one of them, say
(a, /3, 7, 8),
with
the members of the group, and the six points lying in each plane
are obtained by operating on the set given in 3 with the corre
sponding member of the group
for,
the condition of incidence
is
when the same operation is performed on point and
We may clearly use the symbol of operation to denote the
unaffected
plane.
point or plane obtained from
(1) denotes (a,
on
we have
/3,
7, 8)
(a, 0, 7, 8)
and (AB') denotes
seen that the plane (1) or
by that
7,
(a,
/3,
operation, thus
/3,
a), and so
7, 8)
contains the
(8,
points
(AB'),
(AG'), (BG'), (BA'), (CA'),
and we deduce that the plane (A), or
(8, 7,
/?,
(CB')
a),
contains the
points
(B%
and so
(C), (CC), (CA'), (BA'), (BB'),
on.
The group
of sixteen operations, which will be referred to
many subgroups. Any two operaand their product form, with the identical operation, a subgroup: two examples are (1, AB', BG', CA') and (1, AG', BA', CB').
Further the group can be arranged in many ways as the product
simply as the group, contains
tions
THE GROUP OF SIXTEEN OPERATIONS
45]
of two subgroups; one arrangement arises from the definition
and another from the two preceding subgroups. These are shown
by the multiplication
1
tables
kummer's configuration
showing the product of the two subgroups
(1, AC, BA', GB') takes the form
dd
(1,
[ch.
AB', BO', CA') and
56]
points
LINEAR CONSTRUCTION
;
in
it,
if
they
each is an incidence diagram for the elements contained
and two elements, one from each diagram, are incident
lie
on corresponding rows, or columns, but not both.
xxx
Let the first diagram represent any six planes; the positions of
the crosses make no suppositions as to the linear dependence of the
planes, for the diagram does not indicate that more than three
planes pass through the same point. It is required to fill in the
remaining ten places, if possible, so as to complete the incidence
diagram and obtain a 16 6 configuration. The noughts in the
second diagram represent ten of the twenty points of concurrence
of the six planes, taken by threes for example, the three crosses
in the first row determine the last nought of the first row.
Now
every row and column in the second diagram, taken together, contain enough noughts to determine a plane of the configuration in
this way the remaining ten planes are found and the first diagram
may be completed.
Hence a 16 6 configuration can be constructed from six arbitrary
planes in at least one way, and therefore involves eighteen arbitrary
constants.
Now the system considered in 3 contains the three
ratios a /3 7 S and fifteen constants implied in the choice of
a particular set of homogeneous coordinates. We infer that the
:
general configuration can be represented in this way.
We shall now investigate the preceding process of constructing
the configuration in greater detail, and prove that six given planes
determine twelve configurations.
Let five planes in general position be denoted by 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
their lines of intersection by twofigure symbols and their common
points by threefigure symbols. There are twelve different cyclical
arrangements of the planes and each gives a skew pentagon formed
by the
intersections of the planes taken in order.
Thus
corre
sponding to the arrangement
12
there
is
a pentagon with sides
12
23
34
45
51
and corners
123
234
345
451
512
P.
10
rummer's configuration
[ch.
two corners of the pentagon, one
other point of the system, where it meets the opposite plane,
Each
side contains, besides
making the
set
124
and
these,
235
when arranged
452
513
Q,
in the order
352
135
341
524
241
F,
413
are the corners of the pentagon corresponding to
the cyclical
arrangement of planes 13524.
The relation between the
pentagons P and
is mutual, and so the twelve pentagons
can be divided into six pairs, the members of each pair being
mutually inscribed and circumscribed.
We next prove that the pentagons whose corners are P and Q,
taken in the order given, are so related that when they are
projected from any point on to any plane, five intersections of
pairs of sides are collinear.
Giving the projections the same
names as the points and lines in space, we see that the sets
of points
and
are
collinear,
341
123
513
512
452
235
lying on 13 and 25 respectively.
Therefore,
by
Pascal's theorem, the intersections of
(513, 512), or 51,
and (235, 341)
(512, 123), or 12,
and (341, 452)
(123, 235), or 23,
and (452, 513)
are collinear,
and similarly
the theorem
is
for the other pairs of sides.
Hence
proved.
Two skew pentagons, which are so related that the five lines
from any point to meet pairs of corresponding sides are coplanar,
are said to be in lineal position we have now proved that the
twelve pentagons formed by the intersections of five planes taken
in different orders can be arranged in six pairs such that if the
corners of one pentagon are taken alternately a new pentagon
is formed which is in lineal position with the other member of the
In this way we get twelve pairs of pentagons in lineal
pair.
;
position.
Conversely, instead of projecting from an arbitrary point,
take any sixth plane 6 its intersections with the lines 12 and
(134, 245), 23 and (245, 351) determine two lines meeting in a
point which must be collinear with the points where 6 cuts 34
;
LINEAR CONSTRUCTION
6]
11
and (351, 412), and so on. Thus we have a property of any
planes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, namely that the five planes
I,
(612, 134, 245)
II,
(623, 245, 351)
III,
(634, 351, 412)
IV,
(645, 412, 523)
V,
(651, 523, 134)
six
common point lying in the plane 6. This is one of the
which were proved above from the diagrams; when the
names of the planes and points are inserted, the preceding theorem
is made evident from the diagrams
have a
results
Planes
12
5
II
Of the twenty
Points
134
523
245
IV
III
351
651
623
612
412
645
634
points of concurrence of the six planes only ten
are used in the second diagram and no two involve
all six
planes.
Each plane occurs five times and the scheme is based on isolating
one, 6, and arranging the rest in a certain cyclical order 12345.
Any of the other planes may be isolated and the rest arranged
in appropriate order so as to lead to the same configuration, thus
1,
35624
2,
41635
3,
52641
4,
13652
5,
24613
the rule being to substitute 6 in 12345 in place of the isolated
figure
and to interchange the two
figures not adjacent to
it
in the
cyclical order.
Hence when six planes are arbitrarily given, a 16 6 configuration
determined when one is isolated and the rest arranged in
cyclical order.
The twelve different orders of these five planes
lead to twelve distinct configurations, and since it is immaterial
which of the six planes is isolated in the first instance, only twelve
different configurations can be obtained from them.
is
Six points can be chosen out of the sixteen so that no three lie in a plane
many ways ; the diagrams are of two types
of the configuration in
kummer's configuration
12
four points form a rectangle
(1)
and the others
lie
[ch.
on
different
rows and
columns,
three points
(2)
lie
in a
row and the others on
different rows
and the same
columns.
Only one half of the configuration can be linearly constructed from a
hexad of type (1).
Of the 720 ways of permuting the names of the points of type (2), sets of
sixty lead to the same ten planes and only twelve differently named configurations can be obtained.
The
configurations can be linearly constructed from
proved by Weber*, so that the 192 different sets of
fact that twelve 16
six given points
was
first
one configuration are called Weber hexads.
six points in
treated synthetically
The subject
by Reyet and Schroeter J who introduces pentagons
is
in
Geiser examines in greater detail the groups of ten planes
determined by six points and exhibits the configuration in an incidence
diagram.
lineal position.
7.
SITUATION OF COPLANAR POINTS.
Let the diagram represent points, so that A, B, G, A', B',
in one plane.
EFBG' and EFB'G are seen to be plane
quadrangles and therefore EF,
and B'G meet in the common
lie
BC
point
of these three planes.
current in
Q and BE, AB', A'B
Similarly
in R.
FD, GA', G'A are conHence the plane ABC
SITUATION OF COPLANAR POINTS
67]
13
The duality of the configuration shows that the six planes
through any point touch a quadric cone and the situation of the
lines of contact is projectively equivalent to that of the six points
on a conic.
Further, the twisted cubic curve determined by the six points
ABCDEF
is
projected from
passing through
ABGQR.
The
into a conic in the plane
pencil
A[BGQR]
is
ABG
the same as
A[BGC'B'~\, showing that the ranges BGG'B' on the conic and
BCFE
on the cubic have the same cross ratio. Similarly the
may be compared.
From their position in the diagram we see that ABCDEF
are six points from which the whole configuration can be linearly
constructed and it has just been proved that their situation on
the twisted cubic through them is projectively equivalent to that
of the points ABGA'B'G' on the conic through them. The same is
true of all the Weber hexads and all the conies, and three independent cross ratios of the six parameters which give the positions
of the six points on any conic may be taken to be the absolute
invariants of the configuration, being unaltered by any linear
other ranges of four points
transformation of coordinates.
CHAPTEE
II.
THE QUARTIC SURFACE.
THE QUARTIC SURFACE WITH SIXTEEN NODES.
8.
Every surface can be regarded either as a locus of points or as
an envelope of planes. It is convenient to give preponderance to
the former view, so that the order of a surface is one of its most
Carrying this idea further, it is natural
distinguishing features.
to classify surfaces of given order by the point singularities which
they may possess. A singular point is one in the neighbourhood
of which the surface ceases to be approximately flat there may
be a locus of such points, giving a singular line, or the singular
points may be isolated. Among surfaces of the second order the
former case is illustrated by a pair of planes, and the latter by
;
a cone.
The
surface usually
known by the name
of its first investir
Kummer*,
belongs to those surfaces of the fourth order
which have isolated singularities. The only kind of point singularity which will in general be considered is that of a node,
gator,
characterised geometrically by the fact that the tangent lines at it
generate a quadric cone instead of a plane, and algebraically by
the absence of terms of the first degree from the equation in point
coordinates
The
quency,
when the node
is
taken as origin.
reciprocal singularity,
is
which
will occur
with equal
that of a trope, or singular tangent plane.
fre
It is cut
lines which envelope a. conic
instead of forming, as usual, a plane pencil at the point of conThe plane therefore touches the surface all along a conic
tact.
by consecutive tangent planes in
The conic of contact of a trope will
sometimes be called a singular conic of the surface.
The number of nodes which a surface of order n can have is
limited by its class. The points of contact of tangent planes
instead of at a single point.
* Ernst
Eduard Kummer, Professor
of Mathematics at Berlin, 1856 ; born 1810,
See Berliner Monateberichte, (1864), pp. 246, 495 (1865), p. 288. Berlin.
Altai. Abhandl. (1866), p. 1.
died 1893.
THE QUARTIC SURFACE
8]
15
through any two points A and B lie on the polar surfaces of A
and B, which are of order n 1, and hence the number of them
is n(n l) a
But by considering a penultimate form of surface
it appears that two of these points coincide with every node;
hence the formula for the class is n(n l)2 28, where 8 is the
number of nodes. Putting n = 4 we get 36 28 for the class,
showing that 8 cannot be greater than 16, for if the class were 2
the surface would be a quadric.
That a quartic surface can actually have as many as sixteen
nodes will be proved in 10 by constructing its equation. Assuming this for the present, we proceed to deduce some of the
.
properties of this configuration of nodes from the
elementary
geometry of the surface.
At any node there is a quadric cone of tangent lines which is
touched by the enveloping cone from the node along six generators, namely those tangent lines at the node which have fourpoint contact with the surface, and are found by equating to
zero the terms of degrees 2 and 3 in the equation referred to
the node as origin. The enveloping cone is of order 6. It has
nodal lines passing through the fifteen other nodes, for a node on
a surface is a node on its apparent contour. But if a sextic cone
has fifteen nodal lines, it must break up into six planes. Hence
the enveloping cone from any node consists of six planes touching
the quadric tangent cone at the node and containing the remaining fifteen nodes on their lines, of intersection. Since any one
Consider
plane is cut by five others, six nodes lie on each plane.
the section of the surface by one of these planes; every line drawn
in this plane through the node is a tangent line and meets the
surface in one point distinct from the node, namely its point of
Hence the section must be a conic passing through
contact.
,
six nodes, that
is,
the plane touches the surface
all
along a conic,
and is therefore a trope. The complete section of the surface
by a trope is a conic counted twice; since this passes through
six nodes, the trope must touch the six quadric tangent cones
along generators which are tangents to the singular conic.
We
thus see that
are situated
by
if
a quartic surface has sixteen nodes, they
sixes in tropes each of
which touches the surface
Since six tropes pass through each node their
number is also 16. The nodes and tropes form a 16 6 configuration
like that considered in 3 and is of the most general character.
along a conic.
When
the singularities
conies on
it
are given.
are'
given the surface
is
unique, for sixteen
16
THE QUABTIC SURFACE
[CH.
NOMENCLATURE FOR THE NODES
9.
II
AJJD TROPES.
Although the names given to the points and planes in
5 are
and
suitable for a symmetrical treatment of the configuration
for
exhibiting the interchanges that take place under the operations
of the group, yet
it
is
often desirable to isolate a particular
element, or a particular set of six elements.
This
is
done in
the following way.
One node
The
4, 5, 6.
is
called
and the
six tropes
through
it
are
1, 2,
3,
twofigure symbols 12, 13... 56 denote the fifteen
nodes other than
lying on the intersections of these planes. We
have to find how these nodes are arranged on the remaining ten
tropes.
When
on a
two triangles circumscribe a conic, their six corners lie
and a corresponding theorem is true for a cone. Since
touch the tangent quadric cone to the
tropes through
conic,
the six
surface at 0,
it
follows that the six nodes
13,
35,
51,
24,
46,
62
on a quadric cone whose vertex is 0. By partitioning the six
figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,' 6 into two sets of three in all possible ways
we get ten different cones, and in general, no other cones with
lie
contain sets of six nodes.
vertices at
Now
the six nodes in any
by a quadric cone. Accord
one of ten tropes are projected from
six lie on a trope which may be called
(135 246), or simply 135, or 246.
Thus we have two nomenclatures for the sixteen elements of
ingly, the preceding
.
a 16 6 configuration
in the first a single element is isolated
the remaining fifteen are
figures taken
two at a time
named
:
and
after the combinations of six
in the second, six elements
concurrent tropes or coplanar nodes
are
named by
either
single figures
and the remaining ten by the partitions of these six into two sets
of three.' The two nomenclatures may be used simultaneously,
one for the nodes, and the other for the tropes of the same configuration, as above, and then we have the following types of
incidences
is
12
incident with
1,
2,
2,
1,
3,
4,
5,
6,
123, 124, 125, 126,
,.
0, 12,
13,
14,
15,
16,
123
23, 31,
12,
56,
64,
45.
NODES AND TROPES
910]
17
All these incidences are clearly indicated in a pair of square
diagrams representing points and planes respectively. An element
of one diagram is incident with the elements of the other diagram
lying in the same row and the same column, but not both. The
pair of diagrams can be constructed in ten essentially different
ways, corresponding to the different partitions of six figures into
two
threes, one of which is the following,
f
i
3
5
m m m
m m m
Ml m m
With homogeneous
coordinates
is
24
35
i4
ie
51
32
34
36
13
52
54
56
y, z, t let
x,
the node
be
then the equation must have the form
fat +2<j> s t
where #
62
12
THE EQUATION OF THE SURFACE.
10.
(0, 0, 0, 1),
46
+& =
homogeneous and of degree
The quadric tangent cone
at
(),
s in x, y, z.
is
& = 0,
and the enveloping
sextic cone from
4>3
which must break up into
are
known when the nodes
not passing through
is
</>2<>4
is
= 0,
Both
six planes.
taken to be
of these equations
Further, if one of the tropes
are given.
t
= 0,
the equation
&=
represents the repeated conic passing through the nodes in that
trope,
and hence
<f>4
is
known when
the nodes are given, except as
to a numerical factor.
Choose the coordinates so that
fa^yOxz.
It is convenient to represent
any generator of the cone $2 =
in
terms of a parameter u by the equations
x = y/u = z/u?.
Let
ky,
k2 ks klt k5> k6 be the values
,
xs =
h.
of
contact of the six tropes concurrent in
lc?x
u giving the
lines of
then their equations are
 2ks y + z=0,
(s
l, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6)
THE QUARTIC SURFACE
18
[CH.
II
and we must have the identity
fafa = ^ia>
fa*
where \
aw?5#6)
an undetermined constant.
We shall take t = to be the plane (123.456) and then
= fa" where fa = is the conic in t = passing through the
fa
nodes 23, 31, 12, 56, 64, 45. It is convenient to represent any
point in the plane t = by the parameters u, v of the two tangents
from it to the conic y* = xz. Thus we write
is
x = 2y/(u fv) = zjuv,
k?x
then
and the node 12
Consider
is
now
2kt y + z = x (u k e )
given by u = k u v
=k
ke
(v
or
),
by u = k2
= ki.
the equation
 k ) (v  k ) (v  k ) (v  k )
('  h) (u  k
) (u
(v h) (v & ) (v k ) (u kt ) (u k ) (u k ) = 0.
division by u v it becomes symmetric in u and v,
After
the
wV, and is therefore the equation of a conic
terms of the new coordinates u, v. It is obviously
highest term being
expressed in
satisfied
by the
(, v)
= {h,
and hence
is
six points
h), (ks
fa =
where
fj,
is
kt ), (kit kt ),
= 0. Introduce the abbreviations
= u ke v = v k8
(u^tiiViVtVe  v^v^UcU^Ku v),
the conic fa
Ug
then
k2 ), (k ke ), (ke
(ky,
h),
2/&B2
an undetermined constant
further
4fa = x (uv)
=
fa*
fafa ~Kx u u u ui u ui v
i
and
vi vi vi v 6 v i
so that
os~fa
and
= H? (UlUzUtViViVs VyVzVtUiUiU^f + XUi^WsWiMBWeVa
W Ve,
must be the square of a symmetric
u and v we must have \ = 4/u.2 which gives
~S = ^(UiUnUnViVfVe + V^VsUiUgU,).
since this expression
function of
fa
On
substituting these values of fa, fa, fa
the surface we find
fat
(U
 Vft/x = +
+
= fa
in the equation of
= fa J fa* fa fa,
ft,
(ihUzUsViVtVe
2/t
fljtf2
V8 4 WB W6 )
JUyUvUtUiUiUsVyVtViViVs v
THE EQUATION OF THE SURFACE
1011]
19
In this parametric representation of the surface with given
is apparently an arbitrary constant /*, but it will be
noticed that the only data that have been used are one node
and the six tropes through it. The actual position of any other
node determines the value of ft. There is no loss of generality in
= l, and determining the signs of the radicals so that
taking
the coordinates of any point on the general sixteennodal quartic
can be expressed in terms of two parameters u, v by the equations*
nodes there
/tt
= u + v,
z/x = uv,
t/x = (u
2y/x
2
tf)
and the
(v 1 M2 W s fl 4 V6 ?;6
+ Vtfi0
3 tfs
M4 M6 W6)2
one of ten similar forms corresponding
to the ten tropes which do not contain the node x = y = z = 0.
last expression is
If the equations of the sixteen tropes are
Xx
we may
0,
etc. ;
= x^ 0,
etc.,
write, omitting a factor of proportionality,
xs = ue vt
(w v) */x13S
and
a^jB
so on.
(k.2
Then
it is
(s
= Ju ui u3 vi v^ + */v
t
V2 V s Ui U
!i
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6)
'Us,
easy to verify that
 k ) Va^a;^ + (ks  &j) Va;2
s
a;si4
+ (^ &2) Va^a^ = 0,
and
(h  h) (h  h) ^X^X.^ + (h h) (h ~ h) ^x3ls xm
which are two of the many
irrational forms in
which the equation
of the surface can be expressed.
11.
THE SHAPE OF THE SURFACE.
It has been shown that the six tropes through any node cut
any other trope in two triangles whose corners are nodes. Hence
if the six nodes in any plane are partitioned into three pairs,
there is another trope through each pair, and these three tropes
meet in a point which is not a node. The four planes are the
faces of a tetrahedron f and contain singular conies intersecting
by pairs on its edges. The quadric which can be drawn through
two of these conies and one of the remaining two nodes cuts each
* Darboux, Comptes Rendus (1881), xcu, H93.
t Named
after Gopel.
22
THE QUAETIC SURFACE
20
[CH. II
of the other two conies in five points and therefore contains
Thus
entirely.
them
the four singular conies lie on a quadric.
Let ordinary tetrahedral coordinates be used and let the
= 0, then the quartic surface referred to this tetraquadric be
hedron of tropes must be
<j>
xyzt
k<f>
When
where the value of k depends on the coefficients in
k=
we have the four faces of the tetrahedron, and when k is
small, which is the case most easily realised, the surface lies near
the faces. There is a distinction, important from a metrical point
of view, between the cases when k is positive and negative.
In
the former case the product xyzt is positive and the point (x, y, z, t)
lies either within the tetrahedron or in one of the wedgeshaped
regions opposite the edges.
Fig. 2 shows the region for which
<f>.
Fig.
x, y, z, t
it
Fig. 3.
2.
are
all positive,
and
fig.
Fig. 4.
3 shows the region obtained from
by the substitution
x'/x
= y'/y=z'/z=t'/t,
and indicates that the two wedgeshaped pieces should be taken
together as being continuous at infinity and forming one " tetrahedron." Again fig. 4 shows the effect of the substitution
x'/x
and gives a
"
tetrahedron
= y'/y=z>/z = t'/t,
" of
which one corner is separated from
the other three by the plane at infinity. Hence when k is negative the sheets of Rummer's surface lie in the regions opposite
the corners and the faces.
THE SHAPE OF THE SURFACE
11]
21
In order to realise conveniently the shape of the surface we
suppose the tetrahedron to be regular and the quadric <f> = to be
a concentric sphere*. The sphere cuts the edges in twelve nodes
lying by sixes on four circles in the faces.
They lie by fours on
twelve other planes which intersect by sixes in the corners of
a similarly situated regular tetrahedron. We thus have sixteen
nodes and sixteen tropes. First let the sphere be smaller than
the circumsphere of the tetrahedron, then the second tetrahedron
is
situated inside the
The
first
and we have the case k >
four triangles joined
by
six lunes.
0.
determine
an orthogonal pro
four circles on the surface of the sphere
Fig. 5 is
<
Fig. 5.
jection and shows one of these circles completely and parts of the
other three. The twelve remaining conies are hyperbolas and six
Only
of these are drawn, of which three appear as straight lines.
three nodes of the inner tetrahedron are shown.
Two nodes which are adjacent on one conic are adjacent on one
other and belong to the same piece of the surface.
= x'i +y* + z* + P + ii.(xt + yt + zt + yz + zx
dons for a node, and the quartio surface is
* If
may
radius r of
0=0,
+4 (/i+ 1)
(/*
 2) 2 xyzt=0.
the circumradius B, and
//.
are connected by
3(r a B 2 )M = 2(3r2 +fi 2).
frontis
be found from the
<f>
The
+ xy),
The
THE QUARTIC SURFACE
22
piece, of
which
fig.
is
[CH.
II
a partial skeleton*, shows that the surface
consists of a central fourcornered or tetrahedral piece attached
in triby four other tetrahedral pieces, meeting the sphere =
angles, to six infinite wedgeshaped pieces, each of which contains
two nodes and meets the sphere in a lune; those pieces which
contain different branches of the same hyperbola may, by ex<}>
tending the notion of continuity, be paired so as to form three
tetrahedral pieces each of which, like the central piece, has one
node in common with each of the other four pieces.
As the sphere increases and approaches the circumsphere the
surface approaches the four faces of the tetrahedron, the various
it remaining within the tetrahedron or in the regions
beyond' the edges. When the sphere still further increases, the
quartic surface, after passing through the degenerate stage of four
portions of
planes, appears in the other regions into which space
by the planes
is
divided
namely the regions beyond the
The four last nodes now form a
of the tetrahedron,
corners and beyond the faces.
regular tetrahedron outside the
first.
Fig. 6 shows that the four circles divide the surface of the
sphere into four smaller triangles (three are shown), four larger
Fia. 6.
* Models of the sixteen conies passing by sixes through sixteen points are easily
out of coiled steel wire, beginning with the four circles. They have the
advantage over plaster models that the surface is transparent and does not hide
alternate arcs of conies.
made
11]
THE SHAPE OF THE SURFACE
triangles (one is shown),
and
six quadrangles.
23
On
each of the
smaller triangles stands a tetrahedral piece attached at one node
to an infinite conical piece
an
on each of the larger triangles stands
nodes which must be regarded as
infinite piece containing three
continuous at infinity with the opposite conical piece.
These two forms of Rummer's surface are equivalent from a
and differ only in their relation to the
plane at infinity. In both cases there are two sets of four tetrahedral pieces, each piece of one set being attached by a node to
descriptive point of view,
each piece of the other
set.
CHAPTER
III.
THE ORTHOGONAL MATRIX OF LINEAR FORMS.
12.
PRELIMINARY ACCOUNT OF MATRICES.
rnatrisc* is simply a set of independent elements arranged in
a rectangular array. In the abstract theory it is usual to indicate
the row and column to which each element belongs by suffixes
thus we denote the element lying in the rth row and the sth
column of a matrix a by arg and write
(a re ).
In what follows we shall be concerned solely with square
namely matrices which have the same number of rows
This number is the order of the matrix.
as columns.
matrices,
Associated with every matrix a
is
its
conjugate matrix a,
obtained by interchanging rows and columns: thus
a = (ars)
The
implies
addition of matrices of the
corresponding elements
The product
ars = am
same order is
+b=c
implies ars
+ brs = crs
of two matrices a and b of the
third matrix c denned
effected
by adding
thus
.
same order n
is
by
crt
=2
8
a rs bst
so that c has the same order as a and
all
(r,t
= l,2,
...
n),
=1
b.
These n2 equations are
written at once in the form
c
= ab.
* For a completer account see Baker's Abelian Functions, p. 666, where numerous
references are given.
PRELIMINARY ACCOUNT OF MATRICES
12]
The
rule for forming the product of two matrices resembles the
rule for multiplying two determinants, but
that the rows of the
second
is
the definition
it
associative, for if ab
2* s CpsCtgq = 2t8 Ztr O.p r
so that
it is
important to notice
factor are taken with the columns of the
first
From
factor.
tion of matrices
(CCLjpq
25
follows that the multiplica
=c
and bd
= e,
= 2<r Ctpr ZiS Or8 CtSq = Zi r a^r erq \OjB)pq,
cd = abd = ae
r y(i<~q
but ab and ha are in general different matrices and the multiplication is not commutative.
The unit matrix
E is defined by the equation
Ea =
are zeros
is arbitrary; accordingly all the elements of
except those in the leading diagonal, which are unities. It then
= E. For these reasons may often
follows that aE = a and
in which a
EE
be replaced by 1, or omitted.
Let A,.s be the minor or cofactor of ars in
of
a,
the determinant
then
%r A rs are = a = 2 S A rs ars and 2r A^a^ =
= %r A^atr,
if s
=j= t.
Hence A rs / a is the srth element of a matrix which, when mulIt is called the inverse matrix and is
tiplied into a, gives E.
1
have
written a
so that we
\
a~ a =
1
When
=f=
0,
E = aa~
1
.
either of these equations
of the
first
determinant of coefficients
vanishes has no inverse.
The
may
by n
factor are giyen
is
may
be taken as the
any row
which the
matrix whose determinant
definition of the inverse matrix, for the
n elements
of
linear equations for
.
\
following results are consequences of the definitions and
easily
be verified by means of them.
If
= ab,
c = ba,
_1
= &_1 a_1
c
c = a \b\.
c
then the conjugate matrix
the inverse matrix
and the determinant
A row letter x used in connection with matrices of order n is a
symbol for n elements {sou .... xn ). Then ax is interpreted to mean
n elements of which the first is 2,als xs and xa means n elements
of which the first is Zxs a81 hence x may be regarded in ax as a
,
ORTHOGONAL MATRIX OF LINEAR FORMS
26
[CH. Ill
rectangular matrix of one column, and in xa as a matrix of one
row.
Accordingly,
if
is
another row or column,
xay = 22 xr ayg =
The
22 y a^xr = yax.
K
notation of matrices is in the
whereby
suffixes
first
and signs of summation
instance a device
may
be omitted
in
order to interpret a product of several matrices by supplying the
suffixes,
adjacent suffixes belonging to different letters must be
the same, and the summations are with respect to them.
further,
becomes a
almost
and we are able
calculus,
single
like
algebraical
matrices in this book
An
orthogonal matrix
;
thus a
is
chief
use
of
to express clearly
algebraic' identities.
is
defined as one which
orthogonal
aa
This condition
The
and
ORTHOGONAL MATRICES.
13.
conjugate
manipulate matrices
to
quantities.
to obtain easily
is
and shortly a great number of
its
But,
laws of operation are so framed that the system
the
is
the inverse of
if
= E.
by the matrix of order 3 whose elements
are the direction cosines of three mutually perpendicular lines,
whence the name. The condition, when worked out, implies that
the sum of the squares of the elements in any row is 1 and the
sum of the products of corresponding elements in any two rows is 0.
is satisfied
Since
aa
= a~ aaa = a1 Ea = a~*a = E,
l
follows that the conjugate matrix is also orthogonal, and that
the same conditions hold for the columns as for the rows. Thus
from the equations
it
2t t
Ct,pg
=1,
Z g(lpa aqa =
l
we have deduced
2 a gp2 =1,
Further,
a sp a eq
= 0.
the rows are permuted in any manner, and also the
columns, the new matrix is orthogonal.
if
If a and b are both orthogonal
aa = E,
whence
it
bb
= E,
and
c
c is their
= ab,
product we have
= ba,
follows that
cc = abba = aEa = ad = E.
Therefore the product of two orthogonal matrices
is
an orthogonal
ORTHOGONAL MATRICES
1214]
matrix.

= a

= E, therefore \a\ a = 2 = 1
= + 1. Hence the determinant of
Further, since aa
,
therefore
a
+
27
but
an
orthogonal matrix is
1.
The theorem that complementary tworowed subdeterminants of a fourrowed orthogonal matrix are
numerically equal will be useful, and can easily be extended
an
ORTHOGONAL MATRIX OF LINEAR FORMS
28
It follows that rr'
= pqq'p = p(qq')p' = ipp') (qq')>
[CH.
Ill
because qq"
is scalar.
This result when worked out in detail leads to an interesting
theorem in matrices.
Let
p = ia + j/9 + ky + 8,
q = ix+jy + kz
r=pq = i(
+j(
t,
@,a\x,y,z,t)
8,7,
B,a,^^x,y,z,t)
7.
+ Jc(/3, a, h,y\x,y,z,t)
+ (a,0,y,B~^x,y,z,t).
Now
rr'
= pp'.qq\
hence the sum of the squares of these four
2
2
2
2
2
Since this is
/S + y + 8 ) [a? + y + z + V).
values of x, y, z, t, it follows that if a2 + /S2 + y2 + S 2 = 1,
linear forms is (a 2
true for
all
the matrix
8
/8
/3
a"
/3
. a /3 7
is
8_
Again, on arranging r differently,
orthogonal.
= i (a, /3,
7, 8
z,y,x)
*,
+j(u,P,y,S]iz,
+ k(a,
/3,
^, 7,
(a,
7,
8$
t,
x,y)
,
0)
SJa.y,*,
t),
y,#,
whence, by similar reasoning, the matrix
t
is
orthogonal
if a?
+y
15.
yx'
z t x
yx t
_x y z
+ z + = 1.
2
y
z
t_
THE SIXTEEN LINEAR FORMS.
Instead of using a set of four symbols
(a, /S, 7, 8)
to denote a
we now supply current coordinates (x, y, z, ) and
use a linear form, which, when equated to zero, gives the equation
of the point or plane. Thus we write
point or plane,
and
(dd)
= (a,
/3,
(6c)
=(7,
8, a,
7, 8
x,
y, z, t
),
l3^x,y,z,t),
so on, obtaining sixteen forms
which are linear and homo
THE SIXTEEN LINEAR FORMS
1415]
29
geneous in each set of symbols (a, ft, 7, 8) and (x, y, z, t). We
recall that the first letter of a twoletter symbol such as be denotes
a permutation and the second denotes a Ghange of sign; in deducing
the form (6c) from (dd) the first operation is performed upon
(a, ff, 7, 8) and the second upon (x, y, z, t); with this convention
the coefficient of t in every form has a positive sign. The same
result is obtained when the compound operation is performed upon
(x, y, z, t), thus
(be)
= (a,
0, 7, 8
5 z, t,x, y).
These forms are connected by a remarkable set of algebraic
and the geometrical interpretations of them lead to
important theorems concerning the configuration. Before proidentities,
ceeding to develop these identities
it is
convenient to give the
whole set of forms; they may be written down as the elements of
a matrix which is the product of a matrix of coefficients arid a
matrix of coordinates. Thus from the definitions we have
(aa)
(ab)
(ac)
(ad)
30
ORTHOGONAL MATRIX OF LINEAR FORMS
[CH. Ill
It is sufficient to find the coefficients in the relations connecting
one set of six forms,
by operating on
the other relations can be deduced
with the transformations of the group.
then
for
(x, y, z, t)
all
QUADRATIC RELATIONS.
16.
Another important series of relations is obtained when we have
shown that the sixteen linear forms, with proper signs, can be
arranged as the elements of an orthogonal matrix. After making
slight changes in the results of 14, and under the hypotheses
that a2 + j& + 7 2 + S 2 = 1, x + y 2 + z* + 2 = 1, which are of no im1
portance since the coordinates are used homogeneously,
we
find
that the matrices
a
/3
87
7
8
7
fi
51
a
and
8 YJ
are orthogonal, and therefore their product
the rows of the
first
t
y x
t x y z.
are obtained from
is
a, /3, 7,
orthogonal.
Now
8 by the operations
and the columns of the second are obtained from
by operations on these letters analogous to dd, ac, ba, cb,
and so the product has the same appearance as the multiplication
table of these subgroups (p. 8) except fs to the signs of some of its
elements. The sign of each linear for* in the product is the same
as that of t, and so the product matrix"
dd, ab, be, ca,
x, y, z, t
aX+Py + yz + U, Sxyy + fiz+at, yzdyaz+pt, fS% + ay8z + yt
8a:yy+l3zat,
ax  /3y  yz + 8t,
$x r ay  8z  yt, yx+dy+az+fit
yx+byaz f$t, fa+ay + dz+yt, a%+Pyyz + 8t, Sx+yy+fizat
pX + ay + tSzyt, yx8y + azpt, 8x+yy+fiz+at, axfiy+yz + dt
'
is
written
(dd)
(ac)
(ba)
(ab)
(da)(cc)
(be)
(cd)
(ca)(bb)
(cb)~
(bd)
(db)(aa)
(ad)
(do),
and the linear forms occupy the same positions as the corresponding
elements in the incidence diagram (p. 8).
Hence in order to find
a set of six, between any four of which a linear identity exists, we
have to exclude from a row and a column the element common to
both.
Many interesting geometrical theorems of fundamental importance for the configuration follow from the algebraic identities
QUADRATIC RELATIONS
1,516]
by the statement that this matrix
the matrix in the form
injplied
X X
Zg
Ti
Y*
7*
Z
T
Zi
_TX
then, taking any column,
X + Y +Z + T
s
Write
is orthogonal.
Z4
4 _
we have
= (a + /3s + 72 +
31
8 2 ) (a2
+ y + z + t%
2
showing that the four planes X, Y, Z, T are the faces of a tetrahedron selfpolar with respect to the quadric x2 + y2 + z2 + 2 = 0,
and
correlatively the four points
which
selfpolar tetrahedron
is,
X,
Y, Z,
are the corners of a
in fact, the same.
Since a similar
from taking any row or column, out of the points
and planes of the configuration eight tetrahedra* can be formed
which are selfpolar with respect to the quadric a? + y2 + z2 + t2 = 0.
On subtracting the relations derived from the first row and
result follows
column we get
+ X + X  Y  Z?  2V = 0,
2
3
2
4
showing that the squares of the equations of
six coplanar points
are linearly connected, and therefore that the six points
conic j:
lie
on a
Correlatively six concurrent planes of the ^configuration
touch a quadric cone.
Next, taking two columns we have identities such as
x,x
+y y + z^z + 2\ r, s
%
0,
showing that each of the tetrahedra
(XjY&TJ
is
inscribed in
and (X2 Y2 Z2 T2)
and circumscribed about the other
so also the
tetrahedra
(X 7,Z,T ) and
{X2 Y^Z T,) and
1
(X.F^Zy
are similarly related.
{X.Y.Z.T,),
(Zj 7,^2*0.
and (X.Y^T,),
Further, the equations
X X +Y Y =
Z Z +T T =
1
0,
represent the same quadric surface, and so the lines (X2 t ) (X 2 2 )
T
(^1 2 i) (Z2 T2), shown in the first diagram, are generators of one
*
Named
t Paul
after Bosenhain.
Serret, Giometrie de Direction, p. 132.
:
:
ORTHOGONAL MATRIX OF LINEAR FORMS
32
system, and (X,Y,)
(Z2 7 ) {Z T^{Z^, shown
X
[CH. Ill
in the second dia
gram, are generators of the other system of this quadric.
1
Another set of bilinear relations arises from the fact that
complementary tworowed subdeterminants of an orthogonal fourrowed matrix are equal (p. 27). Hence, for example,
^M!~iHI "3M ^4*3>
from which similar conclusions can be drawn.
Sets of eight associated points are represented by the bilinear
relations of these two kinds; there are twelve of the former
and eighteen of the latter, making thirty sets in all, and of the
quadrics through any one set, four are planepairs, being planes of
the configuration.
THE TEN FUNDAMENTAL QUADRICS.
17.
On substituting x =
a,
= /3, z = 7, t = 8,
six of the linear forms
and the other ten become
quadric functions of a, /3, 7, 8 which will be indicated by square
These functions, equated to
brackets, thus [dd] = a2 + /3 2 + 7 2 + S 2
the
represent
zero,
fundamental quadric surfaces, which play an
important part in relation to the 16 6 configuration. After substitution, the orthogonal matrix of linear forms becomes a matrix
vanish, namely, (ab) (ac) (be) (ba) (ca) (cb),
of quadric functions
"
'[dd]
which
is also
[da][cc]
[bd]
[cd]
[db]
 [ad]
0[bb]
[ad]
orthogonal.
[dc]_
Expressing this differently*, we have
the result that an orthogonal threerowed matrix
all the elements of the matrix
2a/32 7 S,
+ 8,
+ 2 7 8,  a2 + /3  7 + S
a S , <y*
j
2a/3
.
27a 2/38,
2
are divided by a
2/3 7
+ @? + y* + S
2aS,
is
obtained
27 +
2
,
a
2/3S
2/3 7  2aS
/3 + 7 + S
2
when
"
* Rodrigues, Liouville (1840), v, 405
Darboux, Comptes Bendus (1881), xon, 685.
THE TEN FUNDAMENTAL QUADRICS
1618]
33
These quadric surfaces are unchanged by the operations of the
is unchanged, except possibly as to
sign, when the same operation is performed on both sets of
symbols a, /3, 7, 8, and x, y, z, t. It is on this fact that their
importance chiefly depends.
The ten polars of any point are planes of the 16 6 configuration
which is determined by that point, namely, those ten planes which
do not pass through it for (a, /3, 7, 8) is any point, and its polar
group, for every linear form
plane with respect to
(e.g.)
[aa]
is
the quadric
= 2(aSl3y) =
the plane
(aa)
and
(8,
 7,  /3, a $
so,
y, z, t)
= 0,
so on.
Hence the quadrics play fundamental and symmetrical
parts
In our nomenclature [dd] has the peculiarity
that pole and polar with respect to it have the same name, but
There is an incidence
this is only a convention and not essential.
diagram and an orthogonal matrix of linear forms corresponding
to each quadric, but some of the forms must have imaginary
in the configuration.
There is a corresponding rearrangement of the ratios
of the quadric functions to form a threerowed orthogonal matrix.
coefficients.
If each of the fundamental quadric functions of a, /3, y, 8
the same function of x, y, z, t, the sum of the ten products is
is
multiplied
by
4 (ax +$y + yz +htf.
The ten quadrics are the only invariants of the second degree under the
group of sixteen linear transformations.
Each of the ten quadrics corresponds to a partition of the operations
two sets of three. The product of each set is the
same, and gives the symbol for the quadric.
If the product of the operations p x q x and p 2 q 2 is pg3 the point (p^i) and
the plane (p%q^) are pole and polar with respect to the quadric [p^], and the
four points (p^i), (Pill)) (ft?3)> (^) are *^ e corners of a tetrahedron selfab, ac, be, ba, ca, eb into
polar with respect to [dd].
18.
THE SIX FUNDAMENTAL COMPLEXES.
forms which vanish when a; a, y = @, z = 7, t = 8,
of the six tworowed determinants formed
combinations
are linear
The
six linear
from the array
/a
/3
P 7
S\
\<c
y
y
tJ'
ORTHOGONAL MATRIX OF LINEAR FORMS
34
and these are the Pliicker coordinates of the
points (a, /3, 7, 8) and (x, y, z, t).
Write
[CH. Ill
line joining
the
pu = at 8x, pu = fit ty, Pm = yt  8z,
Pn = &zyy, p = yxaz, p = ayfix.
12
31
Then
= (8,
(ac) = (8,
(be) = (7,
(ab)
y, ft a
$  x, y,z,t) = p p
li
S3
z, t)=p u +p
$ x, y, z,t) = pM p
x,y,z,t)=pM + p
(ba) = (7, 8, a, /3 $
x,y,z, t ) = p p^,
(ca) = (ft a, 8, 7 $
=
y,z,t)=p +p
(cb)
(ft a, S.yQx,
7,
ft
a~&x,y,
!ss ,
S, a, /3
31
31 ,
3i
Si
12 .
On
equating these to zero we get six fundamental linear complexes, and the nullplanes of (a, ft 7, 8) are those six planes of
the configuration which pass through
it.
In the next chapter will
be found a detailed account of this system of complexes. As their
name implies, they are of fundamental importance in the theory of
the 16 8 configuration, and are unchanged when the same operation
of the group is performed upon (a, ft 7, 8) and (x, y, z, t).
It is to be noticed that the ten quadrics and six complexes are
determined by the coordinates alone, and that then the points of
the configuration are the ten poles and six nullpoints of an
arbitrary plane, and the planes of the configuration are the polars
and Dullplanes of any one of its points.
The
coefficients in the linear identities connecting these six
fundamental quadric functions of
a, 3, y,
we
forms are the
easily find, in particular,
= [da] (ac)  [cc] (ba) + [bd] (cb),
= [cd] (ac) + [db] (ba)  [aa] (cb),
[dd] (ca) =  [66] (ac) + [ad] (ba) + [dc] (cb),
[eta] (ab)
[dd] (be)
and the identity
(abf + (6c) 2 + (oaf = (aef + (ba? + (cbf
shows once more that the nine quadrics on the
are the elements of an orthogonal matrix.
19.
right,
when
divided
by
[dd],
IRRATIONAL EQUATIONS OF SUMMER'S SURFACE.
Corresponding to any identical relation among the planes of
the configuration of the form
Z.T, + Z,T,+ Z3 T3
+ Zt Tt =
IRRATIONAL EQUATIONS OF RUMMER'S SURFACE
1819]
and any three constants
X,
fi,
35
v satisfying
\ + fJt.+ V=0,
the four equations
J\Z^l+ V^2V+ >J^ZJ\ = 0,
VXZ T + "fj^T + JrfJ\ = 0,
\f\ZJ\ + JJ^Ti + V^T2 = 0,
1
*J\ZJ~S + \f]TZjr2 + /7ZJ\ =
same quartic surface, having the eight planes
for tropes and the eight points of the configuration in which they meet by fours for nodes.
From the way in
which the elements of the configuration are interchanged by the
group we see that there are eight transformations of x, y, z, t
which leave this surface unaltered. If we choose X
v so that
represent
Zj =
the
T=
. .
/j,
the surface pass through an additional ,point of the configuration,
it will then necessarily pass through all the remaining points, and
must therefore coincide with the Kummer surface associated with
the configuration.
Suppose that
(a, /3, 7, 8) is
not one of the points through which
the surface passes for arbitrary values of\:/i:v and
of substituting
brackets
will pass
(a, /3, 7, S) for
(00,
y, z, t)
further suppose that [Zx ]
through
the result
= [2FJ.
Then the
surface
(a, /3, 7, S) if
Xl[Zi Ts]
agreeing with
let
be indicated by square
= ^[Z T ] = v/[Zi Til
\ + fi + v =
in virtue of the relations
among
the
fundamental quadrics.
Hence Kummer's
surface can be written in the form
and seven other forms can be deduced from this by the group of
This
linear transformations which leave the surface unaltered.
groups
two
complementary
with
connected
is
equations
eight
set of
of eight associated points, and so the total number of equations is
15
= 120.
One equation
of fifteen equations
of each set
is
included in the system
formed by the following
rule.
Multiply each
linear form by the corresponding quadric, that is, its value at
(a, /3, 7, 8), and put the square root of the product in place of the
linear form in the orthogonal matrix; then the quadratic relations,
not identities, among the elements of the matrix so formed, which
32
ORTHOGONAL MATRIX OF LINEAR FORMS
36
are satisfied
when
is
it
[CH.
orthogonal, are equations of
Ill
Rummer's
surface.
In order to express these equations in the notation of
sixteen expressions
x1 ...u; 123 ..., multiplied by
10,
we arrange the
suitable constants, in
gonal matrix, and then compare the elements with the linear forms.
an orthoLet
further let
,
c
123
2
cr4562
= (*!  kt (kt  k6
)
(*!
 *6 ) (k2  4 ) (Aa  k6 ) {k2  *) (ka  Jct ) {h3  hb ) (k3  ),
then
S136
orthogonal,
and
if
S4
Se
S146 S162 S124
S3
S346 5362 S324
 S6
is
C2
6646 C662 624 
1 <2 <3 <&4 <6 <6
all
the elements are
real.
Further
the matrix
Vc
136 ! 136
_0_
_0_
Vc14sl46 Vc162^162
Vc362 362
VcM2 662
V e34ol346
VC546&46
is
also
orthogonal,
showing that
c136 ,
etc.
_0
Vc124 m
VC324 324
Vc624^624.
correspond to
fundamental
quadrics*.
* Cf. Math. Annalen, Staude, xxiv, 281
Klein, xxvn, 431; Bolza, xxx, 478.
CHAPTEE
IV.
LINE GEOMETRY.
20.
POLAR
LINES.
from the point of view of line geometry that the Kummer
its most natural and symmetrical development, for the complete reciprocity exhibited by the configuration
indicates that its properties are based on a system of geometry in
which the line is taken to be the fundamental element.
A line is capable of satisfying four conditions (though some
conditions must be reckoned as twofold and some threefold), a
4
fact which may be expressed by saying that there are ao lines in
space.
A complex consists of the oo 3 lines satisfying one condition,
and is algebraic if on adding any threefold condition the lines are
reduced to a finite number. If the threefold condition is that of
It
is
configuration receives
belonging to a given plane pencil, this finite number is called the
degree of the complex.
In this chapter only linear complexes will be considered,
namely those in which only one line passes through a given point
and at the same time lies in a given plane. It follows from this
definition that all the lines belonging to a linear complex which
pass through a given point
lie
in a plane, its nullplane,
the lines in a given plane pass through a point,
From
these facts
all
and
all
its nullpoint.
the properties of the familiar nullsystem can
be deduced.
The
chief property that will be used
is
that of polar lines*.
We
regard a linear complex as establishing a correlation between
nullpoint and nullplane and an involutory correspondence be
tween polar lines. Introducing a symbol S to denote the correspondence we may write
S(P) =
*
ir,
(tt)
= P,
In works on Statics these are called conjugate
lines (Minchin).
2=1,
lines (Eouth),
and reciprocal
LINE GEOMETRY
38
P being any point and
[CH. IV
and the symbol 1 denoting
any other point and v
Let
P'
be
the identical transformation.
and
line
PP'
the
is
y the line inr' we may
its nullplane, then if x
ir its
nullplane,
write
S(x) = y,
and
x,
y are by definition polar
S(y) = x
lines.
APOLAK COMPLEXES.
21.
In general two such correspondences S,
when they
are, that is
T are not
commutative
when
ST=TS,
be said to be apolar* and ST or TS may be
the complexes
of an involutory pointpoint and planesymbol
the
taken to be
or collineation f for any plane ir has
transformation
linear
plane
will
two
nullpoints
and Q = T(ir), and
P = S(ir)
TS(P)=TS*(Tr) = T(Tr)=Q,
ST(Q) =
ST>(Tr)
= S(Tr) = P,
when ST = TS the correspondence between P and Q is
The line PQ is a common ray of the two complexes
so that
involutory.
and the transformation ST or TS determines an involution on
Let x and y be any pair of polar lines with respect to the
it.
first
complex, then
S(x)
= y,
TS(x)=T(y),
S{T(x)}=T(y),
T does
and the transformation
with respect to the
second complex,
first
not destroy the relation of polarity
complex.
Further,
if
a;
is
a ray of the
= x,
T(y) = S(x) = y,
T(x)
and y
*
is
also
reciprocal (Ball)
Two
ray.
The customary terms
;
the former
quantics are apolar
The
relation
between apolar complexes
for this relationship are in involution
is
when
awkward and the
latter suggests
(Klein)
is
and
false analogy.
their transvectant of highest index vanishes identi
and this can be interpreted for complexes of any degree.
t Any two lines determine such a collineation " geschaartinvolutorisches
System," Eeye, Geometrie der Lage, n, 17; "systeme involutif gauche," EeyeChemin, Geometrie der Position, 145; "windschiefe Involution," Sturm, Liniencally,
geometrie,
i,
70, 115.
2022]
APOLAR COMPLEXES
39
therefore such that the polars with respect to one complex of the
rays of the other are also rays of the other.
The assemblage
rays common to two complexes is called
a congruence there are two common polar lines called its directrices, which meet every ray.
In the present case the directrices
satisfy the relation
of
oo
= T(x),
TS (x) = x,
S(x)
whence
and the common polar
transformation
ST
lines correspond
to
themselves in the
or TS, and therefore cut any
common
ray in
the double points of the involution on it.
Hence any two corresponding lines and the two directrices form a set of four
harmonic generators of a regulus.
An important property of apolar complexes is that they lead
to finite groups of transformations that is, the repetition of the
;
operation of taking the nullpoint (or nullplane) of a plane (or
point) leads to a finite
number
case of two complexes
if
of points and planes.
Thus in the
and S2 are the correlations determined
by them, they determine a group of collineations containing two
members 1 and S1 S2 so that an arbitrary point or plane gives rise
to a figure of two points and two, planes.
Si
GROUPS OF THREE AND FOUR APOLAR COMPLEXES.
22.
Three mutually apolar complexes determine three correlations
Su S2 Ss which
,
give rise to three collineations,
= S S y = /S (Si, T = SiS
(1, Tu T T ) whose multiplication
Ti
forming a group
2.
2,
Ti
T,
Ti
T,
T,
T,
Ti
Ti
similar to that of
table is
Hence an arbitrary point P gives rise to
S^P), S2 (P), Sa (P) and three points
three concurrent planes
Ti (P),
(P),
(P) lying on their lines of intersection.
S/Ti (P) = S,T2 (P) = S T
(P) =
is
the plane containing Ti{P), T2 (P),
3 (P)
SM
Since
(P)
the nullplane of each
LINE GEOMETRY
40
We
in the corresponding complex.
[CH. IV
have therefore altogether four
points and four planes forming a tetrahedron such that any three
faces are the nullplanes of their
common
corner and any three
corners are the nullpoints of the face containing
them
in the
three complexes.
The rays common to the three complexes are the generators of
a regulus and the three pairs of directrices of the three congruences
belong to the complementary regulus. Hence the points P and
81 Si (P) being harmonically separated by the directrices of the
congruence (SiS^) are conjugate points with respect to the quadric
on which these reguli lie it follows that the tetrahedrpn is self;
polar.
Four
apolar complexes give
four correlations
an arbitrary point gives rise to points and
be denoted by the symbols of the corresponding
Thus from an arbitrary point 1 we derive
mutually
Slt $ S St and
2,
3,
planes which
may
transformations.
Slt S2 Ss S4
S 8i S SS ...,
$S S
four planes
six points
four planes
. .
and one point SiS^Si,
making
eight points and eight planes altogether.
If
we arrange
the points thus
1
SiS^SgSi
the
first
S2 S3
S S4
1
row contains the corners
SSS
S
$!
&,$!
SlSz
o 2 o4
Si
of a tetrahedron
whose
faces are
Ss
and each of these planes contains one of the points in the second
row, which is its nullpoint in the complex S4
Thus the configuration can be regarded in four ways as a pair of circumscribed
and inscribed tetrahedra.
.
 23.
The
SIX
APOLAR COMPLEXES.
existence of six mutually apolar complexes* depends on
the wellknown fact that the condition of being in involution with
a given complex is a onefold condition. Hence we may take
the first complex arbitrarily, the second from the oo 4 complexes
* Klein, Math. Annalen (1870), n, 198; Sturm, Liniengeometrie
(1892), i, 234
La Geomgtrie BigUe (1895), p. 92; Ball, Theory of Screws (1900), p. 33.
Koenigs,
2224]
SIX APOLAR COMPLEXES
41
apolar to the
first and so on, the last being uniquely determined
by the preceding five.
Assuming such a set, we may denote the complexes by the
symbols 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Taken in pairs they determine fifteen
congruences (12), etc., and taken in threes they determine twenty
We shall first examine the relations of special
with these complexes, and afterwards consider
configurations derived from an arbitrary point, line, or plane by
reguli (123), etc.
lines connected
means
of the associated transformations.
1, 2, 3, 4, have two common
by the hypothesis of apolarity, the polar of either of
these with respect to 5 or 6 must belong to 1, 2, 3 and 4, it must
be the other common ray. Hence these lines, being a common
pair of polar lines with respect to 5 and 6, are the directrices of
Any
rays
four of the complexes, say
since,
the congruence (56).
The
and (13) do not meet, for they belong
and since the latter pair are rays of 2 and
directrices of (12)
to the regulus (456)
polar lines with respect to 1, they correspond in the collineation
determined by (12) and therefore separate the former pair harmonically (p. 39). In other words, the four directrices of (12)
and (13) cut the generators of (123) in harmonic ranges. Similar
reasoning shows that any two pairs of the directrices (12), (23),
(31) are harmonically conjugate.
The directrices of (12) cut
those of (34) and hence the
the edges of a tetrahedron.
directrices of (12), (34), (56) are
There are fifteen of these fundamental tetrahedra, which
be denoted by the symbols (12, 34, 56), etc.
24.
may
TEN FUNDAMENTAL QUADRICS.
Since the directrices (12), (23), (31) are rays of 4, 5, 6, it follows
that the reguli (123), (456) lie on the same quadric, which may be
These are the ten fundamental quadrics.
called (123, 456).
and (124, 356) intersect in the rays
and in those common to 3, 4, 5, 6. Hence
they have the quadrilateral of directrices (56), (12) common. It
The quadrics
common
to
(123, 456)
1, 2, 3, 4,
follows that the directrices (34), being the diagonals of the quadria pair of polar lines with respect to both quadrics.
lateral, are
Thus any two fundamental quadrics have contact at four points,
which are corners of a fundamental tetrahedron, and at each of
the sixty corners three pairs of quadrics have contact.
[CH. IV
LINE GEOMETRY
42
The tetrahedron
quadric (123, 456).
(14, 25, 36) is selfpolar
Hence
of the
fifteen
inscribed in any one of the ten quadrics,
with respect to the
tetrahedra nine are
and the remaining
six
are selfpolar, and of the ten quadrics six are circumscribed about
any one tetrahedron which is selfpolar with respect to the re
maining
Each
four.
of the four quadrics
(123, 456)
(126, 453)
(153, 246)
(156, 243)
with respect to which (14, 25, 36) is selfpolar, is its own reciprocal
with respect to each of the other three for the first is completely
determined by the four directrices (12) and (13) whose polars with
respect to the second quadric are the same four lines.
;
25.
The
edge
is
common
fifteen
KLEIN'S 60 16 CONFIGURATION.
fundamental tetrahedra have thirty edges
each
to three tetrahedra, thus a directrix of (12) is
;
common
to (12, 34, 56), (12, 35, 46), (12, 45, 36).
Of the
sixty
on each edge and, as has been shown, are arranged
as three pairs forming three harmonic ranges.
So also of the
sixty faces, six pass through an edge and the pair belonging to
corners, six lie
one tetrahedron are harmonically conjugate with respect to the
pair belonging to either of the other two tetrahedra having the
same edge.
In each face are three edges, each containing
corners, giving fifteen corners in that face,
faces pass
and similarly
six
fifteen
through one corner.
We may
distinguish the directrices of the congruence (12) by
the symbols 12 and 21, and make the convention that sets of
three lines obtained by an even number of interchanges of figures
from 12, 34, 56 shall be coplanar. Then those obtained by an odd
number of interchanges will be concurrent. Thus, for example,
the rows
12 34 '56
46
25
13
35
61
24
are coplanar and the columns concurrent.
Hence the three planes
intersect in the line of collinearity of the three points.
An
even
2425]
KLEIN'S 60 1B CONFIGURATION
43
number
of interchanges applied to the symbols common to two
rows and two columns leaves the rows coplanar and the columns
concurrent as before, thus the table of lines
21
43
56
64
52
13
35
61
24
possesses properties similar to those of the former table, and so on.
Hence
four pairs of corners, one
from each of the tetrahedra
and (34, 25, 16), are collinear with the point 56, 13, 24,
and the same is true for the other corners of (56, 13, 42) so that
tbe two former tetrahedra are in fourfold perspective. Hence the
three tetrahedra represented by the columns of the table belong
to a desmic system ( 1) and the rows represent the other desmic
system which is formed with the same edges.
Again the following three sets of lines are similarly related,
(12, 46, 35)
12
34
56
12
34
56
12
34
56
46
15
32
54
16
32
54
26
13
35
26
14
36
52
14
36
15
24
showing that there are four desmic systems containing the same
one tetrahedron (12, 34, 56). Hence through any one corner of
the configuration pass sixteen lines containing two other corners,
and in each face lie sixteen lines through which pass two other
From the desmic properties it follows that the assemblage
faces.
of these lines is the same in each case, and this number is
60 16/3 = 320.
.
It is possible in six different ways, corresponding to the six
pairs of different cyclical arrangements of five figures
select a set of five tetrahedra including all thirty directrices
their edges
common
= (12,
to
consequently no two tetrahedra of the same set have
One such set occupies the first column of the
edge.
following table*:
(aft)
6),
among
34, 56)
[CH. IV
LINE GEOMETRY
44
and the members of any one set are distinguished by twoletter
symbols having one letter common. Two tetrahedra such as (ab)
and (ac) from the same set belong to a desmic system of which
the third member is (be), not belonging to the same set. Thus
twenty desmic systems corresponding to the combinations
Further, three
b, c, d, e,/ three at a time.
we have
of the six letters a,
tetrahedra such as (ab) (cd) (ef) have two edges common.
26.
We
now turn
summer's 16 6 configuration.
to configurations containing arbitrary elements.
Using the symbols
point
6 to represent the permutable
by the, six complexes, we obtain from any
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
correlations determined
the points
Call the last point Q, then
Now
1235P...
1234P,
ISP...
12P,
12Q = 3456P
123456P.
and the points are
P,
12P,
13P...
56P,
Q,
12Q,
13Q...
56Q.
was proved in the case of three complexes that the points
P, 23P, 31P, 12P form a tetrahedron selfpolar with respect to the
it
quadric (123) similarly the tetrahedron Q, 56Q, 64Q, 45Q is selfBut these quadrics are
polar with respect to the quadric (456).
;
was proved in the case of four complexes
that the plane 23P, 31P, 12P contains the point 1234P, or 56Q.
Similarly this plane contains also 64Q and 45Q, so that the two
tetrahedra have a common face, and therefore P and Q coincide
the same, and, further,
it
with the pole of this face with respect to the quadric (123, 456).
We have therefore derived from an arbitrary point a configuration consisting of sixteen points
fact,
Kummer's 16 6
nullplanes
and sixteen planes, which
configuration.
The planes
and ten polar planes of P.
polar plane with respect to (123, 456)
That the
lie
is,
in
consist of the six
six points in the
on a conic follows from
the fact that the triangles 12, 23, 31 and 45, 56, 64 are selfpolar
with respect to the section by their common plane.
This method leads to the same nomenclature as was used in
An arbitrary point has six nullplanes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 named
9.
after the corresponding complexes.
common
The nullpoints
of these planes
and are the remaining fifteen points,
named 12.., 56. The remaining ten planes are the polars of
with respect to the fundamental quadrics, and accordingly receive
lie
on their
lines,
rummer's 16 6 configuration
2527]
45
the same names. The nomenclature is thus interpreted by regarding the name of each element as the symbol of operation
deriving it from an arbitrary point 0.
The symbol
itself must
therefore denote the identical operation and the other operations
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6 obey the laws expressed symbolically
=
The diagram
11
22
= 33 = 44 =
55
= 66 =
by
123456.
(p. 17)
46
62
24
35
12
14
16
51
32
34
36
13
52
54
56
showing which points are coplanar
now seen
be also a multiand (0, 46, 62, 24)
each of four collineations. The corresponding diagram for planes
may be written down from the known laws of incidence, and is
is
to
plication table for the subgroups (0, 35, 51, 13)
135
146
162
124
346
362
324
546
562
524
but we see that it can be obtained from the former by operating
on each element with 135*.
27.
LINE COORDINATES.
and methods hitherto employed in the present
is no doubt that every
theorem can be deduced in this way but in many cases the proofs
are artificial and tedious and an analytical method is more direct
and throws more light on the true lines of reasoning.
The theory of apolar linear complexes may be investigated
with exceptional elegance by means of line coordinates f. With
be the
generalised coordinates w u #2 xs x it ccs xe let w(x) =
The
ideas
chapter are purely geometrical, and there
;
For detailed elaboration
of these configurations the following references
may
be consulted: Caporali, Memorie Lincei (1878), ser. 3, n, 3; Stephanos, Darboux
Bulletin (1879), ser. 2, m, 424; Hess, Nova Acta, Halle (1891), lv, 96; Martinetti,
Rendiconti Palermo (1902), xvi, 196.
f It is assumed that the reader is acquainted with the subjectmatter of the first
two chapters of Prof. Jessop's Treatise on the Line Complex. See also Eoenigs,
La
GSometrie R&glee.
LINE GEOMETRY
46
among them and
quadratic relation
dition that the linear
complex
~Zas x,
m and
matrices of the coefficients in
plexes ~Za8 xs
and 26s *s
let
[CH. IV
fl (a)
may be
be the conthen the
special
The com
il are inverse*.
are apolar if
2as 3fl (b)/db =
0.
When the two complexes are taken to be the coordinate
and x2 = 0, the condition for apolarity becomes
a^ =
3 fl (a^da^da, = 0,
complexes
term
in other words, the
in OjOj
must be absent from
squares.
We
is
the same
sum
that this has been done
shall suppose
Hence
XI (a).
the problem of finding six mutually apolar complexes
as that of expressing the quadratic form D, (a) as the
of six
then the
to (x) is at the same time reduced to the sum of
and by taking suitable multiples of the coordinates we
quadratic form
six squares,
can make
&>
By using
(x)
= H (x) = x? + x? + xi + x? + xi + x \
e
these coordinates calculations are
the meaning of general results
the identity of
ordinates
and
a>
fl.
much
simplified,
though
become obscured through
particular example of these co
is liable
to
is
Xi=Pupw
ix2
=p u +p
Xs=Pupsi,
ixt
!ia ,
=pM + p
sl
<i=PsiPn,
ixe
=p +p
si
1!i ,
where it will be noticed that all the coordinate complexes are real,
but three of the coordinates are imaginary. On referring to 16
we see that the coordinate complexes are the fundamental complexes employed in the construction of the 16 configuration.
The lines (xu 2 x3 xit xB xe ) and ( xlt xit xa x4 x5 x6 ) are
polar with respect to the complex x1 = 0.
Hence the transformation of lines associated with each complex consists in changing
the sign of the corresponding coordinate.
Taking only the first
three complexes, a line (x) gives rise to a set of eight lines
In order to deal with points and
(+ xi> + #2> 3> xt> x5> xe)planes we must suppose (x) to describe a sheaf of lines through a
point P, then {xx xit xs xit xs xs ) describes a plane field 8l (P),
the nullplane of P in the first complexf and ( xlt x2 x xt x5 xe )
describes a sheaf whose vertex is S2 S1 (P) or TS (P), and so on.
This method expresses the operations of the group (1, Tu T2 Tz )
in a form which brings out clearly the comparison with the group
,
of reflexions ( 2).
*
simple example in matrix notation.
t Compare
22.
FUNDAMENTAL QUADRICS
2728]
28.
The condition
FUNDAMENTAL QUADRICS.
of intersection of two lines (y) and (z) being
+ 2/2*2 + yz + y z + y
2/i*i
it is
47
zs
za =
+y
evident that the lines
(j/i. 2/2. 2/s.
0. 0, 0),
(0, 0, 0,
z4 , z 5 ze )
,
this proves that the lines common to x = x2 = xs =
and those common to xt = xs = xe =
are the two systems of
generators of the same quadric surface (123, 456). The general
intersect
tangent line to this surface
by two
a ray of the plane pencil determined
is
and has coordinates
intersecting generators
tyi
where
yf
Hence any tangent
2
either of which
is
^2/2. ^2/s. /**, /^5. fi*e
+ yi + y =
s
>
= z + z + zg.
() satisfies the equivalent equations
+ xf + ooi = 0,
x?
+ x +
= 0,
the lime equation of the quadric (123, 456).
implies that the three poles of
xj> =
The equation x? + xg +
to the three complexes xx = 0, x2 = 0, xs =
form a triangle selfpolar with respect to the section of the quadric
any plane with respect
for, if we substitute for the x8 bilinear expressions in
terms of the coordinates of two planes and regard one of these
planes as fixed, xx = 0, x2 = 0, x%
become the tangential equations of three points and a* + x + x<? =
that of a conic with
respect to which these points are mutually conjugate.
In a similar way the equation
(123, 456)
x?
shows that the
+ xi + # + x? + x? + x =
2
six poles of
any plane
lie
on a
conic, for it expresses
that the squares of the tangential equations of these points are
linearly connected,
which
is
a necessary and
sufficient condition
(p. 31).
In terms of real coordinates zx
equation
may be
=p u pw> Z2=Pu+p&,
etc.,
the
written
zf
+ zf + zf^zi + zf + zi,
showing that the triangle of poles 246 is obtained from the triangle
135 by a transformation which may be regarded as a rigid rotation
From this we infer that the points 135
in an " elliptic " plane.
points 246 on the conic.
If the quadric
with
the
alternately
occur
"absolute"
of
an
elliptic space,
the
regarded
as
is
(135, 246)
48
(!,
LINE GEOMETRY
[CH. IV
zs zs ) and {zit zA ze ) are the two Clifford parallels through a
,
corner of the tetrahedron of reference to any line *.
by eliminating one
It is easily seen,
from the bilinear expressions
set of point coordinates
terms of two points, that
any four line coordinates are connected by a linear relation in
which the coefficients are quadratic in point coordinates let one
for x in
such relation be
Qm = evidently represents the regulus
x2 = x = 0. Similarly we have relations
then the equation
common
to
^235*^1 "T Vl3e^2 "T Vl25^'8
VlSS^
(^286^1 "T
"T"
Vl23*^5
== ">
"r ^126^3 "T Vl28^6 == "
Then the equation 2# =
arbitrary,
2
s
relations,
of rays
0, in which x u x2 x3 are regarded as
shows that the coefficients of xlt x2 xs in the preceding
when divided by iQ123 form an orthogonal matrix ( 17).
,
FUNDAMENTAL TETRAHEDRA.
29.
Rays common
to the four complexes
xx = 0, x2 = 0, xs = 0, *4 =
satisfy
There are therefore two common rays
(1,
i,
0, 0, 0,
0) and
(1,
 i,
0, 0, 0, 0),
which are seen to be polar lines with respect to both of the complexes #! = 0, #2 = 0, and are therefore the directrices of the
congruence
Similarly
(12).
may be
directrices
The edges
is
= 0, x
ix2
ixk
= 0, xB
is
By taking
we may arrange that
= Pup23,
suitable multiples of the point
3=P2ipn.,
ixz =pu+Pas,
ixi = p u + p
so that the particular
cance.
= 0.
real
Pliicker line coordinate.
coordinates
ixe
and is taken for reference the equation
expressed by the vanishing of the corresponding
If this tetrahedron
any edge
the other
all
of the tetrahedron (12, 34, 56) have line equations
xx
of
the coordinates of
found.
example of
p.
31
46
is
Xn=pSi p 2,
1
ix e =p3i
+ pn
really of general signifi
In this way the Pliicker coordinates of
* Whitehead, Universal Algebra, p. 405.
all
the directrices
FUNDAMENTAL TETRAHEDRA
2829]
may
49
be found and thence their intersections, forming the points
of Klein's configuration.
There are two tetrahedra (12, 35, 46) and (12, 36, 45) which
have the edges (12) in common with the tetrahedron (12, 34, 56)
of reference, and it has been proved ( 23) that the corners on a
common edge form three harmonic ranges. It is easily found
that the corners of (12, 35, 46) are (1, 0,
those of (12, 36, 45) are (1, 0, 0, 1), (0,
0,
1,
i), (0, 1,
*,
0),
and
In this way,
1, 0).
by taking different pairs of opposite edges of reference, six tetrahedra are found. The remaining eight form with (12, 34, 56) four
desmic systems, and it is therefore sufficient to give one corner in
each system ( 1). These points are (1, 1, 1, 1), (1, i, i, 1), (i, 1, i, 1),
(i, i, 1, 1), and the corners of any tetrahedron are obtained from
these by changing the signs of an odd or even number of co
For example
ordinates.
(i,
1,i.l),
(i, 1,
(13, 25, 46) is
i,
1, i, 1), (i,
1,
i,
1),
i,l).
Klein's configuration can be constructed from a single tetra
hedron as
follows,
arbitrary
constants
namely
and the process verifies that the number of
is
the same as for six apolar complexes,
+3+2+
15.
u=
and v = are the equations of
any two points then the general pair of harmonic conjugates is
given by u? X"v 2 = 0, and the condition that another pair,
u 2 fi*v" = 0, may be harmonically conjugate with the preceding
We
recall the fact that if
\2 + fi? = 0.
Take one tetrahedron
pair
is
arbitrarily for reference (twelve con
Three of those which have two edges in common with
stants).
are in the
first
it
instance
(a,
0,
0,
(0,
a',
1,
1))
)J
b,
0,
1, 0,
V,
0,
1)
)}
0,
(0,
(c',
c,
1,
0,
1)
)
and the new constants must be chosen so that the edges intersect.
The points (\a, \'a', V, X) and (fi, /J.b,jj,'b', p) can by proper choice of
\, \', (i, ix be made the same if aa! = b/b', and so on thus a' = b/c,
By taking new multiples of the coordinates and
b' = c/a, c' = a/b.
thereby absorbing three arbitrary constants we may put a=b=c=l,
;
and then
a'
(1, 0,
(0,
h.
1,
= V = c' = 1. The
0,
1,
1)1
)}
0,
1,
preceding three tetrahedra are
1,
0,
1))
(0,
0,
1,
)]
(1,
1,
1)
1, 0,
0,
now
LINE GEOMETRY
50
and the remaining three having
[CH. IV
pairs of edges in
common
with
the tetrahedron of reference are
The
(1,
0,
(0,
1,
0,
i,
t))
)
0,
i,
1,
0,
0,
1,
rest of the configuration is
i)\
(0,
)j
(1,
0,
i,
1,
i)\
0,
)j
now completely determined by
the intersections of the edges of these seven tetrahedra.
The fifteen tetrahedra play symmetrical parts in the configuration and
each belongs to four desmic systems. It is possible to represent five tetrahedra by products each of four linear factors, such that the ten differences of
these products are also products of four factors and represent the remaining
In this way the twoletter nomenclature of
See the second example on p.
tetrahedra of the system.
may be
derived.
p.
43
CHAPTEE
V.
THE QUADRATIC COMPLEX AND CONGRUENCE.
30.
We
OUTLINE OF THE GEOMETRICAL THEORY.
have seen in the preceding chapter how the configuration
and tropes of a Kummer surface arises naturally in
elementary line geometry from the consideration of a set of apolar
linear complexes.
It will now be shown how the surface itself
occurs as the singular surface of a quadratic complex of general
of nodes
character, which
is selfpolar with respect to each of the former set.
In the present section the leading ideas in the theory of quadratic complexes are presented in outline, and the reader is referred
The geoto existing treatises for proofs and fuller accounts*.
metrical method will be followed up to a certain point, after
which it is more advantageous to adopt the treatment by co
ordinates.
The rays
of a quadratic complex which pass through any given
point generate a quadric cone.
At a singular point
this cone has
a double line and therefore breaks into two plane pencils. Correlatively, the rays which lie in any given plane envelope a conic
aud
Each of these points, being
the vertex of a pencil of rays, is a singular point, and similarly
each of the planes at a singular point is a singular plane and
which
in the case of a singular plane has a double tangent
therefore degenerates into two points.
A singular ray is a ray of the
complex characterised by the fact that all the tangent linear
complexes are special, and is the double line of the complex cone
at a singular point and also the double tangent of the complex
contains one other singular point.
curve in a singular plane.
* Jeasop,
The Line Complex, Chs.
vi
and
xvii;
Sturm, Liniengeometirie, in,
42
1.
THE QUADRATIC COMPLEX
52
Thus
[CH.
P the
complex cone consists of two
The complex conies
in which
in all planes through x touch x at P except for one plane
the complex conic consists of two points P lt P 2 on x. This plane
7r is the common tangent plane of all the complex cones whose
vertices are points on x, except when the vertex is P, in which
case the tangent plane through x is indeterminate.
A fundamental theorem states that the locus of singular points
Pis the same as the envelope of singular planes it and is a quartic
planes
at a singular point
77,,
tj 2
intersecting in a singular ray#.
rr
The proof
surface.
and
used,
of this
is
instantaneous
when
coordinates are
follows geometrically from another fundamental theorem
that the four singular points on any line have the
as the four singular planes through
same
cross ratio
it.
We
have then a singular surface <J> of the fourth order and
a; is
a tangent line at P and meets <I> in the
remaining two singular points P1; P2 on it. The four tangent
The complex rays
planes through x are it repeated and tt^ 7r 2
no line of
in ir form two pencils whose vertices are Px and P 2
the tangent pencil (P, it) is a ray except the singular ray x,
unless Px or P2 coincides with P; then x meets <I> in three
consecutive points and is therefore an inflexional tangent. In
this case one of the planes it^ or 7r2 coincides with ir, and all the
fourth
class;
tangent lines at
are rays.
C there is one set of
mutually apolar. The polars of every ray
with respect to these complexes belong to G and hence G
be termed selfpolar* with respect to them. By their means
Associated with the quadratic complex
six linear complexes,
G
may
of
we
are able to group together certain singular points
and planes
the singular surface, being determined by the rays of the
for
complex, must be invariant under the transformations determined
linear complexes in other words, all the points and planes
by the
obtained from any one singular point or plane by the correlations
of the six apolar complexes are also singular points and planes.
In future we shall denote the singular surface by <J>. Any
P of <t> gives rise to a 16 6 configuration inscribed in and
circumscribed about <3>, and the corresponding tangent plane ir
point
gives rise to another.
the other.
*
The
Each of these configurations is inscribed in
by the plane it contains its six
quartic section
The term apolar might
complex
is
also be used, for
suitably modified by
means
if
the equation of the quadratic
of the identical quadratic relation
the line coordinates, the transvectant formed from
complexes vanishes identically.
it
and any one of the
among
linear
3031]
OUTLINE OF THE ALGEBRAICAL THEORY
nullpoints
P P P P P
a double point of the section.
which
is
lt
2,
4,
to the rth linear complex,
as the point of contact
line PP r belongs
P in this complex
The
and the nullplane of
Pr
the tangent plane at
P as well
53
Since this plane passes through P,
at
and r
Hence the bitangents
are rays of the fundamental complexes and form six congruences of
the second order and class.
is
PPr is
a bitangent, touching
<I>
OUTLINE OF THE ALGEBRAICAL THEORY.
31.
The simplicity of the algebraical treatment depends on the
simultaneous reduction of the fundamental relation satisfied by
the coordinates of any line and of the given quadratic complex to
These are taken to be
canonical forms*.
x? + x* + x? + x? + x? + xi =
+ ks x^ + k x + \x? + k x + ke xe =
coordinate complexes xs =
are the six
kx x?
Then the
2
s,
complexes with respect to which (2)
and
signs of the coordinates,
(2).
selfpolar
is
them are
formations associated with
(1),
fundamental
the line trans
by changing the
obvious that (2) is unaltered by
it is
effected
this procedure.
At a singular ray the tangent linear complex is
k8 xs must be the coordinates of a line and therefore
kfx?
special
then
+ k*xf + kix? + k?x? + kfxi + kfxf =
(3).
When
(1), (2), (3) are satisfied the lines (x) and (kx) determine a
they also
singular point and a singular plane of the complex
;
determine a plane pencil of lines
ys
= k x fix
s
satisfying the equations
2
Hence
(y) is
(k,
 /*) y. = 0,
singular plane
We
(*,
/*) 2
yf = 0.
a singular ray of the complex obtained from (2) by
fi)1 and the corresponding singular point and
replacing ks by (ks
therefore the
are
same
determined by (y) and (k
/*)_1y and
are
as before.
have thus found a singly
infinite
2(*,/*)r *f
1
system of complexes
(4),
which have the same singular points and planes, and are therefore
* First adopted by Klein, in his Inaugwraldusertation (Bonn, 1868)
Annalen, xzin, 539.
Math.
THE QUADRATIC COMPLEX
54
[CH.
termed cosingular. The original complex (2) is the member of
= oo
this system which corresponds to
By differentiating (2) we obtain %kgXs dxs which is the
Hence
condition that the pencil (x, kx) may have an envelope.
the locus of singular points is the same as the envelope of singular
Every tangent line of <& is
planes and is the singular surface O.
expressible in the form (kx) fi (x), (x) being a singular ray of
(2), and is a singular ray of the cosingular complex whose co/j.
efficients are (ks
ft)~\
Hence the plane
pencils of tangent lines
and
to 4> are projectively related to each other
family in such a
of the
way
to the cosingular
that corresponding lines are singular rays
same complex.
To determine the
on any line
members
order of 4>
(y).
of the cosingular family,
and suppose
tains (y)
we
consider the singular points
Since these points are the same for
we may
its coefficients to
all
the
one which conAt each singular
select
be ks
point on (y) there is a plane pencil of rays (\x + fiy) containing
The conditions for the line (a;) are
(y) and the. singular ray.
2#g ys =
0,
1ks xt ys =
0,
Xks xs =
2
0,
determining a ruled surface of degree four which consists of four
pencils
whose vertices are the singular points on (y) and whose
hence <I> is of the
planes are the singular planes through (y)
fourth order and fourth class.
The
four generators of this degenerate scroll which
line (z) belong to
2xa ys = 0,
jectively.
meet any
a regulus determined by the equations
therefore cut their two
and
Whence
Xks xs ye =
common
0,
2xs zs =
0,
transversals (y) and (z) protheorem that the cross
follows the important
ratio of the singular points
on any line
of the singular planes through
is
equal to the cross ratio
it.
It will be observed that the proof of this
of the existence of
theorem is independent
and it may be used to prove that the locus
the same as the envelope of singular planes.
<E>,
of singular points is
For, if two out of four elements coincide, their cross ratio vanishes,
and conversely if the cross ratio vanishes, at least two elements
Hence the locus and the envelope have the same
coincide.
tangent lines and therefore coincide. It is important to notice
that
when the
cross ratio vanishes the coincidences
among
points and planes need not completely correspond, and there
exist lines
surface.
the
may
which do not bear reciprocal relations to the "singular
ELLIPTIC COORDINATES
3132]
55
ELLIPTIC COORDINATES.
32.
When (x) is any line,
gives four values of
2<re2 =0 and the equation 2,(/cs /a)~1 xss =0
namely the parameters of the cosingular com
/*,
plexes which contain
(x).
This equation is of great importance in
determining the relation of (x) to 4>; its roots are called the elliptic
coordinates of the line.
Let (x) cut <& in Plt P2 P3 P4 and let the tangent planes
through (x) touch <J> at A, B, C, D, respectively.
The lines
pencil
belong
to
the
tangent
at
A
and are
lt
2
S
t
respectively singular rays of four cosingular complexes whose
parameters are fi u fi 2 /as
The rays of the first of these
4) say.
complexes which lie in the singular plane PX AP4 form two pencils
one of which has its vertex at Px and therefore contains (x) hence
(x) is a ray of each of the complexes and fi u
jjls
2
^4 are its
elliptic coordinates.
We have seen that the lines
S of the
tangeut pencil at A are protectively related to the parameters
hence the same is true of the points Ps and the lines
fjbg and
Now four points can be proprojecting them from B, G, D.
jectively related to themselves in only four ways, and further
APi and BPX cannot be singular rays of the same complex if (x) is
not a tangent to <1> at P,; thus if we suppose that
GP3
lt BP2
DPi are corresponding tangent lines and singular rays of the
same complex, the four sets of singular rays must be
,
AP AP AP AP
,
/u.
/j,
AP
AP
APU BP GP PP
2
3,
BP GP DP,
AP PP CP DP
AP BP CP DP,
AP>,
lt
3,
4,
4,
3,
2,
in complex
fi lt
/i,,
/*,.
tn,
By
a reciprocal course of reasoning the four singular planes
cut the tangent plane at Pj in singular rays of the complexes
2
3
4 the com/is, Hi, and for the tangent planes at
/*!, /tt 2
P P P
,
plexes are permuted without altering the cross ratios of their
parameters. Hence the pencil of tangent planes through (x) is
projectively related to the elliptic coordinates of (x) in
any one
four equivalent orders.
Since
/^,
/it, /i3 , /i4
we must have
are the roots of
for all values of
O  h)
/i
x*= Cififh) (/*/*!> OMs) (/*M4>//(/*)
of
THE QUADRATIC COMPLEX
56
[CH.
where
f(ji)
(/j,
 h) (p  k) (/i k
and
)(ji k4)
(7=2A;8
(i
On
multiplying by
line coordinates in
ft
((jl
and then putting p
terms of the
 k ) (fik
= ks we
elliptic coordinates in
obtain the
the form
x? = C(ks  pi)(k,  /^) (ks  /is ) (ke  fit)//' (ka ).
CONJUGATE
33.
SETS.
We see that there is not a oneone correspondence between
the singular points on a line and the singular planes through it
but on the other hand, the three different partitions into two pairs
Thus if we denote the four tangent planes by their
correspond.
points of contact A, B, G,
P\"i, "l"l
we
m"(i
see that the partitions of points
PP
"l"it tlfg
correspond to the partitions of planes
AD, BG
and the elements of each
ratio remain unchanged.
BD, GA
set
CD, AB,
may be permuted provided
the cross
P1 Pi and either of the corresponding
BG, are said to form a conjugate set*.
When any two points PiPt are given a pair of planes forming
with them a conjugate set may be constructed by selecting any
one, for example /u 2 of the four complexes which contain PiPi\
the cone of rays through Pj breaks into two planes of which one,
B, contains PiP4 and similarly the plane G forms part of the
complex cone at P4 and these two planes complete the set. By
taking all four complexes in turn only two different pairs of
planes are obtained; for example, the plane pencils (Pi, G) and
(P4 E) belong to the same complex /is
Conversely, the planes and vertices of any two plane pencils
belonging to the same complex and having a common ray form a
conjugate set. For let P and P' be the vertices, which must
be singular points, and let A, A' be the points of contact of the
plane pencils at P, P' respectively with the singular surface, so
that AP and A'P' are singular rays of the same complex
it
follows, by comparison with the preceding work, that AP' and A'P
must be singular rays of another of the complexes containing PP'.
Any
pair of points, such as
pairs of planes, such as
* Klein, Math. Annalen, xxvn, 107.
3234]
CONJUGATE SETS
57
The four points in which any line cuts <E> are determined by a
biquadratic equation, and the four tangent planes through the
same line by another equation. The relation between these
equations is that the cross ratios of the roots are equal. This
condition implies that the ratios of the roots of the reducing
cubic are the same for both equations, and hence that if one
biquadratic
two quadratic
factors,
separated into
two
is
expressed as the product of
the other biquadratic can be similarly
by rational means. Hence when three elements
conjugate set are given the determination of the fourth
factors
of a
depends upon finding the second root of a quadratic equation of
which one root is given, and can therefore be effected by rational
processes.
34.
With
family
KLEIN'S TETRAHEDRA.
reference to a particular complex (X) of the cosingular
let
the singular ray of the tangent pencil at the point
and _4 2 so that A lt A 2 and A repeated are the four
singular points on this ray.
Similarly let BB&, GGX G2 DD 1 D 2
be the singular rays at B, G, D respectively. The lines 4 1 PS
A 2 PS etc. are rays of the complex, and hence the eight points
Since
Al..Dz lie on the complex cones at each of P 1; P2 P3 P4
Pe is a singular point the complex cone at Ps breaks up into two
planes each of which contains four of the eight associated points.
If the parameter X is taken equal to //.,, the complex contains
APt as a singular ray; then BP2 GP3 DP4 are also singular rays
and we may suppose that A 2 _B2 C2 D2 coincide with Plt P2 P3 P4
respectively.
One of the planes into which the complex cone at
Pj breaks up is A^^P^i and so the other must be P1 B1 G1 B1
similarly A^^C^^, A 1 B1 P S B 1 and J. 1 51 1 P4 are planes of rays
Returning to the original complex we
at P2 Ps P4 respectively.
cut
<E>
in
see that
it is
possible to
AiBzCsDi and
We may
name the
A^G^ are
1;
and so
on.
express this by saying that the table
A
A
Br
C,
XJ 2
C2
X/2
p*
is,
the five points in a row and a
p,
is
eight associated points so that
the planes of rays at
an incidence diagram, that
THE QUADRATIC COMPLEX
58
A^B^D^
and
is
Each of the tetrahedra
column, but not in both, are coplanar.
A^GiDi
[CH.
inscribed in the other, and the four
lines joining corresponding vertices,
tion of corresponding faces, have a
From what has been proved
and the four
common
it
lines of intersec
transversal
P^PsPi.
PAPB
follows that
is
which are four edges of a
Two adjacent
tetrahedron, inscribed in <E>, whose faces touch 4>.
sides of this quadrilateral determine one of the complex planes at
their common point, so that the ends of any side and the two
faces through that side form a conjugate set; for example, the pair
twisted quadrilateral of rays of
of points
Now
PA
1
is
Pj [.AiPJ
of conjugacy
it
same complex
is
(A.)
PA
conjugate to the pair of planes P^A^P^,,
1
l B1
a pencil of rays of (^j), so that by the property
follows that
(ji^)
and
[PiB2 ]
is
a pencil of rays of the
A^B^ belongs to (/j^). Hence
of rays of (/j^) and similarly P i A 1 B P
in particular
Pj^ljSjPa is a quadrilateral
1
is a quadrilateral of rays of (/j^), and every edge of the tetrahedron
is a common ray of two of the three complexes (X), (/*,), (/j?).
Such a tetrahedron may be constructed by taking any three
points on a tangent plane section and completing the three conjugate sets determined by this plane and pairs of points; the
three new tangent planes meet on the surface.
We see in this
way that a given surface has oo 5 inscribed and circumscribed
!i
tetrahedra *.
RELATIONS OF LINES TO *.
35.
We
shall
among
now
consider the various equalities that can exist
the elliptic coordinates of a
relations to
The
line,
and
its
corresponding
$.
elliptic coordinates are
the roots of the equation in
fi
2 (*.A*)^ *.*=<>
and are uniquely determined by the line (so) but conversely, an
arbitrary set of roots determines thirtytwo lines, polars of each
;
In what
other with respect to the fundamental complexes.
follows,
the line (%) means any one of these.
If two roots are equal to X, then
t(k,\)and
Put
x,i
and
(%) is a singular ray of the
x,
(kg \)ye,
then (y)
is
Z (k,  \)2 */ =
complex (\) and
is
a singular ray of
0,
a tangent to
2is 82 = 0.
* "Ausgezeiohnete Tetraeder," Klein, Math. Annalen, xxvn, 110.
<1>.
The
3435]
TANGENT LINES
elliptic coordinates of
59
x are the roots of
=
f =
(fi ^(p fa) =
'2,(k.\Y(kt ii.Y*!f.*
0*X)2(*f
or
or
(jj,
 X)
^y
where fa and fa depend only on (y). As X varies we get all the
tangents of a plane pencil, fa and fa remaining constant among
these tangents are six special ones given by X = ks
Taking X = ftx
;
we deduce from the preceding equations
l(kg k
^ = 0,
This shows that the line
is
) 1
oc'
= 0.
a bitangent, for the nullplane of the
point of contact and the nullpoint of the tangent plane in the
complex x1 = are a plane and point of $ by the invariant
<3>, and all four elements are incident with (x).
We
infer that as fa and fa vary, the tangent lines for which X = k are
linear
property of
bitangents
this
way
six
it is
easy to prove tbat
all
the bi tangents generate in
congruences of the second order and
Three roots can be equal only
if
X=
//. 1
class.
or fa.
Now we
have
seen that fa and fa are the same for all the lines of a tangent
pencil, and hence the whole pencil belongs to the cosingular complexes whose parameters are fa and fa but this can be the case
;
when the singular ray is an inflexional tangent (p. 52). Thus,
when (x) is a singular ray of 2A;g a;/ = and fa, fa are the roots of
only
we have proved that (kx)fa (x) and (kx)fa (x) are the inflexional
tangents at the point of contact, and the elliptic coordinates of
these lines are
(fa, fa, fa, fa)
and
(fa, fa, fa, fa) respectively.
If two pairs of roots are equal, say fa
= fa
and fa = fa, then,
omitting a factor of proportionality,
xs = (h  th) (h
 fa)
{/' (&,)}"*
and xa (k8 fa)" xs (ks fa) x8 are the coordinates of three
mutually intersecting lines. Every line which meets all three
has line coordinates of the form
1
(oft,*
+ 6*. + c)
and consequently has two pairs
touches
<.
Hence
if
{/'(*.)}"*
of equal elliptic coordinates
the three lines are concurrent their
and
common
is a node of <3> and if they are coplanar their plane is a trope.
There are thirtytwo cases obtained by taking all possible combina
point
THE QUADRATIC COMPLEX
60
[CH.
tions of signs for the radicals, showing that 4> possesses sixteen
nodes and sixteen tropes. The identity of the singular surface
with Rummer's surface is thus completely established. It is
worth noticing that for a line through a node one pair of points
coincide and two pairs of planes, and for a line in a trope two
pairs of points coincide and one pair of planes in both cases two
pairs of elliptic coordinates are equal but, on the other hand, in
:
the case of a proper bitangent two pairs of points and two pairs of
planes coincide while only two elliptic coordinates are equal.
If four roots are equal, then
= (*. **){/' (*.))*
*.
Either (x) passes through a node and three points and four
tangent planes coincide, so that (x) is a generator of the tangent
cone at the node
or (x) lies in a trope and four points and three
Hence the
tangent lines at a node and the tangents to a singular conic are
projectively related to the tangents at an ordinary point, correplanes coincide, so that (x) touches the singular conic.
sponding lines being singular rays of the same complex.
ASYMPTOTIC CURVES.
36.
We
have seen that
if (x) is
a singular ray of "Zks x8*
inflexional tangents of the pencil (kx)
quadratic in
fi
(x) are
the
given by the
/a
S(*,/*)"1
= 0.
If the roots are /^ and /x 2 the elliptic coordinates of the inflexional
tangents are fa, fi 1 /^, /j, 2 ) and fa, fj^, ^ % ^). y^ and
may be
regarded as parameters associated with a point on the surface <J>,
and the equation of any curve on the surface may be expressed
,
by a
single relation
We
shall
between these parameters.
now prove the remarkable theorem that the asym
ptotic curves are given
fa
An
by
= const,
inflexional tangent at
or
/i 2
= const.
P can
be regarded as a tangent to.
the surface at two consecutive points P, P'. It is a ray of the
cosingular complex which has for a singular ray the other inflexional tangent at P.
Hence the tangent pencil at P' contains a
P'P of this complex which is not singular; therefore one of
the inflexional tangents at P' is a singular ray, and by continuity
it must be the one which is not nearly coincident with P'P.
ray
Hence
at different points of the
same asymptotic curve the other
3536]
ASYMPTOTIC CURVES
61
inflexional tangents (not touching the curve) are
singular rays of
the same cosingular complex.
On account of the importance of this theorem we give an
analytical proof.
If
we want
tangent
is (y),
d^jd^ along the curve whose
= (ks fi) xg we must express the condition
to find the value of
where ys
in elliptic coordinates that
(y)
The
condition
may intersect its consecutive position.
is
=
 x8 d/i}* =
2 (k  n)* dec* = 0,
(k,
to) (k,  p*) //' (kg ) for
2cfy,
or
or
{(ks
/j,)
dxs
and on substituting
ai this
becomes
+ 2d d ^ + ^d ,A=o,
T
%tr
f (h) \h^rd^
^^^h^to
k
to
fh
""*
(to~v)dto = (to ft) dfa
or
Now along an asymptotic curve fj, = /^ and then this differential
equation can be integrated and gives
to = const.
Similarly when p = to> to~ const.
Hence along every asymptotic
curve the parameter of the other inflexional tangent is constant.
We
have seen that every bitangent has two of its elliptic cothe remaining two are parameters
ordinates equal to one of the k8
of the inflexional tangents at either point of contact.
Hence the
points of an asymptotic curve can be joined in pairs by bitangents.
As
to varies the line
m,
= (k  h) (k  to)h {K  Ma)*
s
/' (&)}"*
<l> at two points
on the asymptotic curve associated with toThe equation %a 8 x8 = 0, when rationalised, is of degree 8 in tot
showing that the scroll is of degree 8. The complete intersection
with the quartic surface consists of the asymptotic curve repeated,
which is therefore of order 16.
Two asymptotic curves cut at points where one touches the
describes a scroll each generator of which touches
scroll of
bitangents circumscribing
<I>
along the other, that
is
at
These points are obtained
from any one point by drawing successive bitangents and are
derived from a point or its tangent plane by an even or odd
thirtytwo points beside the nodes.
number
of correlations.
THE QUADRATIC COMPLEX
62
When ^=fii,
the inflexional tangents coincide.
coordinates are equal and the line
is
[CH.
All the elliptic
either a generator of a nodal
cone or a tangent of a singular conic. The cusp locus for asymptotic curves reduces to the sixteen nodes, and their envelope is
Each trope
the sixteen conies which form the parabolic curve.
is
a stationary osculating plane of the asymptotic curves so that the
by
The parameter
sixteen points of intersection with a trope are accounted for
two at each node and four at the point of contact.
of this point, regarded as belonging to the singular conic,
same
is
the
as the parameter of the asymptotic curve.
PRINCIPAL ASYMPTOTIC CURVES.
37.
Among
the asymptotic curves are six principal asymptotic
curves corresponding to
/j. 1
=k
i.
The
inflexional tangents of the
surface which are not tangents of the curve have parameters
and therefore belong to one of the six systems of
have fourpoint contact.
These curves
pass once through the nodes and touch the singular conies
The coordinates of a tangent having fourpoint contact
there.
are given by
hi,
ki,
hi,
fi
bitangents, and hence
^ = {hkif{k
iM)lf\ka ),
and the rationalised equation of intersection with a given
is
of degree
8 in
/*.
line
Hence the fourpoint contact tangents
corresponding to any principal asymptotic curve generate a scroll
of degree 8 touching <1> all along an octavic curve.
The
principal asymptotic curves occur as repeated curves in
the family just as the fundamental linear complexes occur repeated
in the family of cosingular complexes, and this accounts for the
lowering of degree*
On
putting two elliptic coordinates equal to k x and /c2 respecthe line coordinates x 1 and <v2 vanish, and so the various
combinations of sign give only eight lines. Hence two principal
asymptotic curves cut in eight points, besides the nodes, where
tively,
they touch singular conies. At any common point both inflexional tangents have fourpoint contact, and the whole pencil of
tangents belongs to the congruence (12). Hence the eight common points lie by fours on the directrices of (12), which are so
related that the tangent planes through each touch at the points
*
conic,
Compare the occurrence of a straight line among the projections
and of a parabola among the harmonograms x = cos (ta),y = cos
of a given
It.
'
THE QUADRATIC CONGRUENCE
3639]
on the
63
Pairs of directrices are the only lines having this
other.
property*.
38.
We
THE CONGRUENCE OF SECOND ORDER AND
have seen that every bitangent of
which one is
CLASS.
belongs to one of
4>
six congruences, of
#i
0, (ft2
 k^x? + (ft,  h)' ^ + (ft4  h)' ^
+ (ft,  fti) ^ + (ft  *,), = 0.
1
Conversely, every ray of this congruence
one
elliptic coordinate
/i x is
equal to
ftj
is
a bitangent of
and the others must
<J>,
for
satisfy
 f^) (ft,  f^) (ft,  fii)//' (ft,) = 0,
(ft,
(k1 fi 2 )(k1 fi s )(k 1 fii )
or
= 0,
so that a second elliptic coordinate must be equal to
<3>
is
ftx
therefore the focal surface of this congruence and
infer that the general
congruences, which
Kummer
may
we
surface is the focal surface of six
be called confocal, and that the six
them are mutually apolar. We shall
linear complexes containing
see presently that the six quadratic complexes, each of which
to a certain extent arbitrary,
may be taken
The preceding congruence
is
to
is
be cosingular.
of a general character, for every
(2, 2) congruence is contained in a linear complex, which may be
taken for one of the coordinates in an apolar system unless the
complex is special; then,, in order to reduce the general
congruence to the preceding form we have to reduce two quadratic forms in the remaining five coordinates simultaneously to
linear
sums of squares.
Thus the theory
of the focal surface of a congruence
is
made
depend on the previously developed theory of the singular
to
surface of a complex.
independent account.
39.
In the following section
is
given a short
SINGULARITIES OF THE CONGRUENCE.
x
= 0,
0.
2\,# a = 0,
through every point in space pass two distinct rays, the intersections of the plane
The equations
of the
congruence being
and the cone
X^
0,
+ X^ + \4 # + X,*, +
a
4
\6 a;6a
For farther particulars concerning asymptotic curves the following references
be consulted: Klein, Math. Annalen,v, 278, xxm, 579; Reye, Crelle, xcvh, 242;
SalmonFiedler, Geometrie des Raumes, n, 491.
may
THE QUADRATIC COMPLEX AND CONGRUENCE
64
The
[CH.
through which the two
have to prove that it is of the fourth order
and class and possesses sixteen nodes at the singular points of
focal surface is the locus of points
We
rays coincide.
the congruence.
Coincidence arises from a special situation of this plane and
when
cone and can occur only
and cone touch,
(1) the plane
(2) the cone has a double line
and the plane passes through
and another plane.
it,
(3) the cone breaks into the plane
Case (1) occurs twice on each ray
a consecutive ray,
(x) of
the congruence, for
if
(y) is
yx
so that (x)
and
(y) are
= 0,
t~ks xs y s
common
rays of
= 0,
the complexes whose
all
coefficients are
A3&3,
A, 2 372 ,
^fc,
Aqd/4,
A>gd?g
A^tf/g,
/x.
Now two rays of a linear congruence
do not intersect except on the directrices; these are the lines
whose coordinates are the preceding set of coefficients when
for different values of
/*
+ 2\V = 0.
Let them be called (f) and ('); then the two consecutive rays
through the point (x, ) pass through consecutive points of (f ')
and therefore
of the
(as
+ das)
lie
in the plane (x, ');
similarly the nullplane
complex xx =
be any consecutive ray; then
point
(x,
in the
')
= 0,
"Z^s dxg = 0,
Let
= 0,
X^s'dxs = 0,
'%\
dxx
whence
contains ().
xs dxs
which prove that the pencils (x, %), (x, %) have envelopes. These
the focal surface <J>, and we have seen that (x) touches it at two
Hence the surface is of the
points and meets it at no others.
fourth order, and reciprocal reasoning shows that it is also of the
.are
fourth class.
Case (2) arises when
complex so that
(x) is
2 Xe
Let
A be
a singular ray of the quadratic
W=
0.
the singular surface of the complex
X2 #2a +
then the pencil
(x,
?W + ?W + X.aV + ?W =
\x) of tangent lines of
0,
belongs to the
SINGULARITIES OF THE CONGRUENCE
3940]
complex
65
= 0,
and the singular ray (as) counts as two intercomplex cone at the point
Hence A and <J> touch at this point. Since 2Xs2#g2 = 0,
(), (') coincide and (x) has fourpoint contact with <&.
!
sections of the nullplane with the
(x, \x).
the lines
In order that case (3) may arise, every line of the pencil (x, X#)
of the quadratic complex and hence (x) must be an
inflexional tangent of A.
These rays are given by the equations
must be a ray
^ = 0,
lx,a
and are sixteen
27W = 0,
= 0,
in
~Z\W = 0, X\
The
number.
fact
W=
0,
that every line of the
is a bitangent of <J> shows that their plane is a
These sixteen pencils form a 16 B configuration of nodes
and tropes of <E>, and the complete identity of <& with a Summer
pencil (x, Xa?)
trope.
surface
established.
is
RELATION BETWEEN
40.
4>
AND
A.
We have seen that at every common point of $ and A the
two tangent planes coincide and the singular ray is a tangent
having fourpoint contact with <t>. Hence the two surfaces
touch along a principal asymptotic curve of <!>. Since the osculating plane of the curve coincides with the tangent plane of the
being an
surface, the curve must be also asymptotic on A
octavic, it is a principal asymptotic curve of A and, counted twice,
is the complete intersection of the two surfaces. Thus the relation
between the surfaces is mutual the nodes of each lie on the other
:
and the tropes of each touch the
By comparing
S\,a:, a
we
see that
<1>
is
~kt x*
x
Since
is
other.
the equations
and 2
(k,
 k,)' x? = 0,
1
the singular surface of the quadratic complex
+ x, ^ + xrx + xr ^ + \~W = o.
1
the singular surface of
X2 22 + Xs x32 + X4 #2 + X6 a;62 + X6 62 =
we
see again that the relation
is
0,
mutual.
same number to all the Xg changes the first
complex into another of the same cosingular family and so does
not affect <t>. Hence for different values of \, the singular surfaces
The addition
of the
of the complexes
Xj*! 2
+\
x2* + Xs *32
touch each other and
through
h.
all
<3>
+ X4 04 + X
2
6 a?6
+X
6 a?6
along the same curve, which passes
their nodes.
5
THE QUADRATIC COMPLEX AND CONGRUENCE
66
[CH.
CONFOCAL CONGRUENCES.
41.
Consider more generally the relation between the singular
S of a quadratic complex 1k,x,a = and the focal surface
surface
F of
the intersection of the same complex with a linear complex
zx =
not selfpolar with
it.
Every singular tangent pencil of F forms part of a degenerate
complex cone and hence has its vertex on S and its plane tangent
to S at some other point.
Hence the 16 6 configuration of nodes
and tropes of Pis inscribed in and circumscribed about S. Again
the complex cone at a node of S consists of a repeated plane and
so the node lies on F; reciprocally the tropes of S touch F.
At any common point P of 8 and F the nullplane of P must
contain the singular ray, which is a ray of the congruence and
therefore a bitangent of F, touching at P and Q.
The nullplane
of Q touches F at the other focal point P and the complex
Hence it is the tangent
cone of Q along the singular ray QP.
plane to S at P ("ir" of p. 52). Therefore S and F touch at
all their common points and the curve' of contact is an octavic
passing through the nodes and touching the tropes of both surfaces.
Any trope of F meets this curve of contact in eight points
r
N t 6 2VG
lying on a conic; six of these are nodes
lt i\ 2
3
where the trope
of F and the remaining two coincide at a point
touches 8. The nullpoint of this plane is a singular point of
the congruence and a node on F, say JVi. All the lines through JV^
in the trope are rays of the congruence, and 0N~lt being a tangent
to
Now F is
at 0, is a singular ray of the complex.
the singular
= is one of six fundamental
may be taken to be
its
equation
complexes, and
2
3
X^ + Xa + X s s + ^itf + ^b5 + ^sV = 0.
surface of a complex for which z x
linear
and that quadstarted with the linear complex z2 =
complex of the cosingular family 2 (ks X) _1 #s3 = which has
O./V2 for a singular ray, N 2 being the nullpoint of the trope for
2S = 0, the singular surface and the curve of contact would be the
determines the remainsame as before, and the tangent plane at
ing fifteen planes of a circumscribed 16 c configuration which are
the tropes of F, so that the focal surface would be unaltered.
Hence when a congruence is given as the intersection of a
If
we had
ratic
quadratic and a linear complex,
it
is
in general possible to find
five other cosingular quadratic complexes and five other mutually
apolar linear complexes so that, taken in pairs, they form, in
six confocal congruences.
all,
CONFOCAL CONGRUENCES
41]
67
The parameters of the cosingular complexes are projectively
related to the positions of the nodes on a conic of F, that is, to
the coefficients Xs so that F, the singular surface of SX s ^s2 = 0, is
,
the focal surface of the six congruences
zt
2 S (ks  Xj) x82 =
= 0,
and by symmetry
0,
the singular surface of
surface of the six congruences
S,
x{ =
and
it is
t,(\,k y zt' =
l
0,
2&s #s
= 0,
(i
= i,
is
the focal
6)
0,
easy by comparing these with the equations
<oj
to deduce that the
= 0,
two
2( kl k )*w/ = 0,
t
sets of coordinates
x and z are connected
by the orthogonal transfprmation
Zv
2
where
a rs (kr
X)
s
/' (kr )
f(0) =(6 h)(6 <i
l
We
ZigdfgXg,
</>'
k )(0 2
= /(X ) (kr)
k )(0  h){6  k )(d  h),
(Xs )
</,
(e)=(0x )(0\ )(e\ )(0x )(ex )(0x
F is given 8 can be constructed
1
e ).
can now see how when
" ways.
At any point P of F draw the tangent
draw any conic through P cutting the section
again in six points.
A partition of these into two triangles
determines the bases of two of Klein's tetrahedra having a common
vertex in this way ten more points and fifteen more planes are
found which complete the configuration of nodes and tropes of S.
geometrically in
plane and in
oo
it
For
different values of
ax the singular surfaces of the complexes
touch the focal surface of the congruence given by this equation and #j=0
along the same octavic curve, and for ten values of ax the discriminating
sextic has a pair of equal roots, and the corresponding singular surface has a
pair of coincident nodes in each trope and therefore a nodal line.
52
CHAPTER
VI.
PLUCKER'S COMPLEX ST7EFACE.
TETRAHEDRAL COMPLEXES.
42.
Plticker devotes the greater part of his
Raumes
to the study of the surface
tention of
complex.
named
Neue Geometrie des
after him, with the in
making clearer the arrangement of rays in a quadratic
The surface is the focal surface of a special congruence
contained in the complex, and
is
therefore the locus of complex
conies in planes through a line and at the
of cones with vertices on that line.
same time the envelope
It is a degenerate form of
Kummer
surface due to two of the linear complexes with respect
which the quadratic complex is selfpolar becoming specialand coinciding, and is the singular surface of a quadratic complex
to
with six double lines*
We have seen that every congruence of the second order and
class is contained in one linear complex and many quadratic com
plexes.
It
is
natural at the beginning of the investigation to
choose the simplest complex, and
general quadratic congruence
plexes.
To prove
this
we
is
we have the theorem
that every
contained in forty tetrahedral com
recall that
the singular and focal surfaces
touch along an octavic curve passing through their thirtytwo nodes;
if then the singular surface is four planes, the curve of contact must
be four conies intersecting in four nodes. These sets of planes
form "Rosenhain tetrahedra,'' of which there are eightyf. Now the
linear complex containing the congruence is one of the fundamental
complexes for the focal surface and we must reject those Rosenhain
tetrahedra of which four edges are rays of this fundamental complex, for in that case the focal surface is easily shown to be a
Now any Rosenhain tetrahedron, such as
repeated quadric.
*
Sturm,
in, 355.
t See Chap. vn. (p. 78).
THE TETRAHEDRAL COMPLEX
4243]
69
0, 23, 31, 12, has its edges belonging by fours to three fundamental complexes 1, 2, 3 so that by rejecting those whose edges
belong to a particular one the number of available tetrahedra
is reduced to forty.
We therefore start with a tetrahedral complex and select the
rays cutting a given line.
We shall take the singular surface of
the complex for tetrahedron of reference and use current point
coordinates x x x it xa x4 and plane coordinates u lt u 2 us u4 and line
,
coordinates
The
etc.
so that
following abbreviations are useful
&=
reference,
()
and
of reference
are the planes through a line and the corners of
V{
they
are the points where the line cuts the faces
are, in this case,
the singular planes through a
and the singular points on it. Again ^ are the coordinates of
the plane through (p) and (x), and v t are the coordinates of the
point where (p) cuts (u).
line
43,
EQUATIONS OF THE COMPLEX AND THE COMPLEX SURFACE.
Let the equation of the complex be
apuPn
bpuPn.
+ CpuPn = 0,
which on account of the relation
PuPx + PnPn + PmPu =
PuPw/a =PuPsil@ = PuP^h,
gives
where
= b c,
and therefore
= c a, y = ab,
a + /3 + y = 0.
/3
The complex may be represented by an equation
point and plane coordinates, as Plticker shows (p. 164).
rays (p) in any plane (u) satisfy
+ UtPu + UsPsi = 0,
aih/p^ + fiu /p + yu /p =
UiPu
whence
sl
lss
0,
showing that the plane
4 =
p^i + Psix* + P^> =
touches the cone
Vaw^ + t/fiUzXz + Vyu
xa
= 0,
and therefore the rays in the plane
u x1 + M2 ie2 + u3 x3 + u4 x4 =
r
mixed
For the
in
=
plucker's complex surface
70
[ch. VI
touch the section of this cone. The last two equations give the
complex curve enveloped by the rays in any plane (w). If on
the other hand we regard (x) as a fixed point and the u s as current
plane coordinates the equations give the complex cone of rays
(a;), as may be proved by exactly correlative reasoning.
Hence the two equations completely represent the complex the
former can be replaced by the alternative forms
through
+ ^aUiSCi = 0,
/yujc^+ */au x + V^w 4 a;4 = 0,
vftihXi + vau^x^ + V7M 4 = 0,
+
*/yua x2
*Jftu a xa
3
(in
of
which the signs of the radicals are ambiguous), so that the want
symmetry
To
we
is
only apparent.
find the equation of the
complex surface in point coordinates
require the locus of the conic section
</au1 x1
u x1
1
+ V/3 + vyu x = 0,
+ u^x^ + W3# + u4 x = 0,
2 a?2
As we
as the plane turns round a given line.
need
we
for current line coordinates
or (q) and then the plane through
shall not
have further
be (p)
shall take this line to
it
and any point
(#') is
= 0,
?>i + f>2 + f>s + f
Hence if (x') is any point on the
'
where / = X^x,'.
fi'A*!
and the locus of the conic
&'/"
= fs'M
is
Vaf,^ + V/3& x2 + V7 fs *3 =
an equation which
is
conic section,
Z*'/ u*>
0,
equivalent to three others of similar form in
virtue of the identities a
ft
+7=
and %%s xe = 0.
Next, to find the equation in plane coordinates we require the
envelope of the cone
Va^Mj +
\//Sa;2
M2 +
^<yxs us
= 0, %x u =
s
0,
moves along the line (p). Since the coordinates
of the point where (p) cuts (w) are v;, the equation required is
obtained by replacing x{ by vi: and accordingly is
as the point (x)
VawjM!
+ V/3u
w2 +
"i/yviUs
= 0,
or three other equivalent forms.
From
these equations
#i = 0, &=0
it is
evident that (p)
are singular planes and t
points of the surface.
= 0,
is
a nodal
Vi =
line,
that
are singular
SINGULARITIES OF THE SURFACE
4344]
71
SINGULARITIES OF THE SURFACE.
44.
We
line.
must next examine the sections through (p), the nodal
Each consists of (p) counted twice and a complex conic
vaa^Xi
+ V/Sw^jj + Viyitg&Vj =
Regarded as a point locus
line for four
0.
this conic degenerates into
a repeated
namely those passing
Thus, putting 1^ = 0, u 2 = q w
positions of the plane (u),
through the corners of reference.
u3 = q13 ui = qli
,
we
see that the plane
& = q^i. + q3 + qua* = o
touches the surface
all
along the line in which
PqiA  yq x =
13
This
surface
line,
which
it
meets the plane
0.
called a torsal line*, lies entirely on the
is
the singularity
is
of a tangential nature and consists in
the fact that the tangent plane does not change as the point of
contact moves along the
plane,
is
line, as in
The plane
the case of a generator of a
= 0,
which is called a pinch
a trope in which the conic of contact has broken into two
torse or developable.
the nodal and torsal lines.
Regarded as an envelope the degenerate conic
lines,
is
touched by
planes (u) satisfying
Ui(PquUs + vqls u2 )
0,'
and consists of the two points (1, 0, 0, 0) and (0, y/q^, ftjqu, afau)
which are both nodes. These points are the vertices of pencils of
and correspond to
rays of the complex in the singular plane %x =
AA
the points
Thus
we have
of 34.
the point singularities on the nodal line
nodes lying by pairs on the four torsal lines;
in addition to
eight
they are
A
B
(1,
0,
0,
0)
A,
(0,
1,
0,
0)
B, ( 7 / ?21
(0,
0,
1,
0)
A (0,0,
0,1)
7/Sm
0,
08/ ?B
A (/?,
0,
a/q
/3/ ?13 ,
a/q u )
a/q,
0/qJ
0,
y/qj
/8/g,
7 /?.
Correlatively there are four points on (p) for which the complex
cone degenerates. Regarded as an envelope, the cone with vertex (ai)
Vowjjtt!
* Pliicker
names
+ V/Sa^ + ^yx3 u3 =
this a singular line.
See Sturm, n, 201
Cayley,
vi,
334.
72
is
plucker's complex surface
a repeated line when
<c,
then x2
[ch. VI
= pm x = p
,
ls
xt
= pu
and
the repeated line has plane equations
Wi
This
which
line,
^12^2  VPu>us = 0,
= p12 2 + Pi S u3 + pu ut
is
= 0.
called a cuspidal axis*, is a singularity of
exactly reciprocal character to that of a torsal line; every plane
through
Vj
= 0,
it
is
a tangent plane to the surface at the same point
and every plane through
having a cusp there. Hence v lt
They correspond to the points
also called
v^
...
vt
cuts the surface in a section
maybe
called cuspidal points.
P P P P
lt
2,
s,
of p. 55.
They
are
pinch points, because the two sheets of the surface
touch each other there.
Regarded as a
line locus the
cone at
vj
breaks into a pair of
planes joining the lines
i (/3pi2#s
to the point v1 or (0,
12
xx
= 0,
Pn>Pu)'> they are both tropes
sect in the cuspidal axis
+ rpis^a) = 0, #4 =
and
inter
which has point equations
yx2/p12 +
+ <Wi/Pu = 0.
y&Bs/Pm
In addition therefore to the four torsal planes through (p)
there are eight tropes intersecting by pairs in the four cuspidal
axes;
their
coordinates
are
obtained from those of the nodes
by changing prs into qrs
If we use the same letters
denote the points and planes, all the incidences can be exhibited
A,, ...
to
at
once in the table
An
zj 2
@i
row and a column, excluding their common member,
contain the names of four coplanar points and four concurrent
planes. This is the configuration of mutually inscribed tetrahedra
which has already been described in 34f.
in which a
45.
THE POLAR
LINE.
The locus of the poles of the nodal line (p) with respect to
complex curves in planes through (p) is a straight line, for it must
lie on the polar plane of (p) with respect to every complex cone
whose vertex is on (p). This polar line% cuts each torsal line and
* Pliioker
names
this line a singular axis.
geometrie, in, 5; Math. Ann. iv, 249; Zeuthen,
See Cayley,
ti,
Math. Ann.
iv, 1.
t Sturm, in, 1 ; Klein, Math. Ann. vn, 208.
J Weiler names this the adjoint line, Math. Ann. vn, 170.
123
Sturm, Linien
4446]
SHAPE OF THE SURFACE
73
harmonically conjugate to (p) with respect to the two nodes on
both lines cut each cuspidal axis and determine
with it planes harmonically conjugate with respect to the two
is
it; reciprocally,
tropes through
it.
The complex
complex
surface
is
the singular surface of a quadratic
which two fundamental complexes are special and
coincide for considering the situation of nodes on the eight tropes
we see that two coincide at the intersection with the nodal line,
which is the directrix of the special complex. It is easy to prove
that the other four fundamental complexes are, using Prs for
for
current coordinates,
+ (P*/pv + Ptjptd + 7 (Pu/Ph + Pv/Pm) = 0,
Pi4/Pu = Pn/Pu, PulPu = Psi/Psl PJPm = Pi3/Ph.
When the nodal line is at infinity the polar line becomes the
(Pu/Pu + Palp*)
locus of centres of parallel conic sections.
in this case are described
The
*3~*6 ^ g Kj k$ ^ 8_l~6 s.
x? TT
v? TJ
<1 T
+ ?J? "S
+ t^t
T"5
? =
+ r^r
T "4
1*8
1
the tetrahedron
The
X,
'"2
i.
r.
0, 24, 46, 62.
unicursal, and the coordinates are expressible in terms of
p as follows
(6e)(q+X)
(oa)(b+\f
surface
parameters
is
(bc)(ca)(ab)
ui + iivi
and three nodes, no two of which
g6)( +X)
U^
+ ll.%
The nodal line, polar line
same torsal line, determine the remaining
lie
on the
singularities.
SHAPE OF THE SURFACE.
46.
Models of the surface
Collected Papers, vii, 298.
singular surface of the quadratic complex
J.
is
by Cayley,
special form of the configuration of
two mutually inscribed
tetrahedra consists of the corners of two rectangles placed in planes
perpendicular to the line joining their centres, the sides of one
being parallel to the sides of the other.
Plticker surface possessing two planes of
These are the nodes of a
symmetry but otherwise
exhibiting the features of the general case.
The diagonals of the
by pairs on
rectangles are the torsal lines and in this case intersect
the nodal
line,
which
is
here an axis of symmetry.
In
fig.
7 four
of the conies through the nodes are ellipses, touching each other
by pairs
at the
extreme pinch points on the nodal line; the other
four are hyperbolas, touching each other by pairs at the other two
pinch points.
PLUCKERS COMPLEX SURFACE
74
Now
[CH. VI
since the pinch points are points on the nodal line at
which the two tangent planes coincide they divide it into segments
through which real and imaginary sheets of the surface pass alternately.
Since the torsal lines are real both of the segments with
Such a segment is the common edge
real sheets are here finite.
of two finite wedgeshaped pieces of the surface, the angle of the
Fig.
wedge varying from
between the
7.
zero at the pinch points to the acute angle
torsal lines.
Each wedge contains two nodes, and the
by a plane through the nodal line is an
section of a pair of wedges
As
round the nodal line the elliptic
becomes indefinitely thin and coincides
with a finite portion of a torsal line terminated by the two nodes
on it; as the plane continues to turn, the section immediately
becomes a thin hyperbola, terminated by the same two nodes,
which widens and remains hyperbolic until another torsal line is
reached.
Thus two nodes which are joined by two arcs of ellipses
belong to an infinite piece of the surface, and there are four such
ellipse.
this plane turns
section narrows until
pieces.
it
CHAPTER
VII.
SETS OF NODES.
GROUPSETS.
47.
On
account of their importance
be studied in
detail.
in
subsequent applications,
Kummer's
various sets of points and planes of
The terms node and
configuration
must
trope will be used for
convenience, and indicate the relation of the elements to the
Kummer
surface determined by them.
The 16 6
is transformed into itself by fifteen
which together with identity form the group of
sixteen members upon which the whole theory depends.
These
collineations have been expressed algebraically as simple linear
configuration
collineations
transformations of point coordinates
geometrically each
is
effected
by means of two opposite edges of a fundamental tetrahedron, any
point being transformed into
its
harmonic conjugate with respect
to the directrices of a fundamental congruence.
To each
collinea
group corresponds a node and a trope represented by
the same twoletter symbol, and it will appear that those sets of
elements are most important which correspond to subgroups.
Such a set is invariant for the subgroup and is changed by the
other collineations into other sets each of which is invariant for the
tion of the
same subgroup. This set of different sets is here called a groupand contains the whole configuration. The sets of a groupset
are equivalent in the sense that they have the same projective
set
relations to the configuration.
The incidence diagram
( 5) is
of great use in representing
these sets of elements and in facilitating their enumeration, and
is
accordingly preferred to symbols.
upon the diagram
is
The
effect of
any collineation
simply to interchange two rows and at the
[CH. VII
SETS OF NODES
76
same time the other two rows, or
also the other two columns, or
taneously.
If the names of the
to interchange
two columns and
make
these changes simulcollineations are written in the
to
diagram, the symbol which after these changes is in the first row
and column is the name of the corresponding collineation.
48.
COMPARISON OF NOTATIONS.
For the general symmetrical treatment of the configuration in
relation to the group of collineations the twoletter symbols are
the most convenient, and agree with the notation subsequently
used for thetafunctions. If preferred, Humbert's algorithm * may
be used it has the advantage of showing more clearly the position
of each symbol in the incidence diagram. The two tables are given
:
here for comparison
11
4749]
AND OCTADS
PAIRS
77
reduced to one containing three or fewer figures.
By the product
of symbols is meant the symbol of the product of operations.
A set
of elements, expressed in the last notation,
or even according to the
called
odd
of single figure symbols, that is,
of elements incident with a given element.
If the
number
the
is
number
parity
is independent of a particular given element, it is
an
important feature of the set and has an essential geometrical
significance.
PAIRS
49.
AND OCTADS.
There are fifteen subgroups of two members each. Any one of
these corresponds to a pair of nodes of which one is (dd) and gives
rise to a groupset of eight pairs, of which examples are given in
the diagrams
XX
XX
ITTT
I
One
pair of nodes possesses no special features in relation to
the configuration as distinguished from another pair. Two nodes lie
in two tropes, and are joined by one of the 120 Rummer lines.
The
pair
identity
is
invariant under a subgroup of two members, namely
and the
symbols.
collineation represented
The diagrams show that
by the product of their
of the eight pairs of a group
odd and four even, and, further, the partition into two
sets of four pairs is invariant under the group. The four odd pairs
form an odd octad and the four even pairs form an even octad;
these two octads together make up a groupset, and are said to be
set four are
associated.
Hence there are
fifteen couples of associated octads,
one in each couple being odd and the other even.
An
octad
is
represented in the diagram by two rows, or two
columns, or two complementary rectangles, and thus corresponds
to a bilinear identity
among the
sixteen linear forms (p. 31).
It
is noteworthy that the terms of the identity indicate the pairs of
the octad. An octad of eight nodes is a group of eight associated
points lying on four pairs of planes forming an octad of tropes.
The eight Kummer lines of a groupset cut a pair of directrices and
determine on each three involutions whose double points are the corners of
the three fundamental tetrahedra having that directrix for an edge.
The eight nodes of an octad can be joined by four Kummer lines in seven
ways, and in six of these ways the lines belong to a regulus.
SETS OF NODES
78
[CH. VII
Two pairs from a groupset form a tetrad if they are taken
from different octads the tetrad is odd, and named after Rosenhain:
if the pairs are taken from the same octad the tetrad is even and
named after Gopel. In both cases the product of the four symbols
is identity.
These properties are sufficient to define the two kinds
;
of tetrad and will be found to agree with the geometrical definitions
given in the next two sections.
EIGHTY ROSENHAIN ODD TETRADS.
50.
These are tetrahedra whose corners are nodes and whose faces
Two of the nodes cap be chosen arbitrarily, the third
must lie in one of the two tropes containing them both, and then
the fourth is determined. There are two types of diagram, in (1)
the points lie in a line and represent the corners and faces of the
same tetrahedron in (2) the points lie in two lines and represent
the corners of one tetrahedron and the faces of another the faces
of the first and the corners of the second are represented by the
other points in the same two lines. The rows and columns give
are tropes.
(1)
(2)
'
...
eight tetrads of type (1) and each of the six pairs of rows and
columns give six tetrads of type (2), making eighty
six pairs of
in
all.
In symbols, type (1)
135,
is
1, 3,
represented by
5
or
by
0, 35, 51,
13
and this shows how a Rosenhain tetrad is constructed.
in any one trope are partitioned into two triangles
2, 4,
The nodes
1, 3,
the other tropes through the sides of these triangles
pass through the point 135 246 which
.
two tetrahedra having a common
face.
sixteen sets of ten tetrahedra having a
is
the
We
common
and
all
corner of
infer that there are
common
face.
All the tetrahedra of type (1) are selfpolar with respect to one
Since there are ten quadrics
of the fundamental quadrics (p. 31).
we obtain in this
way ten sets of eight tetrahedra, making, once more, eighty in all.
The Rosenhain tetrads are sufficiently characterised by the
playiog symmetrical parts in the configuration,
properties of being odd and invariant for at least one collineation.
From the
latter property it follows that the
of a tetrad
is
identity
product of the symbols
and thence that the collineation which
inter
4951]
TETRADS
79
changes any two corners interchanges the other two at the same
time.
Hence each tetrad is invariant for a subgroup of four
members and there are four tetrads in a groupset. Each set of
eight which are selfpolar with respect to the same quadric contains two groupsets
for example the four rows represent the
tetrads of one groupset and the four columns those of another.
:
The
which
faces of a
Rosenhain tetrahedron contain
all
sixteen nodes, from
follows that the four singular conies in the faces do not lie on a
quadric surface.
it
51.
SIXTY GOPEL EVEN TETRADS.
These are tetrahedra of nodes whose faces are not tropes, or
tetrahedra of tropes whose corners are not nodes. There are two
types of diagram according as the four points (1) form a rectangle
or (2)
lie
on different rows and columns.
*..
2
<
'.'.'.'.
.
'.
>
'.
Each tetrad can be divided in three ways into two pairs
belonging to the same octad, and each of the thirty octads
contains six tetrads, giving sixty tetrads in
The Gopel
all.
tetrads are sufficiently characterised by the proper
being even and invariant for at least one collineation. As
is invariant for a subgroup and
there are four tetrads in a groupset. Examples are
ties of
in the case of odd tetrads, each
and
typical representation in twofigure symbols
is 0, 12,
34, 56
and we associate a groupset with a partition of six figures into
three pairs.
In order to construct a Gopel tetrahedron having a
given trope
by three
one face, we join the nodes in that trope in pairs
the other tropes through these lines complete the
Hence fifteen tetrads have one element common.
for
lines
tetrahedron.
The tetrahedron 0, 12, 34, 56 of either nodes or tropes and the fundamental
tetrahedron (12, 34, 56) belong to a desmic system. By taking the latter for
reference it is easily seen that the third member of the system together with
those obtained in a similar way from the other tetrahedra of the same groupFurther the faces of a groupset of Gopel
set form a 16 configuration.
tetrahedra of nodes form another 16 6 configuration.
fl
The
four singular conies in a Gopel tetrahedron of tropes
lie
on a quadric.
80
SETS OF NODES
ODD AND EVEN HEXADS.
52.
[CH. VII
symbols whose product is identity is necessarily
tetrads having a common element,
after excluding that element.
Hence an odd hexad of this kind is
derived from an odd and an even tetrad, and is found to be a set
set of six
derived, in
many ways, from two
of six elements from which the whole configuration can be linearly
constructed
( 6),
and
is
odd tetrad
A Weber
hexad
is
named
after
even tetrad
odd hexad
not invariant for any collineation and hence
a groupset contains sixteen hexads.
is
Weber.
The
total
number
of hexads
192.
The only other hexads of special interest are the Rosenhain
hexads of coplanar nodes, or concurrent tropes. Every trope contains either two or six nodes of such a hexad, which is therefore
even. The product of the symbols is identity, but this property is
possessed also by other sets of six points.
A Rosenhain hexad is
not invariant for any collineation, and there
is
only one groupset.
CHAPTEK
VIII.
EQUATIONS OP KUMMER'S SURFACE.
THE EQUATION REFERRED TO A FUNDAMENTAL TETRAHEDRON,
53.
Taking a fundamental tetrahedron
down the most
the operations of the group of
two coordinates
4,
that
we
for reference*
general quartic equation which
write
unchanged by
by changing the signs of
is
is
by the permutations of (ocyzt) into (yxtz),
(ztasy) or (tzycc).
All the terms which are derived from any one
term by these operations must have the same coefficient, and so
the equation must have the form
as
+ y i + zi + t + Wxyzt
i
+A
(oft*
Now make
ditions
+ y*z*) + B (tfl? + z*o?) + G (zH* + #y) = 0.
the point
" 54
_ /3 + 7
a S /3V
a/378(S +a ^ 7
4
n=
(a S
and on eliminating
among
'
node
D in the
G,
S
B= 7 + /3
7 a
/3 S
8) a
(a, /3, y,
which determine A, B,
or
+ ff4__,y4_g4
'
 7 a )(S + 7 a /3 ) (a
2
7 ) (/S ^  7 a ) (rffr  a /3 )
(S 2 +/3 2
 yS
this gives four con
forms
a, y8, 7,
S2
a /3
+/3
'
+ 7 +S )
2
'
8 there results the single condition
the coefficients
Making use
 A  52 2
(7
+ ABC + D = 0.
2
of the fundamental quadrics,
we can
write
'
_(
n_
g2
+  & ~ 7s) (S + + /3 + 7 )
~
(a8  7) (a8 + 7)
2
64a/9y8 [do]
[eft]
[dc] [dd]
[aa] [ad] [66] [6d] [cc] [cd]
*
x,
The equation
is
[do] [dd]
[aa] [ad]
_
~ /37 S (2 .A)
(2
eK
'
 B) (2  0)
[dd]*
worked out from an irrational form by Cayley, Coll. Papers,
is given also by Borchardt, Crelle, lxxxiii, 239.
161; Crelle, lxxxiii, 215, and
h.
'
THE EQUATION OF RUMMER'S SURFACE
82
[CH. VIII
la order to express the coefficients in terms of the ka we require
a, ft, y, 8.
If the
the connection* between these numbers and
tetrahedron of reference
the fundamental tetrahedron (12, 34,
is
numbers
56), the six
Aug
rCi
"*4
"'S
""B
are projectively related to the parameters of the nodes
(ab)
(ac)
(6a)
(be)
lying on the section of the surface
J[cd] [db] (dd)
+ J[bb]
(cb)
J[da]
[cc] (ca) (dc)
= 0,
(dd)
and may therefore be taken equal
to the values of
>
[bb] [ad] (ab)
(ca)
~[da][cc](dc)
(bd)'
:
(cb)
35)
(p.
[ad] (ab) (bd)
by the plane
at the nodes
(ca)
these values are
[bb] [ad] [dd]
_[ad]
[66]
[dd]
[da] [cc] [aa]
and
[cc]
'
'
[da]
[aa]
'
'
their cross ratios are equal to the cross ratios of the corre
Owing to the identical relations among the quadrics,
one among many ways in which the cross ratios of the
ks can be expressed. In particular we have
sponding
kg.
this is only
(&8 fc6 )(fc6 fc4 )
(k3
t)
(k6
k )
2A
= [cta3[cfa] _
~
[aa] [ad]
'
A _ (k + h) (h + k)2 (k k + kX)
2
(k k )(k k
w nM
.
2 = (h
similarly
J
+ h)
^ +k
s)
+ Ua)
~2(
^
f
k
2)
) (h
6
.*?
(kB
C ^ (K + h) (h +
(k
kt )2 (k x k,
/c2
)
(kg
+ hh)
ki)
and we see that the vanishing of one of these
coefficients is the
condition for four nodes to form a harmonic range on the singular
conic through them.
Lastly
jy^
l,
when
it
k1 ka (k
ls
may
easily
be
verified that
+ki k k )+ki ki (k +ks k k2)\k k
li
(k1 +k2 7ki ki )
(*i&2 )(&8&4)(&6 &6)
it is
noticed that the vanishing of the numerator
* Cf. Bolza,
Math. Ann. xxx, 478.
is
the
REFERRED TO A FUNDAMENTAL TETRAHEDRON
5354]
83
condition for the three pairs
Thus
tion.
all
(kjc^), (k3 kt ), (&6 &) to form an involuthe coefficients in the quartic equation are expressed
in terms of the coefficients of the quadratic
surface
is
complex of which the
the singular surface *.
The equation may be written as the sum of the squares of the fundamental
quadrics multiplied by coefficients of which a typical one is
JifCtlCafCa
~p AtvAlGeJCa
"T" 2i
"
fC prC (jtC'7
the summation extends to twenty products and the positive sign
the product of the symbols 123, par, 135 according to the laws
is
taken
if
= 11=22 = 33=44=55 = 66 = 123456,
is
a threefigure symbol t.
54.
THE EQUATION REFERRED TO A ROSENHAIN TETRAHEDRON.
Take the
new
any Rosenhain tetradj for
first column of the
linear forms belonging to
coordinates, for example, those in the
orthogonal matrix
(p. 30),
x1 = (dd),
xi = {ab),
The equation must be
x3
= (bc), xi = (ca).
invariant for the operations represented
by these symbols, but these transform the preceding coordinates
into
CLCb
o?i
CLO
Cg
OC
*3?3j
xit
ca
fl?2
>
""
""
***1 1
^4>
3,
~~~
***$
>
**4
*^1j
x2
***4t
^"8
"""
^2
#i
showing that the terms xfx? and xfxf have the same
and that the term x?x^x% gives rise to the expression
respectively,
coefficient,
x^x2 x3 + xfx^Xi xs*XiXx xfx3 x2 = {xx x2 x3 x^
and so on. From
nodes and all the faces
(x\x3
+ a^as4)
the fact that all the corners of reference are
tropes,
we
are able to write the equation in
the form
v?
faW + okW) + v* faW + avV) + w
(sW + a')
+ 2vw(x1 x2 x3 xi)(x1 x3 + x2 xi)+2wu(
)(
+ 2uv{
)(
+ 2sx^xi x3 x = 0,
),
or
x? (m3 i2 + tfaif + w^xi 2vwx2 x3 2wux3 xx 2uvx1 xa )
+ 2x [VWX (x^ X ) + WUXs (x  X?) + UVX
+ (ux x + VX X + wx x^f = 0.
t
2
3
(!
 2 ) + SXxXiOCt)
2
* Rohn, Math. Ann. xvm, 142.
t Study, Leipziger Berichte (1892), xlviii, 122.
X Cayley,
Coll.
Papers, vn, 126; Crelle, lxxiii, 292.
62
THE EQUATION OF KUMMER'S SURFACE
84
may be deduced from
This equation
surface
is
[CH. VIII
the fact that
the focal surface of the congruence of rays
Rummer's
common
to a
Using the notation of
we take the tetrahedral complex to be given by
tetrahedral complex and a linear complex.
Chap,
vi,
PuPn/a = PuPsi/fi = PsiPm/v,
equivalent to only one equation since
a
and the
linear
complex
<h*Pu +
<i*.Pv.
+ /3+7 = 0,
be
to
+ qsiPu + qaPa+ q$iPsi + q^pn = o,
where now the qrs are any constants, not the coordinates of a line
Further we use the abbreviaas in the case of Plucker's surface.
Then the complex curve in the plane '2v,iXi =
tions ^i = 2g a;g.
,
is its
intersection with the cone
Vaitj^!
If Ui="EqigXs' then (x')
\//3w2 :2
+ "Jyu
= 0.
x3
the nullpoint of the plane, and the
is
two rays of the congruence through (a/) are the two tangents from
the complex curve. If (x') is on the focal surface, these two
rays coincide and (x) must lie on the conic.
Hence the equation
(of) to
of the focal surface
is
Vaf^ + V/8&E, +
Before expanding
Vyf.aj,
= 0.
convenient to make a slight change
xl jx< by x1 Vqzi qsi /xi 'Jgsl qw and so on,
of making the coefficients in the linear comthis, it is
in the coordinates, replacing
which has the effect
plex equal by pairs.
We
<Zi4=<?28=
therefore write
qu
2,
%x
= q<u=m,
qm
nx2 mx3 +
nXi +
2 =
lx3
f,= ntX} lx2
= qns = n,
lxit
+ mxit
+ nxit
and then the equation
Vaf^+
gives,
V/3^*2 +
*/yi; 3 x3
on expansion, the former equation, provided
u=la,
s
= tfcr
The same
(y/3) + v'131
surface
w = ny,
= m[3,
obtained
(a
 7) + w'y' (0 
when
a).
/3 7 are replaced by any
other ratios satisfying the last preceding equation and
is
a + /S + 7
= 0.
REFERRED TO A ROSENHAIN TETRAHEDRON
54]
85
Regarding these as trilinear equations of a plane cubic and
a straight line, we see that there are three solutions i /3i 71,
:
ota
/82
72,
and a3
/33
73
and
it
is
w =
v2
v?
easy to prove that
2
+ oo"+
is
P1P2
71Y2
and two similar equations, and
v?
1?
aia a a 3
ftftft
71 727s'
Each of these fractions may be equated to 1 since only the
u v w are important, and then s can be put in the sym
ratios
metrical form
3
= (A7i)G8.7)(ft%)
+ (!&) (*&)(* A).
The corresponding sets
of
numbers
(l lt
nh, r^),
(l2
m^, n^,
( 3 ,to3 ,w3 )
may be
regarded as the direction cosines of three mutually orthogonal lines, and Rummer's surface can be written in three equivalent
forms of which one
yli li x1
(1lXi
is
+ Wi m^j) + Vm
2
+ Jn
t
tetrahedron
is
n t x l (n^i
ro3 a;2
(m^ + l^x^ 7hh)
+ m x l^) =
1
a degenerate form of
0.
Kummer
surface in
which the nodes on each conic have coincided by pairs. Hence
the set of six confocal congruences (p. 66), in which the quadratic
complexes are cosingular and tetrahedral, reduces to three. It is
immediately verified that the three linear complexes
k {Pu + P&) + m* (P*i + P*i)
+n
(pst
are apolar, and are fundamental complexes
+ P12) =
The
for the surface.
others are
Pli=Pv>,
Pm = Psi,
and one fundamental quadric
Psi=Pll,
is
x12 + xi + x3 + xii = 0,
2
!>
so that the tangential equation has exactly the
same form
as the
point equation.
The equation
referred to a Gopel tetrad of tropes is
(cf.
p. 21 footnote)
[xi +yi +z i +t % +2p(xt+yz) + Zq(yt+zsc)+<Lr(zt+s:y)'Y=\6sxyzt,
where
sp^+q^+r^Zpqrl.
86
EQUATIONS OF RUMMER'S SURFACE
NODAL QUARTIC SURFACES.
55.
The equation
of
[CH. VIII
Rummer's
surface has frequently appeared in
the irrational form
Vara'
where
<v
= 0,
...z'
= 0,
are
+ 'Jyy' + \/zz' = 0,
When
six planes.
these planes are
arbitrary, the preceding equation evidently represents a quartic
surface having six tropes and fourteen nodes,
(xyz), (x'yz),
(xyz), (x'yz), (xyz), (xyz),
= x'\
a; =
yy'
= zst
)'
y = Q = y'\
zz' = xx
'
'
namely
(x'y'z),
(x'y'z'),
z=0 = z'
xx' = yy
Conversely, the general fourteennodal surface can be expressed
To prove this we notice that the sextic enveloping
cone from each node must have thirteen double lines and hence
must break up in one of the two following ways
in this way.
3, 1
2 2
1,
11,
where ^ denotes a cubic cone having one double line, and so on.
Let to be the number of nodes of the first kind then since each
;
number
trope contains six nodes, the
is 5, 6,
We take x = 0, y = 0, z =
or 7.
node of the
first
if
f=
is
is
(m +
28)/6, that
meeting in a
kind, and the quadric cone of tangents there to be
A = a? + y + z
Then
of tropes
to be tropes
 2yz  Izx  2xy =
any plane not passing through
0.
this node, the surface
has an equation of the form
Since the enveloping cone breaks up in the assumed wav,
B*AC = fixyz0,
a constant and 8 =
along three generators.
where ^
A=
is
The nodal
on 8
line
is
a nodal cubic cone touching
may be taken
arbitrarily, say
7=0, Z = 0,
then 8
has to satisfy six conditions and can contain only three
It is sufficiently general to take
arbitrary constants.
= (xyz) YZyZ*zY\
for this satisfies all the conditions
arbitrary constants, since
functions of them.
and contains implicitly three
be replaced by any linear
where
T and Z may
Introduce
X+Y+Z=0,
then
= xYZ + yZX+zXY.
NODAL QUARTIC SURFACES
55]
The
thirteen nodes other than
=0 = 2,
x=
= X,
x=y= z =
lie
x=
= = x,
87
on the
lines
= y,
X=Y=Z=0,
x=
= yZ + zY,
z=
y=
= Z,
z = = xY+yX,
0=Y,
y = = zX + xZ,
lying by sixes on the three cones
zX + xZ=0, xY+yX = 0.
yZ + zY=0,
Now
the
first
there are at least two singular conies not passing through
node and so we may take = to be the trope containing
the nodes on the
first
of these cones
then we must have
C=\(yZ+zY)\
and we may put \ =
2
leading
un
 y  zj 4,yz} (yZ + zYf + /xxyz (xYZ+yZX + zXY)
= 4 and
to
B = yZ (x y + z) zY(x + y z).
//,
of the surface
is
thus completely determined to be
+ y* + z*  2yz  2zx  2xy) f
+ 2 {yZ {x  y + z)  z Y {x + y  z)}
By
is
{(a
The equation
(of
the absolute value of
since
Then
determined.
introducing
new
0.
linear expressions
*i
this equation
+ (yZ + z F) =
= Z,
Z=+Y,
becomes the rationalised form of
Jx%
+ *Jyt) +
making evident the remaining
*fzt;=0,
tropes
q
= 0, f= 0.
For this surface* to acquire a fifteenth node, the cubic cone
must break up into a plane and a quadric cone, intersecting in
lines passing through the fourteenth and fifteenth nodes.
The
'
cubic cone
with a'nodal line
= = f,
77
contains as part of itself the plane
l!j
when
For the equation
+ mT) + n= 0,
of a thirteennodal surface
one, two, or three constants are
(1866), p. 114,
and Cayley,
Coll. Papers,
made
which acquires additional nodes
Kummer, Berl. Abh.
to vanish see
vn, 293.
EQUATIONS OF RUMMER'S SURFACE
88
where
+ m+n =
[CH. VIII
0,
provided that, in consequence of these last two equations,
ranx
Hence an
+ nly +
identical relation of the
Imz =
0.
form
mnx + nly + Imz + k(l^ + mi) + n) =
must
Now
exist.
the quartic equation
unaltered
is
if x, y, z, f,
nj,
by px, qy, rz, qrg, rprj, pq% respectively, p, q, r being
Hence the preceding linear identity may have the
are replaced
arbitrary.
more general form
mnpx + nlqy + Imrz + klqri; + kmrprj + knpq= 0,
and, on writing
with undetermined coefficients
it
ax
+ by + cz + ag + fir) + y = 0,
the conditions become
aa.
There
is
six planes
of course one other linear identical relation
and the
coefficients in this
new
precedes, one of the
be
= bfi = cy.
verified directly,
and
tropes
is
may be
arbitrary.
ax + by + cz
= 0,
as
new
similarly the three other
among the
By what
may easily
tropes are
ax + fir) + cz = 0, ax + by + y = 0, passing through
the new node ax = ag, by = fir), cz = yf
<*
+ by + cz = 0,
For a sixteenth node
appear a second linear factor must
6, distinct from the former, but
the values f = / = Exactly similar reasoning leads
separate out from
vanishing for
the
to
cubic
to a second identity of the
a'x
b'y
where
and, as before,
four
form*
+ c'z + a'f + fi'rj + y' = 0,
a' a' = b'fi'= c'y',
new
tropes
whose equations are
appear,
+ b'y+c'z=0, a'+b'y+c'z=0, a'x+ fi'v +c'z=0, a'x+b'y+y'=0,
passing through the sixteenth node a'x = a'f, b'y = fi'r), c'z = y'f
a'x
etc.
In the notation of p. 85, writing x{
the two relations are
l 2 Xi
+m
ls Xi
+ m8 a;3 + ns x + lf
x2
+n
xs + lfx Xi
t
x(
 n^a?, + l^)
ljs (,,
+ m ^x2 + nf
2
+ mf x + w
l
* Jessop, Quarterly Journal, xxxi, 354.
x^
1
8
a;s
'
= 0,
= 0.
CHAPTEK
IX.
SPECIAL FORMS. OF RUMMER'S SURFACE.
56.
THE TETEAHEDEOID.
We
have seen in preceding chapters how the general 16 6
upon six apolar complexes, and when
these are given, is completely determined by a single element.
Special configurations arise in two ways, either by specialising
configuration depends
the linear complexes, as in the case of Plilcker's surface, or
by specialising the position of one of the elements. With the
former case we are not here concerned* and confine our attention
to the case when the set of apolar complexes is general, and consider the consequences of taking one node or trope of the surface
in particular positions.
With
respect to a single fundamental tetrahedron particular
positions of a point are in a face, on an edge, or at a corner.
this tetrahedron is
taken
If
for reference, these three cases correspond
to the vanishing of one, two, or three of the coordinates
(a, /3, 7, 8)
of one node.
We
recall that the
operations which deduce
nodes and tropes are named after the
(a, /S, 7, 8), and their equations
them from
are obtained by equating to zero the sixteen linear forms
(aa)
(ab)
(fia)
(fib)
(ca)
(cb)
(da)
(db)
(ac)
(p.
29)
90
SPECIAL FORMS OF KUMMER'S SURFACE
[CH. IX
and the tropes pass by fours through the corners of reference.
These sets of nodes are called Gopel tetrads, being corners of
tetrahedra whose faces are not tropes, and the four groups make
up a groupset, being either unchanged or interchanged by the
group of sixteen operations. Thus, when 8 = 0, four tetrahedra
belonging to a groupset become plane.
This special kind of
it is
Kummer surface is called
a Tetrahedroid*;
characterised geometrically by the fact that the section by
each of the faces of a certain tetrahedron
is
two
conies, intersecting
in four nodes.
The
four tropes through any one corner intersect in six lines
which, since they contain pairs of nodes, must
Hence each trope
lie
in the faces.
cuts three faces of the tetrahedron in three con
therefore the six nodes on
any singular conic belong to an involution in which the chords
joining corresponding points pass through a fundamental corner.
This is characteristic of a tetrahedroid, that the six coefficients ka
in the complex of which it is the singular surface form three pairs
of an involution.
If the tetrahedron is (12, 34, 56), it is easy to
see that the pairs of coefficients are k^, ks kit k B k6
Since the sides of the quadrangle of nodes in any face pass
through the corners, these form the common selfpolar triangle of
the two conies into which the section breaks up.
From this fact
it is easy to construct the equation of the surface, for it must be
current lines containing pairs of nodes
of the form
F (x
and
after equating
factors.
z\
t )
+ Xxyzt = 0,
any coordinate
Under these
to zero,
must break into
conditions the equation represents a surface
which touches each of the planes of reference at four points if
one of these is a node X must be zero and then the other fifteen
;
The
points of contact are nodes also.
the equation
may be
h
h
to
2
x2
f m
'
By
conditions for
F show
that
written in the form
=0.
z2
2
replacing (frrmfix, (gntyy, (hlmftz, (fgh)H by
* Cayley, Coll. Papers,
i,
302
new
Liouville (1846), xi, 291.
coordi
THE TETRAHEDROID
5657]
nates x, y,
the form
z, t
and putting a
= (fl)l,
rf
/3
= (gm)l, y = (hn)i,
a2
of
/3
f
7
z2
7*
this takes
=0,
x*
a?2
r
/3
/3
91
or on expansion
tfjSV (xi + yi + z* +
+
which
is
(/3
 </  a
+a
(y
2
i!
what the general
In order
(a 4
t')
 /34  74) (a + y z )
+ z x ) + 7 ( 7  a4  /3 (< + a?f) = 0,
equation (p. 81) becomes when S = 0.
(a 4
to exhibit the conies in the planes of reference
 /34  y)/^
= (ji + v)j'iiJiv,
7
2
2
2
y vvX, z by z "/X[i
put
and replace x2 by x2 \f]w, y 2 by
then the equation becomes
etc.
+ y + z ) (fivx + vXy + X/iz )
+ t {(/M + v)x + (v + X) y + (X + /*) s + P = 0,
= 2 = c~2 = 1, we get
and finally on putting X = a2
(x 2
yu.
ft
i/
the ordinary equation of the wave surface
(x2
+ y + z ) (a
 {a
2
The two
x2 +
(b
+c z)
+ c ) x + b (c + a ) y2 + & (a + b ) z + a
b2 y2
b 2 c2
= 0.
common
points of contact of a
tangent of the conies in a face of
the tetrahedron lie on the same singular conic and are the double points of
the involution of nodes on that conic.
If a given linear complex is apolar to the complex of polar lines of its
rays with respect to a variable quadric having a fixed selfpolar tetrahedron,
the envelope of. the quadric is a tetrahedroid. If the given complex is
the variable quadric touches eight fixed lines and the tetrahedroid
special,
degenerates into a repeated quadric.
The
intersections of corresponding surfaces in an involution of quadrics
inscribed in a
When
common
developable generate a tetrahedroid.
the determining node
taken on an edge of a fundamental tetra
is
hedron, the surface becomes a scroll of which a typical equation
a/3
(kW  /3 2) (xH2 tyV) + a/3
(a2
is
 F/32 ) (ft2 + zV) + Zk (a4  /34) xyzt = 0.
MULTIPLE TETRAHEDROIDS.
57.
Double tetrahedroid.
The
which
trope, from
all
the remaining singularities are
obtained, passes through one corner of each of two fundamental
These must not belong to the same desmic system,
would be collinear with the other two and so
Hence the two tetrahedra have two edges
in the trope.
tetrahedra.
else a third corner
lie
Eohn, Math. Ann. xvm, 156.
SPECIAL FORMS OF RUMMER'S SURFACE
92
common, and without
loss of generality
t0 be
(0, 0, 0, 1)
This gives 8
and
= 7,
ft
and
[CH. IX
we may take the
(0, 1,
1,
corners
0).
and the equation of the tetrahedroid
becomes*
{a?
As
 1*)* +
{y
J {a?# + fz*)  S (*
 zj +
in the case of the single tetrahedroid,
a fundamental corner
it
joining pairs of nodes.
* )
(^ +
**)
when a trope contains
cuts the three concurrent faces in lines
The corner is therefore a centre of per
spective for two triangles formed by the six nodes in the trope.
In the present case the two corners lie one on each of the common
edges of the two tetrahedra, and the line joining them lies in a
Hence in the case of
face of each and therefore joins two nodes.
a double tetrahedroid every trope passes through two fundamental
corners which are collinear with two nodes, and a second trope
passes through the same two corners.
The arrangement of nodes on any
conic
that
is
projectively equivalent to
shown in
mental
fig. 8,
sextic
II (k
and the funda ks ) may be
linearly transformed into the
Ak + Bk* +
s
the
Ck.
arbitrary
form
Corresponding to
numbering of the
two tetrahedra are
and (12, 36, 45) having
the edges (36) common, and the triangles 153, 246 are in twofold
perspective, and so also are the triangles 156, 243.
By an
imaginary projection we may take 3 and 6 to be the circular
points at infinity and then 24 and 15 become diameters.
the
figure
(14, 25, 36)
Triple tetrahedroid.
Each trope passes through three fundamental
these are collinear,
it is sufficient to
make the
corners.
a corner of each of two desmic tetrahedra, for example
and
(1, 1,
1, 1)
so that
Then
and a + /3~7=0.
the equation of the surface
is
Rohn, Leipziger Berichte
If
trope pass through,
(1884), xxxvi, 10.
(0, 0, 0, 1)
MULTIPLE TETRAHEDROIDS
57]
93
The collinearity of the three centres of perspective shows that
they are the three points on a Pascal line.
Projecting them to infinity and the conic
into a circle we have fig. 9, and the
fundamental sextic may be taken to be
The tetrahedra
of the form Ak" + Bk* + G.
corresponding to the figure are (12, 36, 45),
(34, 25, 16), (56, 14, 23), of the same
desmic system and the triangles 135, 246
Fig. 9.
are in threefold perspective.
Quadruple tetrahedroid.
Any
three corners which
are not
collinear
are
necessarily
any three tetrahedra two belong
coplanar with a
three have two common edges.
or
else
all
system
to a desmic
Start with one tetrahedron (14, 25, 36) and
take two others each having two edges in
common with it, for example (12, 36, 45)
and (23, 14, 56); these two belong to a
desmic system of which the third member
fourth, for of
is (34, 16, 25).
It is sufficiently general
to take the three corners to be
(0,0,0,1), (0,1,1,0), (1,0,1,0),
and then
= 0,
Fio.
= /3 = 7,
and the equation is
gA+yi + tf + tf tftf. _ yip _ itf _
yitf
10.
_ # & _ ^yl. = Q
figure of coplanar nodes is projected into a regular hexagon
and the triangles 135, 246 formed by alternate corners are in
The fundamental sextic when linearly transfourfold perspective.
The
formed into
its
simplest form
Sextuple tetrahedroid*
is
ke
1.
be shown that the case of only five coplanar corners
but that there exist planes passing through six
corners, and that the tetrahedra to which they belong are a set
having pairs of edges in common with the same tetrahedron. For
It can
does not
arise,
example the plane
ix
+y+z+t=
Segre, Leipziger Berichte (1884), xxxvi, 132.
SPECIAL FORMS OF KUMMER'S SURFACE
94
[CH. IX
contains the corners
(i,
0, 0, 1),
(0, 1,
1,
0),
1),
(0, 1, 0,
0, 1, 0),
(*,
(0, 0, 1,
1),
(i, 1,
0, 0)
of the tetrahedra
(12, 35, 46),
(12, 36, 45),
we
so
take a
surface
(34, 15, 26), (56, 14, 23), (56, 13, 24),
(34, 16, 25),
p = <y== 8 = 1.
i,
Then the equation
of
the
is
l
os
The nodes
+ yi + zl + t + 4<ixyzt = 0.
i
+y+z+t=
in the trope ix
are
(1,1, l,i),(l,l,l,i),(l,l,i,l),( l,l,i, 1),(
l,i,l,
l),(l,i, 1,1),
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 respectively, the names
show the six ways in which the lines joining
them are concurrent. The six corners lie by threes on four lines
and the corresponding tetrahedra belong to four desmic systems.
The pairs of nodes 12, 34, 56 lie on the three diagonals of this
and
if
they are denoted by
of the tetrahedra
quadrilateral.
By
replacing ix by x
x*
we obtain a
+y
+ zi +
ti
real equation
kxyzt
= 0,
representing a surface with four real nodes.
of the fundamental sextic is k(k*
may
The canonical form
and
six coplanar nodes
be projected into the corners of a square together with
1),
the circular points at infinity.
The whole
configuration of nodes
into sixteen points lying
58.
The
is
projected from a corner of reference
by fours on twelve
lines *.
BATTAGLINl'S HARMONIC COMPLEX.
tetrahedroid
is
Rummer's
a special form of
surface
due
to
the fact that the six coefficients in the quadratic complex
k^ + hat* + hx
belong to an involution f.
which the surface
is
+ hx? + k x,? + k
xe2
the fundamental tetrahedron to
If
specially related is (12, 34, 56) the condition
for involution is
/Tl/i'o
Ki ~r
A/g
n/gn/4
/C3 "f~ i^
fC^fCg
tCB
ftg
^ U.
* Eantor, American Journal, xrs, 86.
m, 328 ; Battaglini, Giornale di Matematiche, vi and
Mathematische Annate n, xxi, 515.
t Sturm, Liniengeometrie,
vii ; Schur,
BATTAGLINI'S HARMONIC COMPLEX
5758]
95
By making a suitable linear transformation of the ks thereby
producing another complex of the same cosingular family, we may
arrange that
K + h = 0, &3 + = 0, kB + ks = 0,
,
so that the complex has the form
h Ox  + h Os  oot) + h (*e 2
2
3 )
O=
0,
or, in Plticker's coordinates,
+P12 ) = 0,
distinguished, in this notation, by the absence of product
h (Pu* + P*s + h (pj + pj) + k
2
and
is
(Ps4
terms.
This complex consists of
the lines cutting two quadrics
all
using point coordinates xlt x2 xs xit and taking
the quadrics to be
harmonically,
for,
a^ + a xf + a x? + a x? =
0,
+ \xl =
0,
b x x?
+ \x* +
b % x
the condition for a line (p) to cut them in two pairs of harmonically
conjugate points is
l,(ar b 8
+ ag br )prs =0,
>
and by a slight change of coordinates this can be reduced to the
preceding form.
Since the line equation of the quadric
is
it follows
Xae xs2 + XXbgW,? = 0,
+ Xbs) pr? = 0,
(ar + \b r ) (as
that two quadrics of the pencil obtained by varying
touch any given line. If their parameters are X and X' and the
line is a ray, the equation of the complex expresses the condition
X+V=
0.
Singular rays belong to the tetrahedral complex
% (ajaA&a + a2 a &A) PuP = 0,
s
and
it is
easily proved that
when
this condition is satisfied, all the
polar lines of (p) with respect to the pencil of quadrics intersect
and generate a cone of rays of this tetrahedral complex. The two
polar lines of a singular ray (p) with respect to the two quadrics
which touch it pass through the points of contact and lie in the
tangent planes, which must' coincide since the two polar lines
Hence the congruence of singular rays consists of all
intersect.
the generators of the developables circumscribing the pairs of
quadrics
Xas xs2
for different values of X.
ktbgXn 2 =
SPECIAL FORMS OF RUMMER'S SURFACE
96
When
the complex
given, there
is
may be used
pairs of quadrics that
an
is
to define
infinite
[CH. IX
number of
Let the complex
it.
be written
%Ap' =
0,
A = a^bg + a br
A=a a a a = A2& /a
= O3a4.Au + <ho>z Am.
A (c^a^f (aia ) + A A = 0.
where
Let
then
and
4,
Si
Write 4A
= a
2
,
s,
Xi
then
2A M a
a2
= (1 + ^/laAA M
2A li as ai =
Similarly
rs
(1
).
Vl aA^A^
and so on, giving the ratios of the a8 in terms of an arbitrary
parameter tr.
When they are found, the bs are uniquely
determined.
= 0, and
complex
cone
B,
Again
at any point of it breaks up into the two tangent planes.
the intersection of A and the reciprocal of A with respect to B
lies on the singular surfape, for the polar plane of any point of it
with respect to B cuts A in two straight lines and the complex
cone consists of the planes through them. The quadric surface
G, 1c s <vs * = 0, where
2
c8 = as + ftbg /as
quartic intersection of the quadrics A, 2aa:s2
The
"ZbgXg' = 0,
lies
on the singular
surface, for the
passes through this second quartic for
value of
fi
exists for
G is one
If '= b b
which
can define the complex.
/' and we
all
values of
fi,
and one
of a pair of quadrics which
i b s b i 'Za s/bg
this value of/* is
find
.
Cl=
2A Si c
whence
!i
AWA AU
1S
a,'
etC
'
= ~^~2A u a
a4
= "(l^laA w A )
2A u ci ci = " (1 + Vl <rA A u),
Si
say,
and
so that
12
corresponds to the same value of the parameter
a different arrangement of the signs of the radicals.
In a similar way the quadric D, IdgXg* = 0, where
a\
cuts
= @& + @V/&i = A^A^Au/bi,
B in a quartic
etc.
curve lying on the singular surface.
a but
to
4
n
BATTAGLINI'S HARMONIC COMPLEX
58]
The harmonic complex can be
97
defined in a reciprocal
manner
as the assemblage of lines from
which the tangent planes to two
quadrics form two harmonically conjugate pairs.
Taking the two.
tangential equations to be
otiWj
ft h,
the complex
a2 w 2 2
+au +
2
3
+ &,' + /3 w + /3
2
3
= 0,
a4 M42
4
2
4
= 0,
is
2(a3 /34 +* 4 #,)^23 = 0.
On putting as = of1 ft = df1 this becomes the same as before
accordingly the quadrics G and
can be used to define the
complex tangentially.
The harmonic complex includes among its rays all the generators of
the quadrics in terms of which it is denned and conversely if a quadratic
complex contains both sets of generators of a quadric it must be
:
harmonic.
The complexes 2A npu2 =0, sA 3l ~ 1p 12i =
have the same singular
and are the only harmonic complexes in the cosingular family.
The
series of surfaces 2as,jn a;s 2 =0, 2& 8 .8 2
as,n+l = 0, n a
l,
a % a Z, n ai,
^Og, n/a a, n
6,
s,
= 0,
where, for every n,
n/"a, n) "1, n "2, n "3,
e+^en
',
surface,,
u i, n
^ aa, n/"a, n
say,
"a,n
terminates after six
members
if
%A 2i A zl A u A 12  2A 3i A 12 A ti A 23  2A u A 23 A 2i A 31 =0.
Express this result in terms of the invariants of the
first
two
surfaces.
common tangent plane of the two quadrics <S1 + XjS2 = is a singular
plane of the complex of lines cutting S'1 = 0, S2 =0 harmonically. The singular
ray joins the points of contact, and cuts the singular surface on S1 +itS = 0,
if S1 ~nS2 =0 is the third surface of the pencil which touches the plane.
!i
The
singular surface of the complex 2.4 12 p 12 2 =
is
generated by the inter
section of the surfaces
Xxf +
A li x12 +
12
^2 2 + A 13 x3 * +
ixi 2
+A lix^+A
2
u xt = 0,
2i
xii =0,
where X and p are connected by a certain homographic
H.
relation.
38
SPECIAL FORMS OF RUMMER'S SURFACE
59.
When
one node
lies
IX
LIMITING FORMS.
on a fundamental quadric the quartic
degenerates into that quadric, repeated;
is
[CH.
for,
since the quadric
invariant for the group of linear transformations which derive
the nodes from any one of them, in this case
therefore all the singular conies
order.
all the nodes and
on a surface of the second
This also follows easily from the equation of the surface,
Vaalf + V/3yi7
(cf. p.
lie
35), for
when a =
\/yz=
0,
the rationalised form reduces to
O8yi/7*0*=O.
Since the polar plane of a node
is a trope containing six other
a tangent plane to the quadric and contains seven nodes, the additional one being at the point of contact.
Hence the nodes are at the intersections of four generators of one
system with four of the other system.
When one node is very near the fundamental quadric, the
whole quartic surface lies near the quadric, and consists of thin
nodes, here each trope
is
pieces joined together at the nodes.
We may suppose
by each point of the
two, which may be real and distinct,
the quartic
to be derived from the quadric
latter separ
ating into
or conjugate
imaginaries.
It
is
evident that the tropes touch the thin pieces
of surface near their edges, just as, in two dimensions, a bitangent
touches a thin branch of a curve near the points where it is folded
on itself. If we regard the points of the quartic as determined by
one node and varying continuously with it, we may distinguish, on
the quadric, regions of points which are just going to separate into
real and into imaginary pairs of points of the quartic these regions
are bounded by the singular conies, and so we have the figure
;
Fig. 11.
LIMITING FORMS
59]
99
which either the shaded or the unshaded portions may be
considered as the real surface. By regarding the generators as
closed curves we see that the surface consists of eight fourin
cornered pieces, and that each of four A, B, G,
each of the other four P, Q, R, 8 at one node.
is
attached to
The general Kummer surface can be obtained from a degenerate
by a continuous variation of its points, without
surface of this kind
passing through any other degenerate form for the nodes can be
varied so as to avoid the edges of the fundamental tetrahedra.
;
For
form has an important bearing on the
In particular, the incidences of
nodes and tropes remain the same during the variation, except
that in the limiting form there is an extra node in each trope,
namely the point of contact. Hence the preceding figure, which is
this reason the limiting
topology of the general surface.
an actual representation of the limiting surface, is also an incidence
diagram for the general surface* Conversely, the rows and
columns of the diagram of incidences can be regarded as generators
of a quadric which is a limiting form of Summer's surface.
Let the fundamental quadric be (135, 246) the directrices
(13) (35) (51) are generators of one system and (24) (46) (62) are
generators of the other system.
One node, 0, may be taken arbitogether
trarily on the surface; then the two generators through
with their harmonic conjugates with respect to the pairs of directrices are the eight generators whose intersections give the nodes.
If the harmonic conjugates are named after the directrices, and if
the intersection of 13 and 24 is called 56, and so on, we have, as
on p. 17, the incidence diagram
;
Eohn, Math. Ann.
xv,
46
62
24
35
12
14
16
51
32
34
36
13
52
54
56.
339; Klein, Evanston Lectures (1893), p. 29.
72
CHAPTER
X.
THE WAVE SURFACE.
DEFINITION OF THE SURFACE.
60.
The Wave
surface
so
is
a special form of the Tetrahedroid, and the
by a general
linear transformation from the former,
have
the same projective features. In
two
surfaces
that the
latter is derived
addition, the
Wave
surface possesses metrical properties of great
and is probably the best known example of Rummer's
surface on account of its connection with the physical world*.
The specialisation is that the tetrahedron whose faces contain
the nodes by fours is a rectangular frame of reference, one face
being the plane at infinity and one of the conies in that face being
the imaginary circle at infinity. From this it follows that one of
the two conies in each of the other faces is a circle.
interest,
The
details of the transformation
are given on
p.
from the general Tetrahedroid
Wave surface is obtained
91 and the equation of the
in the form
(x 2
+ y + z ) (a2 * + &y + cV)
 a? (&2 + c ) x  b (c + a ) f  c
2
which
is
(a 2 + b 2 ) z2
+a
b2 c2
= 0,
equivalent to
b y
cV
Zk + 2
Zi + Zh
Zh= >
r*
r
b
c r
2
r" = a? 4 y" + z
2
a?a?
a'
where
Ti.
It is convenient to take this equation as a starting point and
If r is regarded as a
to deduce properties of the surface from it.
constant, the equation represents the cone which is reciprocal to
the cone
(ar2
 r2) a? + Qr  r2) f + (c~  r"2 ) z =
2
* Fresnel, (Euvres Computes, n, 261
Preston, Theory of Light, p. 260.
APSIDAL SURFACES
6061]
101
passing through the intersection of the sphere
+ y* + z* = r
+ &_2 y + c2 ^ = 1.
2
a?
and the
Hence
ellipsoid
2
Wave
points on the
by taking any
and measuring lengths equal to the
surface are obtained
central section of the ellipsoid
semiaxes along the perpendicular at the centre, in both directions.
If
we suppose
that a
finite distances
>b>
c,
all
the points of the surface are at
from the origin varying from
61.
c to a.
APSIDAL SURFACES.
OM
be the perbe any point of a surface S and let
on the tangent plane at Q. Draw
and OR at right angles to the plane QOM then Q is an apse
Let
pendicular from any point
QT
Fig. 12.
ROQ with respect to the point 0, for
QT is perpendicular to OQ. If OQ' is erected
ROQ and of length equal to the apsidal radius
of the section by the plane
the tangent line
perpendicular to
OQ, the locus of Q' is called the apsidal surface S'.
A sphere with centre and radius OQ cuts S in a curve to
by a
which QT is the tangent at Q this curve is projected from
;
a tangent plane. Hence as OQ describes
this cone, OQ' describes the reciprocal cone which cuts the sphere
We thus have a
in a curve lying on the apsidal surface S'.
cone having
ROQ
for
method of generating $' by means of spherical curves corresponding to spherical sections of 8, and the relation between the
From this it follows that Q' is an apse of
surfaces is mutual.
the section of S' by Q'OR, and hence the tangent plane at Q' is
perpendicular to Q'OQ.
THE WAVE SURFACE
102
The
may
apsidal surface 8'
also
of a congruence of circles having a
whose axis and radius
point of
From
near Q'.
is
near
OQ
is
be regarded as the focal surface
common
touches S' at
QOQ
centre 0; for the circle
Q'.
Corresponding to a
a circle touching S'
easily seen that the tangent plane at Q'
in the plane
this it is
[CH.
'
there
is
obtained by rotating the tangent plane at
Q through
a right
angle about OR.
The fact that the relation between the tangent planes is
independent of the curvatures shows that each of two apsidal
surfaces is derived from the other by a contact transformation*.
This may easily be verified from the equations which define Q'
x'*
x'x
(y'z
+ f + z'" = a? + f + z>,
2
+ y'y + z'z = 0,
 yz') + (z'x  zx') Jj  (x'y  xy') = 0.
The perpendicular from Q' on
0M
is
whose axis
The
is
OM
OM
MQT is
of length
follows that the apsidal of the tangent plane
and radius OM, touching S' at
whence
it
a cylinder
Q'.
between two apsidal surfaces is unaltered by
fig. 12, 0m .0Q = 0q. OM= 0m'. OQ' = Oq. OM',
the perpendicular on the tangent plane at the point q
relation
reciprocation. In
and 0m is
on the reciprocal surface it is evident that the triangle qOm may
be displaced into the position q'Om' by rotation through a right
;
angle in
its plane.
SINGULARITIES OF THE
62.
Wave
Since the
surface
many
is
WAVE SURFACE.
the apsidal of an ellipsoid with
may be deduced in an
elementary manner from those of the ellipsoid. In fig. 12, Q and
It are apses of a central section and the perpendicular at
meets
the wave surface at points Q' and R' such that 0Q'= OQ and
respect to its centre,
0R'= OR, and
QOR
of its properties
at the images of these points in 0.
As the plane
Q' and R' describe different sheets which
OR, that is, when the central section of the
varies, the points
meet only when
0Q=
ellipsoid is a circle.
In this case every point on the section is an
number of tangent planes at Q'
apse and there are an infinite
* LieScheffers, Beriihrungstram/ormationen.
which
WAVE SURFACE
SINGULARITIES OF THE
6162]
Hence the two
therefore a node.
is
103
sheets are connected at
four nodes lying on the perpendiculars to the circular sections of
the ellipsoid
their coordinates are
c(a 2
 c )*,
6 2 )* (a 2
+ a
0,
(b
 c )* (a  c )*.
Reciprocally, the curve of contact with the ellipsoid of a circumscribing circular cylinder gives on the apsidal surface a curve
at every point of which the tangent plane is the same.
The reciprocal singularities may be obtained by considering
the reciprocal ellipsoid and we infer that there are four real tropes
;
(a2  6 2 )* x
It
c
(b 2
)*
= b (a  c
2
easy to verify that the curves of contact are
is
The
section
by the plane x =
2
(y
+ z  a ) (b
2
(z 2
+ cV  6
+ x  ) (&z + a
2
a circle of radius b and an
section
by z =
(x 2
a circle of radius
circles.
c )
x2  c 2 a2 )
two conies
0,
ellipse of
semiaxes
= 0,
ellipse, intersecting in
the four nodes.
is
+ f c ) {a?x + b
2
a
&2 )
+ y + z ) (a
2
= 0,
ellipse and lastly, the plane
two imaginary conies
surrounded by an
at infinity cuts the surface in the
(x 2
)K
consists of the
namely a circle of radius a surrounding an
b and c.
The section by y = is
The
x2 +
b2 y2
+ c2 z*) =
0.
The symmetry with respect to the planes of reference is evident
from the fact that only squares of the coordinates occur in the
equation.
By drawing quadrants of the preceding conies, an idea
of the shape of the surface
may be
obtained.
Fig. 13
shows one
node and the trace of one trope.
The shape may be more completely realised by tracing the
The proseries of spheroconics cut out by concentric spheres.
jection of the intersection with a sphere of radius r
plane
z =
is
a2 c2
2X
a 2 r
which
is
upon the
b2
b
c _
C
r2y ~
2
a hyperbola for the outer sheet {a
2
'
> r > b), and an
ellipse
THE WAVE SURFACE
104
inner sheet (b > r
for the
we get the family
qa
> c).
for
Again, projecting on the plane
of ellipses
6
62
2
3
c
^rr^+^c
having
[CH.
*2
_,
"''
envelope the four lines
+ (a2  b*)i x
(6
 c )* z = b (a  c
2
)*.
Fig. 13.
63.
PARAMETRIC REPRESENTATION.
a2 by
P,
a, 6 2
by
and
by c. Let
diameter
ellipsoid
conjugate
to
the
end
of
the
of
the
be
(, 77, f
QOR (p. 101), then if OQ" = X and OR1 = fi, \ and /* are the parameters of the confocals through P and we have
It is convenient* to replace
b,
),
b) (a c) = a (a X) (a /*),
(bc)(ba)^ = b(b\)(bfi),
(c a) (c b) = c (c X) (c /*).
a
(a
ff
If P.
at
P to
i'x. 2>2
are the central perpendiculars on the tangent planes
the ellipsoid and the two confocals,
\/jp
X (\fj,)p
2
1
H it* ~ V) Pi
= abc,
= (aX)(bX)(cX),
= (  P) Q>  H) (c  /*)
Darboux, Gomptes Eendus, xcvn, 1039; Cayley,
xiii,
238.
X
6263]
PARAMETRIC REPRESENTATION
The point Q' of the wave surface
length X s in the direction
p%/a,
and
therefore given
is
105
obtained by measuring a
is
p/c,
prj/b,
by
(a b)(a
c) X* = bcfjr (a X) (a /*),
(b
a) if = ca/x (b  X) (b  p),
c) (b
1
(c a)(c b) z* =
(c X.) (c /*),
1
afc//.
expressing the coordinates of any point in terms of two parameters
X and
fi.
Conversely the parameters are expressed in terms of the
coordinates by
a?
ax 2
Tn order to express
replace
X and p by
f + z = X,
l
+ by + cs = abc/i1
2
y and z as uniform functions we must
new parameters p and q*.
x,
elliptic functions of
For the outer sheet
a>\>b> /m>c,
so
we take
t
&2
o 6
ac
,,
,,
sn 2 (p, )
=a
abT
*=F^F  ^) =
2
^,
= 6*sn(p, /<;)dn(g, k
y = a* en (p, A) cii (g, A^),
then
aj
a*
dn
),
(p, &) sn (g, A^).
For the inner sheet
a> /i>b>\>c,
and
so, in
order to have real parameters
p', q',
we
define the elliptic
functions by
^ = d>
sn2
(?'.^')=
and then
#=
y
c*
dn
(p', A;')
c* en (/,
A')
sn
en
(<?',
A/),
(g', &/),
5 = 6*sn(p',A;')dn(g',^').
* Appell et Laoour, Fonctions Elliptiques, p. 167; Weber, Vierteljahrsschrift der
Naturf. Ges. in Zurich (1896), xli, 82.
THE WAVE SURFACE
106
OM* = v
so that v*
Wave
tangent plane to the
plane at
is
parallel to
the central perpendicular on the
is
surface at (x, y,
POR and
tangent plane at P, whence by
abcv^fjr 1
the plane
Now
the tangent
is parallel to
the
 v)/v = QM /0M* = p*lf,
(X v) (X /a) = (a X) (b X) (c X),
2
giving v in terms of the parameters
The
z).
QOR
similar triangles
(X
or
TANGENT PLANES.
64.
Let
[CH.
direction cosines of
OQ
X and
/*..
are those of the normal at
P to the
con focal X, namely
p^/(a\),
p^/(cX),
Pivl(b\),
OM are
#X^ 7y/6(6X),
hence the direction cosines of
vi\ip^/a(a\),
Those of
OR
are
ptvl(bp),
P2?/(a/*),
OM'
and since
v^p^/c(cX).
is
p^Kcfi),
OR
at right angles to
and OM,
direction
its
cosines are
V
PlP* Vi b
(6
 X) (b  /) c (c  X) (c  /i)
aw* (X^
6+
6c (X
The equation
c/i
etC ''
+ 6c)
n)
of the tangent plane is taken to be
+ my + nz = 1,
P + m? + n? = v~\
lx
and then
= x(\p I + c/* + be),
ca(fi\)m = y (X/*  c + a,fi + ca),
and
bc(fiX)
ab(/j,
>
\)n = z (\/m a + bp + ab),
giving the coordinates of any tangent plane in terms of
X,
and
fi.
The tangent plane may also be determined indirectly as follows.
The intercept on the normal at any point Q of an ellipsoid between
Q and the plane of symmetry perpendicular to the axis OA is
0A /0M. After rotation through a right angle about OR we have
fig. 14 in which 00 is the projection of the axis OA upon the
plane Q'OM and Q'G is the normal at Q' to the Wave surface, and
2
'
GQ'.0M'=0A\
TANGENT PLANES
64]
107
Complete the parallelogram OQ'OH: then the circle on Q'H
M' and has its centre on OG and cuts
as diameter passes through
Fig. 14.
the plane x at the ends of a chord perpendicular to OG. This
chord is bisected at
and of length 2 (M'0 0H)t = 20 A.
Hence the sphere through the circular section in the plane
.
and any point of the Wave surface passes
projection of the centre on the tangent plane.
also
through the
Similarly two other
spheres pass through the same two points and the circles in the
other planes of reference. This theorem* gives a method of constructing the tangent plane at any point and the point of contact
of a given plane.
If the equation of the tangent plane
Ix + my + nz =
and
(Iv,
1$ is
mv,
spheres
the length of the central perpendicular, the foot
Hence the equation
nv).
of
the
first
the
of
is
three
is
Iv
and
is
(#
2
2/
22
a) = (v a) x,
this gives the relation between tangent plane and point of
contact in the form
Iv
v a
mv
X a'
v b
nv
X
m, n
b'
v c
Xc
terms of X and
:
in
from which the expressions for I,
fi may be
deduced by means of the formulae already obtained. On substitution for x, y, z in the tangent plane, the tangential equation of
the surface is obtained in the form

+
=
vb vc
va ^r+
0,
(v^=P + m* + rf).
* Niven, Quarterly Journal (1868), ix, 22.
THE WAVE SURFACE
108
v,
[CH.
Let the second root of this equation, regarded as a quadratic in
be u, then w* is the central perpendicular on the parallel tangent
we have
plane and
b)(a c) P = (a u) (a v) v~\
(b c)(b a) rn? = (b u) (b  v) tr
(c a) (c b) v? = (c u) (c v) ir
ir = p + m3 4 2
w = 6cP + cam + aim
(a
2
.
THE FOUR PARAMETERS.
65.
The complete theory of the Wave surface depends on the
employment of four parameters \, p, u, v connected by two
independent relations. The fact that two apsidal surfaces remain
apsidal after reciprocation shows that from any formula we may
obtain another by replacing
xyzabcXfiuv
m
by
We
respectively.
a1
1
1
ir1
1
u~*
/*
\_1
have already proved that
abcv^fj, 1 (X
v)(\
fj,)
= (a X) (b X) (c X),
whence we deduce
v (v
X) (v u) = (v a)
(v
b)(v c),
and from these
(0 a)
for all
b){6c) + abcv /* (0v) (0fi) = 0(0X)(0u)
values of 0.
By giviDg
special values, other, but not
1
(0
independent, results can be obtained, in particular
= /j,(iM X) (fi  u),
a) (u 6) (w c) = abevr^fir (u v)(u
1
bcir
(a v) (a p) = {a X) (a u).
(fj,
and
and
a)(/j,b){fj.c)
(u
fj.),
//,
Further, the differentials of the four parameters are connected by
the two relations included in
abcv"fi 2 {v (0
 v) d/x + fi (0  fi) dv] = (0u)dX + (0 X) du.
Notice how X and u play symmetrical parts in these formulae,
and v. For the inner sheet
as also do
(j.
b>
and
(i
>c,
a> >b;
for the outer sheet
a>X>b, b>^ > c, a>v> ac/(a + c b).
CURVATURE
6466]
109
CURVATURE.
66.
Let L, M,
be the direction cosines of the normal at (x, y,
then a principal radius and direction of curvature are given by
_ dx
P
Now
dy
dz
~dL~ M~dF
= Xxdx = Xaxdx
%xdL
XaxdL
z),
'
from the formulae already obtained
= xdx + ydy + zdz,
dfi = axdx + bydy + czdz,
v* = Lx + My + Nz,
= Ldx + Mdy + Fdz,
%dX
^abcfi~
since the direction of curvature
in the tangent plane,
is
whence by
differentiation
\v~ldv
= xdL + ydM + zdN.
XaxdL
It remains only to express
(a
b)(a c) L =
2
2dL
du
^ =
L
ua
whence
Again
(a
in terms of the four para
Now
meters.
(a
u) (a v),
dv
a'
easily proved that
it is
b)(a
Hence
c) Lx = vl(a X) (a u) = 6c/*1 ir* (a /*)
2laxdL = 22a (Lx) dLjL
X a .u a du
= 2av*
b a c u a
be fi a.v a
dv
+ 2ai>*
fjLv'ab.ac'v a
= v*du.
_ ifidX _ abcfir'dfi
(a
v).
v*du
dv
giving the differential equation of the lines of curvature in the
form
= abed/judv.
v/i?dXdu
When
'
dX*
expressed in terms of
[X a
\v a
Xb
v
or
X and
Xc
X\
vl
(v
*
The
curves.
first
expression for p
is
v only this takes the form
,.
dXdv
a)(v b)
(v
c)
the analogue of the formula rdrjdp for plane
THE WAVE SURFACE
110
and
since the first equation
that
\ may be
symmetrical in
is
\ and u, it follows
The equation
replaced by u in the last equation.
giving the radii of curvature
obtained by substituting
is
= v*p.
dX/dv
The
[CH.
have geometrical interpretations,
intercept on the normal by the plane x = 0,
coefficients
for if
is
the
= x/lv* = * (X  a)/(v  a).
 (N, + iV + JSfs  \ir*) p + N^N^l = 0.
f(X) = (Xa)(Xb)(Xc),
(X)//W = (X ) + (X  6) + (X  c),
x
Hence
If
the differential equation of lines of curvature can be written in
the form
d\2 
{(X
1;)
/' ()//() + 3
This has been integrated when
the general case,
is
 X/v} dXdv + dv*f (X)//(v) = 0.
f is
quadratic but not when, as in
cubic*.
ca
'
showing that the intersections of the normal with the planes of reference
and perpendicular central plane form a range of constant cross ratio.
The
line
element
is
given by
d\ 2
abcdfi 2
Xv
{ufi)'
ASYMPTOTIC LINES.
67.
The
3
fi
differential equation of asymptotic lines is
dxdl
^,
or
dX
2,lx
\\
further
+ dydm + dzdn = 0,
adu
^
u(/M
du
a)J \u
=^
U = ^"g^""^
(a o)(a c)
coefficients
of
aj =0;
frg()
(a b)(a c)
fiv
The
dv
aH
dXdu and dpdv
are 0,
and the equation
reduces to
/j,(fi
This equation
is
u) dXdv + v (v X) d/jidu = 0.
unaltered
if X, p, u, v
v~x u~\
,
fir
1
,
are replaced
X~
by
l
,
respectively, illustrating the fact that asymptotic lines are re
ciprocated into asymptotic lines.
*
Darboux, Comptes Rendus, xcn, 446; xcvn, 1133.
'
ASYMPTOTIC LINES
6667]
When
expressed in terms of u and
111
only, this equation takes
the form
d\?
dtf_
(u
To
a)(u b) (u c)~(X a) (X b) (X c)
integrate
(^2/3))
we
use the theorem that
if
three points (x^), (x^),
of the curve
y*=f () = (xa)(x b) (x  c)
are collinear, then
+ dxi/y* + dx /y = 0.
d#i/2/i
Hence the equation
du/\/f{uj + cZX/V/(X)
expresses that the points (u, V/(w)) and (X, V/(\)) are collinear
with a fixed point (x^) on the curve.
If the equation of their
line is
= mx + n,
then
(x
(x x ) (x u)(x \);
= (x^ a) (a u) (a X).
a)(x b) (xc) (mx + nf =
(ma + nf
and
The
required integral
is
the constant of integration
obtained by eliminating
instead of
it
we
m and n;
xx
is
introduce
= (6 c) (#! a),
P = (ca)(x b),
y = (ab)(w c),
a + /3 + 7 = 0,
a
so that
and then the integral is*
,
/(o tt)(oX)
This
is
oi
which, again,
69).
(cit)(cX )_
the same as
'Jct.lx
(p.
/(bu)(b\)
+ VySmy 4 VyriF = 0,
the pointplane equation of a tetrahedral complex
inference is that at each point of an asymptotic
is
The
curve the complex cone of a certain tetrahedral complex touches
the surface. By varying the constant of the complex all the
asymptotic lines are obtained.
In terms of
(a
/a
and
v the equation is
 fi) (b  /*) (c  /)
(a
v) (b
* Darboux, Thgorie des Surfaces,
v)
1,
(ev)'
143.
THE WAVE SURFACE
112
[CH.
As in the general Kummer surface, the asymptotic curves have
an envelope consisting of the singular conies, and a cusp locus
which reduces to isolated nodes. Hence the elliptic and hyperbolic regions of the Wave surface are separated by the circles of
contact of the four tropes and the four nodes.
It is easy to see on
which side of these boundaries the curves lie and that the hyperbolic regions consist of four detached portions, each bounded by
one circle and one node (fig. 13, p. 104). A complete asymptotic
curve consists of four branches, one in each portion, and each
branch touches the circle at one point and has a cusp at the node.
There are two elliptic regions, namely the entire inner sheet,
and the outer sheet bounded by the four circles.
painvin's complex.
68.
The quadratic complex
singular surface
of which
the wave surface
the tangent planes to a quadric are at right angles
generation of the harmonic complex, p. 97, 58).
the
is
Painvin's complex* of lines through
is
which
(cf.
the
Let the quadric be
then the complex, with current Hue coordinates
(/3
m,
I,
n,
I',
m',
n', is
+ 7) I + (y + a) m + (a + /3) n = I' + m' + n'\
2
of rays through any point is the director
cone of the enveloping cone of tangents to the quadric the latter
referred to its own axes has equation
The complex cone
x2/X
where
point.
X,
fi,
+ y'/fi + z \v = 0,
2
parameters of the confocals through the
v are the
Hence the complex cone
(ji
v)
x2
is
+ (v + X) f + (X + n) z =
2
For a singular point
two planes, which can happen only if
referred to its axes.
(ji
Now
if (x, y, z) is
must break into
this
+ v)(v + X) (\ + fi) = 0.
the singular point, X,
/a,
v are the roots of the
equation in \,
x2
w2
z2
=
a V+a^+
X p X y TX
whence
!>
+ fi + v = a + /3 + y a? y2 z
* Painvin, Nouvelles Annates (1872),
11,
49 ; Sturm, Liniengeometrie, hi, 35.
6768]
painvin's complex
113
The
condition for a singular point shows that X +
p
and hence the equation of the singular surface is
root
a?
tf
+ tf + z*
0 y
a?
to make this agree with
we must put
In order
surface
Thus we
y,
find that the
ic
+ y* + 2*a/3
is
=1
'
the former notation for the wave
= y + a,
wave
z*
+ y* + sPya
surface
= a + /3.
may be
generated by lines
of curvature on confocal quadrics, being the intersections of confocals
whose parameters are equal and opposite. Taking \ + v =
the parametric expression of the wave surface in the form
we have
(a/9)(a 7 )^ = (aX)(a A *),
= (p\*)(0p),
)*.=
a) ( 7
(7
(t* V) y /*).
(/3v)(/3a)tf
It
easy to see that the curves
is
fi
= const., X = const., are the same
X = const., = const.
as those which in the former notation were
The
singular line at a singular point
is
/j,
the line of intersection
of the two singular planes
(fi
X) a? + (X + /t) 2* =
Hence it
X = const.
referred to the three normals to confocals.
to the confocal
/j,
and tangent to the
line
These two planes touch a sphere whose centre
is independent of /x*.
is
the normal
at the origin
is
and whose
radius
Having considered the rays through any point we next consider
nr.
Let any ray cut the section of the
director sphere by ir in P and Q. Then the planes through P and
Q perpendicular to PQ must touch the ellipsoid. It is easy to
the rays lying in any plane
deduce from this that
PQ
touches a conic confocal with the pro
jection of the ellipsoid on the plane
Hence
as a plane
are confocal conies.
wave
surface
moves
it.
parallel to itself the
It is a singular plane
and then the rays in
it
when
complex curves
touches the
it
pass through the
foci.
When
real ray, the
it contains one
which is singular. When the plane touches the inner
sheet the major axis is the singular ray and cuts the outer sheet
the plane touches the outer sheet
minor
axis,
at the
foci.
* Boklen, Zeitschriftfur
H.
Math, xxvn,
160.
THE WAVE SURFACE
114
[CH.
Prove that the plane joining PQ to the pole of n touches a confocal whose
parameter is minus that of the confocal touched by n.
The quadratic complex being
a 2 2 +6 2 TO 2 + c2 m 2 =Z' 2 + m' 2 +?i' 2
we
by
see that the fundamental complexes are given
cfix\=al+il'\
b*x 3 =bm + im'}
c^x6 =cn+m'}
ioFx^al il')
b^xi = bm im'\
c"xB =cn in'j
The
and are pairs of conjugate imaginaries.
also conjugate in pairs if
The
kt in the complex are
coefficients
we take
coordinates of any tangent line of the
Wave surface are given
(p.
58)
by
2
P x*={kt  X) (A,  h ) (k,  ,^lf (ka )
where
^ and
of contact
ji
are the parameters of the asymptotic lines through the point
this gives
p {al+il')
= {ia  X) V(& 2  c2
(ia
(ia 
n 2 ),
etc.
From
the relations connecting line coordinates
point coordinates,
it is
2 (a 2  v 2 ) (6 2  c2 ) (a 2 + tff (a2 + ,*,)*+ (i 2 
and
(I,
c 2 ) (c 2
2(6 2 c 2 ,)(6 2  C 2 )(a 2 + Fl 2 )^a2 +M2 2 )*+ Mlft2 (
where
n, V, m', n')
with
them as
 a2)
)(
(a 2  6 2 )
)(
=0)
=xi +y2 + z\
v =a?x
giving the connection between
It is easy to verify
rn,
easy to deduce
X, p,
fi
+b2y 2 + c*z2
p, 2
integrals of the equation of asymptotic lines.
CHAPTER
XI.
REALITY AND TOPOLOGY.
REALITY OP THE COMPLEXES.
69.
In this chapter we examine and distinguish the different kinds
surface which have sixteen distinct nodes and are
given by real equations, the surface itself not being necessarily
real*.
We are not here concerned with degenerate cases iu which
of
Rummer's
the nodes coincide f.
The equation
completely determined by six apolar comSince the equation is to be real,,
imaginaries must occur in pairs and the primary classification
is
plexes and one arbitrary node.
all
We
according to the number of complexes which are real.
arrange them in three pairs 12, 34, 56 and consider in turn the
cases when three, two, one, or none of these pairs are real.
In
all cases three congruences are real and their directrices form a
is
real
fundamental tetrahedron 12 34
.
reference.
Then by taking
coordinates
it
56 which will be taken for
suitable real multiples of the point
can be arranged that in the four cases respectively
X 1 =p u
p
i3
II.
III.
IV.
* Eohn, Math. Ann. xvm, 99, may be consulted for a more detailed account,
t See an exhaustive paper by Weiler, Math. Ann. vn, 145.
82
REALITY AND TOPOLOGY
116
so that in all cases
%x* = ^PuPn =
0.
When
the point coordinates are not restricted to be
be reduced to the
first
by the substitutions
1.
[CH. XI
the multiples of
real, all
the cases can
REALITY OF THE COMPLEXES
69]
be conjugate imagiDaries.
have
is
ie
then in case I we must
e ;
= pr^e^9
r,e^>.
where p
=r
Put ks
117
= 1,
(s
'
2, 3, 4, 5, G)
a factor of proportionality, whence
n = ri = ri = r4 = r =
2
2
5
= p,
r<?
showing that p
is real and positive, and that the points representing kg in the plane of the complex variable re ie lie on a circle.
In case II a\ and x2 are conjugate and we must have
/or e~"
r2 e~* e = pr^e^ 9
rH e^> = prr <r*>
r 1 e~i
ifl
>
',
(s
3, 4, 5,
6)
r^2 = r = r4 = r = r = p
whence
0i =
and
showing that the points
on which ks kt k5 ke lie.
hje^ are inverse with respect to the circle
Similarly in case III
n =
2
=r
" 2
03
= 6*,
r4
= r r = p,
5
Ss=06,
showing that ks k4 and k5 k6 are two pairs of inverse points with
k^2 lie. In these three cases p is
necessarily positive, but in case IV p may be either positive or
respect to a circle on which
negative;
if
is
positive
nn = r r = r r = p,
4
and the
six points
2,
=6
#5
ks form three pairs of inverse points
if
is
negative
0!
nr = rs r = r r = p,
= 4 = 0a =
is
obtained from k^ by an inversion followed by
and the point k2s_1
ir
a reflexion in the origin.
When p is positive it is convenient to effect a linear substitution
on the complex variable so as to transform the circle into the real
axis; then in cases I, II, III and the first subcase of IV the
coefficients ke may be taken to be either real or pairs of conjugate
imaginaries according to the reality of the corresponding com
plexes.
possible.
In the second subcase of IV no further simplification
is
REALITY AND TOPOLOGY
118
70.
The
SIX KEAL
[CH. XI
FUNDAMENTAL COMPLEXES.
different kinds of surface included in case I are distin
These
guished by the order of magnitude of the six coefficients ks
quantities are the parameters of the six nodes on any singular
.
conic,
and their order of magnitude determines the
cyclical order
in which the nodes follow each other consecutively.
The order of klt k3 k among themselves is immaterial, since a
permutation of odd suffixes is equivalent to the choice of a new
real fundamental tetrahedron of reference; similarly for k2 kt ke
so that the only permutations which are essentially distinct are
123456, 123465, 126453.
,
r>
I a.
Sixteen real nodes.
We
begin by investigating the shape of the surface when
k\
The
given
>k >k > k > k > k
2
pencil of tangents at
(p.
any point
(fa, fa) of
the surface
is
58) by
sf ( ks) = c (k  fa) (k  fa) (k  X)
s
where
/ O) = O  ^i)
and
c is
(/"
 2) (M  h) (/*  h) (/*  h) (/"  h)
a factor of proportionality.
For a real line xs2 is alternately positive and negative and so
also is /' (ks ) for s = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 so that all the left sides have the
same sign. Hence fa and fa are either conjugate imaginaries, or
are real and lie between the same two consecutive ks
In the
former case the inflexional tangents X = y^ and X = /i2 are imaginary
and the point is elliptic in the latter case the inflexional tangents
are real and the point is hyperbolic.
The boundaries of elliptic
and hyperbolic regions are given by /^ = /u 2 that is by the singular
Now if (as) is a real line, so also all the lines
conies and nodes.
obtained from it by changing the signs of the coordinates are real;
since it is possible to have f^ = 2 it follows that there are sixteen
real nodes and sixteen real tropes.
The region described by a point whose parameters fa and fa
take all real values between ks and &g+1 is a connected portion of
the surface bounded by two arcs of conies terminated by nodes
whose parameters on either of them are k3 and kg+1 (for the same
collineation which interchanges two nodes interchanges also the
two conies through them both). Each pair of consecutive coefficients kg, ke+1 gives eight hyperbolic segments and hence there are
.
/j,
SIX REAL
70]
fortyeight in
all
FUNDAMENTAL COMPLEXES
of the thirtytwo points having the
119
same para
meters
fa, fa, four lie on each of eight segments.
Consider the course of any one asymptotic curve fa = const,
over one segment. It has a cusp at each node and touches each
by
conic once at points given
fa
= fa.
The extreme values
of fa
give the points where the curve crosses the two principal asym
= & and //, = ks+1 at each of these points the
curve has an apparent inflexion because the tangent to it has fourpoint contact with the surface.
The figure shows two consecutive
ptotic curves
//.
nodes on two conies with the three points whose parameters are
ks fa ks+l indicated on each of them. As /a varies from ks to Jcs+1
the asymptotic curve
sweeps out the whole segment twice and
the two branches of the curve coincide in the case of the principal
,
/x.
The
asymptotic curves.
meet in a point which is on one of
= 0, xs+1 = 0, and is a point
tangents have fourpoint contact.
latter
the directrices of the congruence xs
where both
The
inflexional
elliptic region of
fa
fi
and
ft
being
real,
/j,
fj.
+ ifi'
'
is
fa =
given by
fi
ifi,
and the complete boundary by
//
For any value of
the surface
= 0,
00
<
/i
<+
00
the line given by
either lies in a trope or passes through a node, and as /j. passes
through any one of the six values ka one coordinate changes sign
,
and accordingly the
as
fi
line passes
from one state to the other.
Hence
takes all possible values the variable point of contact describes
three arcs of conies joining three nodes and forming the boundary
of an elliptic triangle at the same time the points of contact of
the lines obtained from (x) by changing the signs of the coordinates
;
describe the boundaries of other elliptic triangles so that the
number of them is thirtytwo. The two nodes on each side of any
BEALITY AND TOPOLOGY
120
one
[CH. XI
interchanged either by one of the colby one of 23, 45, 61. Hence the nodes
elliptic triangle are
lineations 12, 34, 56 or else
of the Gopel tetrad 0, 12, 34, 56 are the corners of a tetrahedral
(p. 22) having four elliptic triangles for faces
portion of the surface
segments for edges. Each pair of opposite
is cut by an edge of the fundamental tetrahedron 12.34.56 of which one corner is surrounded by the
tetrahedral piece.
The remaining three tetrads of the groupset
containing 0, 12, 34, 56 give other tetrahedral pieces surrounding
the other three corners of the tetrahedron 12 34 56, and divided
Again, four
into elliptic and hyperbolic regions in a similar way.
other tetrahedral pieces have for corners the Gopel tetrads of the
and
six hyperbolic
hyperbolic segments
groupset containing
Thus the whole
0, 23, 45, 61.
surface consists of eight pieces containing forty
eight hyperbolic segments and thirtytwo elliptic triangles
piece
is
its
nodes to each of four other pieces.
shown in the frontispiece where thirteen nodes are
and portions of the conies joining them.
clearly
visible
attached at
Two
b.
each
is
actually
hyperbolic sheets.
In this subcase the order of the ks
fC\
As
This
A/2
fC$
n/4
>
before, thirtytwo tangents are
given by the inequalities
is
iCq
rCt),
given by
//' (h) = c(ks  fa) (ks  fa) (ks
but now the signs of the
lines are real, so that fa
left sides
 X)2
+,+,+,+,,, when
are
the
and fa cannot be imaginary, and the
surface has everywhere negative curvature.
The
real values fa, fa
must
satisfy the inequalities implied
by
the cyclical order
fa,
so that
it is
k u k2 ks kt
,
impossible to have fa
fa,
ke k6 fa
,
= fa, and all
the n odes
and tropes
are imaginary.
There are only four real principal asymptotic curves, namely
those whose parameters are ku kit ke kB
As fa varies from kt to ke
the corresponding asymptotic curve sweeps out a connected region
,
of the surface, which, since the envelope of asymptotic curves is
imaginary, must be a sheet without a boundary like a hyperboloid
Along any one curve fa varies from k5 through ink 1} giving the intersections with another family of asymptotic curves covering the same sheet.
By continuously varying
of one sheet.
finity to
k
7071]
k a
REAL FUNDAMENTAL COMPLEXES
SIX
121
and fi2 it is possible to change the signs of all the coordinates
of a tangent line except x2 and xs
Hence of thirtytwo associated
points sixteen lie on one sheet, and we conclude that the whole
fa
surface consists of two infinite hyperbolic sheets.
real points
These are cut in
by the
directrices (14), (16), (54), (56) and the corresponding collineations transform each sheet into itself. The re
maining
five real pairs of directrices do not meet the surface in real
and of the corresponding collineations, (12), (52), (43), (63)
change the sign of x2 x% and hence interchange the sheets, while
points
(23) transforms each sheet into
Any
itself.
ray of the congruence
(23) cuts each sheet in two points forming a harmonic range with
the points where the ray meets the directrices.
Hence these direc
are separated by both sheets, just as a line
trices
separated from
is
polar with respect to a hyperboloid of one sheet which does not
its
cut
it.
Imaginary
c.
surface.
In the third subcase
>
fCi
fC<%
^ iCq ^ A?4 ^ A?g > rg
and the signs of x*f (kt ) are +, +, , +, +, , for s = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
respectively showing that ^ and 2 must be separated by & 6 and h6
and by no other of the ks which is impossible. Hence the surface
has no real tangents and is therefore altogether imaginary.
/u,
EQUATIONS OF SURFACES la, 16, I
71.
C.
of Kummer's surface with sixteen nodes
a fundamental tetrahedron is (pp. 81, 82)
The equation
etc. referred to
a?
+ yi + z + t + A (xH + y
l
(a,l3,y,B)
+ B (y t + z*x )
+ C {zU* + x y) +Dxyzt =
+ 7 ) = Xk h)(k k )
2
z2)
Where
~A =
B
(a
+8 )
2 2
(ff
2 8
)
2
S2
/,
\k k )(k k
i
 (7 +
7
2
3 2
'
5)
(h  k) (k  k)
*(hK){Khy
D = a/3yS (2  A) (2  B) (2  G) (S + a + + )+ h h  + kjcj (k +   k ) + k k,(ki+ . 2
(k s
e)
(&i
 k ) (k  k ) (k  k )
2
<y
/3
0,
and
,
^/3V
/3
_ h
(/3
4)
REALITY AND TOPOLOGY
122
[CH. XI
the nodes are real, and we have the
any of the ratios a /3 7 8 are imaginary, all the
nodes are imaginary and the equation represents I b or I c. To
obtain 1 6 we have simply to interchange k5 and ke in the coefficients, which has the effect of changing the signs of A, B and
If
JD
7, 8 are real, all
a, /3,
equation I
a.
If
accordingly the equation I b
x*
is
+ y + z4 + ti A (xH* + fz*)  B (yH + z x )
+ C (* P + a?f)  Dxyzt = 0.
2
This can also be obtained from la either by replacing a, /3, 7, 8
by ia, iff, 7, 8 respectively or by replacing x, y, z, t by ix, iy, z, t,
and it is then obvious that all the nodes are imaginary. The
equation I c can be obtained from I a by interchanging k3 and ke
and from I b by the real linear transformation which interchanges
x3 and x5
But it is interesting to notice that the preceding
equation after the coefficients are expressed in terms of
a, ft, 7,
C.
For to
every real point (x, y, z, t) on 16 correspond a pair of imaginary
points (ix, iy, z, t) and ( ix, iy, z, t) on la lying on a real ray of
the congruence (56). Now certain rays of this congruence cut I a
in four real points (for example lines joining two nodes), and the
passage to imaginary intersections can take place only through
positions in which two coincide, that is, intersections of the surface
with the directrices (56). Now the line x = 0, y = cuts I a where
is
typical of both I b
and
I c according to the sign of 2
zi
and
all
C>
2,
+ ti +GzH^ = Q
the intersections are real
if
G<
2 and
all
so that these inequalities are necessary
distinguish I b and I
are imaginary
and
sufficient
if
to
c.
FOUR REAL AND TWO IMAGINARY COMPLEXES.
72.
In case II &x and kt are conjugate imaginaries and the shape
depends upon the cyclical order of k3 kit k5 ke which may be of
two essentially different kinds, according as the odd suffixes are
separated by the even suffixes or not.
,
II
a.
Eight real nodes*.
Consider
first
the case
when
k3
*
> kt > ks > ke
figure of this surface is given in the Catalog mathematischer Modelle, Halle
(1903), p. 92, of
sixteen, eight,
Martin Schilling, from whom models of
real nodes may be obtained.
and four
Kummer
surfaces with
FOUR REAL AND TWO IMAGINARY COMPLEXES
7172]
Any
tangent line
is
given by
*s2 /' (h) = c(k,~
and
fa) (ks
 fit) (k  X)
a real line xff'fa) and x 2 /'(k 2 ) are conjugate imaginaries
for
while, for s
be
123
3, 4, 5, 6,
x82f'(ks )
positive.
is
Hence fa and fa may
must lie between
The
cyclical order.
real or conjugate imaginaries; if real, they
the same pair of consecutive k8 taken in
hyperbolic segments are of the same nature as in la, but their
number
is
only thirtytwo and there are only four real principal
asymptotic curves fi = ks k it ks or k6
Since for a real line xx and x2 are conjugate imaginaries, only
sixteen out of a group of thirtytwo lines are real. Hence there
.
are only eight real nodes and eight real tropes, namely
0, 12, 34,
56, 35, 36, 45, 46.
At
/t
fj,
ifi,
points of an elliptic segment, fa and fa have the form
and the complete boundary is described when fi = and
takes
all real
As
values.
of the pencil of tangents
and remains
returns to
varies the point of contact
\,
at a node, alternately
cycle of real values xx and
&3> %i, #5, #6
fi
(fi, fi,
have
all
cc2
after
fi
has
made the complete
recover their original values but
changed their
its original
(fi, /i)
X) describes an arc of a conic
signs.
position only after
The
/jl
pencil of tangents
has taken every real
value twice and then the point of contact has described four arcs
and passed through four nodes. Hence the elliptic segments have
four sides and four corners each.
The collineations which interchange the nodes at the ends of a
Hence the nodes 0, 34,
side are either 34 and 56 or 45 and 63.
12, 56 taken in this order are the corners of two elliptic segments,
being joined consecutively by hyperbolic segments so also are the
;
nodes of the one other real tetrad of the same groupset, namely
Similarly the tetrads of nodes 0, 45, 12, 63 and
35, 54, 46, 36.
35, 43, 46, 65 are connected
by
elliptic
segments.
Each tetrad
forms a fourcornered piece of the surface having two elliptic faces
and four hyperbolic edges. Each of one groupset is attached at
two nodes
to each of the other groupset.
is taken on
Consider the degenerate case when one node
the quadric 123.456. Of the harmonic conjugates of the real
generators through
trices
with respect to the six pairs of direcnamed after them, only (12) of
lying on the surface and
one system and (45) (56) (64) of the other system are real, since
the correlations associated with a^ = 0, and x2 = 0, separately, transform a real line into an imaginary one. Hence the nodes in this
REALITY AND TOPOLOGY
124
[CH. XI
lie at the intersections of two and four generators,
a diagram of their relative situation in the general
degenerate case
and
this gives
case.
IIP
Hi
mm
Fig. 16.
As
in case I each piece
cut in pairs of points by three
is
directrices; there is this difference to I
a that each
elliptic
segment
contains a point where the two inflexional tangents have fourpoint contact, but are imaginary.
These points
lie
by
fours
on
the directrices (12).
II
b.
One hyperbolic
sheet.
Consider next the case when
(kg
/j,,)
(ks
fi
respectively.
2)
(ji^,
/j, 2 ,
are +, +,
The
it is
whence
""4
and
fa
fi 2
> A;s
real
only
if
the signs of
or the opposite, for s
cyclical order of
impossible for
imaginaries,
jt6
are
A.)
Ml 3
and
>
>A;4
/^
The tangents
= 3,
4, 5,
magnitude must therefore be
""6
to
""
fat
be equal, or to be conjugate
there are no real nodes.
The
surface
is real,
and everywhere hyperbolic there are four real principal asymptotic curves, and the discussion is the same as in I b except that
there is only one real sheet
for of thirty two associated points
only sixteen are real, corresponding to the different signs of ws xit
#, #6 and these can be reached by continuous variation of the
elliptic coordinates fi lt n 2 and accordingly lie on the same sheet.
;
Equations of II a and II
b.
The case when two fundamental complexes are imaginary can
be obtained from the case when all are real by the substitution of
If at the same time we substitute
(x, #y, ih, t) for (cc, y, z, t).
(a, #/3, $y, S) for (a, /3, y, B) in the equation I a we obtain the.
equation II a representing a surface having nodes at the points
(, /3, 7. S),
(*ft . s
>
h)>
(*7> S,
a *),
>
(S, 7, /3, a),
FOUR REAL AND TWO IMAGINARY COMPLEXES
7273]
125
and twelve others obtained from these by changing the signs of
pairs of coordinates.
If
8 are real, eight of these nodes
a, /3, 7,
are real.
The
substitution of
(ioc,
iy, z, t) for (%, y, z, t) in
II a has the
interchanging k 5 and ke and hence produces II
effect of
evident that
all
By
the nodes are imaginary.
It is
b.
reasoning similar to
it may be deduced that II & is a
from the fact that the directrix x = 0, y = cuts II a in
that employed in the case of I b
real surface
two real
points.
TWO REAL AND FOUR IMAGINARY COMPLEXES.
73.
III.
is
In
this case
two pairs of complexes are imaginary.
There
here no subdivision as the question of order of magnitude does
not
arise.
The
condition for a real tangent
is
that (k x
y^) (k fa)
x
and (k2 /Aj) (k2 /i2 ) must be of the same sign hence ^ and fa
may be imaginary, but if real do not occur alternately with kx and k2
and so may be equal. Of thirtytwo associated points only eight
;
are real since the signs of conjugate imaginary line coordinates
must be changed simultaneously.
There are therefore four real
nodes and four real tropes. Two singular conies cut in two nodes
whose parameters are kx and k2 terminating two hyperbolic seg,
ments, and the other two conies cut in the other two nodes, so that
there are four hyperbolic segments altogether.
There are two
elliptic
segments, each bounded by four arcs of conies and four
nodes.
The complete
surface consists of two pieces each con
taining two hyperbolic and one elliptic segment, and attached to
each other at the four nodes.
Consider the degenerate case when one real node is taken on
the quadric 134 256. The imaginary directrices (34) belong to
.
one reguhis and (56) to the other.
the figure
The
surface
is
represented in
Fig. 17.
showing that there are two pieces attached
nodes.
to
each other at four
REALITY AND TOPOLOGY
126
The equation
(ix,
$y, ih,
four real nodes
a,
j8,
of III
for (x, y, z,
t)
7, 8),
are
Four
obtained from
and
(ia, $fi, ily,
(a, /S, 7, 8),
la by
substituting
S) for (, $, 7,
/S, 7,
(a,
8),
XI
8).
a, /3,
The
7, 8),
forming a Gopel tetrad.
SIX IMAGINARY COMPLEXES.
74.
IVa.
is
t)
[CH.
nodes, two real sheets.
when the three pairs of complexes
There are two subcases. In IVa lcjc^, ks kiy ks ke
are pairs of conjugate imaginaries.
For a real tangent the line
coordinates must be pairs of conjugate imaginaries, and this is
Lastly we consider the case
are imaginary.
the case
when the
elliptic coordinates
If one
imaginary.
()
of
thirtytwo
fj^^ are real or conjugate
associated lines is real
namely those obtained from (%lt x2 x3 x4 x5 ass ) and
(ixlt  ix2 ,ix s ixit ia;s ixe ) by changing the signs of pairs of conjugate imaginary coordinates. Since it is possible to have ^ = 2
there are four real nodes and four real tropes, and these are not
incident since the parameters of the six nodes on a conic are all
imaginary. A hyperbolic segment is funnelshaped, bounded by
one whole conic and one node. Each asymptotic curve consists of
four branches one in each hyperbolic segment having a cusp at the
node and touching the conic boundary. There are no principal
asymptotic curves. There are two elliptic segments, one bounded
by the four conies and the other by the four nodes. The wave
surface is an example of this case.
then eight
are,
/j,
IV b.
Four
nodes, no real sheets.
In the second subcase IV b the coefficients ks have the form
r{~ x em\ r3 eie*, r3~ eiis rs eie , rf^e*,
r^
and if one of thirty two associated lines is real, then eight are.
There are no real pencils of tangents to the surface but the line
1
(X, X, n, /a) is real provided X and /a
are conjugate imaginaries,
and this line either passes through a node or lies in a trope.
Hence there are four real nodes and four real tropes, but the
surface
As
is
imaginary.
in preceding cases the topology
can be inferred from the
degenerate case of a repeated quadric.
The equations of IVa and IV b can be obtained by means of
The four real
the imaginary linear transformation already given.
nodes form a Gopel tetrad.
CHAPTER
XII.
GEOMETRY OP FOUR DIMENSIONS.
LINEAR MANIFOLDS.
75.
By
is to be understood a method
numbers and equations, in which the
'geometry of four dimensions
of reasoning about sets of
'
of elementary algebra are clothed in a language
analogous to that of ordinary geometry. Although we cannot
principles
bring our intuition to bear directly upon fourdimensional con
we can do so indirectly by creating an artificial intuition
based on analogy. Many theorems in algebra are readily extended
from three variables to four and the new theorems are expressed
figurations
by an extension of ordinary geometrical nomenclature. Thus
when we have learned the laws of extension we can reason
new nomenclature without being
in the
able to attach an actual
geometrical significance to the terms used.
A
is
set of five coordinates
called a point (x).
It
xlt 2 x3 x4 xs> used homogeneously,
be determined by four independent
,
may
linear equations.
Two
(\x
4
points (x) and (y) determine a single infinitude of points
a line. Three points (x) (y) and (z) determine
fiy) called
points (\x + fiy + vz) of a plane provided (z) is not
determined by (x) and (y), that is, if the three points are not
Similarly four points determine the oo 3 points of a
collinear.
space provided they are linearly independent, that is, if they
do not lie in a plane. On eliminating X, /x, v, p from the five
the
oo
equations
tv
we obtain a
= \x + fxy + vz + pt
s
(s
= 1,
single relation linear in the coordinates
a space consists of
linear equation.
all
The
2, 3, 4,
ws
5)
so that
the points whose coordinates satisfy one
line, plane,
and space are
linear manifolds
of one, two, and three dimensions respectively.
The
following table gives the
number
of equations and points
required for the determination of the various elements
128
GEOMETRY OF FOUR DIMENSIONS
element
[CH. XII
7576]
LINEAR MANIFOLDS
129
The meaning of projection, like that of intersection, may be
extended to space of higher dimensions. If A, B, G are manifolds,
to project B from A on to C means to construct the smallest
manifold containing both A and B and then find its intersection
with G. Thus if A is a point and G a space the projection of B
has the same dimensions as B; so too if A is a line and C a
plane*.
CONSTRUCTION OF THE 15 6 CONFIGURATION FROM
SIX POINTS IN FOUR DIMENSIONS f.
76.
We
now proceed
to
show that the general 16 6 configuration
in ordinary space can be obtained by the operations of section
and projection from the figure of
points in space of four
six
dimensions.
Let the points be called 1, 2,
which may be called 12,
fifteen lines
3,
...,
They determine
5, 6.
and twenty planes 123 ...,
4,
and fifteen spaces 1234.... The line 12 cuts the opposite space
These fifteen diagonal points lie by
3456 in a diagonal point P12
.
threes on fifteen lines, for
12
Pu P
56
lie
in each of the spaces
3456, 1256, 1234, and any three spaces have a line in common.
transversal lines and may be denoted by
Thus the line (12.34.56) contains the points
Again the three lines (12.34.56), (12.35.46),
P 12 Pa, Pm(12 45 36) meet in the point P12 and are contained in the same
These
are
(12.34.56),
called
etc.
space 3456.
Corresponding to a partition of the six points into two sets
e.g. 123.456, we get nine diagonal points
of three,
Pys
* 36
*26
"l5
Pss
Pie
14
34
24
which are seen to lie upon six transversal lines corresponding
Hence the space
to the rows and columns of the scheme.
determined by any four of these points which are linearly independent contains the remaining points and is called a cardinal
It follows that the six
space and denoted by (123 456).
transversals are three generators of one system and three
generators of the other system of a quadric surface lying in
.
* VeroueaeSchepp, Grundziige der Geometrie von mehreren Dimensionen.
t Eiohmond, Quarterly Journal, xxxi, 125 xxxiv, 117.
;
H.
GEOMETRY OF FOUR DIMENSIONS
130
the
cardinal
[CH. XII
There are ten cardinal spaces and the
lie by sixes on ten quadrics contained
space.
transversal lines
fifteen
in them.
Consider now the threedimensional figure obtained by cutting
cardinal space is
the transversal lines by an arbitrary space.
cut in a plane and the six transversal lines in it in six points
We have therefore a 15 6 configuration of fifteen
lying on a conic.
points lying by sixes on ten conies.
This
the configuration
is
of nodes and tropes of a general fifteennodal quartic surface, and
we
see presently that
shall
surface
this
the section by an
is
arbitrary space of a certain quartic variety or curved threefold
when
Further,
space of four dimensions.
in
the section
is
by
a tangent space, one more node appears and we have the general
Kummer
surface.
ANALYTICAL METHODS.
77.
In space of four dimensions a point
represented by five
is
homogeneous coordinates, but it is convenient to use
xa xt xs x6 connected by the relation
,
six,
xlt
as2 ,
#!
The equation
which
is
xs + UiXt + u s x5
+u
xe =
when the same quantity
values we assume
added to the
is
fix their
"i
The
+ xt + x5 + xe = 0.
is
+ v^x + u
unaltered
To
ocs
of any space
UiXx
coefficients.
+# +
coordinates
+ + w + + + u = 0.
2
may be
so chosen that the equations of the
and x2 = xs = xt = x6 = x6
and similarly for the other points.
Hence the space 3456 has coordinates (1,1, 0, 0, 0, 0) and
equation x, = x2
from this it may easily be proved that the
point
are 1^
in space coordinates
in point coordinates,
diagonal point
]2
is
x1 = xi
m1 + m2 = 0;
the transversal line (12 34 56)
.
,1^ =
m3 + m4 = m5 m6 = 0;
= Ui = m3 = Ui =  = w,
= xi
xs = x4 xB = x6
,
is
is
and the cardinal space (123 456)
!
x3 = xi = xi = xe
#!
+ # + x = Xi + x + x = 0.
2
ANALYTICAL METHODS
7678]
An
131
arbitrary space
+a
a^xx
x2 + as xs
+a
xt + as xs + a6 tee =
cuts the transversal line (12 34. 56) where
.
(a x
a 2 ) xl
+ (a + a ) x + (a + a ) x =
3
so that the equation of the point of intersection can be expressed
in the equivalent forms
+ M _ M + 4 _ + U
+a a +a a +a
Ml
(h
'
In this way we have a symmetrical expression of the 15 6 configuration.
THE 16 6 CONFIGURATION.
78.
ways to select a group of five transversal
which contain all the diagonal points and of which no three
belong to the same cardinal space
in fact these groups correspond to the six pairs of cyclical arrangements of five figures,
or to the six pairs of mutually inscribed pentagons whose edges
It is possible in six
lines
are the intersections of five planes
to 23456 or 24635
Thus, corresponding
(p. 10).
we have the group
of transversal lines
12.36.45
13.42.56
14.53.62
15.64.23
16.25.34.
We
proceed to prove that when 2<z ss
intersection of these lines with the space
The
plane containing the
first
= the
2as #s =
three points
five
points of
are coplanar.
determined by the
is
three tangential equations
U1 + U2
a1 + a
Now
1l
_U +U
~ +a
S
U 2 + Uj
'
a2 + a4
_U +m
s
ae
+ as
+a )
2
(a 2
+a)
4
(at
ui + u1
at + a
x
_ u +u
a + az
'
= 0, 2as = 0, we have
+ a ) + (a + a ) (a + a ) (a + a ) =
3
in consequence of 2a
(!
'
whence, by the preceding equations,
(!
+ U 2)
(w 2
leading to 2,u s3 =
Q,
( 4
+ Mi) + (s + Me)
(e
+ u)
+U)=
3
this result
the plane through the first
Hence when the single condition 2a/
two.
(b
shows that
three points passes through the other
and the symmetry of
is satisfied,
92
the
GEOMETRY OF FOUR DIMENSIONS
132
[CH. XII
configuration of fifteen diagonal points contains six sets of five
coplanar points
on
in addition to the ten sets of six points each
a conic.
One
"ZagXs
of the last six planes
= 0,
= 0, the
"2usXs
is
the intersection of the two spaces
uB being given by the preceding equations.
It is evident that those equations are still satisfied if the
replaced by us + Xas
showing that the
six
X being arbitrary.
new planes meet in
us are
SMs ga =
>
the point of which this
is
It follows that
the tangential or space equation, so that this point completes, with
the
Kummer
the
fifteen,
configuration of
sixteen
points
and
sixteen planes *.
GENERAL THEORY OF VARIETIES.
79.
here given to the threefold locus of x *
points which satisfy a single relation.
The simplest variety is
The name
when the
variety
is
relation is linear
and then the special name space
is
used, as an abbreviation for linear threefold space.
Let the equation of a variety in four nonhomogeneous coordinates be
f(x,
y, z, t)
= 0,
then in the neighbourhood of any point
approximation is given by
(x
y,
z', t')
of
it,
first
 x) Bf/dx + (y y') dfldy' +(z z') dfjdz + (t t') df/dt' = 0,
1
which, by analogy,
{as, y', z',
Change
the
and
the
tangent space at the point
coordinates
i
in a series of
variety
called
is
t').
considered,
(x',
is
so that the origin is the point
the tangent space; then, on expanding
homogeneous polynomials, the equation of the
is
= t+f {x,y,z,t)+f
3
+...
and it is seen at once that the section by the tangent space t=
is an ordinary surface in that space having a node at the origin.
If x', y, z' are any small quantities of the first order, {x y', z 0)
is, to this order, a near point on the variety and the tangent
,
space
is
xdfjdx'
+ ydfjdy' + zdfjdz +t = 0,
small quantities of the second order being omitted. This cuts the
space t =
in the polar plane of the point (x, y', z') with respect
* Similar analytical treatment can be applied to the theories of lines on a cubic
and Pascal's figure. See Richmond, Camb*
surface, bitangents of a plane quartic,
Phil. Trans, xv, 267.
Cremona, Math. Ann. xm, 301.
GENERAL THEORY OF VARIETIES
7879]
to the cone
= 0.
Thus
133
planes which lie
and pass through the point of contact may
tangent planes and cut the variety in a curve having
2
(#, y, z, 0)
all
the oo
in a tangent space
be called
a double
A finite
point.
number
of tangent spaces, equal to the
class of the variety, pass through an arbitrarily given plane,
in
the case of
two of the
a tangent plane,
and
tangent spaces
coincide.
points in which any line x/x' = y/i/
The
variety are given
f(kx', ky', kz,
The degree
= z/z' = t/t'
cuts the
by the equation in k
of this equation
is
let')
= 0.
the order of the variety and
One
equal to the order of any space section.
root
is
zero,
is
and
a second is zero if t' = 0. Hence all the oo * lines in a tangent
space which pass through the point of contact may be called
tangent lines.
Of these, oo 1 have threepoint contact and are the
generators of a quadric cone f2 = 0, t = 0, and of these six have
fourpoint contact, being the intersections of the two cones
= 0,
0)
z,
= 0,
/,(*, y,
z,
theorems can be reciprocated.
these
All
/,(*, y,
equation of a space
0)
= 0.
If
the
general
is
Ix
+ my + nz +p + qt =
a single equation
< {I,
m,
n,
p,q)=0
regarded as the tangential equation of a variety in space
It is unnecessary to repeat all the
I :m:n :p
q.
theorems. The equation of the point of contact of the tangent
may be
coordinates
space
(I',
m,
n,
d^/dl'
is
p', q')
+ m d<j>/dm + n d<j>/dn' + p d<j>/dp' + q fy/dq = 0.
is
singular point of a variety is one at which the tangent space
The conditions that (as, y, z, t) may be a singular
indefinite.
point of /=0 are
df/dx
Thus
if
= 0,
the origin
df/dy
is
= 0,
d//dz
= 0,
df/dt=0.
a singular point the equation has the
form
=/,(*, y,z,t)
+/,+
....
by every space through the origin is a surface having
lines through the origin have threepoint contact.
a node,
Let the
oo 1 singular points is a singular line.
of
A locus
The
section
oo
GEOMETRY OF FOUR DIMENSIONS
134
= y = z = 0. Then we must have df^jdt =
tangent to this line be x
and the variety
[CH. XII
is
0=Mz, y, z)+f (x,
3
y, z, t)
+ ....
is a surface for which the nodal
section by Ix + my + nz =
cone at the origin breaks into two planes.
A singular tangent space is one whose point of contact is
indefinite.
Taking this to be t = 0, and the general equation
The
of a plane to be
Ix
+ my + nz + t+p =
the tangential equation of the variety must be
=$
The
m,
2 (I,
p)
(f><)
+ ....
approximation, instead of being linear and giving
first
a single point of contact,
is
fa
and represents a quadric
now
(I,
that
therefore infer
quadratic,
m,
n,
p)
all
= 0,
We may
surface.
tangent space has contact at
We
n,
say that the singular
the points of a quadric surface.
this surface appears
repeated
in the
complete section by the tangent space.
SPACE SECTIONS OF A CERTAIN QUARTIC VARIETY.
80.
Returning to the six homogeneous space coordinates us connected by the relation
+ u2 + u3 + ui +u + u =
6
consider the variety of the third class
ls
whose tangential equation
uf + u2s + uss + w4s + u53 + u63
In consequence of
(u 2
2g =
is
= 0.
this can be written in the
form
+ w ) {u + u ){u + u ) + (m + u ) (m + M ) (Ui + u ) =
3
and in nine other similar forms.
Ml
This equation
is satisfied
by
+ = 0, u + u = 0,
2
by every space containing the transversal line
Hence the oo 2 spaces through this line are all
(12.34.56).
tangent spaces, and of them oo 1 have a given point of it for point
of contact.
On taking an arbitrary space section we get a point
on a surface at which there are oo x tangent planes hence the
point is a node on the section.
Thus we see that the section
of the variety by an arbitrary space is a surface having fifteen
nodes, the sections of the transversal lines
these have been
that
is
to
say,
SPACE SECTIONS OF A CERTAIN QUARTIC VARIETY
7980]
shown
by
to lie
sixes
135
on ten conies, the sections of the cardinal
spaces.
It follows
immediately from the general theory that the point
(ma) = has coordinates whose
of contact of a tangent space
differences
are
proportional
ur2 us2
to
Hence the only
etc.
singular tangent spaces are given by
which have ten possible solutions of which one
U1 = U 2 = U3 =
!/,
=M =U
5
touches the variety at
Hence each
the cardinal space (123.456).
or
is
cardinal space
the points of a quadric surface, and
all
we get a plane touching the fifteennodal surface along a conic containing six nodes. We recognise
in the arbitrary space section
that the section must be a quartic surface with fifteen nodes and
ten tropes.
By
taking a tangent space for the space of section
new node
the
at
point
The
of contact.
section
is
we get
now a
Kummer surface and therefore six new tropes must appear.
Now in a tangent space (w) to a variety there are six planes
through the point of contact such that four consecutive spaces
In the present case the
through them are tangent spaces.
variety is of class three and so every space (u + Xv) through any
one of these six planes
2w3 = 0, 1u v = 0,
The
a tangent space.
is
= 0,
conditions are
and show that the point of
contact of (u + \v) lies in (u) and therefore in the plane. This
plane has therefore oo points of contact with the section, and
in this way the additional tropes are accounted for.
The point equation of the variety 2ws3 = can be written in
2
2.uv 2
2,1?
a great
{(#!
many
X.2 )
ways.
One
 (x + X4  5 3
is
}*
+ {(#3  *4) ~ (#5 + #6 ~ 1 ~ a*)"}*
+ {(x  x f  (x + x x  x y\i =
2
in which no use
xs
There are
is
made
of the linear relation which connects the
fifteen equations of this type.
It
may be
written
{xxj + ( yyy + (zzy=o
where x
...
are the equations of six cardinal spaces
the identical relation connecting them
x+y
and
is
+ z + x + y + z' =
(1).
GEOMETRY OF FOUR DIMENSIOXS
136
[CH. XII
From the point equation of the greater variety it is evident
that the cardinal spaces are singular tangent spaces. The general
tangent space
(xt'/xo)*
is
+ (#/<)*
+ (y7y)* y + (2/0/2/0')* Vo + (V/*o)* ^
+ (VV)W =
(<,<>')* + (yo2/o')* + (^V)* = 
where
so,'
(2),
Equations (1) and (2) are of the same kind as those of 55
which must connect the six tropes of a fourteen nodal quartic
surface in order that two additional nodes may appear.
The
present chapter gives an interpretation of those equations by
means of space of higher dimensions.
By
starting with
reciprocal processes
the reciprocal variety and proceeding by
we
shall
arrive at reciprocal results.
On
account of the duality of Rummer's surface we reach it again by
this method.
Thus instead of taking a space section of the
we may take the reciprocal cubic variety and the
enveloping 'cone' from any point. Thus any space section of
this 'cone' is a surface having ten nodes and fifteen tropes, the
quartic variety,
reciprocal of the fifteennodal quartic surface.
of the
'
cone
'
is
on the variety, the section
is
When the vertex
Kummer surface.
CHAPTER
XIII.
ALGEBRAIC CURVES ON THE SURFACE.
81.
GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE.
In preceding chapters Rummer's surface has been considered
as a figure in space of three dimensions, mainly in relation to
various systems of points, lines, and planes.
The surface has
been treated as a whole, being uniquely determined by its singularities, and these form a configuration which is conveniently
studied first and independently. Now, however, we must turn
our attention to the surface as a twodimensional
field of
and consider the curves which can be traced upon
further subdivision of the subject arises according as
geometry,
it.
we
Here a
investi
gate the curves in the neighbourhood of a particular point, or
treat them in their entirety, the former branch is especially
devoted to transcendental curves and those defined by differential
equations the latter to algebraic curves.
:
An
surface
important step
when the
made
is
in the
theory of an algebraic
coordinates are expressed as uniform functions
of two parameters, for we are then able to transfer theorems in
plane geometry to the surface. Every curve on the surface has an
equation, expressing a relation between these parameters. The
properties of a surface depend largely upon the kind of function
which must be employed
in the
detailed study of these functions
parametric expression, and a
is
therefore necessary.
another method of investigating algebraic curves
based upon their characteristic property of cutting every algebraic
surface in a finite number of points; for a surface of sufficiently
high order can always be found to contain the whole of such
But there
is
a curve, and the curve
common
may
to several surfaces.
therefore be defined as the part
In this way a curve
is
defined by
several equations taken together, which have the advantage of
ALGEBRAIC CURVES ON THE SURFACE
138
The
being algebraic.
chief difficulty in the theory
general two equations do not
suffice, for
a given curve
[CH. XIII
is
that in
may
not be
the complete intersection of any two surfaces; the simplest example
It is possible, however, to arrange
of this is the twisted cubic.
that two surfaces
may
pass through the curve and cut again in
straight lines only, as in Cayley's representation by
The given curve
cone and a monoid*.
is
means of a
projected from the
x=y=z=0
by a cone f(x, y, z) = 0, the vertex being
chosen so that not an infinite number of chords pass through it.
point
arbitrary values of x:y:z determine one value of the remaining coordinate, which must therefore be given by an equation
of the form
*X ( x y> z ) = ylr 0. V> z )
Then
>
representing a monoid surface.
The complete
cones
f= 0,
^=
0,
intersection consists
may be common
of the given curve and any lines which
to the
$ = 0.
of algebraic curves on the general Kummer surface
by the remarkable theorem that a surface can be
found to touch Rummer's surface all along any given algebraic
curve lying thereon and have no further intersection with the surface
the curve, counted twice, is the complete intersection of two surfaces
and can therefore be represented by the equation of the tangent
The theory
is
simplified
When
surface alone.
it
may happen
the
Kummer
surface
that curves exist on
it
for
is
not perfectly general
which the theorem
is
not true.
82.
ALGEBRAIC CURVES ON RUMMER'S SURFACE.
Let the equation of Kummer's surface
<J>
be written as
in
10
in the form
<^2 +
so that the point
2(f) 3
< 4
0,
x=y=z=0
is a node at which the tangent
curve on the surface can be represented
as the intersection of a cone
cone
is
$2 = 0.
Any
f{x, y,z)
and a monoid
tx (*,
y, %)
= $ (*,
y, z)
after excluding the lines common to/= 0, % = 0, i/r = 0. If/ were
a general polynomial in its arguments the curve of intersection
with <& would have the special property of cutting each generator
* Collected Papers, v,
7.
ALGEBRAIC CURVES ON RUMMER'S SURFACE
8182]
139
monoid representation would fail. It is
/ must have in order that the
complete intersection may break up into two, projections of each
of the cone twice, and the
required to find what special form
other from the node.
On
solving the quadratic for
fat
find
V fa fa fa
2
language of two dimensions, /=
so that, in the
which
+ fa =
we
is
a curve
upon
fafa
has a rational value in terms of the point
\/fa
coordinates, namely fatylx + fa
an d the problem of finding all
!
the algebraic curves on the surface
/=
plane curves
and
F G
2
polynomials in
x, y,
factors
all
necessary
a, factor of an expression
and G are homogeneous
where
F
(fa
fafa),
z; but this does not define the form of/ with
Now
sufficient precision.
factors
that/ must be
sufficient condition is
of the form
the same as of finding
is
having the preceding property*.
fa
fa<j>
the product of six linear
is
x1 x2 x3 xi x6 xe
let
be the product of some of these
and T the product of the rest, then /must be a factor of
;
F X H Y.
fafa = is a
an expression of the form
2
Since the sextic fa
the conic
2
fa = y xz=0, we
adopt a
having special reference to this conic
for x. y, z respectively.
Then
and
fa
Let
U be the
and substitute
of coordinates
1,
\ (u + v),
uv,
(p. 18),
= (u k ) (v  k )
fafa = IIa;s =U (u ks) (v k ) =
xs
hexagram circumscribing
new system
Il say.
product of six of the twelve factors of IT involving all
let
be the product of the remaining factors, so
the six kg and
u and v are interchanged further let P be
any polynomial in u and v and let Q be what P becomes when
u and v are interchanged. Then the equation
that
U becomes Fwhen
P*UQ?V =
uv
is
integral
and symmetric
in u,
v,
and therefore represents a plane
algebraic curve upon which V'ZTFhas the value
and
this value,
It is a
being symmetric in
(P2 U+ Q>V)/2PQ,
u, v, is rational in x, y, z.
remarkable theorem, and one not easy to prove
that every curve upon which
wx
directly,
is rational is ex1 xi x3 xi xB x6
pressible exactly in one of these two forms, that is, without
Hudson, Math. Gazette, July, 1904,
p. 56.
ALGEBRAIC CURVES ON THE SURFACE
140
[CH. XIII
provided klt k 2 ,k 3 kt k 5 ke are perfectly general.
none of the curves
extraneous
factors,
Expressing
this differently,
F XG Y=0,
3
or
is
uv
reducible except into curves whose equations have one or other
of these
At present we assume
two forms.
this
theorem in order
to be able to enunciate subsequent propositions with complete
generality.
can however be verified for the curves of the
It
different orders taken in turn.
The equation P*TJ Q2 F=0 represents two curves on the
surface which are distinguished by the pairs of equations
P>JU+QJV=0\
+ 4> = ^UV)
t
<f>.2
P</U+Q</V=0)
and
fct
^VzM"
In what follows the equation of the surface will be understood to
be given in a definite irrational form, and then a single equation
P *JU + Q*/V= determines a single curve on the surface.
We have next to show that the equation of any curve can be
expressed in terms of products (with repetitious) of the sixteen
radicals >Jxs \/xrst where, as on p. 19,
,
xs
#123
This
is
= (u k ) (v  ks ) = UgVn
(s
= 1,
2, 3, 4, 5, 6),
= #456 = (V^MjjlW^,, + t/vMVaUiUiUgyftu V)\
evident for the symmetrical equation
F*JX + G*/Y=Q.
The expression is not unique on account of numerous
among the radicals, of which an example is
identities
Vf t/xusOCua = (ihUqVaVg + VjV2 U U ) Vw + (w 4 + V U4 ) */ X& F
The case of the equation P*/U+ Q^V=0 may be illustrated by
(M
an example.
3 i>
e,
Let
then
(u
 v) 2 fa  k ) */x^cm = (*. h) (k  K) (K  K) W U+ V V),
(u
v)
(fa
^3) fa V#2aVi23
234
=  (fa  k ) (fa  fa) (fa k^)(u>jU+v*J V),
3
and so on, whence the general pair of terms
be found.
in
P*/U+ Q^V can
THE EQUATION OF A CURVE
8283]
141
THE EQUATION OF A CURVE.
83.
With the assumption made at the end of 82 it has been
shown that, when the equation of the general Kummer surface <3>
is
given in an irrational form with a definite sign to the radical,
curve on <i> is expressible by an equation of
every algebraic
the form
x Vpi +
x
\ \/p
...
= o,
where ps is a product of some of the sixteen linear forms here
denoted by oc s x rst and \s .is numerical* We shall generally use
,
to denote the left side of this equation, so that
= 2\ p
s
distinguished by the following three properties.
is
From the nature of the coordinates used, must be homogeneous in the linear forms. The number of factors in any product p s is called the order of , or of the equation.
After substitution for the radicals in terms of u and v every
term of the equation takes the form P*JU+ Q\/V, [/"and V being
the same for
all
the terms.
If the equation is of the first kind,
0, U and V are symmetric in
and hence p s contains an even number of factors of the
type %rst if the equation is of the second kind U becomes V when
u and v are interchanged, and p s contains an odd number of factors
of the type xrst
Accordingly is distinguished by its parity^
being even or odd. The parity of a product and of an equation is
formerly written
u and
F*JX + GV Y =
',
thus defined in reference to a particular set of six elements
As a rule it is not the same for all the sixteen
>\, #2> x 3, xi, t>, esets,
that
is,
it
is
not an invariant property under the group of
sixteen collineations, and accordingly does not imply any essential
geometrical distinction.
It
is,
however, an important feature
when the factors of a product
which is even, or a Rosensuch
as
x^x^x^x^
form a Gbpel tetrad
which
is
odd (see pp. 78, 79). It
x
a!
tx
hain tetrad such as x 2 s im
count
the number of factors
parity
to
estimating
is customary in
result when the
a
different
leading
to
of
x
instead
of the type xs
rst
when
it is invariant, as for instance
order
is
odd.
Thirdly,
we have to
u and
tution in terms of
of radicals
*JU and
tJV.
consider the property that after substi
term of involves the same pair
one of the radicals in the case of
v every
Now
would involve no assumption and might therefore be more satisfactory to
with equations of this kind and show that they represent algebraic curves.
But we could not be sure of dealing with every curve in this way. To complete the
theory transcendental methods are required (cf 104, below).
*
It
start
ALGEBRAIC CURVES ON THE SURFACE
142
[CH. XIII
is the same as in V'x^x^x, \/ w u i u i u u i u s from which it follows,
both for even and for odd equations, that if in the terms of
every factor of type x rst be replaced by the corresponding product
V#m
xr xs x
all
it
the terms will contain one of two irrationalities whose
product
is Va;T a;2 a;3 a; 4 a;5 a;6
This gives an important rule for finding
which products may be associated in the same equation it may
be expressed in another way. The suffixes of the sixteen linear
forms are the symbols of dualistic transformations obtaining the
tropes from one node the laws of compounding these transformations are simply that every two are permutable and that
.
11
22
33
= 44 =
55
= 66 = 123456 = identity.
Accordingly we have the rule that if the operations represented
by the suffixes of the factors in any term of are compounded,
the resulting operation
of this operation
is
the same for every term.
The symbol
called the characteristic of the product, and
is
of , and of the equation
one which
= 0.
Of the
sixteen characteristics
distinguished from the
rest, namely the
symbol of identity, dd, or 0. The remaining fifteen characteristics
may be treated alike and will be denoted by twoletter or twofigure symbols.
It will be necessary to speak of the parity of
a characteristic a/3, and by this is meant the parity of xa p.
An
equation of order n and characteristic a/3 is written
there
is
is
()
=0.
a/3
When
parity, and characteristic are given the
belong to a certain family. In order to construct the general equation of a given family we pick out from
among the sixteen radicals all possible products having the given
equation
order,
the
order,
is said to
parity,
and
characteristic,
linearly independent
with undetermined
84.
retain only those which are
on the surface, and combine these linearly
coefficients.
GENERAL THEOREMS ON CURVES.
Let p lt p2 ... be all possible products of n of the sixteen linear
forms satisfying the conditions of having given parity and characteristic; we consider the family of curves represented by the
equation of order n
= \ Vpi + X, \fpi +
= 0.
GENERAL THEOREMS ON CURVES
8384]
Let
and '
The product '
family.
{W' + ^t\') 'JpiPi',
same
if
we replace the coordinates by
u and
<1>.
means of the equation
<1>
their
2 is
the
and integral on the
rational
is
Hence the equation '
surface of order n cutting
Vpip
v the irrational part of
vx x2 x3 xi x5 xg which
as
surface
be the equations of two curves of the
is rational except for terms of the form
but
expressions in terms of
143
can be rationalised by
0,
and then represents an algebraic
<E>
in the
= 0,
curves
'
only.
Hence we have the theorem
Any
two curves of the same family form the complete intera surface of order n.
section with
By making
the two curves coincide we infer
Every curve
is the
curve of contact
tangent surface of order
Every curve
is
is
sole intersection with
n.
The equation of the tangent
This
ising by means of <I> = 0.
complete intersection
and
surface
is
= 0,
2
of order 4m
after rational
n and
of order
is
therefore the
hence
of even order 2n.
2mic curve meets a 2nic
curve
where
The 2mn
nic surface tangent along the latter.
it
meets the
intersections of
curve and surface all lie on <E> and are contacts except at nodes.
Hence any two curves of orders 2m and 2n intersect at an even
number, 2p, of nodes and at mn p other points.
Let S1 = 0, 82 = be the surfaces of order n, tangent along two
of the same family, and let 8 =
be the
curves i = 0, 2 =
surface of the same order containing both curves then, in virtue
;
of <&
= 0,
/ = #!, 2 =
a
whence
S& = S
in virtue of
2,
<>
0,
,,
= ,
and therefore we have the
identity
SAs/Sf + G*.
O=
being a surface of order 2n
4,
the remaining intersections with 8.
remarkable results can be deduced.
The
first
two theorems of
S2
along
this identity
many
touching Sj and
From
this section are particular cases of
the following
is
Every equation of even order, even, and of zero characteristic
rational on the surface and represents a complete intersection.
ALGEBRAIC CURVES ON THE SURFACE
144
For, from the first
two
qualifications it follows that the
of factors of type V^ia in any term
is
the same as
V x x6
teristic
on
when
is
number
even hence the irrationality
is
by wx^^ or by
which
has zero characV^s
this factor is replaced
But every product
[CH. XIII
of V#i
Va^a^a^
either rational or is
which
is
rational
<I>.
From
this
theorem
deduced another which greatly facilitates
is
the study of curves on the surface, namely
Every curve and not more than four singular conies together
form a complete intersection.
For, if =
is the equation of any curve, it can be rationalised
by finding a product p of the same parity and characteristic whose
order has the same parity as that of
then *Jp =
is an
equation of even order, even, and of zero characteristic and therefore, by the preceding theorem, is rational on <3> and represents an
and the singular
algebraic surface cutting <J> in the curve =
We shall show in the next section,
conies in the tropes p = 0.
by examining all the different cases that arise, that p need not
contain more than four factors.
Thus when a family of curves is given by the equation
;
= X
the
first
^=
g
step in the investigation
= 0,
is
to find a product
=P
order such that, in virtue of
<E>
function of the coordinates
then the family of curves
>Jpps
of least
a rational integral
is
cut out
by the family of surfaces
X
having
P + X P + ...=0
1
for base curves the singular conies in
The curves
less
the tropes
therefore form a linear system whose dimension
than the number of linearly independent
s,
after
p = 0.
is
one
making
* = 0.
use of
The
surface
p=
2\ P =
8
passes through
all
the nodes in the
and, for general values of \, .through no others.
Since the tangent cone at a node is of the second order, the
planes
0,
complete intersection passes an even number of times through
a node and hence the curve =
passes through only the nodes
common to an odd number of the tropes p = 0. Thus all the
curves of a family pass through the same nodes, which are the only
base points of the linear system.
8485]
CLASSIFICATION OF FAMILIES OF CURVES
145
CLASSIFICATION OF FAMILIES OF CURVES.
85.
We shall now examine all the different kinds of equations and
the least products which are required to rationalise them, and
show that the number
shall
exceed
of factors in this product does not
four.
When
the order is given, there are thirtytwo different families,
with each of the sixteen characteristics the equation may be
even or odd. We shall find that families of even order are of
for
three distinct kinds and those of odd order are of only two distinct
kinds.
n be even and the characteristic zero. If
even it has been proved to be rational on <E>, and the curves
are the complete intersections with surfaces of order \n, and have
no base points, and in general pass through no nodes.
If % is odd the factors of p form an odd or Rosenhain tetrad,
First let the order
""
for
is
example
x^x^x^x^,
and then %*Jp
intersection with a surface of order
Since an odd
conies.
number
represents the complete
\n +
2 passing through four
of the planes
p=
pass through
each node, the curves of the family pass through all the nodes.
If the characteristic is not zero it determines two associated
each consists of four pairs, giving four even and four odd
products of order two and the same characteristic. /j may be
rationalised by means of any one of the four products of the same
octads
and then we have surfaces of order \n + 1 passing through
These two conies have two common nodes and the
remaining nodes on them form an octad and are the base points
parity,
two
conies.
of the system.
Secondly
let
cording as
In this case
the order be odd.
may be
characteristics
all
sixteen
treated alike but a difference arises ac
and %ap have the same parity or
are both even or both odd,
afi
t/x a p
is
not.
rational on
If they
and
represents the complete intersection with a family of surfaces of
The six nodes on this
order (n + 1) passing through one conic.
conic are the base points of the system of curves.
If a p and x^ have opposite parity, the factors of the product
p are three linear forms which with x^ make up a Rosenhain
odd and has zero characteristic it
is
follows that p and a/3 have opposite parity, and ^^p =
family
with
of
intersection
a
rational, and represents the complete
One
surfaces of order (n + 3) passing through three conies.
tetrad.
Then
since
pxap
is
10
ALGEBRAIC CURVES ON THE SURFACE
146
node
is
common
to all three, they intersect again
three nodes, and pass singly through nine others.
[CH. XIII
by pairs
in
The curves
therefore pass through ten nodes obtained by excluding six co
planar nodes from the whole configuration.
We
can exhibit these results clearly in a table showing the
and the
which the curves of each family pass.
a typical Rosenhain tetrad and suppose
typical rationalising factors for the various equations
number
We
of nodes through
take x xl2 xu xw for
that x
is
even and xu
is
odd.
8586]
LINEAR SYSTEMS OF CURVES
numbers
147
of conditions for an mic surface to pass through one,
two, three or four conies of a Rosenhain tetrad are given by the
following table.
conies
ALGEBRAIC CURVES ON THE SURFACE
148
properly choosing
equation
Sin4
the
may be reduced
number
[CH. XIII
of arbitrary coefficients in the
to
(m + l)(TO + 2)(m + 3)(m3)(m2)(ml) = 2m2 + 2.
In this put m = $(n + t), subtract 1 for homogeneity, subtract
also the preceding number of conditions, and we find for the
dimension of the linear system of curves
i (n
+ ty + 1  tn  (i 2 + s) =
+ i (n  s).
2
We notice
incidentally that the number of linearly independent
even
and odd, of any given characteristic, is m2 for if
both
ap
an even a p in) vanishes at 2s nodes, then an odd ap tn) vanishes at
the remaining 16 2s nodes.
Next to find the degree of the system we recall that each
curve is the curve of contact of a surface of order n, and any other
curve of the system cuts this surface at 2s nodes and touches it at
{n)
all
the remaining points of meeting; hence the
intersections
number
of variable
is
\{2ni 2s) = n?s.
The
deficiency of a curve in space
surfaces
again in
many ways
may be
defined in various
draw through the curve two
of sufficiently high orders ft and v, which will intersect
one or more other curves. The surfaces of order fi + v 4
It is possible in
ways.
to
passing through the residual intersection are called adjoint to the
given curve, and although their definition leaves them to a great
extent arbitrary, yet they cut the curve in a definite linear series
of groups of points.
If
arbitrarily chosen.
the present case
the deficiency of the curve, each
is
of these groups consists of 2p
This series
we put
section consists of the
surfaces of the family.
//.
= 4,
points of which
p 1 may
called the canonical series.
is
= \ (n + 1)
be
In
the residual inter
conies and the adjoint surfaces are the
Hence the curves of the system cut any
one of them in groups belonging to the canonical series, and on
equating the two expressions for the number of points in each
group
2p2 = n
or
s,
pl + t(n8),
so that in this case the deficiency
is
equal to the dimension.
CHAPTER
XIV.
CURVES OF DIFFERENT ORDERS.
87.
QUARTIC CURVES.
After the sixteen singular conies, which are easily seen to
the theorems and formulae of the preceding chapter,
the simplest curves on the general Kummer surface are quartics,
illustrate
represented by equations of order two.
Taking
first
the characteristic to be zero, the equation,
if
even,
represents the complete intersection with a surface of order one.
We
have then the family of plane sections, of which only four are
In attempting to form an equation of zero
characteristic we see from the multiplication table of the group
that the two factors of each term must be equal, and the product
is simply one of the sixteen linear forms.
This shows that the
equation cannot be odd, and therefore no quartic passes through
linearly independent.
all
sixteen nodes.
Corresponding to any other characteristic there are two families
of curves passing through
complementary octads of nodes. Each
is cut out by a pencil of
family includes four pairs of conies and
The curves of the
quadrics containing any one of the four pairs.
same family have no variable intersections since only one passes
through an arbitrary point.
The curve cuts each trope of one octad at four nodes and each
.
trope of the (complementary) octad at two nodes and therefore
touches the latter at one point.
touches each trope of an octad.
Two
common
Hence
also the inscribed quadric
curves of associated families do not pass through any
Hence one touches the quadric inscribed along
nodes.
the other in four points, and the curves have four variable inter
CURVES OF DIFFERENT ORDERS
150
sections.
The two
[CH.
XIV
inscribed quadrics touch in four points and
therefore cut in four generators.
Let S1 = 0,S2 = be the quadrics inscribed along two curves of
be the quadric containing both
the same family, and let S =
curves; then the equation of Kummer's surface can be written in
the form
which
is
the envelope of the quadric
S + 2\S + X'Si = 0.
1
This
along any curve of the family.
surface touches 3>
If two fixed quadrics A, B have quadruple contact with a variable quadric
passing through a fixed point, the envelope of G is a Kummer surface.
[Humbert, Rendiconti di Gircolo Matematico di Palermo, XI, 1.]
At a common point of two quartics of associated families the two tangents
[Darboux, Comptes Rendus, xcn,
are conjugate directions on the surface.
p. 1493.]
Two
curves of
families
with
different
characteristics
pass
through the tetrad of nodes common to two octads. Hence of
the eight intersections of one with the quadric inscribed along
the other, four are at these nodes and the rest are at two points
of contact.
In this case there are two variable intersections and
the inscribed quadrics touch at two points.
From the incidence
diagram we see that if two octads have a common tetrad, the two
remaining tetrads together form an octad; accordingly a third
family exists such that three curves, one from each family, cut by
pairs in three tetrads of nodes. The three inscribed quadrics have
double contact with each other.
We shall now prove that the
nature of the intersections of these quadrics depends upon whether
the tetrads are even or odd.
Tt is necessary to
characteristic, say 12.
form the equation of a family with given
Possible terms are
from one octad, and
yx13 x23
Va;14 a;24,
^^u^,
v&ioze
from the associated octad. But since the equation of the surface
expressible as a linear relation between any three terms from
each set of four, only two out of each set are linearly inde
is
pendent.
QUAETICS THROUGH THE SAME EVEN TETRAD
8788]
151
QUARTICS THROUGH THE SAME EVEN TETRAD.
88.
Select any four linear forms x, y,
tetrad, as in the
diagram
and
79)
forming an even or Gopel
z, t
then the quartics
(cf.
p.
\/xt
+ 'X"Jyz = 0,
'Jyi
+ pt/zx^O,
pass through the four nodes represented by the same symbols as
x, y, z,
t,
We
<t>
forming an even tetrad.
know
may be
that Vxyzt
is
rational on
xyzt
and
<j)
<I>,
so that the equation of
expressed in the form
is
2
<$>
a quadric containing four
conies.
The equations of
the inscribed quadrics are obtained, by squaring and rationalising,
in the forms
A=xt + 2\<p + \*yz = 0,
B = yt + 2/a</> + fi?zx = 0,
/j.AXB = (/ax Xy) (t Xfiz),
whence
showing that the complete intersection of A and B lies in two
planes, and is therefore two conies.
There is a third family of quartics passing through the same
four nodes, namely
>/zi
+ v\/xy = 0,
and the corresponding inscribed quadric
+ v*xy 0.
vB  fiG = (yy  fiz) (t  /mvx)
\CvA = (\z  vx) (t  v\y)
fi,A\B = (/MX \y) (t  \fiz),
C=zt+2v<t>
Then
and the quadrics
5 = 0, 0=0
touch at two points on the line
yyt
In
this
is
way we get
contact of A, B, O,
^ =0)
fivx = 0]
'
three lines joining the pairs of points of
in the point
and they meet
x/\
= y/fi = z/v = t/Xfiv
.each line cuts two opposite edges of the tetrahedron
aoyzt
= 0.
CURVES OF DIFFERENT ORDERS
152
[CH.
XIV
The product
(y/xt
is
rational on
<t>,
+ X Vyz) ( Vyt +
whence we
/j,
*Jzx) (*Jzt
+ v V#y)
infer that a cubic surface
S=
can
be found such that
where
a quadric.
is
lying on 8;
ABC = S*+G,
A and G
Evidently
touch along a conic
in fact
G = 4sfivA (t + fivx vXy X/az)
= 4>v\B (t pvx + v\y \/iz)
= 4>\/j,C (t fivx vky + Xfizy.
2
Hence A, B, G are all circumscribed about the same quadric
and the three conies of contact and the three quartics (of contact
with ) lie on a cubic surface.
The planes of contact of A and B with G intersect in the line
joining the points of contact of
with B, proving once more that
the three lines are concurrent.
Conversely, the three lines through an arbitrary point (X,
X/if) cutting pairs of opposite edges of
/a,
v,
an even tetrahedron of
tropes, cut
of \,
If A', B', C", are obtained from
in twelve points which include the six points of
contact with a quadric G; the remaining six points are points
of contact of a quadric G' obtained from G by changing the signs
fi, v.
A, B,
in the
same
way, so that
A' = xt 2X0 + yz,
GG' = 4>^v{AA') = 4\<p,
quadrics G and G', A and A',
then
and the pairs of
etc. intersect in
quartics lying on <J>.
Changing the signs of /i and v merely permutes the quadrics
so as to form the two sets AB'C, A'BC.
The points of contact of
A and B A' and B are collinear with (X, n, v, X/ji>), and so on.
In this way we obtain four points of concurrence forming a tetrahedron desmic with the tetrahedron of reference.
Thus a Gbpel tetrahedron of tropes and any desmic tetrahedron
determine six quadrics having twentyfour points of contact lying
by fours on the six edges of the latter tetrahedron. The quadrics
can be arranged in three pairs, each pair determining a pencil
which includes the quadric passing through the conies of the
Gbpel tetrahedron. The eight sets of three quadrics, one from
each pair, are circumscribed to eight quadrics, and the twentyfour
conies of contact lie in the faces of the desmic tetrahedron.
',
QUARTICS THROUGH THE SAME ODD TETRAD
8889]
153
QUARTICS THROUGH THE SAME ODD TETRAD.
 89.
Consider now families of quartics passing through the same
odd or Rosenhain tetrad of nodes (p. 78).
The last three rows in the diagram of incidences taken in
pairs determine three octads of tropes and three families of
quartics
z'
any two of the octads contain a common Rosenhain tetrad of
nodes through which the corresponding families pass. Now since
each family
of only one dimension
is
we may take
the equations
to be
+ X >Jy'z' = 0,
\/zx + fi "Jz'x = 0,
*Jxy + v vx'y' = 0.
*Jyz
Further
<> = 0,
V zz' are linearly connected in virtue of
take the irrational equation of the sur
\/%x', "Jyy',
and we may
'
face to be
Vaac'
*Jyy' 4 'Jzz'
0.
Then, by squaring and rationalising, the three inscribed quadrics
are
= yz + X (xx yy zz') + X'y'z'
 \y') + \xx' = 0,
B = (z  fix') (x  /iz') + fiyy' = 0,
G = (x vy) (y vx') + vzz = 0.
1
= {y Xz )
(z
Hence
and
G contain
the line
vy' fiz' = 0)
fiy + vz fivx' = 0j
x
and have no other commou generator.
intersection
generators
is
lie
a cubic
curve.
Since the line
it,
common
in the plane
\x + fiy +
meets
Hence the remaining
Evidently the three
vz
common
= fivx' +
to
vKy'
+ Xfiz
and G must touch
where
it
the two variable points of intersection of the quartics are
the points of contact of a bitangent to
4>.
CURVES OF DIFFERENT ORDERS
154
As
XIV
before, the product
(\/yz
is
[CH.
rational on
+ \ >Jy'z') (\/zx +
<E>,
/j,
*Jz'x')
{*Jxy
+ v \/x'y')
and therefore the three quartics form the complete
and the three quadrics are
intersection with a cubic surface 8,
circumscribed about a quadric
in
consequence of the identity
ABC=S*+G<S>.
Since
contains the curves (A,
and
Since through any point of
<J>
S,
<E>), it
touches
S and
<t>
of
at
therefore lies
common to (AB), (BC), (CA)
which therefore consists of their
Since the three lines
it.
on
on
(B,
a bitangent of the cubic surface
is
entirely on
lie
<1>),
Hence the common generator
their points of intersection.
they must also
lie
plane repeated.
six bitangents
can be drawn, and
there are thirty octads, it follows that five quartics
families cut in the
five characteristics
same two
points.
from different
It is easy to see that the
together with the zero characteristic
make up
a set representing six coplanar nodes.
90.
SEXTICS
THROUGH
SIX NODES.
There are thirtytwo families of sextic curves on the surface,
for each characteristic.
They are of two kinds sixteen are
cut out by surfaces of order \(n + 1), = 2, passing through a conic,
and the other sixteen are cut out by surfaces of order ^ (n + 3), = 3,
passing through three concurrent conies.
Taking a family of the first kind, the quadric is subjected to
five conditions in containing a given conic, and there remain five
two
arbitrary coefficients.
Hence the family contains
five
linearly
independent curves.
The sextic meets one trope at six nodes and every one of
the fifteen others at two nodes and two points of contact.
The
inscribed cubic surface cuts the one trope in a plane cubic passing
through the six nodes, and every other trope in a conic and the
line joining the
Two
conic
two points of contact.
quadrics through the same conic cut again in another
hence two sextics of the same family have six variable
The corresponding inscribed cubic
intersections lying on a conic.
surfaces touch at these six coplanar points
cuts
them
in the
Among
and therefore the plane
same cubic curve.
the quadrics cutting out the family there are fifteen
containing the four conies of a Gopel tetrad, for
when one
conic is
8990]
THROUGH
SEXTICS
NODES
SIX
155
given, three others can be found in fifteen ways to complete a
Gopel tetrad, and
four
all
on the same quadric. Hence fifteen
into three conies, and in each case
lie
sextics of the family break
up
the inscribed cubic surface breaks up into the three tropes con
By
taining the conies.
any
the last paragraph these three conies cut
sextic of the family in six coplanar points, other than the six
common
nodes, and the three lines in which this plane cuts the
three tropes
lie
been shown
to
also
on the inscribed cubic surface, which has thus
contain fifteen lines, one in each of fifteen tropes,
lying by threes in fifteen tritangent planes.
If Si
= 0, S2 = 0,
are the cubics inscribed along two sextics of
S=
the same family, and
we have
the cubic containing both,
is
the identity
where G is a quadric. Now we have seen that 8^ and S2 touch
one another at the six variable intersections of the sextics and
therefore also touch S and <1>.
Hence S contains the common
plane cubic section of $j and S2 and G must be this plane
,
repeated.
We
is
proceed to demonstrate these theorems analytically.
Let x, y, z, t, be a Gopel tetrad of linear forms; then, since xyzt
an even product of characteristic zero, the five products xyz, xH,
yH, zH,
teristic
same
are linearly independent and of the
and
The equation
parity.
through the six nodes in the trope
"Jxyz
order, charac
of the family of sextics passing
t
is
+ (ax + by + cz+ dt) \Jt = 0.
Write the equation of Kummer's surface in the form
<E>
so that
<j>
is
= xyzt 
2
<f>
=
Then
the quadric containing the tetrad of conies.
the linear system of oo
sented by the equation
<j)
quadrics cutting out the family
+ (ax + by+cz + dt) t = 0.
$ = we
By squaring and rationalising using
is
repre
find the inscribed
cubic to be
$,
= xyz +
2 (ax
+ by + cz + dt)(j> + (ax +
Obviously one tritangent plane
ax
Another sextic
by
(a'x
+ cz + dt)
is
+ cz + dt =
of the family
*J~xyz
by
b'y
0.
is
+ c'z + d't) s/t = 0,
= 0.
CURVES OF DIFFERENT ORDERS
156
and the common points
and
consisting of a conic
XIV
on the curve
a'x + b  b'y + c 
(a
Write
lie
[CH.
c'z
+ d d't) \/t =
a plane section of
3>.
for abbreviation
= ax + by + cz + dt
2 = a'x + b'y + c'z + d't,
2u
+ u*t
$! = xyz
=
S xyz + 2w $ + ut
S = xyz + (u + u )(j> + uiu 2
S' = (wj ujf (xyzt $ )
Si.S
/Sj  S = (wj w )
+ i t)
=
S S (u uj
+ w t),
Wj
then
t
1 (j>
whence
1,
and
(</>
(<f>
showing that the three cubics have a common curve in the plane
i = 2
Two sextics from different families cut in two nodes and eight
other points. We may take their equations to be
.
s/x
= 0,
\Jy
= 0.'
+u
\fxzt + u
*Jyzt
They both
on the quartic surface obtained by rationalising
lie
+ u^x) (v'xzt + w s/y) 0
= 0.
that is, on
zt(<j) + v x + u y) + i^u^
If in particular we take u^ = w = u, the points of
V zt
'
(\/yzt
<j>
lie
intersection
on the two quadrics
<fi
<f>
+ ux = 0,
+ uy = 0,
cutting in two conies in the planes u (x
y=
y) =
0.
The
conic in
two common nodes and four other common
points.
The conic in u = lies on = 0, and cuts <J> in four pairs
of points on the four conies in xyzt = 0.
Hence the remaining
cuts
<3>
in the
<f>
four
common
and u
We
points are the points of contact of the lines
with $.
are thus led to consider the four sextics
t
+ u\lx = 0,
/3 "Jztss + n\jy = 0,
a vyzt
+ u*Jz = 0,
8 ^xyz + uJt = 0,
<y"Jtxy
u=
= z,
9091]
THROUGH TEN NODES
SEXTICS
157
cut out by four quadrics, one through each conic of a Gbpel tetrad,
and the same plane section of the quadric containing the four
conies.
They pass by threes through the pairs of points u = 0,
= 0, etc., and the remaining twentyfour intersections lie
x = 0,
by fours on the six concurrent planes
<j)
xja
SEXTICS
91.
The
= y/8 = z/y = t/S.
THROUGH TEN NODES.
sextics of a family of the second kind are cut out
conditions for the cubic
pendent
is
sixteen, leaving
by cubic
The number
surfaces passing through three concurrent conies.
of
four linearly inde
surfaces.
The
sextic passes through the ten nodes not lying
on the trope
which completes the Rosenhain tetrad, and therefore has three
contacts with this plane and one contact with every other trope.
The same is true of the inscribed cubic which therefore contains
three lines lying in one trope.
Two
curves of the same family cut at ten nodes and at four
The two inscribed cubics Si, S2 and the cubic S
other points.
containing both curves,
further
we have the
all
touch
<!>
at the
same four
points,
and
identity
SA S> = (?*,
where
is
a quadric.
This shows that the twentyseven
common
Now
points of the three cubics are singular points on G<& = 0.
the four contacts count for sixteen intersections and ten more are
at ten nodes of
be a node on G.
<f>
there remains one not lying on
Hence G is a
<J>
which must
S.2 along
cone circumscribing Si and
the residual cubic intersections with S.
Again points common to S, G, <l> are singular points on
These include the four points of contact of Si and Sa
SiS2 = 0.
<>, each counted four times, and four more on each
sextic
which are therefore nodes on Si and Si.
with
lie
Since the inscribed cubic has four nodes the lines joining them
it and therefore touch <E> where they cut the sextic
entirely on
of contact.
Hence
inscribed in
<&,
lines
the
four nodes are
whose edges touch
<.
the corners
The
on the nodal cubic surface and the
six
six
of a tetrahedron
edges are torsal
pinch planes cut the
surface in three lines cutting the pairs of nonintersecting torsal
lines
and lying
in a tritangent plane.
The cubic
possesses only
CURVES OF DIFFERENT ORDERS
158
[CH.
XIV
one tritangent plane beside those containing the nodes, and in the
present case this has been shown to be one of the tropes of <t>*.
In order to construct the nodes of an inscribed cubic surface
we have only to take any three points on one conic of 3> and draw
the six tangent planes through pairs of them. These planes meet
Thus an inscribed tetraby threes in the four points required.
hedron whose edges touch <E> can be constructed in oo 3 waysf.
OCTAV1C CURVES THROUGH EIGHT NODES.
92.
There are thirtytwo families of three different kinds. The
the family of complete intersections with quadric surfaces,
and is of no particular interest. It is represented by an even
equation of order four and zero characteristic, containing ten
first is
terms.
Corresponding to each of the thirty octads is a family of
by cubic surfaces passing through any one of the
There are eight terms
four pairs of conies containing the octad.
in the equation.
Four linearly independent curves of the family
are given by a pair of conies and any plane section let xt =
and
yz =
be two pairs of planes containing the octad, then the
octavics cut out
equation of the family can be written in the form
(ax
+ by + cz + dt) *Jxt + (a'x +
or
u^fx~t
b'y
+ c'z + d't) 'Jyz = 0,
+ v*Jyz=0.
Evidently the four points in which the line
on
u=
=v
meets
4> lie
this curve, so that the line is a quadruple secant.
The octavic passes through an octad of nodes and therefore
meets each of an octad of tropes at four nodes and two contacts,
and each trope of the associated octad at two nodes and three
contacts.
The
inscribed quartic surface has eight tropes of
<I>
for
tritangent planes.
The planes
xyzt
the equation of
<I>
form a Gopel tetrahedron of tropes and so
taken to be
may be
=$
xyzt
and then the inscribed quartic
v?xt
having the quadruple secant
is
2uvc{>
for
+ v*yz =
a double line
there
is
a pencil of
quartics
xyzt <f> 2
*
+ \ (u'xt +
2uvcj)
+ v*yz) =
These theorems are easily proved by taking the tetrahedron of nodes for
+ Humbert, Liouville, ser. 4, ix, 103.
reference.
OCTAVIC CURVES THROUGH EIGHT NODES
9193]
all
touching
<3>
along the same curve.
By
159
writing this equation in
the form
(yz
+ Xm ) (xz + Xu ) 2
we
see that the surface has eight nodes,
for
X=
common to three quadrics
the nodes coincide by pairs, at the pinch points on the
oo
nodal line w
The
 Xw) =
!
(</>
= =
v.
fact that the inscribed quartics
have eight nodes on the
octavic curve of contact can be inferred from the identity
S& =S*+ G,
for each of the twelve common points of contact of Si, S2 <& is
counted four times among the points common to S, G, <J>, leaving
,
sixteen singular points
Sj
S2
and
of
S + GQ> =
2
to be divided between
93.
OCTAVIC CURVES THROUGH SIXTEEN NODES.
The remaining family
is
represented by an odd equation of
order four and zero characteristic, and the curves are cut out by
The surfaces
must be made to pass through the four corners of the tetrad
and six more points on each conic, making twentyeight conquartic surfaces through an odd tetrad of conies.
now a quartic surface contains thirtyfive terms, but for
purposes of intersection these terms are connected by one linear
ditions
relation
(I>
= 0.
Hence the family contains
linearly
six
inde
We
have already had examples of these curves
in the principal asymptotic curves (p. 62) and in the curves of
pendent curves.
contact of inscribed
Two
Kummer
surfaces (p. 66).
curves of the family cut in eight points other than nodes;
at these points the inscribed quartics touch.
The
identity
shows that the sixtyfour points common to Slt S2 S are singular
Of these, thirtytwo are accounted for by the
points on G& = 0.
intersections of the octavic curves and sixteen are at the nodes
of <J>; hence the remaining sixteen are nodes of G, which is
Similar reasoning shows that Si
therefore a Kummer surface.
,
and <S2 have also sixteen nodes each. Hence the quartics touching
a given Kummer surface along an octavic curve passing through
Of these inscribed
the nodes, are also Kummer surfaces.
quartic surfaces ten have double lines and are Pliicker surfaces
all
(p. 68).
Hence the
octavic has ten quadruple secants.
CHAPTER
XV.
WEDDLE'S SURFACE.
BIEATIONAL TRANSFORMATION OF SURFACES.
94.
S be any four homogeneous polynomials
same degree. The equations
Let P, Q, R,
x, y, z,
t,
of the
in
X/P = YjQ = Z/R = T/S
establish a correspondence
(x, y, z, t)
other,
and
between two spaces: to any point
T) of the
n variable points common
of one space corresponds one point (X, Y, Z,
to the latter correspond the
to the three surfaces
P/X = Q/Y=R/Z = S/T.
when n = 1. The correspondence
is then
unique and therefore rational both ways, and the equations constitute a rational transformation between two spaces *.
special case occurs
If (x, y,
z, t)
describes a surface
fix,
y, z, t)
= 0,
the corresponding point (X, Y, Z, T) describes a surface
F(X, Y,Z,T) =
into
which/
is
transformed.
The plane
sections
aX + bY+cZ+dT=0
correspond to the linear system of curves cut out on
by the
family of surfaces
aP + bQ + cR + dS =
0.
In general those curves of this system which pass through an
assigned point do not all pass through another point accordingly
to a point (X, Y, Z, T) on F determined by three planes corresponds on f the unique point common to the three corresponding
:
curves of the linear system.
In other words the correspondence
* Cayley, vn, 189.
BIRATIONAL TRANSFORMATION OF SURFACES
94]
between the two surfaces
the equation
for x, y, z,
/=
is
unique, and therefore by means of
the equations of transformation can be solved
rationally in terms of
161
X, Y,
If a simple point of
is
For
Z, T.
the transformation between the two surfaces
this reason
called birational.
is
a multiple base point,
we have
approximately
X/Pm = Y/Qm = Z/Rm =
TjSm
and the denominators can be expressed as rational
nomials in y/x;
hence the base point
rational mic curve.
More
is
miic poly
transformed into a
generally, if the point has multiplicity
m' on y, the corresponding curve is of order mm'. For example,
a node on f at which the tangent cone is expressible parametrically in the form x = y/d = z/ff> is transformed into a rational
An
2mic curve.
Pm = 0,
Qm =
important exceptional case is when the cones
= 0, Sm =0 have a common generator; taking
0, i?TO
x = 0, y = 0, we find that after substitution the highest
power of 8 is # 2m_1 and in this case the node is transformed into
a rational (2m l)ic curve.
Thus, for example, a node through
which all the surfaces of the family pass is in general transformed
into a conic, but if it lies on a simple base curve it is transformed into a straight line.
Next consider a simple curve on f which is a simple base
curve for the family of surfaces. At any point of it, the tangent
line being x = = y, P
Qu R, 8r are linear in x and y only,
and for near points on f, y/x has one value, so that the ratios
There is therefore a unique correPi
Qi Si 8 are definite.
and
its
locus
represents the base curve. More
sponding point on F,
curve
is
m'ple on f, y/x has m' values
if
a
mple
base
generally,
The locus of
giving m! points on F lying on a rational mic.
these points is a simple curve on F corresponding to the multiple
this to be
'
curve
on/
If only oo
surfaces of the family pass through a simple curve
three of them to be P, Q, R: then the whole
The
transformed into the single point
multiplicity of this point is equal to the number of ratios
onf, we may take
curve
X Y
:
X=Y=Z=0.
is
satisfying
aX + bY+cZ=0,
corresponding to points (x, y, z) in the neighbourhood of the
curve, and this is equal to the number of points in which
with
the curve cuts the residual intersection of /=
aP + bQ + cR = 0.
h.
11
weddle's surface
162
XV
[ch.
The transformation depends on the linear system of curves
and not on the particular surfaces cutting them out, for these
may be modified by means of the equation / = 0. The degree
or number of variable intersections of two curves of the system
is equal to the number of intersections of two plane sections of
the new surface, that is, its order, and further, for the transformation to be possible the dimension or multiplicity of the
system must be at least three.
= Z=Q correspond on
Let the points x = y = z = 0,
the two surfaces / and F. Put t=\, T=l, and let P, Q, R, S
be expanded in series of homogeneous polynomials in x, y, z, of
degrees indicated by suffixes, thus
X =T
P = P + P,+
1
...,
Q = Q + Qs + ...,
R = Ri + i2 + ...,
S = $<> + $! + $ +
1
since (0,
is
0,
0) is not
.,
supposed to be a base point.
From
this it
obvious that the tangent cone at a multiple point on
linearly transformed
is
by the equations
X/P = Y/Q^Z/R^l/Sc
x
into the tangent cone at the corresponding point on F, so that
corresponding points have the same multiplicity.
Next,
let (0, 0, 0)
be a simple base point, so that
S = 0.
We
now have approximately
z/p1 r/Q = z/A =
1
and by means
i/s1
/ the four
denominators can be expressed as linear functions of x and y.
Hence to the pencil of tangent lines to / correspond the points
of a straight line on F, that is, a rational curve of order 1, as
was shown
before.
95.
Among
of the equation of the tangent plane to
TRANSFORMATION OF KUMMER'S SURFACE.
the birational transformations of a given surface the
most useful are those in which the order of the new surface is
as low as possible, and also the order of the surfaces employed
in the transformation.
We require a linear system of curves
having as many intersections as possible at base points so we
shall consider only those systems which are contained in the
:
9495]
TRANSFORMATION OP RUMMER'S SURFACE
163
number
of variable
families of curves already investigated, the
being further diminished by fixed multiple base
intersections
points *
The base
may be
points of the system
of three kinds, ac
cording as they are at base nodes of the family, or at other nodes,
In the first case, if the curve be cut out
by a surface passing through It 1 concurrent (t= 1, 2, 3) conies
and having a (A, + *)ple point, the multiplicity of the point on
the curve will be 2\ + 1.
To find the number of coincident
intersections of two such curves we employ the principle of
continuity, and vary the two surfaces until each tangent cone
breaks up into planes t 1 of these planes may be supposed
to contain the tangent lines to 2t 2 conies, and may be thrown
off.
We are left with \+ 1 planes through the node of which one
Hence the number
passes through the tangent line to a conic.
of coincident intersections of the two curves is
or at ordinary points.
2\2
2X
1,
and the consequent reduction of degree is 2\(A + 1).
In the second case, the curve must have a point of even
multiplicity
2fi,
The number
system
is
of orders
number
the
fi,
the surface cutting
of coincident
/jl,
that
2,
it
out having a
/xple point.
two curves of the
intersections of
of coincident intersections of three cones
is,
2fi?,
and
this is the corresponding re
duction of degree. Thirdly, a pple point at an ordinary point
gives v* coincident intersections.
Now if the curves of the family are of order 2n and pass
through 2s base nodes, the degree of the family
hence the degree of the new system is
N = tf 
 2 (2X2 +
2N = 2n*  2
A
is
(2X
l)2
birational transformation of
by means
s (p.
148)
2\)
 2
2fi?
 %v\
16 2s
2s
so that
162S
2s
is
 2
(2/*)
 22^
Kummer's
2
.
surface
is
effected
of four linearly independent curves of this system,
therefore possible only
if
the dimension
is
and
sufficiently great.
determine the number of conditions that curves
In the first
of a given family may have assigned singularities.
we require
treated
alike,
be
nodes
may
base
case, since the 2s
out
on
Kummer's
cut
curve
that
the
conditions
the number of
l)ple
point
a
(2X
=
have
may
+
surface
F=0,
a
surface <E>
0, by
It is necessary to
* Cf.
Humbert,
cendental methods.
who obtains the same results by transSee also Hutchinson, Amer. Bull, vn, 211.
Liouville, ser. 4, ix, 449,
112
weddle's surface
164
at a node on a conic through which
for origin
fcple
and
Take
passes.
the tangent to the conic for axis of
point the
number
XV
[ch.
of conditions for a (k
this
node
If
z.
has
l)ple point
is
K* + l)(*+2)l,
since the term zh
is
absent.
Hence when
is
arbitrary, subject
only to the condition of passing through the conic, the number
of conditions for a (X+l)ple point
is
(\+l)(X + 2)(X + 3)(X +
But
as far as the curve of intersection
.F=0 may be
cients in
F+G^> = 0,
replaced by
of the terms of order
<X
i(xi)x(x +
We
of these conditions.
the coefficients in
In the second
<
fi
1) conditions
among
terms of order
3>,
and
< p1
for this the
in
F + G<&
terms of
of
be used, leaving
J/t(/.+ l)0*
conditions
i)
X(X +
are left with
case, the
may
concerned the surface
and the arbitrary coeffi2 may be used to satisfy
alone.
must disappear at a node of
order
is
l).
among the
+ 2)i0*2)0tl)/* = A*
coefficients in
alone.
In the third case, the terms of order < v 1 in F + 0<t> must
disappear at a simple point of <3>, and for this the terms of G
the number of conditions for F
of order ^ v 2 may be used
;
is
therefore
148) the dimension of the family is 1 + (w 2 s), and
therefore the dimension of the new linear system determined by
Now
(p.
the preceding three kinds of base points
D = l + Hn s)2\(\ + l)2
Hence
Now
for
JV
t /J?t^v(v +
 2D =  2 + %v.
the transformation to be possible
and therefore
is
iV> 4 +
Xv.
we must have
l).
9596]
TRANSFORMATION OF KUMMER'S SURFACE
165
QUARTIC SURFACES INTO WHICH KUMMER'S SURFACE
CAN BE TRANSFORMED.
96.
The
shows that when N=4>, 2z> = 0, and therefore
for a birabional transformation (of Kummer's
last result
every v=0, that
is,
surface) into another quartic surface, all the base points must be
at nodes*.
Further, the multiplicities at the base points must
be
(p.
163) so chosen that
16
2s
2 (2\ +
and then the dimension
l) 2
2s
+ S
(2/^)
of the system
2w2
8,
exactly
3, so that in this
case the linear system of curves by which the transformation is
effected is complete, for it is determined entirely by its base points.
We
of
now attempt to satisfy
s, that is, we have to
is
this equation for different values
n and
express 2n2
odd squares and 16 2s even squares.
Taking n = 2 we must have s =
as the
= 0,
/a
0,
sum
of 2s
and we get the
general linear transformation.
Taking n
3,
=3
s
1
the only possible
and the transformation
is
way
+ 1 + 4=
by
effected
is
10,
sextic
curves passing
through six coplanar nodes and having a double point at one
other node
these are cut out by quadrics through one conic
and a seventh node.
This is projectively equivalent to in;
version f.
Next, taking n =
1
3, s
= 5,
(ra
4) = 10.
+ 1+1 +
The
orjly
way
is
+ 1 + 1 = 10,
and the transformation is effected by sextic curves passing
through ten nodes and cut out by cubic surfaces through three
concurrent conies. This leads to the surface which is considered
in the next section.
It may be remarked that this is the only
case in which the family of curves receives no additional base
points, for the condition for this is
2s
or
*
= 2 <y  4),
= s + 4,
This theorem follows at once from the fact that the rational curve into which
is transformed, lies on an "adjoint" surface of order
a base point, not at a node,
Ni.
t Neither, Math. Ann. in, 557; Cayley, Proc. London Math. Soc. in, 170;
Papers, vn, 230.
Coll.
weddle's surface
166
and since
can have only the values
admissible value
Any two
is s
giving n
5,
[ch.
0,
1,
3, 4, 5, 8,
xv
the only
= 3.
of the cubic surfaces cut in three conies and
variable cubic curve passing through the point of concurrence
of the conies.
This curve cuts each conic in two other points and
therefore of its nine intersections with a third cubic surface, eight
are on the base curves, leaving one variable intersection.
This
is
a particular case of the lineolinear transformation
considered by Cayley (Coll. Papers, vu, 236) and Neither (Math.
Ann.
in, 517).
weddle's surface*
97.
We
into which Rummer's
consider in detail the surface
transformed by means of sextic curves passing through
ten nodes (cf. p. 157). These will be termed even nodes (123 456),
surface
now
<3>
is
'
'
distinguished from the remaining six
etc. as
6 which are
lie in the trope x
in the notation of pp. 16, 18, 140.
the general theory of transformation, the six odd nodes, not
being base points, become nodes on the new surface W, while the
'
and
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
odd,'
By
ten even nodes become straight
The trope x meets every
contact.
Hence the conic
lines.
sextic of the family at three points
in x is transformed into a curve
Since it
which cuts every plane section of
in three points.
passes through the six nodes of
it must be the unique cubic
curve determined by them.
Any other trope, x12 meets every sextic at four nodes and one
point of contact.
Hence the conic in xw is transformed into a
straight line joining the two nodes on
corresponding to the two
nodes common to x and x 13
Through each of the ten even nodes (123 456) pass two sets
of three tropes %%,, x31 x12 and xK xM xi5 each of which forms with
# a Rosenhain tetrad. The two sets of three conies are reducible
sextics of the family and correspond to the plane sections of
through the nodes 1, 2, 3 and 4, 5, 6 respectively. The node
(123 456) is transformed into a line which must lie on both of
of
these planes.
of
Hence
two planes containing
to the ten even nodes of
contains the ten lines of intersection
all six
nodes, and these lines correspond
Rummer's
* First mentioned by T. Weddle, Gamb.
surface.
and Dubl. Math. Jour.
(1850), v, 69, note.
weddle's surface
9697]
We
167
have now established the following correspondence between
the two surfaces.
weddle's surface
168
birational transformation
between
surfaces through the six nodes of
<!>'
and
[ch.
xv
W by means of quadric
W*.
In order to reverse this transformation we require the curves
<E>' corresponding to the sextics on <E>, that is the reciprocals
The enof the developables circumscribed to <& along a sextic.
veloping cone from any point touches <t> along a curve of order
on
twelve, passing through all the nodes
sextics,
points.
sections.
triple
= 18
Of these ten are at nodes, leaving eight variable interHence the class of the developable is eight. Of the
xa touches the
tropes,
and cutting any one of the
along which a cubic surface can be inscribed, in3.12
sextic at three points
plane of the developable;
and
is
therefore a
every other trope touches the
Hence the corresponding curve on <!>' is an octavic
which passes through all the nodes, and has a triple point at one
of them.
This is the case of birational transformation when
n = 4, s = 8 the number 2n 2 8, = 24, must be expressed as the
sum of sixteen odd squares, and this can be done in only one way
sextic once.
..
+ 1+9 = 24.
The surfaces cutting out these curves are quartics through a
Rosenhain tetrad of conies having a node at one of the nodes of $,
other than a corner of the tetrahedron.
It may easily be verified
that three surfaces of the system cut in only one arbitrary point.
We do not give an independent investigation but give references to the literature of the subject. We are concerned with
the surface as a birational transformation of
and in this view
all its
properties
Ku miner's
surface,
may be deduced from known
Kummer's surface. Attention must be called to the
correspondence between the sheaves of lines through the nodes
properties of
of
W and the six quadratic congruences of bitangents on
<3>,
which
may be explained as follows.
Two quadrics through the
curve which cuts
at the nodes.
six nodes of W cut in a quartic
W in sixteen points of which twelve are counted
The remaining
four points correspond to the four
common to the planes
Since tangent planes to 4>
points of intersection of <& with the line
corresponding to the two quadrics.
correspond to cones through the six nodes of W, a bitangent to <&
corresponds to the intersection of two cones, each of which passes
through the vertex of the other. Their quartic intersection must
therefore break up into the line joining their vertices and a twisted
*
For
this transformation consult
Bendiconti Lincei,
ser. 4, vi, 3.
De
Paolis,
Memoire Lined,
ser.
4,
i,
576
9798]
EQUATION OF WEDDLE'S SURFACE
169
Since the complete intersection passes through all the
must pass through five of them, and the straight
line through the sixth.
Hence any two points on
collinear with
a node correspond to the points of contact of a bitangent to <&.
cubic.
nodes, the cubic
The theorems already proved
can be at once carried
for bitangents
example
Complete quadrilaterals can be inscribed in
over, for
having two
opposite corners at nodes.
By successively projecting any point of
from the nodes,
on to W, and also the projections, a system of only 32 points is
obtained*.
98.
EQUATION OF WEDDLE'S SURFACE.
P = ^P
Let
rs
xr xs =
Q = 2Qn xr xs =
R = ~ZRrs xr xs
= 1, 2, 3, 4)
{P = Pgr etc.)
(r, s
be four linearly independent quadrics passing through six points
then every other quadric through the same points is obtained by
linearly combining these in the form
aP + bQ + cR + dS = 0.
Any
surface
YV
is
\Xl, X%, X^y X^)
transformed, by taking P, Q, R,
as
U
new
point coordinates, into
a surface
V(P,Q,R,S) = 0.
corresponds a point (xlt x2 xs x)
To any point (P, Q, R, S) on
or briefly (x) on W, and another point (*'), forming with (x) and
,
the six base points a group of eight associated points. The locus
of (*') is another surface W' = 0, and there must be an identity
of the form
(P,
Q,
R,
8)=
WW
have been expressed in terms oix1 xz xs #4
The locus of a point (00) which coincides with the eighth
associated point (a/) is the Jacobian surface
after both sides
j_
d(P,
\30\i
Q,R,S) _
Q
#2> ^3> ^4)
* Baker, Proc. Lond. Math. Soc, ser. 2,
i,
247.
weddle's surface
170
Now J=0
vertices
is
[ch.
the quartic surface* which
of cones passing through
is
XV
the locus of the
the six base points of the
family
aP + bQ + cR + dS = 0,
for the conditions for
a cone with vertex at
adP/dxs + bdQjdxs + cdR/dxs
and on eliminating
at once that
a, b, c,
J contains
{x^
ddS/dxs =
x2 xs xt) are
,
(s
= 1,
d we get J=0, and from
is
2, 3,
4)
this it follows
the fifteen joins of the six points and the
ten lines of intersection of two planes containing
If
the points.
all
intersect in twentyfive lines,
and therefore coincide
J and
and then
and W, also
the surface considered in the preceding section,
;
which passes through all points common to J
is then the surface <&' reciprocal to the
Kummer surface first considered and we have the important
W,
coincides with J.
identity!*
&(P,Q,R,S) = J>
which admits of direct verification.
Let four of the base points be taken for tetrahedron of reference
and let the remaining two be (e^ e2 es> e4 ) and {f\,fz,f<i,fi). Then
the equation of Weddle's surface can be expressed in the convenient form 
,
Vl
^"1
EQUATION OF WEDDLE'S SURFACE
98]
171
tangential equation of <&', which is the same as the equation of
the reciprocal surface <i> in point coordinates a, b, c, d. We
thus obtain the equation of Rummer's surface in the form of
a symmetrical fourrowed determinant each element of which
linear in the coordinates.
is
If the base points are taken as in
the last paragraph the elements of the leading diagonal are zeros,
and the equation has the form
= 0,
z
z
which
x'
y'
the same as
is
*Jxx'
where the
letters represent linear functions of the
In
a, b, c, d.
+ >Jyy + 4z3 = 0,
coordinates
fact
x = aPw + bQss + cR 23 + dS^
x'
= aPu + bQu + c.R + dSu
14
Making use of the fact that the
we find that x, y, z, x, y', z'
etc.
points
points
(e)
and (/) are base
are connected by the two
relations
e2 es x
+ e&y + e
e^z
+ e^x' + e^y' + e^z' = 0,
A/.0 +f*Ay +/i/i# +fif*f +f*ftf +Af** = 0,
which are of the kind required to make the general 14nodal
surface have two additional nodes (p. 88).
Incidentally we notice that the Jacobian of four quadrics
having
four, five, or six
by means
a
common
of these quadrics
quartic
surface
having
points
into
a
fourteen,
is
birationally transformed
surface
fifteen,
whose reciprocal
or
respectively.
On
solving the
first
three of the four equations
(aP + bQ
+ cR + dS) =
doc.
for &i
a?2
x3
xt we find
VX
z "
%yz'
sixteen
is
nodes
weddle's surface
172
[ch.
xv
= xx' yy' zz'
X = ocx' +yy'zz'
yjr = xx' yy' + zz
where
<
and the equation of Rummer's surface
expressible in the
is
equivalent forms
kyy'zz = % ^zz'xx' =
1
(fy*
we observe
ty*
4sxx'yy' =
that the denominators represent linearly independent
cubic surfaces containing the three concurrent conies in the tropes
a;
0,
2/
= 0,
= 0;
this agrees with the first
method
of trans
formation.
Again, on solving the same three equation^ for a
find these coordinates proportional to cubic functions of
vanishing on the three lines xt
on Weddle's
lying
surface.
= 0, x^x^ = 0, and
Thus plane
b c d we
xx x2 xs xt
:
on a cubic curve
sections of
Kummer's
surface correspond to sextic curves on Weddle's surface.
Caspary* gives the equation in terms of the tetrahedra whose corners are
the nodes A, B, C, D, E,
and any point
of the surface, namely
PABC. PAEF. PBFD PCDE=PBCD PGAE PABF. PDEF.
.
Cayleyt gives the equation
3 (xp 3 +zPl
 2t) dF/dx+tfzpztpJ dF/dy + (xp5 2ypi
m
+ 3 (2xPa 3
F= Sxyzt  ixz  iyH + 3yh2  x2
where
and the
six
dF/dz
tp 3 ) dF/dt=0,
fi,
nodes are given by
/(d^p^+p^p^+p^psd+p^O.
A parametric expression of the surface is
x :y z t= U+ V: vU+uV v U+v?V: v U+u
where
W=f, V*=f{v).
:
Darboux
Coll.
Bulletin, xv, 308.
Papers, vn, 179.
V,
(Richmond.)
CHAPTER
XYI.
THETA FUNCTIONS.
99.
UNIFOEMISATION OF THE SURFACE.
how the coordinates
Rummer's surface may be expressed in terms of
two parameters, which we now call x and ad, by functions which are
It
shown
is
in the second chapter (p. 19)
of any point on
algebraic, but not uniform, since they involve the radicals
V( k,) (x &8) (x k3 ) (x k4) (x k5) {x ke),
and
\/{x
&i) (x' k ) (x' k ) (x' &4) (x' k ) (x' k
2
2/
that
If,
In other words, the points of
of points on the curve
<E>
6 ).
are represented uniformly
by
pairs
= / (x ) =(> h) ifo  & ) (x  k ) (x  ki) (x  k ) (x  k
2
is,
then,
a ),
by four variables, x, y, x, y', connected by two relations.
we can express these four as uniform functions of two
parameters, the uniform isation of the surface will be effected.
This is done by means of the integrals Jdx/y and fxdx/y,
which are
With
finite
when taken along any portion
x', we put
arbitrary lower limits xQ
v1
=l dx/y+\
v2
dx'/y',
1
rx
rx
I
of the curve.
xdxjy +
x' dx'/y',
and then invert, that is, solve these equations for x and x'. It can
be proved that x + x' and xx' are uniform periodic functions of
The latter property is obvious since the integrals are
v 1 and v 2
.
indeterminate to the extent of additive multiples of their values
when taken round the loops of the curve.
THETA FUNCTIONS
174
[CH.
XVI
terms of which the solution of the
inversion problem may be expressed, arise in the attempt to
construct periodic functions of two arguments in the form of
doubly infinite series of exponentials. In the next section they
The
theta functions, in
are
shown
let
the result of inversion be
to give a uniform parametric representation
x=
If
<$>
x'
(! , v),
(/>'
(v x ,
at present
Vs).
Vi
and v2 are connected by the relation
</>'
(l
"a)
the second integrals disappear and
Vi
dxjy,
va
= <>
we have
xdx/y,
x from these two equations leads to
an equation which is really independent of a?
Thus the coordinates of any point on the sextic y2 =f(x) can
be expressed in the form
so that the elimination of
4>' (vi>
^)
= *o')
'.
Vi
and
v2
<j>
(v lt v s ),
being connected by
<' ("1,
v 2 )=
'.
Now
any quartic curve with one node can be transformed
and the ks are projectively
related to the tangents from the node.
Since the six bitangents
through any point of the singular surface of a quadratic complex
birationally into a sextic of this kind,
are projectively related to the coefficients in the canonical equation of the complex,
Kummer's
follows that all the tangent sections of
it
surface can be transformed birationally into the
same
and therefore into one another, and can be uniformly
represented in terms of the same pair of integrals.
sextic
The
chief use of this representation of plane curves lies in the
application of a particular case of Abel's theorem.
result that the
sum
of the
(ax + b) dx/y
has a constant value
Namely
of integrals
when
the summation
is
extended to
all
intersections of the sextic
2
2/
=/() = (/ h) (x  k2)
(x
 k ) (x  kt) (x  k) (x  k )
3
the
99100]
TJNIFORMISATION OF THE SURFACE
175
with a variable algebraic curve of given order. The same theorem
is true for any curve into which the sextic can be
transformed
birationally. The proof is elementary and may be given here.
In
the equation of the variable curve substitute f(x) for y* so as to
reduce it to the form
<f>
and
let
(x)
= yf(x),
the symbol 8 refer to a change in
intersections are given
its coefficients.
The
by
F(x) =
^ff' = 0,
whence, on slightly varying the curve, the corresponding change
is given by
in each intersection
F'
which
is
O) Sx + 2 0S$  2/2 2lrSi/r =
0,
the same as
 yjrS<f>)/F'(x).
F'
Now X (ax + b) (<j}Sylr tyhfy) j (x) vanishes when the summation is extended over all the roots of F(x) =
because the degree
Sx/y = 2 (c/>0>
in
x of the numerator
is
two
at least
less
than the degree of F(x).
Hence
%(ax + b)8x/y = 0,
which proves the theorem.
The
as
DEFINITION OF THETA FUNCTIONS.
100.
functions which uniformise
We
theta functions*.
shall
Kummer's surface are known
them by their explicit
define
and deduce their chief properties from these alone.
made by Jacobi in the theory of
functions was the introduction of the singly infinite series
expressions,
One
elliptic
of the greatest advances
exp (aw2
+ 2nu)
as a uniform entire function possessing certain
periodic properties.
It is convenient to
modify
this slightly
and
write
6 (u)
= exp (27rmw + irirn
the summation extending over
),
and negative integer
values of n, and t being any complex constant whose imaginary
part is positive, to ensure convergence. There are three other
functions, 8*p, connected with this one and obtained from it by
*
all
positive
For information concerning these functions beyond what
is
required for the
present purpose, and for references to the original authorities, see Baker,
Functions (1896) Krazer, Lehrbuch der Thetafunktionen (1903).
;
A belian
THETA FUNCTIONS
176
n by n
replacing
either
or 1
+ 1a
and u by u + ^/3, where a and
the ratios of these
[CH.
XVI
$ may
be
single' theta functions are elliptic
'
functions.
We
can generalise 6 (u) without altering
formal expression,
its
n and u are now to be
rowletters (see p. 25) and t a symmetric square matrix, and
we then have a multiply infinite series and a function of several
arguments. In the case of a double theta function the general
by interpreting the
letters differently,
exponent, written in
2iri (n^ij
and the summation
n2
The condition
full,
is
+n u)+
is
for
iri
(T n ??! 2
2^2?^ n?
+ T^nf),
extended over all integer values of ^ and
convergence is that the coefficient of i in
T n n1 2 + 2T12 M 1 n 2 + T22 ?7 22 must be positive and not vanish for any
values of Wj and n 2 other than n 1 = n 2 = 0.
"With this 0(u) are associated fifteen other functions
obtained from 6{u) by replacing
!
u2 + /32
/S1;
respectively,
r^,
n2
w,,
u2 by
where a lt a2 &,
,
/32
Wi
+ ^otj,
a p(u),
n2
+ ^a2
are integers.
It
evident that these sixteen theta functions, being functions of
is
only two arguments, must be connected by a great
We proceed
to
many
relations.
by elementary algebra and
coordinate them systematically by bringing them into connecto find all these relations
tion with the orthogonal matrix considered in 16.
CHARACTERISTICS AND PERIODS.
101.
By
definition
Bap
0) = 2 exp {2m(n + $a) (w + i/3) +
which t
in
is
Til
\ T21
all
+ a)
},
a tworowed symmetrical matrix,
I
and
ttm(?i
^12
T22/
the other letters are rowletters, standing for pairs of
suffixes 1 and 2.
The summation is for
and n 2 from oo to + oo
i and a 2 are
integers which may be taken to be either
or 1, since the integer
parts of \ a may be absorbed in n
and /82 are also integers, and
since the addition of even integers to /3 can at most change the
sign of the function, it will generally be supposed that /3 X and /S2
letters distinguished
all
integer values of
by
are either
is
or
1.
This being
so,
&
the matrix
a,
a2 \
/V
and will be indiIn accordance with the usual matrix
called the characteristic of the theta function,
cated by the suffix
afi.
100101]
CHARACTERISTICS AND PERIODS
177
notation aft denotes a 1 ft 1 + a 2 fti and the parity of the function
depends on the value of this expression for by taking a new pair
of summation letters n', =  n  a, we change the order of the
,
terms without altering the value of the function, since the series
absolutely convergent the general exponent is now
is
2tm
from which
it
+ J a) ( u  %ft) + wir (' +
('
+ ft, that is
Til 5i + tm 2 + ft u
TaSi +T S + ^
pair of quantities rd
22
called a period
is
Mu).
**() = (_)"
a) 2
follows that
on account of the periodic properties
+ ft) = (yee^(u),
(u + to) = () 5 P exp ( 27rt'aw 
8e(u
#0
The
of these
first
taking n
is
easily
new
a for a
7rtVa 2 )
a/3
().
the second depends on
pair of summation integers
thus the
verifiable
typical exponent on the left
is
+ \ a) (u + to. + $ft) + ttc't (n + \ a)
= 2iri (n +  a) (w + %ft) + irir (n + Ja + a)  tvito?
= 2iri (ri + a) (u + %ft) + irir (n' + \ of  2jria (u + %ft)  mra
where n' = n + a, and this is the typical exponent on the right.
2iri
(n
There are sixteen different
four elements alt a 2
the elements are
is
ftlt ft 2
by a
or
The one
1.
called the zero characteristic.
Any
period.
characteristics, since each of the
may be
to these there are sixteen half periods
differ
(rot
in which all
Corresponding
+ ft), and
no two
other half period differs by a period from
one of these, and is said to be congruent to it. There are therefore
only sixteen incongruent half periods.
The effect of adding a
half period to the argument of a theta function is to change the
characteristic and multiply by a nonvanishing function.
The
formula
0*? (u
is
+ t5 +
easily verified
I ft)
= exp
{ wia (u
+ %ft + %ft + tS)}
by comparing the exponents
of n, which are identical.
We may
for the
9 a+Ei p+ ^ (u)
same values
say that the addition of half
periods interchanges the thetas except as to exponential factors.
odd and ten are even.
and vanish for u = 0. By
adding the corresponding half periods to the arguments it follows
Of the sixteen
Hence six thetas
characteristics six are
are odd functions
the last formula that the theta with zero characteristic
from
h.
12
THETA FUNCTIONS
178
vanishes for six half periods.
Whence
since the
[CH.
sum
XVI
of two half
is a
There is a close connection between the squares of the sixteen
Accordthetas and the sixteen linear forms considered in 15.
ingly we adopt a notation for the characteristics which brings out
clearly the analogy. This is sufficiently indicated by the schemes
periods
half period, every theta vanishes for six half periods.
I)
"2
CHARACTERISTICS AND PERIODS
101102]
It is evident that the half periods \ (ru
+ /3)
laws of addition as the characteristics, and since 6
u = \ (ja +
179
obey the same
vanishes
when
which are the half periods corresponding to the
other symbols in the same column and row as dd, it follows that
the same is true for any other 6, that is to say
b), etc.,
and a'/3' lie on the same row or on the same column. Hence
what was before an incidence diagram becomes now a table of half
if a/3
period zeros of the theta functions.
IDENTICAL RELATIONS AMONG THE DOUBLE
THETA FUNCTIONS*.
102.
The general exponent
in the product
tt/3
(m)
6^ (v)
is
2m (m +
a) (u + /3) + 2tti (n + \ a) (v + /3)
+ wit (m + %uf + ttit (n+% a)
= ni (m + n + a) (u + v 4 /3) + 7n (m n) (u v)
+ \irir (m + n + a) + \ttit (m nf.
2
Now
the pair of integers m,
n can be of four different kinds
when divided by 2 may be
as regards parity, for the remainders
a, b,
c,
Write
or d respectively.
m+n=
in
where
ix
sum
the
a,b,
c,
2fj, + a,
n=2v + a,
Then 8ap (u)
or d.
tt/3
(v)
may be arranged
of four series in one of which the general exponent
2iri (/*
as
is
+ a + a) (u + v + $) + 2tri (v+\a)(u v)
+ 27HT + a + a) + 2iriT (v + a)
2
(//,
Since the summation
is
now with
respect to the independent
\x and v, this leads to the product of two theta functions
formed with periods 2t instead of t. If we write
integers
a (u) = 2
exp {2m (n + %a)u
the terms in #a(3 (u) 0*p
in the form
(v) for
(_)3+a0
Hence giving
o+
which a

(u
a the values a,
+
is
2iriT (n
},
the same can be
+ v)  ( u _ v
b, c,
+ \ a)
summed
).
d and adding the
results,
we
find
o*
()
ea+5 ( + ) ; (  v)
= Z a+a (uv)(ye (u + v)
e+ () = 2 (ye+v
di
* Cf. Clifford,
Abelian Functions,
"On
p.
the double thetafunctions," Coll. Papers, p. 369; Baker,
526.
122
THETA FUNCTIONS
180
XVI
[CH.
the values a, b, c, d
we obtain a matrix of sixteen elements which is evidently the
product of the two matrices whose elements are
By
on rearranging the terms.
a+;
and
()*"
O  )
(u
Written in
respectively.
giving a and
(a.
+ v)
full
(a,
ft
= a,b, c, d),
ft = a, b, c, d),
a
they are
b (U  V), a {U  v)'
a (U  V), 6 {U  v)
e d (), e(t;)
(uv), d (uv)_
a(u + v), a (u + v),a (u + v), a (u + v)~
b (u + v), (u + v), b (u + v), b (u + v)
 (u + v),@ (u + v), (u + v), (u + v)
d (u + v), d (u + v), d (u + v), d (u + v)_
d (  V),
(u  v),
(u  V), d (U  V),
(uv), e. (),
a (uv), (uv),
c
'
'<
and we recognise that they have the same form as the matrices
which were multiplied together to give the sixteen linear forms
(cf.
We
pp. 29, 30).
infer that the sixteen products
a/s
() 6 afi (v)
are connected by exactly the same relations as the linear forms
In particular they can be arranged as the elements of an
orthogonal matrix
(a/3).
eM (u) e (v),
ecb () ecb (v)~
odd (v) d dd (v),
ba (u) e ba (v),
6ab {u)8ab (v), 0<fo(w) 0<to(),  (w). (), 6 bd (u) 6bd (v)
 ebe (u) ebc (v\ &cd (u) ecd o), e^ () edb (),  eM (u) eaa (v)
 Qca, (") Oca (v), ~ Obb (") &bb (), ^ad () &ad (v), 6dc (u) do (v)_
ais
flsc
C(!
From
relations
this,
by giving v the values u and
among
103.
the sixteen functions
ap
0,
nearly
all
the
(u) can be deduced.
PARAMETRIC EXPRESSION OF RUMMER'S SURFACE.
Firstly put v
u and
x =e(2u), y
(2m), g
(2m),
= d (2u),
= d (0),
y
then 6\ s (u) actually becomes the linear form denoted by (rs) in
which a, ft, y, 8 have been replaced by x y z, t respectively.
Xo
= a(0),
= b (0),
= o(0),
,
Hence the squares
of the sixteen theta functions satisfy
all
the
which have been proved for the linear forms, and it is
unnecessary here to enumerate them in detail. Any four 6 2rs (u)
which have a common half period for a zero are linearly connected,
and all the quadratic relations which can be deduced from the
identities
102103]
PARAMETRIC EXPRESSION OF RUMMER'S SURFACE
181
linear forms are consequences of the statement that the sixteen
6\s (u) can be arranged as the elements of an orthogonal matrix.
Secondly put v =
this gives an orthogonal matrix
;
"
"0(O)M)>
0,
0,
8 da (0)
0,
6* (v), 
CC
(0)
6 M (0) 6 M ()
(u),
o,
ed
(o)e cd
(u),
edb (o)6 db ( u )e aa (0)eaa {u)
o,
ehb
(0)0 m
(u),
e ad (0)d ad
and the
relations
equations of
(u),
deduced from this show that
0^
(0)
all
the irrational
dc
().
Rummer's
surface ( 19) are identically satisfied after
the preceding substitution. Hence
= a (2u),
y=
(2u),
= e (2u), t= d (2u)
are the coordinates of any point on a Kummer surface expressed as
uniform functions of two parameters uy and u2
.
The parameters
of the nodes are deduced by a comparison with
the algebraic representation. After substitution for the coordinates
the equation of any trope becomes
so that
we may
sixteen conies.
period,
say that
8^
(n)
the equation of one of the
is
Six of these equations are satisfied by each half
and accordingly the half periods are the parameters of
the nodes.
From
x, y, z,
their definitions, the functions to
which the coordinates
are equated are theta functions of the arguments 2u,
t.
The
all
even.
constructed with constants 2t instead of
are ad, bd, cd,
dd
respectively,
and are
characteristics
Hence
for all
four functions
(2k) = 6 (2w),
and from the periodic property
(2m + 2ra + 2/3) = exp ( 2Tria
so that
and
by the addition of a period
to.
2w  7ri2ra
!1
(2m),
+ /3 to the arguments
acquire the same exponential factor.
Thus the
x, y, z,
ratios of the
coordinates are quadruply periodic functions.
Every pair of values ult w2 gives one point on the
by what has just been proved, all the values
surface,
but
u+ period
give the same point.
Additive periods will therefore be neglected,
and then every point on the surface has two pairs of parameters
(+ u) except the nodes which have only one.
THETA FUNCTIONS
182
[CH.
XVI
addition of a half period to (u) permutes the sixteen
functions 6\p (u), save for exponential factors, in the same way
The
4 permutes the sixteen linear
by the fundamental
Hence
forms.
half periods to
different
adding
the
effected
complexes are
by
as the group of operations of
the collineations determined
the parameters.
THETA FUNCTIONS OF HIGHER ORDER.
104.
theta function of order r and characteristic (a/3) is defined
as a onevalued entire analytic function satisfying the equation
^ (u + to"
4
0) = ()^+^ exp { 27m a (u + $ t)}
^ (w).
Obviously when the order and characteristic are given, the sum
number of theta functions is another of the same kind.
Again, from this equation it follows that the product of any two
of any
theta functions
teristic are
is
another theta function, whose order and characthus
its factors
obtained by adding those of
a/3
By
a'/3'
repeating this process
Wa +
we
a', 3+/3'
find that the product of
sixteen theta functions of order 1
is
n of the
a theta function of order
n,
whose characteristic is the sum of the n characteristics.
In consequence of the parametric expression of the surface,
the terms of the irrational equation of any curve upon the surface
become products of theta functions of the first order. The
number of factors in each term is the order, n, of the equation,
and the sum of the characteristics in any product is denoted by
the symbol (a/8), which was called the characteristic of the
equation.
Further an odd (or even) product of radicals contains, after
an odd (or even) number of odd thetas, and is therefore an odd (or even) function of u so that the former qualifications of order, characteristic, and parity can now be taken to refer
to theta functions.
It follows from the properties of the irrational
equation that
substitution,
Every algebraic curve of order 2n on
the
general
Kummer
surface can be represented, by an equation of the form
where
either
is a theta function of order n and characteristic
odd or even.
(a/3)
and
103104]
THETA FUNCTIONS OP HIGHER ORDER
The converse
even or odd
of this theorem
theta
number
to
To prove
algebraic curve on the surface.
show * that the
also true,
is
when equated
function,
183
namely that every
an
zero, represents
this it is sufficient to
of linearly independent jl
is
equal to the
number
of linearly independent curves belonging to
families of order r and characteristic (a/3), namely r %
From the defining equation it follows that
the two
2(+/8)=()*2(u).
so that
(u) is simply periodic in u^
the period being
it is
and in u2 independently,
Hence, by an extension of Fourier's theorem,
possible to expand in the form
2.
^ (u) = %tA n{lh e" <*+*%) = %A n e
On
say.
substituting in the preceding condition and equating coeffi
cients of e evi+v^
we
find
flffm,
"n^a e
7cin 2
fi
J3An n
A
lL
pTria,
z
>
p nia 2
so that only those terms occur for which Wj
both even.
a x and m 2
a 2 are
Further, on substituting in the condition,
^ (m + to) = ()=3
and equating
exp {
2irira (u
irinu
find
coefficients of e
eirinra
we
iriafi rrirra^
+ \to)} ^ (u),
A ni+Wj7h
and A ,,,+ in terms of A n^. Hence
chosen
arbitrarily for s, t
be
... r 1 and then
4m +2, +2J
the remaining coefficients are determined. This proves that there
expressing
1
i!
maJ
are not more than r 2 linearly independent
Since however
the equation of every curve leads to a theta function, the
must be exactly r2
number
From this point the properties of theta functions of any order
may be deduced from the properties of the corresponding families
For example the number of even functions is \r'1
of curves.
,
+ 4) according to the nature of the order and
Another example is Poincare's theorem f that the
characteristic.
equations for u x u 2
(r2 +
1),
or (r2
%(u + v) = Q, e( + tO = o
have Irs common
solutions.
and the functions have
Consider
definite
* Baker, Abelian Functions, p. 452.
first
parity.
the case when v
= v' =
Then the equations
t Beference, footnote
p.
186 below.
THETA FUNCTIONS
184
[CH.
XVI
represent curves of orders 2r and 2s intersecting at 2p nodes and
Each of the latter gives two values of the
rs p other points.
arguments and each of the nodes only one, additive periods being
always neglected.
Hence the
2 (rs
Again
it
total
number
p) + 2p =
of solutions
is
2rs.
follows at once from the definition that
e2(+.)eJ(t..) S e(),
and of
definite
parity if the functions on the left have also definite parity.
Under
a theta function of order
2r,
zero characteristic
a similar hypothesis
and the 8rs common solutions of
must be evenly divided among the
pairs of equations
''
v') = 0>
^(u+Oo)'
eg,
@2
e2(*)=i
ls(")=
*2<)=i e
=
or
(+*')
e(
5.(t.+oor
It
i
; ) =
s
<>.
105.
The whole
SKETCH OF THE TRANSCENDENTAL THEORY.
subject
may
be approached from an entirely different
point of view* by defining a hyperelliptic surface as one for which
the coordinates of any point are proportional to uniform quadruply
then shown that the
and on the basis
of certain fundamental propositions in transcendental analysis the
geometrical theory of the surface is built up.
periodic functions of two parameters.
coordinates
may be equated
It is
to theta functions j,
The hyperelliptic equation of an algebraic curve G on
Rummer's surface <J> is obtained as follows. Let S=Q and 8' =
be two surfaces cutting <& in the curve C, and in residual intersections having no common part.
If the coordinates are replaced
by theta functions, S/S' becomes a uniform quadruply periodic
*
Humbert, " Th^orie generate des surfaces hyperelliptiquea," Liouville,
ser. 4,
ix, 29.
See Krazer, Lehriuch der
t Painleve\ Comptes Rendus (1902), cxxxiv, 808.
Thetafunktionen, p. 126, and elsewhere for theorems and references.
104105]
SKETCH OF THE TRANSCENDENTAL THEORY
185
function of the parameters u lt
w2 and by a known theorem* can
be expressed in the form </>/$' where <j>, cf>' are uniform entire
functions not simultaneously vanishing except where S/S' is indeterminate, which is not the case along G.
Then by another
theorem f
= #'/$' = e"
S/4>
F (u),
(M)
where
a uniform entire
is
function possessing the periodic properties
= F(u M
+ l) = e " iau F(u),
Ffa + l,
F(u lt u2
F (% + t
F (U + T
2 ),
F (u),
u2 + t31 ) = e (6i+.+*
1T)
12 ,
ui)
U.2
+ T&) = e
2,ri (ft'v.+e'u.Hi')
i? (
M).
By comparing
the effects of adding periods in different orders
easily find that
a,
b,
aTu>
b',
If
we
are integers.
c'
write
ar 12
6t 12
= aru +
e,
+ ct &'ru  c't
c' = ar w + e, the last
22
we
21
result
gives
 b'ru + (b e') T + eT + a (t t  t
ia
where /
periods
is
is
another integer.
22
22
2
12
+/= 0,
relation of this form
called a singular relation
in general it is
among
the
assumed that
no such relation exists, in which case all the integer coefficients
vanish, and therefore a = c = b' = 0, b = c' and F becomes a
theta function of order b. Accordingly the equation of every
algebraic curve is obtained by equating a theta function to zero.
The converse proposition depends on the theorem that any three
quadruply periodic functions are connected by an algebraic re
must
lation]:.
This
to
fill
is
the
the theorem which was required in Chap. xiii.
gap
on the surface.
in
a continuous
theory of
algebraic
(p.
140)
curves
purely algebraical proof that the equation of
every algebraic curve can be written in a certain irrational form
when the constants ks upon which the surface depends are perfectly
probably be long and complicated, because the
which may hold among the ks for the theorem to fail are
On the
of many different forms, as will be seen in Chap. XVIII.
other hand the transcendental expressions of the same relations
have a perfectly definite form, only the integer coefficients in a
linear relation being variable, so that an appeal to functiongeneral would
relations
* Perineal, Acta Math, n, 97.
t Appell, Liouville, s&\ 4, vn, 183, 196.
J Krazer,
p. 116.
THETA FUNCTIONS
186
[CH.
XVI
theory seems to be essential to the complete development of the
subject.
One
other theorem*
zeros,
additive
being
periods
importance, namely
and n have 2mn common
of fundamental
is
that two theta functions of orders
Then the
disregarded.
surface
obtained by equating the coordinates to theta functions, of the
second order and zero characteristic, can be identified as a quartic
and other properties follow as already
surface with sixteen nodes,
The tetrahedron
obtained in a more elementary manner.
reference
is
of
here a fundamental tetrahedron.
By
equating the coordinates to the squares of theta functions
first order forming a Gopel tetrad and eliminating the
arguments, an equation of the surface referred to a Gopel tetrad
of the
This
of tropes
is
relation f
and corresponds
obtained.
'Jasas'
after z
is
the wellknown Gopel's biquadratic
form of
to a rationalised
\/yy'
*Jzz'
and z have been replaced by
*'.
on',
y,
0,
linear functions of
y'.
Again, if we take any one of the sixteen thetas of the first order,
and equate the nonhomogeneous coordinates to the negatives of
dHog6jdui, d'loge/du^u,, 3 2 log 6/duf
we
Kummer's
obtain another parametric expression of
If the
fundamental sextic in k
surface^.
is
X + \^k + Xik" + Xsk3 + X4 fc + X
4
5
6
/<;
*6&
6
,
by taking a new origin the equation of the surface can be written
in the symmetrical determinant form
X
X!
2z
2;/
2y =
X
4<z\2
2i/ + \ 3
4>cc\4
2x
iX
2z
2y
+ ^\
0.
2x
\
X
B
The transcendental theory suggests two generalisations of
Kummer's surface. By interpreting the matrix notation differently
we can define theta functions of p variables u ... up with 2^>
different characteristics.
These may be arranged in " Gopel
1
* Krazer, p. 42.
PoincarS, Bull, de la Soc. Math.,
xi,
129.
t Gopel, Crelle (1847), xxxv, 291. This is the historical origin of the transcendental theory. Baker, Abelian Functions, pp. 338, 466.
J Baker, Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc, ix, 513 and xn, 219.
SKETCH OF THE TRANSCENDENTAL THEORY
105]
187
systems " of 2P characteristics (a g /3 s ). With one of these systems
a ^fold in space of 2? 1 dimensions is denned by
xs
= 6\t
{u),
(a
= l,
2,
...&),
a factor of proportionality being omitted.
many
properties analogous to those of
This pfold possesses
Kummer's
surface*.
suggested by the
hyperelliptic theta functions, for which the elements of the symmetrical matrix t are connected by  (p 1) (p 2) relations,
generalisation in a different direction (
is
and the absolute constants upon which the function depends are
independent cross ratios of the roots of the fundaSelecting any one of the 2 2p thetas
equation.
there are \p (p + 1) functions 3 2 log 0/du r dus (r, s, =1 ...p) connected by \p (p 1) relations. This set of relations represents a
the 2p
mental (2p
+ 2)ic
pfold in space of
* Wirtinger, (for
\p
p = 3),
(p
1) dimensions.
Gottinger Nachrichten (1889), 474, and for the general
case Monatshefte fur Mathematik
und Physik
t Baker, Proc. Gamb. Phil. Soc,
557.
ix, 521.
(1890),
i,
113.
See also Klein, Math. Ann., xxviii,
CHAPTER
XVII.
APPLICATIONS OF ABEL'S THEOREM.
TANGENT SECTIONS.
106.
The hyperelliptic representation of the surface consists in
equating the coordinates to theta functions of the second order
and zero
characteristic.
independent
is
22
= 4,
The number
and
of these which are linearly
so every equation of the form
(2)
represents a plane section, as in the theory of quartic curves.
From
the definition of theta functions of higher order
it
follows that
e ? (u  v)
(
ttp
? (u
v
III j
+ v) = o
In particular, using theta functions of the
6 a?
is
"
'
().
*
first
order,
O  v) 0p (u + v)
a theta function of the second order and zero characteristic, with
arguments
Wj,
u2
hence the equation
o* ( represents a plane section.
e* ( + v) = o
At every point
v)
of the section there
are two pairs of parameters, (u 1} u 2 ) and ( u lt U2), one of which
satisfies
and the other
Oafi
{U
+ V) = 0,
so that either of these equations
equation of the curve.
may
The advantage
be taken separately for the
of this
is
that by means of
the equation
eafi
(uv)=0
a single pair of parameters () is associated with each point of the
curve, additive periods being neglected. Using x, y, z for non
106]
TANGENT SECTIONS
homogeneous coordinates,
189
da x\doa and
and
z*
further,
in passing along the curve
du^/dx are uniform quadruply periodic functions of w 1( u 2
therefore
expressible rationally in
terms of
oc,
y,
and w2 are finite, so that jdu^ and fdu2 are " integrals of the first
kind" for the curve. The number of such integrals is equal to
the deficiency of the curve, and so the plane section is of deficiency 2
Uy
at least.
The equations
0(uv) = O,
0(u + v) = O
therefore
186) two common solutions, differing only in sign, and
representing the same point.
Since either solution
satisfies
both of the equations
have
(p.
^{0(uv)0(u + v)} = 0,
{O(uv)0(u + v)}=O,
must be a double point on the curve. Hence the section
by a tangent plane, and has a double point at the point of
this point
is
contact.
In the equation of a tangent plane section it is indifferent
which of the sixteen thetas is used. Selecting that with zero
characteristic,
we can
In the identity
(p.
easily find the
coordinates of the plane.
179)
= e(  v) a (u + v) + b (u v)(u + v)
+ (uv)c (u + v) + d (u v) d (u +
replace u by u + v and v by u v then
( + V) 0o (U  V) = a (2) a ( + 6 (2) l (2)
+ (2d) c (2m) + d (2d) e d (2m)
= a (2d) * + 6 (2d) y + c (2d) + d (2d)
0,(u) 6>(d)
v),
so that the coordinates of the tangent plane are the
of d as the point coordinates of
parameters of the plane.
u,
and (+
v)
may be
same functions
regarded as the
This shows the selfpolar nature of the
2
surface with respect to the fundamental quadric x
+ y + z + t = 0.
2
Similarly by selecting another theta it may be shown that the
surface is selfpolar with respect to another quadric or a funda
mental complex.
(0
Incidentally
odd), the line joining (u)
we
and
notice
(d) is a
that
if
(u v)
= 0,
ray of a fundamental
complex, and the curve of intersection with a fundamental quadric
is
given by
0(2w)
O,
(0
= even).
* Krazer, p. 117.
APPLICATIONS OF ABEL'S THEOREM
190
Let
(it)
be the point of contact of the plane
0(uv) = O,
if (P),
plane
= (PXi P )
2
and
(v),
is
is
an odd
0(u
(v),
[CH. XVII
then
+ v) = O;
+ P) lies on the
+ \P), which
joining (u) and (v + $P)
period, the point (v
the point of contact of the plane (u
Hence the
contains the point (u).
line
is a bitangent, touching the surface at both points.
bitangents through the double point of the section
o
Hence the
six
(u) = O
touch the surface again at the points
u=
+ odd
half period.
Univocal curves.
The tangent
sections are the simplest case of univocal curves*
on the surface, so named because of the two pairs of parameters
The
of any point only one satisfies the equation of the curve.
general univocal curve
is
represented by
<">( t;) =
where (u) is
and (v) is any pair of constants.
0,
n and zero characteristic,
The other parameters of its
a theta function of order
points satisfy
uv) = 0,
( u v) is an
<>(
and
since
(n)
(u v)
in)
even theta function of
order 2n and zero characteristic, the univocal curve
and the complete intersection with an
double points on the curve given by
e(uti) = o,
is
nic surface.
<)(_ u v)
of order 4w
There are m2
= o.
Thus the univocal curves occur among the ordinary curves on
the surface, and are distinguished by the corresponding thetafunction breaking into factors.
If and ' are of the same order
and zero
characteristic, consideration of the functions
(u  v) ' ( u  v)
leads without further analysis to
( u  v) ' (m  v)
numerous geometrical theorems
of considerable interest.
107.
We
have seen that
v^
COLLINEAK POINTS.
and u2 are integrals of the
first
the curve
0(uv) = O,
*
" Courbes univoques," Humbert, Liouville,
4, ix, 154.
kind for
COLLINEAR POINTS
106107]
191
by Abel's theorem, the sum of the parameters of four
is constant.
If two of these points are at the
double point, their parameters have zero sum hence if (u) and (')
and
so,
collinear points
are collinear with the double point
+ u' =
const.
Since u and u' are indeterminate to the extent of additive periods,
this equation should be written
By
+u =
considering a bitangent
const, (mod. P).
we
find that
+u =
2v (mod. P),
which gives another interpretation of the parameters of the
tangent plane. This result may also be inferred from the fact
that if (u) is any point on the curve, so also is ('), = (2v u)
for this establishes an involution on the plane quartic, and it is
;
known
that the only involution
double point.
putting
u'
= u,
is that of points collinear with the
Bitangents of the surface are deduced from this by
giving
u = v + %P,
the half period being subject to the condition
0(iP)
The
= O.
four points of intersection of the two tangent sections (y)
and (v) are given by
0(uv)0(u + v) = O,
0(uv')0(u + v') = O,
and are the solutions of the four
0(uv) = O\ n
0(uv') = O) K)
0(uv) = O)
0(u + v') = 0]
'
'
pairs of simultaneous equations
+ v) = O\
+ v') = O\ Kh
0(u + v) = O)
(u  v') = 0)
0(u
0(u
Let (a) and (b) be the two solutions of (1), (a) and (6) of (2),
and (d) of (3), ( c) and ( d) of (4). Then the four collinear
have parameters (a), (b), (c), (d), and the
(u v) =
points on
same points on (u v') = have parameters (a), (b), ( c), ( d).
Hence any two tangent sections cut in four points, whose parameters on the two curves are the same except for two changes
(c)
of sign.
If then (a), (/3), (7), (8) are the (pairs of) parameters of four
tangent planes through a line which cuts the surface in (+ a),
APPLICATIONS OF ABEL'S THEOREM
192
may
(+ b), (+ c), (+ d) we
parameters
(
(a)
(a)
(b)
(c)(d)
(c)
(d)
(c)
(d)
0(u8)=O.
(a) (6)
(a)
(b)
sum
Since the
8 (u
v)
is
suppose that the four points have
a) = 0,
0(uff) = O.
0(u 7 = O,
( c)
b)
(d)
on the section 6 (u
of the parameters of four collinear points on
we have
2v
ab c + d= 2a +P
a + &c + d = 2/3 + P
a& + c + d = 2y+P
a + b + c + d = 2S + P
Substitute for
6>(aa) =
a, ft, y,
0{(a
lt
2
8 in the conditions of incidence
6>(&/3)
0,
then
[CH. XVII
= 0,
0(c7) = O,
+ & + cd)iPs =
}
0(d8) = O,
(s.=
O,
l, 2,
3,4)
implying that four theta functions vanish for the same point
^ (a + b + c d). But singular conies do not intersect except at
nodes, and so
we
infer that
iP = P
Hence
(
c),
= PS = P4
(mod. P).
the conditions of collinearity of four points (+ a), (+
6),
( d) are that
+ c + d), ^(ab + c + d),
^(a + bc + d), ^(a + b + cd)
\ ( a +
must
all
be zeros of the same theta function, that
Of
sent points lying on the same singular conic.
is,
must
repre
course, in these
b, c, d may be changed.
2Q = P + P2 + P3 + P4 wefind
conditions, the signs of a,
If
= ( /3 7 + 8) + iQ,
& = Ha + /3 7 + S) + !Q,
c = (a/3 + y + S) + Q,
d = ( a + /3 + y + 8) + lQ,
a
and
^(a + b + c + d) = ^(a + l3 + y +
(mod. P)
8)
+ %Q,
so that the conditions for collinear planes are of the
By way
of illustration
we
various kinds of lines with the surface.
for
any one of the sixteen theta
same
form.
shall consider the intersections of
In the following, 6 stands
functions.
COLLINEAR POINTS
107]
Let a tangent line at (+ u) meet the surface again at (+ a)
Put c = u, d = u and the four arguments become
(1)
and (+
193
b).
$(ab) + u, \ (a + b)
= u, d = u the arguments become
%(ab), $(a + b)u.
;
if
however we put
This is practically the same case, since the sign of b
mined, and we have the conditions
6
(4H*
<(; ).
for Oi,
2 b lt b2 leaving one arbitrary.
,
0(av) =
showing that
and (6).
= b = u,
showing that the
put a=b = u, c =
0(O)
showing that (u
function.
(3)
(w),
then
0(u+v) = O,
and contains
at (u) and (v) there are
(a)
two
= d = v.
conditions of collinearity are
0(u)
will
= 2v,
First put
The
a+b
the tangent plane at
(v) is
undeter
*(^)o
0(uv) = O,
O,
For a bitangent touching
(2)
cases.
0(bv) =
O,
If
is
This
is
6(v)
Q,
= 0,
line is a chord of a singular conic.
d = v;
= O,
v)
Secondly
then the conditions of collinearity are
0(uv) = O,
0(u
and {u + v) are zeros of the same odd theta
the result already obtained.
For an inflexional tangent put
be found that there
= b = c = u,
d=
+ v) = O,
is
Then the
v.
fU
V\
+a=+6= + c = w.
only one distinct case, so
It
we take
conditions are
fSu
n
o,
V\
a
= o,
*(2^)
showing that + ^ (u v) is the parameter a of the tangent plane
Thus v = u 2a, and these are easily seen to be the points
u.
where the tangent lines at the double point to the tangent section
at
cut the curve again.
For a fourpoint contact tangent there are two cases
according as the parameters are taken to be u, u, u, u, or u, u, u, u.
(4)
In the former case the condition
is
0(u)
h.
= O,
13
[CH. XVII
APPLICATIONS OF ABEL'S THEOREM
194
and the
In the second case
line touches a conic.
6>(0)
and 0(2w) = O;
whence the locus of the points of contact
is
one of the six curves
0(2u) = O,
where
an odd
(a/3) is
These are therefore the
characteristic.
equations of the principal asymptotic curves.
108.
Let
ASYMPTOTIC CURVES.
(u) be the point of contact of the plane (v), then
0(u
v)
0(uv) = O,
O,
and simultaneous increments are connected by
+ v) (die, + dvj + 0 (u + v) (du +
w _ ) (rfWl _ jVi ) + 0(2) ( M _ ) (du (
(u
0(i>
= 0,
dv ) = 0,
dv^)
a
where W and 0 are the partial derivatives with respect to the
first and second arguments.
The
inflexional tangents at the point (u) are the directions of
the two branches of the tangent section
(u
One
of these
Making use
is
0W
(u
of this
we
+ v) du, + 0
0W{u +
v),
0(u + v)
0(uv)
di^
du 2
(u
= dv,)
dv
0,
'
2)
we deduce
alternative
0v(uv),
and
first
+ v) du = 0.
(u
find that either
or
the
= 0.
given by
From
v)
v)du + 0
l
(u  v) du 2 =
0,
showing that the two inflexional tangents coincide and the locus
of u is either a cusp locus or an envelope of asymptotic curves
the cusp locus consists of isolated points at the nodes, and the
envelope, which is the parabolic curve, consists of the sixteen
If (u) is a general point of the surface we must
singular conies.
take the second alternative and find the integrated equation*
u
* Reiehardt,
v, 465.
= v + k.
Nova Acta Leopoldina
(1886), u.
Hutchinson, Amer. Bull. (1899),
107108]
Hence the
ASYMPTOTIC CURVES
195
hyperelliptic equation of an asymptotic curve
0(2uk) =
where the constant k
is
O,
satisfies
0(k) = Q.
The sixteen points (k + \P) are the points of contact of the curve
with the tropes.
The equation should be written
0(2u + k)0(2uk)
O,
and
it is easily verified that this product is an even theta function
of order 8 and zero characteristic, and therefore the asymptotic
curve
is
an algebraic curve of order 16 and the complete
section of a quartic surface passing through
the asymptotic curves do not belong to the
all
"
the nodes.
inter
Thus
singular " family, for
these are given by the vanishing of an odd theta function.
The asymptotic curve has
sixteen double points, beside the
cusps at the nodes, given by
+ k) = 0,
0(2uk) = O;
(2m
them by the addition
by the group of sixteen
these points are obtained from any one of
of halfperiods to its parameters, that
is
collineations.
The equations
0(2uk) = O,
0(k)
= O,
regarded as equations for (k), have two solutions, the parameters
of the two asymptotic curves through any point (u) if (&') is one,
then (k') = (2m k) is the other. Hence the curves, whose parameters are (k) and (k'), cut in the points given by
;
= k + k',
\ (k + k') + \P.
2u
that
is,
in the sixteen points
of the second curve
may
Since the equation
be taken in the form
(2u
+ k') = 0,
it
follows that the sixteen points J (k  k') + \P are also on both
The points \ (k + ) and \ (k k') are the points of
curves.
of
contact
a bitangent, and so we have here the configuration of
thirtytwo points obtained from one point by drawing a succession
of bitangents, and corresponding to the projections of any point on
Weddle's surface from the nodes.
For six special values of (k), namely halfperiods satisfying
(2m + k) (2m k) become essentially
(k) = 0, the two factors of
132
APPLICATIONS OF ABEL'S THEOREM
196
the same, and
order
We
8.
we get the
six
[CH. XVII
principal asymptotic curves of
have
+ to + y8) = ()"*+? exp ( 2iria.u  th'to ) 0^ {u),
O (2m + 2ra + 2) = exp ( 8rriau  4ariTa*) a p (2m),
#aj3
(m
and a p (2m) is a theta function of order 4 and zero characteristic,
and of the same parity as o/3 (u). Hence the principal asymptotic
curves belong to the family cut out by quartic surfaces through
four conies.
As an example
of the application of Abel's theorem to curves on the
surface the following
may
If a 4ftic curve passes through all the
be given.
nodes, any tangent plane cuts
of contact lie on an infinite
it
in
4n
number
points,
which together with the point
of plane (w+l)ics
each of the latter
cuts the tangent section again in two points collinear with the point of
contact.
If the point of contact is on the 4wic the remaining in 2 intersections lie on a plane nic through the point of contact.
109.
INSCRIBED CONFIGURATIONS.
The power of this method is well shown by the ease with
which certain inscribed and circumscribed configurations may be
Only a few examples are given here.
constructed.
It must be remembered that in speaking of a point (w) of the
surface we mean the point whose parameters are (u lt 11^) to
which any (pair of) periods may be added.
We have seen that the points (a), (b), (c), (d) are collinear
if the points (x), (y), (2), (t) lie on the same conic, where
2x = a + b+c + d
2y= a b + c + d
2z =
a+bc+d
2t= a + b + cd,
and that then the four tangent planes through the
(a), 08), ( 7 ), (8), where
bc+d
+d
2y= ab + c + d
28 =
a + b + c + d;
x = d a = c +/3 =6 +y = a + S
y = c + = d /3 = a + <y = b + S
z = b+a. = a + $ = dy=c+8
t=aa=b /3 = cy= d + 8,
2a
2@ = a+bc
thus
tx
line are
108109]
showing
INSCRIBED CONFIGURATIONS
the incidences
all
contain a point (w)
the condition that a plane (v)
for
197
may
that (u v) be a point on a certain conic.
is
Klein's tetrahedra.
If
is
now we suppose
that
does not
(t)
lie
on the
conic,
but
arbitrary, all the incidences still hold except those indicated
by the
last line, so that
the planes and points are the faces and
These are Klein's " principal tetrahedra "
are arbitrary and so the number of tetra
corners of a tetrahedron.
x1 ,y ,z
( 34).
hedra
is oo
t2
5
.
Instead of taking
we might have taken
(x), (y), (z) arbitrarily
(a), (6), (c) arbitrarily
on the conic 6 (w)
on the section
0(u8) = Q;
+ a = 6 + 8 = 3/
b+a= c + 8 = z
then the equations
show that the planes
for
when
, 8, b
are given c
the corresponding point
From
are
(a), (8)
is
"
conjugate
" to
the points
rationally determined.
the relations between the points and planes, having
regard to the fact that the signs are indeterminate,
there
a, /3,
(6), (c),
uniquely determined and therefore
is
7, 8 but the three partitions into
we
see that
d and
two pairs correspond, giving
not a oneone correspondence between
is
a,
b,
c,
six conjugate sets, incident with the six edges of the principal
tetrahedron.
Expressed in terms of
x, y, z,
t,
the points and planes are
=x+y+zt
2/3= x y + z t
27= x + y z t
2S= x + y + z + t
=x+y+z+t
26= x y + z + t
2a
=
2d=
2c
2<x
x+yz + t
x+y + zt
and a typical conjugate
set is given
by
a= h + y + z\
b = S y\
S = S
c = 8z)
arbitrary and 8{y) = = 6 (z).
j
where 8
is
Bohn's theorem.
The
condition of incidence of point (u) and plane (v) being
0(uv) = O
we can
write
down the parameters
of sixteen points of
Rummer's
surface and sixteen tangent planes forming in themselves a 16
198
APPLICATIONS OF ABEL'S THEOREM
configuration.
Let
(a), (b), (c), (d), (e),
(/) be any
[CH. XVII
six points
on
the conic
6 (u)
then the plane
^(a + b + c + d + e +/),
=v
contains the six points
^(a + b + c + d + ef)
%(a + b + c + d + e+f)
and these lie in the planes obtained from the first by changing the
signs of two of the parameters, and so on. The group of operations
is precisely the same as that which deduces thirtytwo lines from
a given one in Klein coordinates. The sum of the parameters
of the above six coplanar points is 4u, showing that they lie on
a conic through the point of contact of their plane *.
Humbert's tetrahedra.
The parametric representation
(p.
158)
is
Humbert's
of
tetrahedra "f"
obtained in an equally simple manner by taking
any three points
on the conic
(x), (y), (z)
()
0.
The plane (y + z) contains the point (y) since the difference of the
parameters represents a point on the conic, and for a similar reason
contains (z). The second tangent plane through these two points
 z). The planes (x  y), (y + z), {z x) meet in the point
{x + y + z), and so on; thus the six tangent planes through the
is
(y
sides of the triangle (x), (y), (z)
meet by threes
in the points
= (x + y + z)
(b)= (xy + z)
(c) =
( + y  z)
(a)
(<*)
(*
+ y + )
which are the corners of an inscribed tetrahedron. It remains to
be shown that the edges are tangent lines. Now the tangent
plane (y + z) contains the points (a) and
(a)
the
line
joining
them
(d),
and since
+ (d) = 2(y + z),
passes
through
the point of
contact.
Similarly for the other edges.
* This is Kohn's 'first theorem,' see Math, Ann., xv,
350.
Generalisations and
extensions are suggested by Klein, Math. Ann., xxvn, 106, where the transcendental
representation is deduced directly from line coordinates without the introduction
of
theta functions.
t Humbert,
Liouville, ser. 4, ix, 123,
where generalisations are given.
'
109]
INSCRIBED CONFIGURATIONS
199
Since the configuration is determined by three arbitrary points
on a conic, the number of such tetrahedra is triply infinite. It can
be shown that no other inscribed tetrahedra have the property
that their edges are tangent
The
lines.
pairs of parameters (u) of points on a conic 6 (u)
may
be taken to represent the points on a plane quartic curve with
one node, in such a way that points collinear with the node differ
only in the signs of their parameters.
The
points of contact of
the tangents from the node are represented by the halfperiods
which are zeros of 6 (u). We may take a cubic curve in space and
establish a correspondence
between
its
points and the pencil of
through the node of the plane quartic*
A group of three
points on the quartic determines three lines of the pencil and
three points of the cubic and therefore the plane joining them.
Consider the groups of three points cut out by conies through the
node and three fixed points of the quartic they depend on one
variable and hence the corresponding planes in space form a
Since a given line through the node determines two
developable.
lines
groups of the series, therefore two planes of the developable pass
through a given point, and the developable is a quadric cone.
This cone meets the cubic at points for which the two planes
of the developable coincide and which therefore correspond to the
tangents to the quartic from the node. Thus the cone passes
through six fixed points and the locus of the vertex is Weddle's
surface.
The group of points (x) (y) (z) on the quartic belongs to
a linear series if, by Abel's theorem, (x + y + z) has a constant
Since at the same time {x y z) has a constant value,
value.
it follows that the groups (x) (y) (z), projections of the
former groups from the node, belong to another linear series.
These two series determine the same point on Weddle's surface,
which may be denoted by the pair of parameters (x + y + z) or by
/_ x y z). By comparison with the parametric representation
of Humbert's tetrahedra we see that if AA', BB', GC are the
intersections of the quartic curve with any three lines through the
node, the corners of a Humbert's tetrahedron are represented by
the pairs of groups of points
ABC]
A'BC]
A'B'G']
ABC]
AB'G)
A'BC)
ABC'}
A'B'G]
* Wirtinger, Jahresbericht der Deutschen Mathematiker Vereinigung, iv, 97.
CHAPTER
XVIII.
SINGULAR KUMMER SURFACES.
ELLIPTIC SURFACES.
110.
We have seen in the case of the Wave surface that in consequence of a special situation of the nodes in each trope and
a corresponding relation among the coefficients ks of the quadratic
complex, the point coordinates may be expressed in terms of
In the present section we seek the correspondelliptic functions.
ing relation among the periods of the theta functions. Starting
with the more general problem of linearly transforming the
arguments of the theta functions into arguments of
functions,
we
find
certain definite form,
of this form
we
of which the
Wave
Kummer
the periods has a
and by examining the
different relations
are led to a series of elliptic
surfaces of
elliptic
among
that the relation
surface
which
is
the
first,
and
Kummer
elliptic surfaces are particular cases.
Consider the general theta function 0(u^, w 2 ) of the
for which a general pair of periods is
1
u2
surfaces
also to other singular
Tn ai +
T 21 a! +
Ti 2 0,
TjgOs
first
order
+ /3
+ /32
1
where a a2 /3 U /82 are any integers. We seek the conditions that
it may be possible to take linear combinations of ?, and u 2 for new
arguments IT, V so that
may be expressible in terms of elliptic
functions of IT and other elliptic functions of V; that is, so that 6
may be doubly periodic in U alone and in V alone.
,
Assume
U = <)\U\ + gi^,
then the four periods of IT must be linear combinations of the two
110111]
ELLIPTIC SURFACES
periods 12 and
integers
m m
8
'
fi' of the elliptic functions of U.
can be found so that
S T n + st t = m l + m/fi'
g^n +92^12= nitl + m 'D,'
f
2i
=m n + m 'n'
s
whence, on eliminating g 1
Tn
g2
g2
=m
,
i Cl
+ m i'Q,';
X2, Xi',
= 0,
201
Hence eight
'
SINGULAR KUMMER SURFACES
202
[CH. XVIII
Next take new arguments
v
= (T7 + S) 1 u
two pairs of periods to the normal form
so as to reduce the last
(!!)
Then the
first
two pairs of periods are given by the columns of
the matrix
= (TY + 8)
(Ta
+ /3).
a transformation is that t must be a
symmetrical matrix; on equating it to its conjugate we have
The
condition
for
+ /8) = (fir + 0) (yr + S)\
whence
(t<x + /3) (yr + 8) = (ry + 8) (5t + ),
or
T(ayya)T + (^y 8o)t + t (aS  7/8) + /38  8/3 = 0,
(ry + S) 1 (t
which leads to a single relation of the form
Atu + Btu +Gt^ + D (t  tuTjb) + # = 0,
coefficients being integers.
Now in the case of an
2
12
the
assumed that no relation of
that we must have
transformation*
so
it is
ordinary
form exists,
this
7a =
=
8a
ySy = r = a.8 y&,
017
/3S8y8
where by r is to be understood a numerical multiple of the unit
matrix. These represent five conditions for the sixteen integers.
The integer r
is
called the order of the transformation.
These equations can be written in another form which
useful.
As they stand they express that
SJ8N
(S
/3\
\y
a)
\y
8J
/r
0\
\0
r)'
is
often
each matrix having four rows since the right side is a numerical
multiple of the unit matrix, the order of the factors on the left
;
may
be reversed and we have
0\/r
5 ySx (8
8/ \7 a)
V7
/
which
is
0\
\0 r)
equivalent to the equations
= r=8~0L yfi,
aPJ3a = = y88y.
a8 J3y
As considered by Hennite, Comptet Rendm (1855), xl, 249.
memoir is given by Cayley, Quarterly Journal, xxi, 142
of this
358.
reproduction
Coll. Papers, xn,
THE INVARIANT
111112]
112.
When
203
THE INVARIANT.
a relation of the form
4t + Bt12 + Gt22 + D (t122  rn r.a ) + E=0
the corresponding theta functions are called singular. The
surface represented by them is also called singular, and
exists,
Kummer
possesses geometrical features which are absent in the general
from what precedes that a singular theta
It is evident
case.
may
function
allow a transformation which does not exist
the periods are arbitrary
are not here concerned *
when
with such singular transformations we
We have next to prove that the preceding relation is changed,
by any transformation, into another of the same form, and that
A, = B* 44 C 4<DE, is an invariant for linear transformations.
Consider first the elliptic case. Let the new periods of g x u^ + g 2 u 2
be written in the form
s Cl + MID!, then
Mi
ft
+ MID,' = (m D + nh'D,') an + (m2 ft + m 'ft') a
+ (m ft + mi ft') /3U + (m ft + ml ft') /3
thus M
Ml are integers given by
2
and
so
on
/a
y\
\/3
SJ
this
and from the relations
M,
21
. . .
M M M \_ /m, m m
{Ml Ml Mi Ml) ~ [ml ml ml ml)
/M,.
From
21
satisfied
by
'
a, /3, 7,
we deduce
SINGULAR KUMMER SURFACES
204
If r
= 1,
the inverse transformation
[CH. XVIII
that
also linear, so
is
we
have in this case o2 A = A', where oSl; whence p=l = <r and
A' = A, proving the invariance.
In the general singular case in which A is not a square, m,,m,',
not necessarily integers, can be found in many ways to express the
given singular relation in determinant form. The lines of the
preceding proof may then be followed and lead to the same two
properties of formal and numerical invariance.
It can be proved* that by a linear transformation the singular
relation can be reduced to one of the canonical forms
iAT +T
sa
11
=0,
 i (A  1) t + T + T* = 0,
Both of these are included
according to the parity of B.
in the
form
Arn +Br +Cr = Q,
lt
from which
it
follows that the invariant is always positive
for
At^ = (B*  4A C) t22 + iA (Atu + Btu + Ctv)
= 44 2 t11 + 44 Bt12 + 2 t22
j
and the coefficients of
t(2A, Bf are positive
V 1
in the quadratic forms t(0, l) 2
Since the canonical forms involve the invariant alone,
any two singular
that
and
(p. 176).
it
follows
same invariant can be
This important theorem
relations with the
linearly transformed into each other.
shows that in the elliptic case a linear transformation can be found
which reduces the singular relation to the form
1=0,
We shall suppose
&T]2
for this has invariant
done
then different
A=
It?.
elliptic surfaces are
values of the positive integer
113.
The
is
and
k.
PARAMETRIC CURVES.
chief geometrical peculiarity of elliptic
the existence upon
that this has been
distinguished by different
them
of
Kummer
two families of curves,
= const.,
surfacesf
u^
= const,
which, since the coordinates of a point on any
one curve are expressible in terms of elliptic functions of one
parameter, are algebraic and of deficiency 1
2
' Humbert, Liouville, sen 5, v, 245.
+ Humbert, Amer. Jour., xvi, 221.
112113]
On
(A,
205
surfaces, as on the general surface, the point
the same as the point (+ ^ + U a 2 +
where
2 ),
any pair of periods; hence the curves
elliptic
a2 )
(ai,
PARAMETRIC CURVES
is
Pa)
is
= !,
Wg =
0t 2
intersect in all the different points given by
i= a 1 + P
m2 = (h + Q 2
1 ,
where (Q1;
any pair of periods, and the ambiguous signs are
These are the same as the points given by
2 ) is
independent.
=
w2 = a2
Mi
+ Pi  Q u
Since (1,0) and (JcTn / 12 1) are pairs of periods, whatever
integer k may be, and in the elliptic case when kr 12 = 1 the latter
is (krn 0), it follows that all the distinct points of intersection
,
are given by
= &! + rmn + mtjj,
=
< m < & 1. Hence there
W2
<m^
where
&
1,
C&2,
are
2/c
common
points.
We
see that the coordinates are doubly periodic functions of
and kru in fact if is a double
theta function of the second order and zero characteristic, and if in
!
alone, the periods being 1
the relation
(i + Tn a +
+ ftu 2 + TnCli + T
+ /3 )
= (u ,u )ex.Tp 4<Tri(a +a u )2Tri(Tn a + 2T
krn = r
a = 0, /3 = a,
we put
ai = ka,
i
22 CC2
TiaOta
we
1 tt 1
12
a 1 a2
+T
2
22 or 2 )},
find
(! + TjS + /8
showing that is a
1(
m2 )
= (!, m )
2
exp ( ikirioiih
2&7n.Ya
2
),
The
number of zeros* not differing by multiples of 1 and Tx is 2k, and
a parameter curve w2 = const, cuts one of the coordinate planes in
2k points, and
is
If a surface
single theta function of u^ of order 2k.
therefore of order 2k.
of order k be
points of the curve w x
deficiency
is
1.
arbitrary point of
If,
further,
w2 = a2 ,it
* Krazer,
made
Oj, it will
will
to pass
contain
through 2k? arbitrary
it
entirely, since its
be made to pass through an
cut this curve in 2&2 + l points
Lehrbuch der Thetafunktionen,
p. 41.
SINGULAR KUMMER SURFACES
206
and therefore pass through
Now
it.
2&2
1 is
[CH. XVIII
number
exactly the
of conditions which the complete intersection of
Kummer's
surface
with an undetermined kic surface can be made to satisfy, and so
we have the theorem that the curves Wj = ! and w2 = a^ form
together the complete intersection with a surface of order
k.
Since the curve u 2 = a 2 was determined by a single point of
it,
the parametric curves belong to two linear systems of dimension
and either system
1,
cut out by
is
surfaces through
Aic
any curve
of the other system.
may be
Analytical proofs of these theorems
single theta functions
(u, t)
where
tion
obtained by using
denned by
= 2 exp {2nd (n + a) (n + \ /3) + irir (n + a)
the letters represent single quantities and the
for all integer values of ??.
all
is
2
}
summa
may be shown directly, by rearranging the terms, that the
double theta functions to which the coordinates are equated may
It
be replaced by the expressions
kl
22 exp  faik
+ la,,) + I
{2u, + (2*, + a ) k~\ 2t u X {2 + (2/ + a ) k~\ 2rw
where (a a ) = (10), (11), (01), (00) in succession.
The two parametric curves u = a and w = a are given by
1
(v,.
(j/j
lt
<*!>}
i0
],
2,
the equation
Sii (ku!
kdj
krn ) Sn (ku
%i (ku 2
The
&t22 ) Sn (ku2 + ka2 &t22 ) =
,
0.
a double theta function of order 2k and zero
and therefore represents the complete intersection
with a surface of order
k.
114.
The curves w
UNICURSAL CURVES.
= o +^P
1
and
= a + \P are
When Oj is small
w,
being any pair of periods.
2)
+ Pi, ) and ( Oj + JPuMis) are
= \P occurs repeated in the linear
(!
u1
krn )
left side is
characteristic,
(Pj,
+ ka^
ka
near.
the points
Hence the curve
system and
the same,
is
therefore of
Again the points (oj + \ P] w2 ) and ( c^ + Px u2 + P2 )
same,
so that at any point of the curve u1 = \P1 the varithe
are
able parameter w2 can have two values whose sum is P2
the
order
k.
coordinates
are therefore
functions of a
new
even doubly periodic
and hence are rationally
proportional to
variable u 2
\P2
113114]
UNICUBSAL CURVES
207
expressible in terms of one even elliptic function.
Hence the
curves obtained by equating the parameters to halfperiods are of
order k and unicursal.
When
is
odd, there
lie
on the curve
Mi=i( Tni +
T 12 a 2
),
the nodes associated with the characteristics
(i
a2 \
l& OJ
(<*i
<h\
Vft
1/
Vft
<*i
+l\
+1
<*i
U+i
a 2 +l
1
the first parameters of these nodes are either equal to the preceding value of m x or differ from it by  (t 1s + 1), which is here equal
to the period (k + 1) t12 on account of the singular relation. The
for
sum
of these four characteristics
product
is
is zero and the parity of their
odd: accordingly they belong to a Eosenhain tetrad.
Hence there
are only four unicursal curves in the
first
family of
parameter curves, and each passes through a different Rosenhain
tetrad of nodes.
Similarly the curve
M2
= i (Taii + TjjOa + /3 )
2
passes through the nodes associated with the characteristics
aA
/a,
a 2\
\o
&)
\i
&)
/Oj
+1
/ x
+l
A+U Vi A +
i/
forming a Rosenhain tetrad, having one corner in common with
the preceding one. Hence the unicursal curves of the second
family pass through the tetrads of another groupset and one
curve of each family passes through each node. Since a unicursal
curve counted twice is a particular case of a parameter curve,
every intersection of two unicursal curves, except their common
node, counts as four common points of two parameter curves, the
node itself counting as two, so that the two unicursal curves cut in
one node and \ (k 2  1) other points.
A surface S of order \ (k + 1) can be drawn through these
(A; 2 +1) common points and ^(k + 1) arbitrary points on each
2
S then passes
curve, for this makes ^(k+l) + l conditions.
through both curves. Now each curve meets the common face of
the two Rosenhain tetrahedra in three nodes and \ (k 3) points
of contact, so that 8 meets the conic in that face in k + 3 points,
and therefore contains it entirely. Hence two unicursal curves of
different systems, together with one conic, form the complete intersection with a surface of order %(k + 1).
SINGULAR KUMMER SURFACES
208
When k
is
[CH. XVIII
even the curve
i
= i ( Tu a + Tu a2 + &)
i
passes through the nodes associated with the characteristics
a2\
/,
aA
lo
oy
vo
1/
forming a Gopel tetrad.
s
passes through the
/a, a.A
/Oj a s \
U u u
or
Similarly the curve
= h (T
si
ai
+ Ts2s + &)
same nodes.
There are four unicursal curves
by pairs in
in each system of parameter curves, and they intersect
the nodes of four Gopel tetrads of a groupset.
Two unicursal
2 points. A
of these common
curves through the same nodes cut again in \k*
surface of order
\k can be drawn through $k* +
points and then contains both curves.
GEOMETRICAL INTERPRETATION OF THE SINGULAR
RELATION &T]2 = 1.
115.
Each pencil of parametric curves determines an involution on
each singular conic, that is, groups of k points depending linearly
on one
group is determined by any one
Four of these groups are cut out by unicursal
curves (counted twice), and are of a special character. Upon this
depends the situation of the six nodes on each conic and the
variable, so that each
point of the group.
geometrical interpretation of the singular relation.
When k
is
even the four unicursal curves pass through Gopel
tetrads of nodes, forming a groupset,
and three of the tetrads have
common with any
trope, as is at once seen from
each two nodes in
the diagram, in which the four tetrads and one set of coplanar
nodes are indicated.
Hence three groups of the involution consist of two nodes and
\ (k 2) points counted twice, and one group consists of \k points
counted twice.
The other pencil
of parametric curves determines
the same involution.
When
is
odd the unicursal curves pass through Rosenhain
and the
tetrads of which one contains three nodes of a given trope
INTERPRETATION OF THE SINGULAR RELATION
114115]
others one each.
Hence one group
209
of the involution consists of
three nodes and \ (k 3) other points counted twice, and three
groups consist of one node and (& 1) points counted twice
The other pencil of parameter curves
determines another involution in which the parts played by the
(pairs of coincident points).
two
sets of three
nodes are interchanged.
To illustrate this, consider the case when k = 2.
The nodes on each conic form three pairs of an involution, and
therefore the chords joining them are concurrent.
This has been
shown
to
There exist eight
by pairs in
be the condition for a tetrahedroid.
unicursal curves of order
2,
four Gopel tetrads of nodes
that
;
is conies,
intersecting
these tetrads are therefore coplanar.
Three of these pairs of conies cut any singular conic in three pairs
of nodes the remaining two conies touch the singular conic at the
double points of the involution to which the nodes belong.
There exist on the surface two pencils of elliptic quartic curves
(intersections of pairs of quadric surfaces), obtained by making one
parameter or the other constant. These results agree with what
has been proved before by other methods.
Next suppose k = 3.
Each pencil of parameter curves consists of sextics* cutting
each singular conic in groups of three points of an involution
;
including one group of three nodes, say 1, 3, 5. Now the chords
joining points of the same group touch a conic C, since two
C touches the sides
pass through any point of the singular conic.
of the triangle 135, and since the two tangents to it from each
of the other three nodes
2, 4, 6,
are coincident,
Hence a necessary geometrical
them.
passes through
conditidn for an elliptic
is that a conic should pass through three
nodes and touch the lines joining the other three it is easy to show
The corresponding relation
that this condition is sufficient.
surface of invariant 9
among the
coefficients
k s or modular equation,
,
(tiy 4 = 0,
is
(r,s=l,
and the symmetry of
2,
3)
this result, as well as the existence of the
other pencil of parametric curves, shows that another conic can be
circumscribed about 1, 3, 5, and inscribed in 2, 4, 6.
The group of nodes 1, 3, 5 of the first involution is cut out on
the singular conic by a twisted cubic passing through the re
maining node 135 of the Rosenhain tetrad determined by them.
This cubic is projected from the node 135 into the conic circum*
Further properties are given by Humbert, Amer. Jour,
xvi, 249.
14
[CH. XVIII
SINGULAR KUMMEE SURFACES
210
scribing
1,
and inscribed in
3, 5,
2,
Similarly there
6.
4,
is
twisted cubic of the other system passing through the nodes
2, 4, 6, 24G, and is projected from the last, which is the same as
135, into the conic C.
The two cubics, taken together, form
a degenerate member of the ordinary family of sextics through six
nodes cut out by quadrics through one conic.
INTERMEDIARY FUNCTIONS.
116.
Consider
now Kummer's
surface defined by theta functions in
the usual way, except that the periods are connected by a singular
relation
whose invariant
is
They
not a square.
are characterised
geometrically by the breaking up of some of the ordinary curves
lying on the surface into curves of lower order which do not in
general exist.
The general transcendental theory shows that the
equation of any curve
F (u) = 0,
is
\og{F(u + Ta
hyperelliptic
where
+ /3)/F(u)}
By multiplying
1.
by the exponential of a
2 1, and making the periodic conditions consistent we can arrange that
is
linear in
ult u2
quadratic in
v^,
F( Ul + l,u2) = F(u),
u2 +l) = F (u) exp
F{ih.,
2Kimu^
= F(u) exp 2jri (wut/j + n + rm^
F (Mi + TWI W +
= F (u) exp 2ni {n a u + % + mT
{
12
u2 ) +
const.},
122)
12
u2)
+ const.
J,
where m, n11 n n n^,n^ are integers and the periods are connected
by the relation
,
WiiTia
+ (rh2 + it)
In the ordinary case
T11,
in this relation
tion of order
t22
all
=n
21
Tn
+ (n m + mT
must be
or n^
the preceding relation
zero,
t
2
12 ,
and then
but when
may be made
;
+ integer.
the integer coefficients of
tj2 ra Tn T22
,
t 12
12 )
and
1,
becomes a theta func
a singular relation exists,
equivalent to it and then
functions different from theta functions can exist and have the
preceding properties. By a linear transformation it is possible
= and reduce the singular relation to the form
to make
WsiT n
+ (^22  Mil) tm  n a Ta =
0,
115116]
INTERMEDIARY FUNCTIONS
which includes the two canonical forms
211
odd and even
for
in
variants.
Take new arguments (U) denned by
\n\ C/'1 = w 11 w + 12 m 2
1
U =n
\n\
where
in
+
= n^n^ n
\n\
21 u 1
matrix notation the substitution
The new periods
fined by
12
n 2i
is
U = nu.
are the elements of a matrix t which
is
symmetrical on account of the singular relation.
is
de
w T = TIT,
and
n 22 u 2
Then
* = *(&),
U + l) = $(U),
<I>(t/i + l, U = (U
* (Cfi + Tu, U + t = $ U) exp \n\ ^ + const.},
=
* #1 + t 17 + t^)
U) exp  2m \n JJ + const.},
where
2)
12 ,
21 )
<I>
2jri
showing that constants clt c2 can be found so that (U) is a
theta function of the arguments (U c), of order n and zero
,
characteristic.
The
We
shall take (c) to be a halfperiod.
integer elements of the
equalities,
as
Since
follows.
the
matrix (n) satisfy three ininvariant of the singular
relation
"si Til
is
positive,
T 22
ra 12 ra 21 )
>
 %l) T  n
(22
12
12
we have
(n n
+n
22 )
4 (nn n 22
0.
Again, in order that the matrix t may be suitable
struction of a theta function, if rrs = r rs ' + iT rs ",
then
the con
> 0,
t"
for,
but
ra
and
= raT",
> 0,
n = naU^, n n n > 0.
rn " = WnTn" + n t " > 0,
2
T"
=

so that
Lastly,
rcT"
t"
21
12
may be proved by elementary
inequality may be replaced by
nn + w > 0.
and
it
21
considerations that this
22
These three inequalities are implied by the single condition
l
?? 22
>
Vn u n22  n 12 n
2l
142
SINGULAR KUMMER SURFACES
212
SINGULAR CURVES.
117.
Taking
<& (
characteristic,
equation
is
we
[CH. XVIII
and
whose
t) to be a theta function with definite parity
find that a family of singular curves exists
F (u) =
where
F (u + tS + /S) = (  y#+i> F (u) exp  man (2m + th)},
{
and
F is
either even or odd.
This
differs
from the periodic property of a theta function by
the presence of the matrix (n) in place of a single integer.
we assume an expansion
F(u) = e"m 2
the preceding relation gives
of
A SiiSi
whence
If
2 "*
and
4, 1+Blli S2+ 12 ,
4 Sl+%1
,2+ n M
in terms
number of linearly indeF(u) having the same characteristic a/3 and
that the
follows
it
pendent functions
matrix n is the area of the parallelogram whose corners, referred
to rectangular axes, are (0, 0), (n^, Wj. 2 )> (au ^22), (%+%, n 12 + n22),
that is, n
The nodes through which the singular curve F (u) = passes
are given by the halfperiods for which F vanishes.
These are
seen from the periodic relation to be \ (tS + #) where
I
.
fi/3
+ ayS + an/3
has the opposite parity to F.
pass through the same nodes.
Hence
all
the curves of one family
If the elements of the matrix
n"
satisfy the condition
n*j
> 'vVi22 
WiaWai,
so also do the elements of
n n _1 =
I
12
1
11'
and the singular relations are the same in both
cases.
By adding
the exponents in the period relations we see that
the product of two intermediary functions, one from each family, is
a theta function of order n11 + n w and characteristic the sum of
those of
its factors.
Hence the curve F(u) = is of order wu +to22 and arises from
the breaking up of an ordinary curve of order 2 (n + n ). The
B
base points of this ordinary family are divided among the two
singular curves which intersect in a certain number of other nodes
117118]
SINGULAR CURVES
213
It can be proved that the number of intersections of two
singular curves, distinguished by different matrices n and n', is
K< +
 n^tia  n n
On putting n,,' = n = 2, n = n = 0, the second
plane section, and we get the order n n + n
i
22u'
12 ).
21
'
22
12
21
curve becomes a
22 .
The
SINGULAR SURFACES WITH INVARIANT
118.
5.
existence of singular curves upon a singular surface of
invariant 5 depends
upon the choice of four integers n n n12 n21 n 22
,
satisfying
nn
The
+ n^ = V4 (nu n^  n
12
n 21 )
5.
smallest values give the most interesting result and accord
ingly
we take n = n 12 = w =
equation F(u)
21
the characteristic
nw =
1,
The
2.
is
corresponding
+n
= 3,
and if
through the nodes \ (ra + /3)
represents a curve of order
zero, it passes
rin
22 ,
where
<*i
A + i/3
has the opposite parity to F.
+ 2/3i + 2a /3
Now it is easily
2
found that the
congruence
(!
+ O & + !& =
(mod. 2)
has ten solutions, and the congruence
(*!
+a
2)
&+
oti/3.,
(mod. 2)
has six solutions; the latter are underlined in the diagram
and are seen
to
dd
ac
ba
cb
ab
da
cc
bd
be
cd
db
aa
ca
bb
ad
dc
form a Weberhexad.
The cubic cannot
pass
and
through the ten nodes since five of them
the
projected
from
node
is
It
so must pass through the hexad.
(aa) by a quadric cone passing through the intersections of the
tropes (cd), (dc), (bd), (db), (cb), (cd) taken consecutively and
therefore touching the remaining trope (be) which passes through
the node (aa). The fact that such a conic can be drawn is a
consequence of the singular relation, and it is easy to express the
lie
in the trope (ab),
conditions in terms of the constants of the surface.
SINGULAR KUMMER SURFACES
214
The values
i11
= 2, n^=l,
? ]2
passing through the nodes J (toc
2a 1 /31  <*!&  a 2
or
that
(i
is,
+ as)
= n = 1,
21
+ /3)
give another cubic
where
A + a A = 1 (mod. 2)
A + A = 1 (mod.
2
<*
the underlined hexad in the diagram
dd
[CH. XVIII
2),
118119]
SINGULAB SURFACES WITH INVARIANT 8
215
the singular relation has the canonical form
2t
+ rm = 0.
The
singular family of characteristic
(a/3)
given by
that
is
a'/3'
passes through the nodes
+ a'/3 + an/3 = or 1 (mod.
(ft + ft') + a ft' + a/ft =
a/ = a = ft' = ft' =
a ft = 1
= ft= 1, giving four nodes
aft
(!
')
First take
2),
or
1.
'
the congruence
has one solution a x
since a 2
and ft are
These nodes are
arbitrary.
lj
or
lj
and form a Gopel
(l
(ba)
(act)
The
tetrad.
l)
(ab)
(l
lj'
(bb)
alternative congruence
*,&
= (>
gives the remaining twelve nodes, which are inadmissible since
there are tropes containing six of them.
Hence there
exists
on this surface a singular family of quartics
passing through four nodes and depending on one parameter.
This parameter can be chosen to make the quartic pass through
an additional node which
since it
is
will
not a base node.
then be a double point on the curve
projecting from this node we get
By
a quadric cone passing through the four lines of intersection of
four tropes taken in order, and touching the remaining two.
The
nodes in any trope and
reciprocal property holds for the
conic
can
be described through two
a
characterises the surface
quadrilateral
the
sides
a
formed by the other four.
nodes to touch
of
six
By taking
different values
for.
a2
'
and
ft'
we get three other
families of quartics passing through the remaining three tetrads of
Again taking
the groupset.
we
/u
i.W
\n n
nj
2\
2
find a family of quartics of characteristic
a' ft
passing through
the nodes given by
ttift'
so that it
Thus there
is
is
+a
ft'
+ a/ft + 'ft + a
2
ft
or
1,
necessary only to interchange a and ft a! and ft.
a second family of quartics through the nodes (aa),
(ab), (ba), (bb),
and by the general theory any two curves, one
from each family, lie on a quadric.
[CH. XVIII
SINGULAR KUMMER SURFACES
216
BIRATIONAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF
INTO THEMSELVES.
120.
KUMMER SURFACES
Examples of these are the fifteen collineations which with
make up the group of sixteen linear transformations upon
which the whole theory of the general Kummer surface depends.
Other transformations, not linear, are geometrically evident,
namely the sixteen projections of the surface upon itself from
the nodes, and the correlative transformations by means of tangent
planes collinear with a trope. The question was proposed by
Klein*, and answered by Humbert^, as to whether any other
identity
such transformations exist.
A method is given in 96
quartic surfaces into which
be transformed birationally
finding in succession all the
for
the general
among
Kummer
can
surface
different orders
these, for
of the transformation, the surface itself occurs, as for example
when n = 6, s = 0. Two examples
who refers the surface to a Gopel
are pointed out by Hutchinson {
The equation
tetrad of nodes.
has the form
A (xH* + y*z*) + B (ft* + z*x*) + C {ft* + x*y*) + Dxyzt
+ F(yt + zx) (zt +xy) + G (zt + xy) (xt + yz)
+ H (xt + yz) (yt + zx) =
and
is
unchanged by the transformation
x'x
so that
by using
= y'y = z!z =
different tetrads
we
t't,
obtain in this
group of birational transformations.
Weddle's surface
<*r\ xs e /,
Again
way an
the
(s
infinite
equation of
= 1,
2, 3,
is
unchanged by the same
substitution.
There are
of this form, referred to different tetrahedra of nodes, and
obtain in this
Kummer's
two
way another
4)
fifteen equations
we
group of transformations of
a oneone relation between the
infinite
surface since there
is
surfaces.
There
exist special
Kummer
surfaces which admit other trans
formations than those indicated.
We
consider only the problem
of finding those surfaces which can be linearly transformed into
themselves otherwise than by the group of sixteen collineations.
* Klein, Math. Ann. (1885), xxvii, 112.
t Humbert, Liouville (1893), ser. 4, ix, 465.
t Hutchinson, Amer. Bull. (1901), vii, 211.
Showing that the six parameters of three nodes on a unieursal quartie are
those of six nodes on a conic, Humbert, Comptes Rendus (1901), cxxxm, 425.
Kantor, Amer. Jour. (1897), xix, 86.

120]
TRANSFORMATIONS OF KUMMER SURFACES
217
Suppose that such a transformation exists it changes the nodes
on one conic into the nodes on the same or some other conic, and
by combining one of the sixteen collineations we may arrange
;
that the conic
the same.
Conversely if the six nodes 1,2,3, 4, 5, 6
same nodes in a
different order 1', 2', 3', 4', 5', 6', then it is easily seen that a
linear transformation can be found which interchanges the Gopel
tetrahedra of tropes 0, 12, 34, 56 and 0, 1'2', 3'4', 5'6', and leaves
the surface unaltered. Thus the problem is reduced to finding
in the plane
is
are projectively related to the
the conditions under which six points on a conic can be linearly
transformed into themselves *.
Now in a linear transformation of a conic into itself the chords
joining corresponding points touch another conic having double
contact at the selfcorresponding points.
These conies may be projected into concentric circles and
then any cyclic permutation must represent a regular polygon
inscribed in one circle and circumscribed about the other; for
instance a cycle (12) means that the points 1 and 2 are the ends
of a diameter, and the inner circle has zero radius.
Now any
permutation can be arranged as a set of cycles, the elements of
each cycle being permuted in cyclic order among themselves;
the present case there must not be more than two points
unchanged, and the remaining points must be the corners of
one or more regular polygons, the number of corners being the
in
same
for different
polygons.
Under these
restrictions the only
possible permutations are represented by the following six types
I.
SINGULAR KUMMER SURFACES
218
The
third
[CH. XVIII
column describes the projective nature of the
situation of coplanar nodes regarded as lying on a circle passing
through / and J the circular points at infinity. By comparison
with the results of 57 we identify the corresponding surface as
a tetrahedroid except in case V.
It is interesting to see
how
these surfaces arise in the theory
of the birational transformation of the hyperelliptic surface into
itself*.
The general
hyperelliptic surface is defined
by equating
the coordinates to theta functions of the same order and zero
characteristic, and in general each point has a single pair of
parameters Wj, w2
Then diii and du2 are differentials " of the first
kind " for the surface and must be linearly transformed when the
.
Thus we
are led
to the special kind of transformation of theta functions
known
surface undergoes a birational transformation.
as complex multiplication in which the
new
periods are the same
as the old, and in order to be uniquely reversible the transformation
must be of the
first order.
former case
it
There are two
cases, according
ordinary or singular (pp. 202, 203). In the
can be shown that when the surface is not singular
as the transformation
is
the only transformations are given by
ul = Mj + const,
w/ = M
and by
Kummer's
surface
(i,
2)
surface
+ const.,
= w + const.,
uj = m + const.
w2
'
distinguished from the general hyperelliptic
is
by the fact that each point has two pairs of parameters
and (U!, 2), and the preceding reasoning fails. In fact
the transformation
Wi'
= Hj + ai,
w 2'=w2 +a a
+ a) and ( u + a) corresponding to one
a halfperiod, in which case the transformation is one of the group of sixteen collineations.
The
preceding equations do, however, express a oneone relation
between the points of the tangent sections (v) and (v + a),
gives two distinct points (u
point (u) unless (a)
is
where (v) is arbitrary, because each is a univocal curve (p. 190),
and this affords a proof that all tangent sections have the same
moduli.
When the hyperelliptic surface is singular it may admit
other birational transformations depending on ordinary transformations of theta functions. It can be shown that this depends
*
Humbert, Liouville,
Ber. 5, vi, 367.
TRANSFORMATIONS OF KUMMER SURFACES
120]
219
on a linear transformation of the integrals fdx/y and Jxdx/y
where
y* = {x h) (x  k2 ) (x  k3 ) (x  k4 ) (x  k 5 ) (x  k s ),
and
into
this again
itself,
depends on a linear transformation of the sextic
leading to the same six sets of relations
among
the
constants, to each of which corresponds a certain type of singular
Kummer
surface.
INDEX.
Theorem 188
Algebraic curves on
Abel's
Elliptic coordinates 55
Summer's
surface
137; general theorems 143
Appell 185
Kummer
surfaces 200
Four dimensions 127
Appell et Laeours 105
Asymptotic curves 60, 110, 194
Fresnel 100
Geiser 12
Baker
24, 169, 175, 179, 183, 186, 187
Ball 38, 40
Gopel 19
even tetrads
Battaglini's complex 94
79, 85
Gopel's biquadratic relation 186
Birational transformation 160, 216
Group 4
Bitangents 53, 59, 195
Boklen 113
Bolza 36, 82, 217
Borchardt 81
Burnside 4
Harmonic complex 94
Hermite 202
Hess 45
Hexads 80
Hierholzer 170
Hudson 139
Humbert 3, 76,
Caporali 45
Caspary 170, 172
Castelnuovo et Enriques 146
Cayley 71, 72, 73, 81, 83, 87,
150, 163, 184, 190, 198,
199, 203, 204, 209, 216, 218
104,
90,
Hutchinson 163, 170,
194, 216
138, 160, 165, 166, 170, 202
among theta functions
Characteristics 142, 176
Identical relations
Clifford 48, 179
179
Incidence diagram 7
Intermediary functions 210
Irrational equations of Kummer's surface 35
Complex, Battaglini's Harmonic 94
Painvin's 112
quadratic, singular points and planes
51
tetrahedral 68
Complexes, apolar 38, 52
the six fundamental linear 33,
46
Configuration, the 16 6
5, 44,
Jessop 45, 51, 88
40,
131; the
60 16 42
Congruences of bitangents
Cremona 132
53, 63, 66
Kantor
94,
63, 99, 187, 216
Koenigs 40, 45
Krazer 175, 184, 185, 186, 189, 205
Kummer
Darboux
De
19, 104, 110, 111, 150,
14, 77, 87
170
LieScheffers 102
Paolis 168
Desmic tetrahedra
216
Klein 36, 38, 40, 42, 49, 53, 56, 57, 58,
1,
43
Linegeometry 37
INDEX
222
Martinetti 45
Schroeter
Matrices 24
Schur 94
Minchin 37
Segre 93
3,
12
Serret 31
Niven 107
Sextic curves 154, 157
Node 14
Singular conic 14
Notation for 16 6 configuration 11, 16, 76
Nbther 165, 166
gtaude 36
Stephanos 3, 45
Study 3, 83
Octavic curves 158, 159
Sturm
38, 40, 51, 68, 71, 72, 94, 112
Painleve 184
Tangent section of Bummer's surface 188
Painvin's complex 112
Tetrahedra, fundamental 48, 81
Pairs and octads 77
Parametric representation of
Klein's 57, 197
Summer's
surface 19, 181
Humbert's 158, 168
Tetrahedroid 89
Theta equation of a curve 141
Picard et Simart 146
complex surface 68
Poincare 183, 185, 186
Preston 100
functions 173
Transformation of Rummer's surface
163
of theta functions 201
Quadrics, the ten fundamental 32, 41, 47
Trope 14
Pliicker's
Quartic curves 149, 151, 153
Unicursal curves 206
Keality of
Summer's
surface 115
Keichardt 194
Eeye 12, 38, 63
Eichmond
Univocal curves 190
Varieties in four dimensions 132
43, 129, 132,
170
Veronese Schepp 129
Bodrigues 32
Bonn
83, 91, 92, 99, 115, 197
Bosenhain 31, 68
odd tetrads 78, 83
Bouth 37
SalmonFiedler 63
Schilling 122
Schottky 170
CAMBEIDGE
Wave
surface 100
Weber
12, 80, 105
Weddle's surface 160, 199
Weiler 72, 89, 115
Whitehead 48
Wirtinger 187, 199
Zeuthen 72
PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A. AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.
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