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Kummer's

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http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924001544406

KUMMER'S QUARTIC SURFACE

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE,


CLAY, Manager.
AVE MABIA LANE,

F.

C.

ILonJon:
ffilaBBofo:

50,

WELLINGTON STREET.

F. A. BROCKHAUS.
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.
(Mcutta: MACMILLAN AND CO., Ltd.

Iclpjifl:

#ei lord:

BombsE ani

E.C.

[All Rights reserved.]

KUMMER'S QUARTIC SURFACE

BY
R?

W: H: IT HUDSON,

M.A., D.Sc.

Late Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge, and Lecturer in Mathematics


at the University of Liverpool.

Cambridge
at the

University Press
J

9 5
1ty

ffiam&rtoge:

PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A.


AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.

PEEFATOEY NOTE.
Ronald William Henry Tuenbull Hudson would have
been twenty-nine years old in July of

this year;

educated at

St Paul's School, London, and at St John's College, Cambridge,

he obtained the highest honours in the public examinations of the


University, in 1898, 1899, 1900

College in 1900

was elected a Fellow of St John's

became a Lecturer

in

Mathematics at University

College, Liverpool, in 1902; was D.Sc. in the University of


in 1903

and

in the early

London

died, as the result of a fall while climbing in Wales,

autumn

of 1904.

This book was then in course of printing, and the writer had
himself corrected proofs of the earlier sheets, assisted in this

work by

Mr

T. J.

Bromwich, Professor of Mathematics in

I' A.

Queen's College, Galway, and by

Mr H.

Bateman, of Trinity

College, Cambridge; for the remaining portion

myself are responsible


unaltered throughout
to the matter

Mr Bateman and

we have followed the author's manuscript


and gratefully acknowledge the care given

by the University

Press.

Attentive readers can judge what devotion, what acumen,

went

to the

making

of a book of such strength

a book whose brevity grows upon one with

knew

the writer

it

will

study.

and breadth;

To those who

be a reminder of the enthusiasm and

PREFATORY NOTE

VI
brilliance

which compelled their admiration, as the loyalty of his

nature compelled their regard.


of this volume
lives

could

is

A many-sided theory such

generally to be

won only by the work

one who held so firmly the faith that the time


ill

is

as that

of

many

well spent

be spared.

H. F.

27 March 1905.

BAKER.

CONTENTS.
CHAPTER

I.

KUMMERS CONFIGURATION.
PAGE

SECT.
1.

2.

Desmic tetrahedra
The group of reflexions

5.

The 16 6 configuration
The group of sixteen operations
The incidence diagram

6.

Linear construction from six arbitrary planes

7.

Situation of coplanar points

3.
4.

...
.......

CHAPTER

12

II.

THE QUARTIC SURFACE.


8.

The Quartic

surface with sixteen nodes

14

9.

Nomenclature for the nodes and tropes

16

The equation of the surface


The shape of the surface

17

10.
11.

19

CHAPTER

III.

THE ORTHOGONAL MATRIX OF LINEAR FORMS.


12.

Preliminary account of matrices

13.

Orthogonal matrices
Connection between matrices and quaternions

14.

...
...

24
26
27

CONTENTS

viii

FAGE

SECT.

28

15.

The

16.

Quadratic relations

17.

The ten fundamental quadrics


The six fundamental complexes
Irrational equations of Kummer's

18.
19.

sixteen linear forms

30
32
surface

CHAPTER

33

....

34

IV.

LINE GEOMETRY.
37
38

20.

Polar lines

21.

23.

Apolar complexes
Groups of three and four apolar complexes
Six apolar complexes

24.

Ten fundamental quadrics

41

25.

Klein's 60 16 configuration

26.

Kummer's 16

42
44

27.

Line coordinates

45

28.

Fundamental quadrics
Fundamental tetrahedra

47

22.

29.

....

39

40

configuration

48

CHAPTER

V.

THE QUADRATIC COMPLEX AND CONGRUENCE.


50

30.

Outline of the geometrical theory

31.

Outline of the algebraical theory

53

32.

Elliptic coordinates

55

33.

Conjugate sets

56

34.

Klein's tetrahedra

35.

Eelations of lines to

36.

Asymptotic curves

37.

Principal asymptotic curves

38.

The congruence

39.

Singularities of the congruence

40.

Relation between

41.

"

57

of second order

4>

58

and

class

....

60
62
63
63

and A

65

66

Confocal congruences

CHAPTER

VI.

flicker's complex surface.

43.

Tetrahedral complexes
Equations of the complex and the complex surface

44.

Singularities of the surface

71

45.

The

72

46.

Shape of the surface

42.

polar line

68
,

69

73

CONTENTS.

IX

CHAPTER

VII.

SETS OF NODES.
SECT>

PAGE

47.

Group-sets

75

48.

Comparison of notations
Pairs and ootads
Eighty Eosenhain odd tetrads
Sixty Gbpel even tetrads
Odd and even hexads

76

49.
50.
51.
5~2.

CHAPTER

77
78
79

80

VIII.

EQUATIONS OF RUMMER'S SURFACE.


53.
54.
55.

The equation referred to a fundamental tetrahedron


The equation referred to a Eosenhain tetrahedron
Nodal quartic surfaces

CHAPTER

81

83
86

IX.

SPECIAL FORMS OF RUMMER'S SURFACE.


56.

The

57.

Multiple tetrahedroids

91

58.

Battaglini's

harmonic complex
Limiting forms

94
98

59.

tetrahedroid

89

CHAPTER

X.

THE WAVE SURFACE.


100

60.

Definition of the surface

61.

Apsidal surfaces

62.

Singularities of the

63.

Parametric representation

64.

Tangent planes

65.

The four parameters

66.

Curvature

67.

Asymptotic lines
Painvin's complex

68.

101

Wave

102

Surface

...

104
106
108
109

110
112

CHAPTER

XI.

REALITY AND TOPOLOGY.


69.

Eeality of the complexes

70.

71.

Six real fundamental complexes


Equations of surfaces Ia Ih Ic

72.

Four

73.

Two

74.

Six imaginary complexes

real
real

115

and two imaginary complexes


and four imaginary complexes
.

118
121

122

125
126

CONTENTS

CHAPTER

XII.

GEOMETRY OF FOUR DIMENSIONS.


SECT.

PAGE

75.

Linear manifolds

76.

Construction of the 15 e configuration from six points in four

77.

Analytical methods

130

78.

The 16e

131

127

dimensions

129

configuration

79.

General theory of varieties

80.

Space sections of a certain quartic variety

132

CHAPTER

134

XIII.

ALGEBRAIC CURVES ON THE SURFACE.


81.

Geometry on a surface

82.

Algebraic curves on

83.

The e-equation

84.

General theorems on curves

142

85.

Classification of families of curves

145

86.

Linear systems of curves

146

137

Kummer's

138

surface

of a curve

141

CHAPTER

XIV.

CURVES OF DIFFERENT ORDERS.


87.

Quartic curves

149

88.

Quartics through the same even tetrad

151

89.

Quartics through the same odd tetrad

153

90.

Sextics through six nodes

154

91.

Sextics through ten nodes

157

92.

Octavic curves through eight nodes.

158

93.

Octavic curves through sixteen nodes

159

CHAPTER

XV.

WEDDLE'S SURFACE.
94.

Birational transformation of surfaces

95.

Transformation of Kummer's surface

96.

Quartic surfaces into which

formed

165

97.

Weddle's surface

166

98.

Equation of Weddle's surface

169

Kummer's

160
162
surface can be trans-

CONTENTS

CHAPTER

XI

XVI.

THETA FUNCTIONS.
SECT.
99.

PAGE

Uniformisation of the surface

...

173

100.

Definition of theta functions

101.

Characteristics

102.

Identical relations among the double theta functions


Parametric expression of Rummer's surface
Theta functions of higher order
Sketch of the transcendental theory

103.
104.

105.

175

and periods

176
179
180

CHAPTER

182

184

XVII.

APPLICATIONS OF ABEL'S THEOREM.


106.

Tangent sections

107.

Collinear points

190

108.

Asymptotic curves

194

109.

Inscribed configurations

196

188

CHAPTER

XVIII.

SINGULAR KDMMER SURFACES.


110.

Elliptic surfaces

111.

Transformation of theta functions

112.

The

113.

Parametric curves

114.

Unicursal curves

115.

Geometrical interpretation of the singular relation kr12 -

invariant

116.

Intermediary functions

117.

Singular curves

118.

Singular surfaces with invariant 5

119.

Singular surfaces with invariant 8

120.

Birational transformations of

Kummer

surfaces into themselves

221

Index
Plate (Rummer's

Surface, see pp. 21, 22)

Frontispiece

;;

CHAPTER

I.

RUMMER'S CONFIGURATION.
1.

DESM1C TETRAHEDRA.

The eight corners of a cube form a very simple configuration


yet by joining alternate corners by the diagonals of the faces we
get two tetrahedra such that each edge of one meets two opposite

edges of the other, and the figure possesses


features

of

the most general pair of

all

the projective

tetrahedra having this

property.

Take an arbitrary tetrahedron of reference XYZT, and any


S whose homogeneous coordinates are as, y, z, t. Draw three
lines through this point to meet the pairs of opposite edges, and
on each line take the harmonic conjugate of S with respect to
the intercept between the edges; in this way three new points
P, Q, R are obtained, making in all the set of four
point

*,

-y, -z,

),

Q,

(-,

-z,

),

p.

(-, -y,

z,t

),

z,

).

P,

S,

Then

PQRS

and

XYZT

x,

y,

y,

are a pair of tetrahedra possessing the

PS and QR

XT

meet both
and YZ, and so on
they are the most general pair, for the preceding harmonic construction is deduced from the fact that, by hypothesis, any face of
one tetrahedron cuts the other in a complete quadrilateral whose,
above property, for

When one tetrahedron is


determined by any one of its corners. Tetrahedra so related are said to be desmic and to belong to a desmic
diagonals are the edges in that face.

given the other

is

system.
h.

KUMMERS CONFIGURATION

[CH.

DESMIC TETRAHEDRA

1]

is also a centre of perspective.


Of the intersections of
the edges, six are the centres of the faces of the cube and are
the corners of a regular octahedron. The remaining six are at

centre

infinity.

It

is

interesting to notice that these twelve points of inter-

section are the corners of another desmic system of tetrahedra

formed with the same eighteen edges in the figure the three new
tetrahedra are infinite and wedge-shaped, each being formed by
two opposite faces of the cube and the planes containing their
;

parallel diagonals.

Since the figure

and

by intersecting

defined

is

to every point-theorem there

lines, it is self-

a corresponding
plane-theorem in particular, the faces of any two tetrahedra can
be paired in four ways so that the lines of intersection lie in a
face of the third tetrahedron.
The geometrical properties of the
figure are deducible from the identity
reciprocal,

is

(a-b-c + d)(-a + b-c + d)(-a-b + c + d)(a + b + c + d)


+ (- a + b + c + d){a b + c + d)(a + b c+d)(a + b + c d)
= IGabcd,
in which the letters

may be regarded

as current coordinates of

either a plane or a point.

The two
The

following results

may be taken

as examples.

twelve centres of similitude of four spheres are the corners of a

desmic system.
If three tetrahedra belong by pairs to different desmic systems, the
maining tetrahedra of the three systems belong to another system.

re-

Desmic systems were first investigated by Stephanos* and are so named


because the three tetrahedra belonging to one system are members of a pencil
The general surface of the pencil has
(faisceau, Seoyids) of quartic surfaces.
twelve nodes and is the subject of a memoir by Humbert + ; its equation may
be written in the symmetrical form
X+/i + =0,

where

and the three tetrahedra


the

are

(^- 2)(y2 -z2)=0,


sum of the left sides

(y

-f2)('2 -^ ) = 0,

is

given

(z2

- 2 )(.r2 -y s )=0,

For further details and


an application to Spherical Trigono-

being identically zero.

references see a paper by Schroeter|

metry

by Study .

* Darboux Bulletin (1879),, s6r.

2,

m,

424.

t Liouville (1891), ser. 4, vii, 353.


+ CreHe (1892), crs, 341..
Mathematical Papers, Chicago Congress

(1893), p. 382.

12

rummer's configuration

[ch.

THE GROUP OF REFLEXIONS.

2.

group of operations is a set of operations such that the


number taken in any order is an operation of the
set*; in particular the repetition of a single operation any number
resultant of any

of times

The
number

is

member

equivalent to some

fact that

by successive

of the group.

reflexions in the axes only a finite

of points are obtained from one arbitrary point

that the operations of reflecting belong to a group.

shows

Considered

algebraically the operations consist in changing the signs of

Let the symbol

of the coordinates.

changing the signs of

y, z,

two

denote the operation of


and therefore of changing S into P.

back into
changes
expressed by the symbolic equation

The

repetition of the operation

and

this is

again,

A*=l.
Here

1 denotes the identical operation,

position of the point to which

it is

which does not

applied

we

alter the

infer that it

must

be included in every group to which A belongs. Similarly let the


operation B change the signs of z, x, and G those of x, y. Then
B* = 1 and C" = 1. Further, if B and G are performed successively
in either order the result

are changed in sign

is

when y and z, but not w,


by the symbolic equations

the same as

this is expressed

BG = GB=A.
In other words, B and C are permutable and their product is A.
These equations, with others deduced by symmetry, are sufficient
to show that the four operations
1,

A, B,

form a group, for any combination of them can be reduced to one


of themselves.

The

multiplication table

THE GROUP OF REFLEXIONS

2-3]

It may happen that some of the members of a group form a


group by themselves. In this case the smaller group is called a
subgroup of the larger. For example (1, A) is a subgroup of
(1, A, B, 0); (1, B) and (1,0) are also subgroups.
When two permutable groups are given, a third group can be
obtained by combining the members of one with the members of
the other in all possible ways, and is called the product of the first
two groups. For example, the group of reflexions is the product
of any two of its subgroups. The order of the product group, that
is, the number of its members, is the product of the orders of the
first two groups.

THE 166 CONFIGURATION.

3.

In space of three dimensions a point or a plane may be represented by four symbols a, ft, y, S used homogeneously. The
condition of incidence of two elements (a, ft, y, 8) and (a, ft", y, 8')
of different kinds may be taken to be

On

account of the perfect reciprocity between point and plane in

projective geometry, every theorem that will be proved has its


correlative

theorem

it

will not

be necessary to state the second

result in every case.


It is

immediately verifiable that the plane


(

kummer's configuration

[ch. I

THE GROUP OF SIXTEEN OPERATIONS.

4.

Let A denote the operation of interchanging a, 8 and at the


same time /3, 7, each letter carrying its sign with it similarly B
interchanges /3 with 8 and 7 with a, and C interchanges 7 with 8
and a with /3. Further let A' denote the operation of changing
Then
those of a, /S.
the signs of /3, 7, B' those of 7, a, and
A', B',
belong to the group of reflexions which has already been
considered, and it is easily seen that A, B, G satisfy symbolic
equations of precisely the same form; in other words (1, A, B, 0)
;

and

(1, A', B',

C)

are two groups having similar multiplication

Since change of order is independent of change of sign,


all the members of one group are permutable with those of the
other, for example AB' = B'A, and consequently the groups themtables.

selves are said to be permutable.

By combining

the members of these two permutable groups


ways we obtain a set of sixteen operations which
evidently form a group containing (1, A, B, G) and (1, A', B', C)

in all possible

as subgroups.

All the sixteen planes of the configuration are

obtained by operating on any one of them, say

(a, /3, 7, 8),

with

the members of the group, and the six points lying in each plane
are obtained by operating on the set given in 3 with the corre-

sponding member of the group

for,

the condition of incidence

is

when the same operation is performed on point and


We may clearly use the symbol of operation to denote the

unaffected
plane.

point or plane obtained from


(1) denotes (a,

on

we have

/3,

7, 8)

(a, 0, 7, 8)

and (AB') denotes

seen that the plane (1) or

by that
7,

(a,

/3,

operation, thus
/3,

a), and so

7, 8)

contains the

(8,

points
(AB'),

(AG'), (BG'), (BA'), (CA'),

and we deduce that the plane (A), or

(8, 7,

/?,

(CB')
a),

contains the

points

(B%
and so

(C), (CC), (CA'), (BA'), (BB'),

on.

The group

of sixteen operations, which will be referred to

many subgroups. Any two operaand their product form, with the identical operation, a subgroup: two examples are (1, AB', BG', CA') and (1, AG', BA', CB').
Further the group can be arranged in many ways as the product
simply as the group, contains

tions

THE GROUP OF SIXTEEN OPERATIONS

4-5]

of two subgroups; one arrangement arises from the definition


and another from the two preceding subgroups. These are shown

by the multiplication
1

tables

kummer's configuration

showing the product of the two subgroups


(1, AC, BA', GB') takes the form

dd

(1,

[ch.

AB', BO', CA') and

5-6]
points

LINEAR CONSTRUCTION
;

in

it,

if

they

each is an incidence diagram for the elements contained


and two elements, one from each diagram, are incident
lie

on corresponding rows, or columns, but not both.

xxx-

Let the first diagram represent any six planes; the positions of
the crosses make no suppositions as to the linear dependence of the
planes, for the diagram does not indicate that more than three
planes pass through the same point. It is required to fill in the
remaining ten places, if possible, so as to complete the incidence

diagram and obtain a 16 6 configuration. The noughts in the


second diagram represent ten of the twenty points of concurrence
of the six planes, taken by threes for example, the three crosses
in the first row determine the last nought of the first row.
Now
every row and column in the second diagram, taken together, contain enough noughts to determine a plane of the configuration in
this way the remaining ten planes are found and the first diagram
may be completed.
Hence a 16 6 configuration can be constructed from six arbitrary
planes in at least one way, and therefore involves eighteen arbitrary
constants.
Now the system considered in 3 contains the three
ratios a /3 7 S and fifteen constants implied in the choice of
a particular set of homogeneous coordinates. We infer that the
:

general configuration can be represented in this way.

We shall now investigate the preceding process of constructing


the configuration in greater detail, and prove that six given planes
determine twelve configurations.
Let five planes in general position be denoted by 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
their lines of intersection by two-figure symbols and their common
points by three-figure symbols. There are twelve different cyclical
arrangements of the planes and each gives a skew pentagon formed

by the

intersections of the planes taken in order.

Thus

corre-

sponding to the arrangement

12
there

is

a pentagon with sides


12

23

34

45

51

and corners
123

234

345

451

512

P.

10

rummer's configuration

[ch.

two corners of the pentagon, one


other point of the system, where it meets the opposite plane,

Each

side contains, besides

making the

set

124

and

these,

235

when arranged

452

513

Q,

in the order

352

135

341

524

241

F,

413

are the corners of the pentagon corresponding to

the cyclical

arrangement of planes 13524.


The relation between the
pentagons P and
is mutual, and so the twelve pentagons
can be divided into six pairs, the members of each pair being
mutually inscribed and circumscribed.
We next prove that the pentagons whose corners are P and Q,
taken in the order given, are so related that when they are
projected from any point on to any plane, five intersections of
pairs of sides are collinear.
Giving the projections the same
names as the points and lines in space, we see that the sets

of points

and
are

collinear,

341

123

513

512

452

235

lying on 13 and 25 respectively.

Therefore,

by

Pascal's theorem, the intersections of

(513, 512), or 51,

and (235, 341)

(512, 123), or 12,

and (341, 452)

(123, 235), or 23,

and (452, 513)

are collinear,

and similarly

the theorem

is

for the other pairs of sides.

Hence

proved.

Two skew pentagons, which are so related that the five lines
from any point to meet pairs of corresponding sides are coplanar,
are said to be in lineal position we have now proved that the
twelve pentagons formed by the intersections of five planes taken
in different orders can be arranged in six pairs such that if the
corners of one pentagon are taken alternately a new pentagon
is formed which is in lineal position with the other member of the
In this way we get twelve pairs of pentagons in lineal
pair.
;

position.

Conversely, instead of projecting from an arbitrary point,


take any sixth plane 6 its intersections with the lines 12 and
(134, 245), 23 and (245, 351) determine two lines meeting in a
point which must be collinear with the points where 6 cuts 34
;

LINEAR CONSTRUCTION

6]

11

and (351, 412), and so on. Thus we have a property of any


planes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, namely that the five planes
I,

(612, 134, 245)

II,

(623, 245, 351)

III,

(634, 351, 412)

IV,

(645, 412, 523)

V,

(651, 523, 134)

six

common point lying in the plane 6. This is one of the


which were proved above from the diagrams; when the
names of the planes and points are inserted, the preceding theorem
is made evident from the diagrams
have a

results

Planes

12
5

II

Of the twenty

Points

134
523

245

IV

III

351

651

623

612

412

645
634

points of concurrence of the six planes only ten

are used in the second diagram and no two involve

all six

planes.

Each plane occurs five times and the scheme is based on isolating
one, 6, and arranging the rest in a certain cyclical order 12345.
Any of the other planes may be isolated and the rest arranged
in appropriate order so as to lead to the same configuration, thus
1,

35624

2,

41635

3,

52641

4,

13652

5,

24613

the rule being to substitute 6 in 12345 in place of the isolated


figure

and to interchange the two

figures not adjacent to

it

in the

cyclical order.

Hence when six planes are arbitrarily given, a 16 6 configuration


determined when one is isolated and the rest arranged in
cyclical order.
The twelve different orders of these five planes
lead to twelve distinct configurations, and since it is immaterial
which of the six planes is isolated in the first instance, only twelve
different configurations can be obtained from them.
is

Six points can be chosen out of the sixteen so that no three lie in a plane
many ways ; the diagrams are of two types

of the configuration in

kummer's configuration

12

four points form a rectangle

(1)

and the others

lie

[ch.

on

different

rows and

columns,
three points

(2)

lie

in a

row and the others on

different rows

and the same

columns.

Only one half of the configuration can be linearly constructed from a


hexad of type (1).
Of the 720 ways of permuting the names of the points of type (2), sets of
sixty lead to the same ten planes and only twelve differently named configurations can be obtained.

The

configurations can be linearly constructed from


proved by Weber*, so that the 192 different sets of

fact that twelve 16

six given points

was

first

one configuration are called Weber hexads.

six points in

treated synthetically

The subject
by Reyet and Schroeter J who introduces pentagons

is

in

Geiser examines in greater detail the groups of ten planes


determined by six points and exhibits the configuration in an incidence
diagram.

lineal position.

7.

SITUATION OF COPLANAR POINTS.

Let the diagram represent points, so that A, B, G, A', B',


in one plane.
EFBG' and EFB'G are seen to be plane
quadrangles and therefore EF,
and B'G meet in the common

lie

BC

point

of these three planes.

current in

Q and BE, AB', A'B

Similarly
in R.

FD, GA', G'A are conHence the plane ABC

SITUATION OF COPLANAR POINTS

6-7]

13

The duality of the configuration shows that the six planes


through any point touch a quadric cone and the situation of the
lines of contact is projectively equivalent to that of the six points

on a conic.
Further, the twisted cubic curve determined by the six points

ABCDEF

is

projected from

passing through

ABGQR.

The

into a conic in the plane

pencil

A[BGQR]

is

ABG

the same as

A[BGC'B'~\, showing that the ranges BGG'B' on the conic and

BCFE

on the cubic have the same cross ratio. Similarly the


may be compared.
From their position in the diagram we see that ABCDEF
are six points from which the whole configuration can be linearly
constructed and it has just been proved that their situation on
the twisted cubic through them is projectively equivalent to that
of the points ABGA'B'G' on the conic through them. The same is
true of all the Weber hexads and all the conies, and three independent cross ratios of the six parameters which give the positions
of the six points on any conic may be taken to be the absolute
invariants of the configuration, being unaltered by any linear

other ranges of four points

transformation of coordinates.

CHAPTEE

II.

THE QUARTIC SURFACE.


THE QUARTIC SURFACE WITH SIXTEEN NODES.

8.

Every surface can be regarded either as a locus of points or as


an envelope of planes. It is convenient to give preponderance to
the former view, so that the order of a surface is one of its most
Carrying this idea further, it is natural
distinguishing features.
to classify surfaces of given order by the point singularities which
they may possess. A singular point is one in the neighbourhood
of which the surface ceases to be approximately flat there may
be a locus of such points, giving a singular line, or the singular
points may be isolated. Among surfaces of the second order the
former case is illustrated by a pair of planes, and the latter by
;

a cone.

The

surface usually

known by the name

of its first investir

Kummer*,

belongs to those surfaces of the fourth order


which have isolated singularities. The only kind of point singularity which will in general be considered is that of a node,
gator,

characterised geometrically by the fact that the tangent lines at it


generate a quadric cone instead of a plane, and algebraically by
the absence of terms of the first degree from the equation in point

coordinates

The
quency,

when the node

is

taken as origin.

reciprocal singularity,
is

which

will occur

with equal

that of a trope, or singular tangent plane.

fre-

It is cut

lines which envelope a. conic


instead of forming, as usual, a plane pencil at the point of conThe plane therefore touches the surface all along a conic
tact.

by consecutive tangent planes in

The conic of contact of a trope will


sometimes be called a singular conic of the surface.
The number of nodes which a surface of order n can have is
limited by its class. The points of contact of tangent planes
instead of at a single point.

* Ernst

Eduard Kummer, Professor

of Mathematics at Berlin, 1856 ; born 1810,


See Berliner Monateberichte, (1864), pp. 246, 495 (1865), p. 288. Berlin.
Altai. Abhandl. (1866), p. 1.

died 1893.

THE QUARTIC SURFACE

8]

15

through any two points A and B lie on the polar surfaces of A


and B, which are of order n 1, and hence the number of them
is n(n l) a
But by considering a penultimate form of surface
it appears that two of these points coincide with every node;
hence the formula for the class is n(n l)2 28, where 8 is the
number of nodes. Putting n = 4 we get 36 28 for the class,
showing that 8 cannot be greater than 16, for if the class were 2
the surface would be a quadric.
That a quartic surface can actually have as many as sixteen
nodes will be proved in 10 by constructing its equation. Assuming this for the present, we proceed to deduce some of the
.

properties of this configuration of nodes from the

elementary

geometry of the surface.


At any node there is a quadric cone of tangent lines which is
touched by the enveloping cone from the node along six generators, namely those tangent lines at the node which have fourpoint contact with the surface, and are found by equating to
zero the terms of degrees 2 and 3 in the equation referred to
the node as origin. The enveloping cone is of order 6. It has
nodal lines passing through the fifteen other nodes, for a node on
a surface is a node on its apparent contour. But if a sextic cone
has fifteen nodal lines, it must break up into six planes. Hence
the enveloping cone from any node consists of six planes touching
the quadric tangent cone at the node and containing the remaining fifteen nodes on their lines-, of intersection. Since any one
Consider
plane is cut by five others, six nodes lie on each plane.
the section of the surface by one of these planes; every line drawn
in this plane through the node is a tangent line and meets the
surface in one point distinct from the node, namely its point of
Hence the section must be a conic passing through
contact.
,

six nodes, that

is,

the plane touches the surface

all

along a conic,

and is therefore a trope. The complete section of the surface


by a trope is a conic counted twice; since this passes through
six nodes, the trope must touch the six quadric tangent cones
along generators which are tangents to the singular conic.

We

thus see that

are situated

by

if

a quartic surface has sixteen nodes, they

sixes in tropes each of

which touches the surface

Since six tropes pass through each node their


number is also 16. The nodes and tropes form a 16 6 configuration
like that considered in 3 and is of the most general character.
along a conic.

When

the singularities

conies on

it

are given.

are'

given the surface

is

unique, for sixteen

16

THE QUABTIC SURFACE

[CH.

NOMENCLATURE FOR THE NODES

9.

II

AJJD TROPES.

Although the names given to the points and planes in

5 are

and

suitable for a symmetrical treatment of the configuration

for

exhibiting the interchanges that take place under the operations


of the group, yet

it

is

often desirable to isolate a particular

element, or a particular set of six elements.

This

is

done in

the following way.

One node
The

4, 5, 6.

is

called

and the

six tropes

through

it

are

1, 2,

3,

two-figure symbols 12, 13... 56 denote the fifteen

nodes other than


lying on the intersections of these planes. We
have to find how these nodes are arranged on the remaining ten
tropes.

When
on a

two triangles circumscribe a conic, their six corners lie


and a corresponding theorem is true for a cone. Since
touch the tangent quadric cone to the
tropes through

conic,

the six

surface at 0,

it

follows that the six nodes


13,

35,

51,

24,

46,

62

on a quadric cone whose vertex is 0. By partitioning the six


figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,' 6 into two sets of three in all possible ways
we get ten different cones, and in general, no other cones with
lie

contain sets of six nodes.

vertices at

Now

the six nodes in any


by a quadric cone. Accord-

one of ten tropes are projected from


six lie on a trope which may be called
(135 246), or simply 135, or 246.
Thus we have two nomenclatures for the sixteen elements of
ingly, the preceding
.

a 16 6 configuration

in the first a single element is isolated

the remaining fifteen are


figures taken

two at a time

named
:

and

after the combinations of six

in the second, six elements

concurrent tropes or coplanar nodes

are

named by

either

single figures

and the remaining ten by the partitions of these six into two sets
of three.' The two nomenclatures may be used simultaneously,
one for the nodes, and the other for the tropes of the same configuration, as above, and then we have the following types of
incidences
is

12

incident with

1,

2,

2,

1,

3,

4,

5,

6,

123, 124, 125, 126,

,.

0, 12,

13,

14,

15,

16,

123

23, 31,

12,

56,

64,

45.

NODES AND TROPES

9-10]

17

All these incidences are clearly indicated in a pair of square


diagrams representing points and planes respectively. An element
of one diagram is incident with the elements of the other diagram
lying in the same row and the same column, but not both. The
pair of diagrams can be constructed in ten essentially different

ways, corresponding to the different partitions of six figures into

two

threes, one of which is the following,

f
i

3
5

m m m
m m m
Ml m m

With homogeneous

coordinates

is

24

35

i4

ie

51

32

34

36

13

52

54

56

y, z, t let

x,

the node

be

then the equation must have the form


fat +2<j> s t

where #

62

12

THE EQUATION OF THE SURFACE.

10.

(0, 0, 0, 1),

46

+& =

homogeneous and of degree

The quadric tangent cone

at

(),

s in x, y, z.

is

& = 0,
and the enveloping

sextic cone from

4>3

which must break up into


are

known when the nodes

not passing through

is

</>2<>4

is

= 0,
Both

six planes.

taken to be

of these equations

Further, if one of the tropes

are given.
t

= 0,

the equation

&=
represents the repeated conic passing through the nodes in that
trope,

and hence

<f>4

is

known when

the nodes are given, except as

to a numerical factor.

Choose the coordinates so that

fa^yO-xz.
It is convenient to represent

any generator of the cone $2 =

in

terms of a parameter u by the equations

x = y/u = z/u?.
Let

ky,

k2 ks klt k5> k6 be the values


,

xs =
h.

of

contact of the six tropes concurrent in


lc?x

u giving the

lines of

then their equations are

- 2ks y + z=0,

(s

l, 2, 3, 4, 5,

6)

THE QUARTIC SURFACE

18

[CH.

II

and we must have the identity

fafa = ^ia>

fa*

where \

aw?5#6)

an undetermined constant.
We shall take t = to be the plane (123.456) and then
= fa" where fa = is the conic in t = passing through the
fa
nodes 23, 31, 12, 56, 64, 45. It is convenient to represent any
point in the plane t = by the parameters u, v of the two tangents
from it to the conic y* = xz. Thus we write
is

x = 2y/(u -fv) = zjuv,


k?x

then

and the node 12


Consider

is

now

2kt y + z = x (u k e )

given by u = k u v

=k

ke

(v

or

),

by u = k2

= ki.

the equation

- k ) (v - k ) (v - k ) (v - k )
(' - h) (u - k
) (u
(v h) (v & ) (v k ) (u kt ) (u k ) (u k ) = 0.
division by u v it becomes symmetric in u and v,

After

the

wV, and is therefore the equation of a conic


terms of the new coordinates u, v. It is obviously

highest term being

expressed in
satisfied

by the

(, v)

= {h,

and hence

is

six points

h), (ks

fa =

where

fj,

is

kt ), (kit kt ),

= 0. Introduce the abbreviations


= u ke v = v k8
(u^tiiViVtVe - v^v^UcU^Ku v),

the conic fa
Ug

then

k2 ), (k ke ), (ke

(ky,

h),

2/&B2

an undetermined constant

further

4fa = x (u-v)

=
fa*
fafa ~Kx u u u ui u ui v
i

and

vi vi vi v 6 v i

so that
os~fa

and

= H? (UlUzUtViViVs VyVzVtUiUiU^f + XUi^WsWiMBWeVa

W Ve,

must be the square of a symmetric


u and v we must have \ = 4/u.2 which gives
~S = ^(UiUnUnViVfVe + V^VsUiUgU,).

since this expression

function of

fa

On

substituting these values of fa, fa, fa


the surface we find
fat

(U

- Vft/x = +
+

= fa

in the equation of

= fa J fa* fa fa,

ft,

(ihUzUsViVtVe

2/t

fljtf2

V8 4 WB W6 )

JUyUvUtUiUiUsVyVtViViVs v

THE EQUATION OF THE SURFACE

10-11]

19

In this parametric representation of the surface with given


is apparently an arbitrary constant /*, but it will be
noticed that the only data that have been used are one node
and the six tropes through it. The actual position of any other
node determines the value of ft. There is no loss of generality in
= l, and determining the signs of the radicals so that
taking
the coordinates of any point on the general sixteen-nodal quartic
can be expressed in terms of two parameters u, v by the equations*
nodes there

/tt

= u + v,
z/x = uv,
t/x = (u

2y/x

-2

tf)

and the

(v 1 M2 W s fl 4 V6 ?;6

+ Vtfi0

3 tfs

M4 M6 W6)2

one of ten similar forms corresponding


to the ten tropes which do not contain the node x = y = z = 0.
last expression is

If the equations of the sixteen tropes are


Xx

we may

0,

etc. ;

= x^ 0,

etc.,

write, omitting a factor of proportionality,

xs = ue vt
(w v) */x13S

and

a^jB

so on.
(k.2

Then

it is

(s

= Ju ui u3 vi v^ + */v
t

V2 V s Ui U

!i

1, 2, 3, 4, 5,

6)

'Us,

easy to verify that

- k ) Va^a;^ + (ks - &j) Va;2


s

a;si4

+ (^ &2) Va^a^ = 0,

and
(h - h) (h - h) ^X^X.^ + (h h) (h ~ h) ^x3ls xm
which are two of the many

irrational forms in

which the equation

of the surface can be expressed.

11.

THE SHAPE OF THE SURFACE.

It has been shown that the six tropes through any node cut
any other trope in two triangles whose corners are nodes. Hence
if the six nodes in any plane are partitioned into three pairs,
there is another trope through each pair, and these three tropes
meet in a point which is not a node. The four planes are the
faces of a tetrahedron f and contain singular conies intersecting
by pairs on its edges. The quadric which can be drawn through
two of these conies and one of the remaining two nodes cuts each
* Darboux, Comptes Rendus (1881), xcu, H93.

t Named

after Gopel.

22

THE QUAETIC SURFACE

20

[CH. II

of the other two conies in five points and therefore contains

Thus

entirely.

them

the four singular conies lie on a quadric.

Let ordinary tetrahedral coordinates be used and let the


= 0, then the quartic surface referred to this tetraquadric be
hedron of tropes must be
<j>

xyzt

k<f>

When
where the value of k depends on the coefficients in
k=
we have the four faces of the tetrahedron, and when k is
small, which is the case most easily realised, the surface lies near
the faces. There is a distinction, important from a metrical point
of view, between the cases when k is positive and negative.
In
the former case the product xyzt is positive and the point (x, y, z, t)
lies either within the tetrahedron or in one of the wedge-shaped
regions opposite the edges.
Fig. 2 shows the region for which
<f>.

Fig.

x, y, z, t
it

Fig. 3.

2.

are

all positive,

and

fig.

Fig. 4.

3 shows the region obtained from

by the substitution
x'/x

= y'/y=-z'/z=-t'/t,

and indicates that the two wedge-shaped pieces should be taken


together as being continuous at infinity and forming one " tetrahedron." Again fig. 4 shows the effect of the substitution
-x'/x

and gives a

"

tetrahedron

= y'/y=z>/z = t'/t,

" of

which one corner is separated from


the other three by the plane at infinity. Hence when k is negative the sheets of Rummer's surface lie in the regions opposite
the corners and the faces.

THE SHAPE OF THE SURFACE

11]

21

In order to realise conveniently the shape of the surface we


suppose the tetrahedron to be regular and the quadric <f> = to be
a concentric sphere*. The sphere cuts the edges in twelve nodes
lying by sixes on four circles in the faces.
They lie by fours on
twelve other planes which intersect by sixes in the corners of
a similarly situated regular tetrahedron. We thus have sixteen
nodes and sixteen tropes. First let the sphere be smaller than
the circumsphere of the tetrahedron, then the second tetrahedron
is

situated inside the

The

first

and we have the case k >

four triangles joined

by

six lunes.

0.

determine
an orthogonal pro-

four circles on the surface of the sphere


Fig. 5 is

<

Fig. 5.

jection and shows one of these circles completely and parts of the
other three. The twelve remaining conies are hyperbolas and six

Only
of these are drawn, of which three appear as straight lines.
three nodes of the inner tetrahedron are shown.
Two nodes which are adjacent on one conic are adjacent on one
other and belong to the same piece of the surface.

= x'i +y* + z* + P + ii.(xt + yt + zt + yz + zx


dons for a node, and the quartio surface is

* If

may

radius r of

0=0,

+4 (/i+ 1)

(/*

- 2) 2 xyzt=0.

the circum-radius B, and

//.

are connected by

3(r a -B 2 )M = 2(3r2 +fi 2).

frontis-

be found from the

<f>

The

+ xy),

The

THE QUARTIC SURFACE

22
piece, of

which

fig.

is

[CH.

II

a partial skeleton*, shows that the surface

consists of a central four-cornered or tetrahedral piece attached

in triby four other tetrahedral pieces, meeting the sphere =


angles, to six infinite wedge-shaped pieces, each of which contains
two nodes and meets the sphere in a lune; those pieces which
contain different branches of the same hyperbola may, by ex<}>

tending the notion of continuity, be paired so as to form three


tetrahedral pieces each of which, like the central piece, has one

node in common with each of the other four pieces.


As the sphere increases and approaches the circumsphere the
surface approaches the four faces of the tetrahedron, the various
it remaining within the tetrahedron or in the regions
beyond' the edges. When the sphere still further increases, the
quartic surface, after passing through the degenerate stage of four

portions of

planes, appears in the other regions into which space

by the planes

is

divided

namely the regions beyond the


The four last nodes now form a

of the tetrahedron,

corners and beyond the faces.

regular tetrahedron outside the

first.

Fig. 6 shows that the four circles divide the surface of the

sphere into four smaller triangles (three are shown), four larger

Fia. 6.

* Models of the sixteen conies passing by sixes through sixteen points are easily
out of coiled steel wire, beginning with the four circles. They have the
advantage over plaster models that the surface is transparent and does not hide
alternate arcs of conies.

made

11]

THE SHAPE OF THE SURFACE

triangles (one is shown),

and

six quadrangles.

23

On

each of the

smaller triangles stands a tetrahedral piece attached at one node


to an infinite conical piece

an

on each of the larger triangles stands


nodes which must be regarded as

infinite piece containing three

continuous at infinity with the opposite conical piece.

These two forms of Rummer's surface are equivalent from a


and differ only in their relation to the
plane at infinity. In both cases there are two sets of four tetrahedral pieces, each piece of one set being attached by a node to
descriptive point of view,

each piece of the other

set.

CHAPTER

III.

THE ORTHOGONAL MATRIX OF LINEAR FORMS.


12.

PRELIMINARY ACCOUNT OF MATRICES.

rnatrisc* is simply a set of independent elements arranged in


a rectangular array. In the abstract theory it is usual to indicate
the row and column to which each element belongs by suffixes
thus we denote the element lying in the rth row and the sth
column of a matrix a by arg and write

(a re ).

In what follows we shall be concerned solely with square


namely matrices which have the same number of rows
This number is the order of the matrix.
as columns.

matrices,

Associated with every matrix a

is

its

conjugate matrix a,

obtained by interchanging rows and columns: thus

a = (ars)
The

implies

addition of matrices of the

corresponding elements

The product

ars = am

same order is

+b=c

implies ars

+ brs = crs

of two matrices a and b of the

third matrix c denned

effected

by adding

thus
.

same order n

is

by

crt

=2
8

a rs bst

so that c has the same order as a and


all

(r,t

= l,2,

...

n),

=1
b.

These n2 equations are

written at once in the form


c

= ab.

* For a completer account see Baker's Abelian Functions, p. 666, where numerous
references are given.

PRELIMINARY ACCOUNT OF MATRICES

12]

The

rule for forming the product of two matrices resembles the

rule for multiplying two determinants, but

that the rows of the

second

is

the definition

it

associative, for if ab

2* s CpsCtgq = 2t8 Ztr O.p r

so that

it is

important to notice

factor are taken with the columns of the

first

From

factor.

tion of matrices
(CCLjpq

25

follows that the multiplica-

=c

and bd

= e,

= 2<r Ctpr ZiS Or8 CtSq = Zi r a^r erq \OjB)pq,


cd = abd = ae
r y(i<~q

but ab and ha are in general different matrices and the multiplication is not commutative.

The unit matrix

E is defined by the equation


Ea =

are zeros
is arbitrary; accordingly all the elements of
except those in the leading diagonal, which are unities. It then
= E. For these reasons may often
follows that aE = a and
in which a

EE

be replaced by 1, or omitted.
Let A,.s be the minor or cofactor of ars in
of

a,

the determinant

then

%r A rs are = a = 2 S A rs ars and 2r A^a^ =

= %r A^atr,

if s

=j= t.

Hence A rs / a is the srth element of a matrix which, when mulIt is called the inverse matrix and is
tiplied into a, gives E.
-1
have
written a
so that we
\

a~ a =
1

When

=f=

0,

E = aa~

1
.

either of these equations

of the

first

determinant of coefficients
vanishes has no inverse.

The

may

by n

factor are giyen


is

may

be taken as the

any row
which the
matrix whose determinant

definition of the inverse matrix, for the

n elements

of

linear equations for

.
\

following results are consequences of the definitions and

easily

be verified by means of them.

If

= ab,
c = ba,
_1
= &_1 a_1
c
c = a \b\.
c

then the conjugate matrix


the inverse matrix

and the determinant

A row letter x used in connection with matrices of order n is a


symbol for n elements {sou .... xn ). Then ax is interpreted to mean
n elements of which the first is 2,als xs and xa means n elements
of which the first is Zxs a81 hence x may be regarded in ax as a
,

ORTHOGONAL MATRIX OF LINEAR FORMS

26

[CH. Ill

rectangular matrix of one column, and in xa as a matrix of one


row.

Accordingly,

if

is

another row or column,

xay = 22 xr ayg =

The

22 y a^xr = yax.
K

notation of matrices is in the

whereby

suffixes

first

and signs of summation

instance a device

may

be omitted

in

order to interpret a product of several matrices by supplying the


suffixes,

adjacent suffixes belonging to different letters must be

the same, and the summations are with respect to them.


further,

becomes a
almost

and we are able

calculus,

single

like

algebraical

matrices in this book

An

orthogonal matrix
;

thus a

is

chief

use

of

to express clearly

algebraic' identities.

is

defined as one which

orthogonal

aa
This condition

The

and

ORTHOGONAL MATRICES.

13.

conjugate

manipulate matrices

to

quantities.

to obtain easily

is

and shortly a great number of

its

But,

laws of operation are so framed that the system

the

is

the inverse of

if

= E.

by the matrix of order 3 whose elements


are the direction cosines of three mutually perpendicular lines,
whence the name. The condition, when worked out, implies that
the sum of the squares of the elements in any row is 1 and the
sum of the products of corresponding elements in any two rows is 0.
is satisfied

Since

aa

= a~ aaa = a-1 Ea = a~*a = E,


l

follows that the conjugate matrix is also orthogonal, and that


the same conditions hold for the columns as for the rows. Thus
from the equations
it

2t t

Ct,pg

=1,

Z g(lpa aqa =
l

we have deduced
2 a gp2 =1,
Further,

a sp a eq

= 0.

the rows are permuted in any manner, and also the


columns, the new matrix is orthogonal.
if

If a and b are both orthogonal

aa = E,
whence

it

bb

= E,

and
c

c is their

= ab,

product we have

= ba,

follows that

cc = abba = aEa = ad = E.
Therefore the product of two orthogonal matrices

is

an orthogonal

ORTHOGONAL MATRICES

12-14]
matrix.
|

= a
|

= E, therefore \a\ a = 2 = 1
= + 1. Hence the determinant of

Further, since aa
|,

therefore

a
+

27

but
an

orthogonal matrix is
1.
The theorem that complementary tworowed subdeterminants of a four-rowed orthogonal matrix are
numerically equal will be useful, and can easily be extended

an

ORTHOGONAL MATRIX OF LINEAR FORMS

28

It follows that rr'

= pqq'p = p(qq')p' = ipp') (qq')>

[CH.

Ill

because qq"

is scalar.

This result when worked out in detail leads to an interesting

theorem in matrices.

Let

p = ia + j/9 + ky + 8,
q = ix+jy + kz

r=pq = i(
+j(

t,

@,a\x,y,z,t)

8,-7,

B,-a,^^x,y,z,t)

7.

+ Jc(-/3, a, h,y\x,y,z,t)
+ (-a,-0,-y,B~^x,y,z,t).
Now

rr'

= pp'.qq\

hence the sum of the squares of these four


2
2
2
2
2
Since this is
/S + y + 8 ) [a? + y + z + V).
values of x, y, z, t, it follows that if a2 + /S2 + y2 + S 2 = 1,

linear forms is (a 2

true for

all

the matrix
8

/8

-/3

a"

/3

. a /3 7
is

8_

Again, on arranging r differently,

orthogonal.

= i (a, /3,

7, 8

z,-y,x)

*,

+j(u,P,y,S]i-z,

+ k(a,

/3,

^, 7,

(a,

7,

8$

t,

x,y)
,

0)

SJ-a.-y,-*,

t),

y,-#,

whence, by similar reasoning, the matrix


t

is

orthogonal

if a?

+y

15.

yx'

z t x
yx t
_x y z
+ z + = 1.
2

y
z
t_

THE SIXTEEN LINEAR FORMS.

Instead of using a set of four symbols

(a, /S, 7, 8)

to denote a

we now supply current coordinates (x, y, z, ) and


use a linear form, which, when equated to zero, gives the equation
of the point or plane. Thus we write
point or plane,

and

(dd)

= (a,

/3,

(6c)

=(7,

8, a,

7, 8

x,

y, z, t

),

l3^-x,-y,z,t),

so on, obtaining sixteen forms

which are linear and homo-

THE SIXTEEN LINEAR FORMS

14-15]

29

geneous in each set of symbols (a, ft, 7, 8) and (x, y, z, t). We


recall that the first letter of a two-letter symbol such as be denotes
a permutation and the second denotes a Ghange of sign; in deducing
the form (6c) from (dd) the first operation is performed upon
(a, ff, 7, 8) and the second upon (x, y, z, t); with this convention
the coefficient of t in every form has a positive sign. The same
result is obtained when the compound operation is performed upon
(x, y, z, t), thus
(be)

= (a,

0, 7, 8

5 z, t,-x,- y).

These forms are connected by a remarkable set of algebraic


and the geometrical interpretations of them lead to
important theorems concerning the configuration. Before proidentities,

ceeding to develop these identities

it is

convenient to give the

whole set of forms; they may be written down as the elements of


a matrix which is the product of a matrix of coefficients arid a
matrix of coordinates. Thus from the definitions we have
(aa)

(ab)

(ac)

(ad)

30

ORTHOGONAL MATRIX OF LINEAR FORMS

[CH. Ill

It is sufficient to find the coefficients in the relations connecting

one set of six forms,

by operating on

the other relations can be deduced


with the transformations of the group.

then

for

(x, y, z, t)

all

QUADRATIC RELATIONS.

16.

Another important series of relations is obtained when we have


shown that the sixteen linear forms, with proper signs, can be
arranged as the elements of an orthogonal matrix. After making
slight changes in the results of 14, and under the hypotheses
that a2 + j& + 7 2 + S 2 = 1, x + y 2 + z* + 2 = 1, which are of no im1

portance since the coordinates are used homogeneously,

we

find

that the matrices


a

/3

87
7

8-

7
fi-

51

a-

and

8- YJ

are orthogonal, and therefore their product

the rows of the

first

t-

y x
t x y z.

are obtained from

is

a, /3, 7,

orthogonal.

Now

8 by the operations

and the columns of the second are obtained from


by operations on these letters analogous to dd, ac, ba, cb,
and so the product has the same appearance as the multiplication
table of these subgroups (p. 8) except fs to the signs of some of its
elements. The sign of each linear for* in the product is the same
as that of t, and so the product matrix"
dd, ab, be, ca,

x, y, z, t

aX+Py + yz + U, -Sx-yy + fiz+at, yz-dy-az+pt, -fS% + ay-8z + yt


8a:-yy+l3z-at,
ax - /3y - yz + 8t,
$x r ay - 8z - yt, yx+dy+az+fit
yx+by-az f$t, fa+ay + dz+yt, -a%+Py-yz + 8t, -Sx+yy+fiz-at
-pX + ay + tSz-yt, yx-8y + az-pt, 8x+yy+fiz+at, -ax-fiy+yz + dt
-'

is

written
(dd)

(ac)

(ba)

-(ab)

(da)-(cc)

-(be)

(cd)

-(ca)-(bb)

(cb)~

(bd)

(db)-(aa)
(ad)

(do),

and the linear forms occupy the same positions as the corresponding
elements in the incidence diagram (p. 8).
Hence in order to find
a set of six, between any four of which a linear identity exists, we
have to exclude from a row and a column the element common to
both.

Many interesting geometrical theorems of fundamental importance for the configuration follow from the algebraic identities

QUADRATIC RELATIONS

1,5-16]

by the statement that this matrix


the matrix in the form

injplied

X X

Zg

Ti

Y*

7*

Z
T

Zi

_TX
then, taking any column,

X + Y +Z + T
s

Write

is orthogonal.

Z4

4 _

we have

= (a + /3s + 72 +

31

8 2 ) (a2

+ y + z + t%
2

showing that the four planes X, Y, Z, T are the faces of a tetrahedron self-polar with respect to the quadric x2 + y2 + z2 + 2 = 0,

and

correlatively the four points

which

self-polar tetrahedron

is,

X,

Y, Z,

are the corners of a

in fact, the same.

Since a similar

from taking any row or column, out of the points


and planes of the configuration eight tetrahedra* can be formed
which are self-polar with respect to the quadric a? + y2 + z2 + t2 = 0.
On subtracting the relations derived from the first row and
result follows

column we get

+ X + X - Y - Z? - 2V = 0,
2
3

2
4

showing that the squares of the equations of

six coplanar points

are linearly connected, and therefore that the six points


conic j:

lie

on a

Correlatively six concurrent planes of the ^configuration

touch a quadric cone.

Next, taking two columns we have identities such as

x,x

+y y + z^z + 2\ r, s
%

0,

showing that each of the tetrahedra

(XjY&TJ
is

inscribed in

and (X2 Y2 Z2 T2)

and circumscribed about the other

so also the

tetrahedra

(X 7,Z,T ) and
{X2 Y^Z T,) and
1

(X.F^Zy
are similarly related.

{X.Y.Z.T,),

(Zj 7,^2*0.

and (X.Y^T,),

Further, the equations

X X +Y Y =
Z Z +T T =
1

0,

represent the same quadric surface, and so the lines (X2 t ) (X 2 2 )


T
(^1 2 i) (Z2 T2), shown in the first diagram, are generators of one
*

Named

t Paul

after Bosenhain.

Serret, Giometrie de Direction, p. 132.

:
:

ORTHOGONAL MATRIX OF LINEAR FORMS

32

system, and (X,Y,)

(Z2 7 ) {Z T^{Z^, shown


X

[CH. Ill

in the second dia-

gram, are generators of the other system of this quadric.


1

Another set of bilinear relations arises from the fact that


complementary two-rowed subdeterminants of an orthogonal fourrowed matrix are equal (p. 27). Hence, for example,

^M!~-iHI -"3-M ^4-*3>


from which similar conclusions can be drawn.
Sets of eight associated points are represented by the bilinear
relations of these two kinds; there are twelve of the former

and eighteen of the latter, making thirty sets in all, and of the
quadrics through any one set, four are plane-pairs, being planes of
the configuration.

THE TEN FUNDAMENTAL QUADRICS.

17.

On substituting x =

a,

= /3, z = 7, t = 8,

six of the linear forms

and the other ten become


quadric functions of a, /3, 7, 8 which will be indicated by square
These functions, equated to
brackets, thus [dd] = a2 + /3 2 + 7 2 + S 2
the
represent
zero,
fundamental quadric surfaces, which play an
important part in relation to the 16 6 configuration. After substitution, the orthogonal matrix of linear forms becomes a matrix

vanish, namely, (ab) (ac) (be) (ba) (ca) (cb),

of quadric functions
"

'[dd]

which

is also

[da]-[cc]

[bd]

[cd]

[db]

- [ad]

0-[bb]

[ad]

orthogonal.

[dc]_

Expressing this differently*, we have

the result that an orthogonal three-rowed matrix


all the elements of the matrix

2a/3-2 7 S,
+ 8,
+ 2 7 8, - a2 + /3 - 7 + S

-a- S , -<y*
j

2a/3
.

27a -2/38,
2

are divided by a

2/3 7

+ @? + y* + S

2aS,

is

obtained

27 +
2
,

-a

2/3S

2/3 7 - 2aS
-/3 + 7 + S
2

when

"

* Rodrigues, Liouville (1840), v, 405

Darboux, Comptes Bendus (1881), xon, 685.

THE TEN FUNDAMENTAL QUADRICS

16-18]

33

These quadric surfaces are unchanged by the operations of the


is unchanged, except possibly as to
sign, when the same operation is performed on both sets of
symbols a, /3, 7, 8, and x, y, z, t. It is on this fact that their
importance chiefly depends.
The ten polars of any point are planes of the 16 6 configuration
which is determined by that point, namely, those ten planes which
do not pass through it for (a, /3, 7, 8) is any point, and its polar

group, for every linear form

plane with respect to

(e.g.)

[aa]
is

the quadric

= 2(aS-l3y) =

the plane
(aa)

and

(8,

- 7, - /3, a $

so,

y, z, t)

= 0,

so on.

Hence the quadrics play fundamental and symmetrical

parts

In our nomenclature [dd] has the peculiarity


that pole and polar with respect to it have the same name, but
There is an incidence
this is only a convention and not essential.
diagram and an orthogonal matrix of linear forms corresponding
to each quadric, but some of the forms must have imaginary

in the configuration.

There is a corresponding rearrangement of the ratios


of the quadric functions to form a three-rowed orthogonal matrix.
coefficients.

If each of the fundamental quadric functions of a, /3, y, 8


the same function of x, y, z, t, the sum of the ten products is

is

multiplied

by

4 (ax +$y + yz +htf.

The ten quadrics are the only invariants of the second degree under the
group of sixteen linear transformations.
Each of the ten quadrics corresponds to a partition of the operations
two sets of three. The product of each set is the
same, and gives the symbol for the quadric.
If the product of the operations p x q x and p 2 q 2 is pg3 the point (p^i) and
the plane (p%q^) are pole and polar with respect to the quadric [p^], and the
four points (p^i), (Pill)) (ft?3)> (^) are *^ e corners of a tetrahedron selfab, ac, be, ba, ca, eb into

polar with respect to [dd].

18.

THE SIX FUNDAMENTAL COMPLEXES.

forms which vanish when a; a, y = @, z = 7, t = 8,


of the six two-rowed determinants formed
combinations
are linear

The

six linear

from the array

/a

/3

P 7

S\

\<c

y
y

tJ'

ORTHOGONAL MATRIX OF LINEAR FORMS

34

and these are the Pliicker coordinates of the


points (a, /3, 7, 8) and (x, y, z, t).
Write

[CH. Ill

line joining

the

pu = at- 8x, pu = fit- ty, Pm = yt - 8z,


Pn = &z-yy, p = yx-az, p = ay-fix.
12

31

Then

= (8,
(ac) = (8,
(be) = (7,

(ab)

y, ft a

$ - x, y,-z,t) = p -p
li

S3

z, t)=p u +p
$ x, y, z,t) = pM -p
x,-y,-z,t)=pM + p
(ba) = (7, 8, a, /3 $
x,-y,-z, t ) = p -p^,
(ca) = (ft a, 8, 7 $
=
y,-z,t)=p +p
(cb)
(ft a, S.yQ-x,

7,

ft

a~&-x,-y,

!ss ,

S, a, /3

31

31 ,

3i

Si

12 .

On

equating these to zero we get six fundamental linear complexes, and the null-planes of (a, ft 7, 8) are those six planes of
the configuration which pass through

it.
In the next chapter will
be found a detailed account of this system of complexes. As their
name implies, they are of fundamental importance in the theory of
the 16 8 configuration, and are unchanged when the same operation
of the group is performed upon (a, ft 7, 8) and (x, y, z, t).
It is to be noticed that the ten quadrics and six complexes are
determined by the coordinates alone, and that then the points of
the configuration are the ten poles and six null-points of an
arbitrary plane, and the planes of the configuration are the polars
and Dull-planes of any one of its points.

The

coefficients in the linear identities connecting these six

fundamental quadric functions of

a, |3, y,

we

forms are the

easily find, in particular,

= [da] (ac) - [cc] (ba) + [bd] (cb),


= [cd] (ac) + [db] (ba) - [aa] (cb),
[dd] (ca) = - [66] (ac) + [ad] (ba) + [dc] (cb),
[eta] (ab)

[dd] (be)

and the identity


(abf + (6c) 2 + (oaf = (aef + (ba? + (cbf

shows once more that the nine quadrics on the


are the elements of an orthogonal matrix.

19.

right,

when

divided

by

[dd],

IRRATIONAL EQUATIONS OF SUMMER'S SURFACE.

Corresponding to any identical relation among the planes of


the configuration of the form

Z.T, + Z,T,+ Z3 T3

+ Zt Tt =

IRRATIONAL EQUATIONS OF RUMMER'S SURFACE

18-19]

and any three constants

X,

fi,

35

v satisfying

\ + fJt.+ V=0,
the four equations

J\Z^l+ V^2V+ >J^ZJ\ = 0,


VXZ T + "fj^T + JrfJ\ = 0,
\f\ZJ\ + JJ^Ti + V^T2 = 0,
1

*J\ZJ~S + \f]TZjr2 + /7ZJ\ =


same quartic surface, having the eight planes
for tropes and the eight points of the configuration in which they meet by fours for nodes.
From the way in
which the elements of the configuration are interchanged by the
group we see that there are eight transformations of x, y, z, t
which leave this surface unaltered. If we choose X
v so that
represent

Zj =

the

T=

. .

/j,

the surface pass through an additional ,point of the configuration,


it will then necessarily pass through all the remaining points, and
must therefore coincide with the Kummer surface associated with
the configuration.

Suppose that

(a, /3, 7, 8) is

not one of the points through which

the surface passes for arbitrary values of\:/i:v and


of substituting
brackets
will pass

(a, /3, 7, S) for

(00,

y, z, t)

further suppose that [Zx ]

through

the result

= [2FJ.

Then the

surface

(a, /3, 7, S) if

Xl[Zi Ts]
agreeing with

let

be indicated by square

= ^[Z T ] = v/[Zi Til

\ + fi + v =

in virtue of the relations

among

the

fundamental quadrics.

Hence Kummer's

surface can be written in the form

and seven other forms can be deduced from this by the group of
This
linear transformations which leave the surface unaltered.
groups
two
complementary
with
connected
is
equations
eight
set of
of eight associated points, and so the total number of equations is
15

= 120.

One equation

of fifteen equations

of each set

is

included in the system

formed by the following

rule.

Multiply each

linear form by the corresponding quadric, that is, its value at


(a, /3, 7, 8), and put the square root of the product in place of the
linear form in the orthogonal matrix; then the quadratic relations,
not identities, among the elements of the matrix so formed, which

32

ORTHOGONAL MATRIX OF LINEAR FORMS

36
are satisfied

when

is

it

[CH.

orthogonal, are equations of

Ill

Rummer's

surface.

In order to express these equations in the notation of


sixteen expressions

x1 ...u; 123 ..., multiplied by

10,

we arrange the

suitable constants, in

gonal matrix, and then compare the elements with the linear forms.

an orthoLet

further let
-,
c
123

-2

cr456-2
= (*! - kt (kt - k6
)

(*!

- *6 ) (k2 - 4 ) (Aa - k6 ) {k2 - *) (ka - Jct ) {h3 - hb ) (k3 - ),

then
S136

orthogonal,

and

if

S4

Se

S146 S162 S124

S3

S346 5362 S324

- S6

is

C2

6646 C662 624 -

1 <2 <3 <&4 <6 <6

all

the elements are

real.

Further

the matrix

Vc

136 ! 136

_0_

_0_

Vc14sl46 Vc162^162
Vc362 362
VcM2 |662

V e34ol346
VC546&46
is

also

orthogonal,

showing that

c136 ,

etc.

_0
Vc124 m
VC324 324
Vc624^624.
correspond to

fundamental

quadrics*.

* Cf. Math. Annalen, Staude, xxiv, 281

Klein, xxvn, 431; Bolza, xxx, 478.

CHAPTEE

IV.

LINE GEOMETRY.
20.

POLAR

LINES.

from the point of view of line geometry that the Kummer


its most natural and symmetrical development, for the complete reciprocity exhibited by the configuration
indicates that its properties are based on a system of geometry in
which the line is taken to be the fundamental element.
A line is capable of satisfying four conditions (though some
conditions must be reckoned as two-fold and some three-fold), a
4
fact which may be expressed by saying that there are ao lines in
space.
A complex consists of the oo 3 lines satisfying one condition,
and is algebraic if on adding any three-fold condition the lines are
reduced to a finite number. If the three-fold condition is that of
It

is

configuration receives

belonging to a given plane pencil, this finite number is called the


degree of the complex.
In this chapter only linear complexes will be considered,
namely those in which only one line passes through a given point
and at the same time lies in a given plane. It follows from this
definition that all the lines belonging to a linear complex which
pass through a given point

lie

in a plane, its null-plane,

the lines in a given plane pass through a point,

From

these facts

all

and

all

its null-point.

the properties of the familiar null-system can

be deduced.

The

chief property that will be used

is

that of polar lines*.

We

regard a linear complex as establishing a correlation between


null-point and null-plane and an involutory correspondence be-

tween polar lines. Introducing a symbol S to denote the correspondence we may write

S(P) =
*

ir,

(tt)

= P,

In works on Statics these are called conjugate

lines (Minchin).

2=1,
lines (Eouth),

and reciprocal

LINE GEOMETRY

38

P being any point and

[CH. IV

and the symbol 1 denoting


any other point and v
Let
P'
be
the identical transformation.
and
line
PP'
the
is
y the line inr' we may
its null-plane, then if x
ir its

null-plane,

write

S(x) = y,

and

x,

y are by definition polar

S(y) = x

lines.

APOLAK COMPLEXES.

21.

In general two such correspondences S,

when they

are, that is

T are not

commutative

when

ST=TS,
be said to be apolar* and ST or TS may be
the complexes
of an involutory point-point and planesymbol
the
taken to be
or collineation f for any plane ir has
transformation
linear
plane
will

two

null-points

and Q = T(ir), and

P = S(ir)

TS(P)=TS*(Tr) = T(Tr)=Q,

ST(Q) =

ST>(Tr)

= S(Tr) = P,

when ST = TS the correspondence between P and Q is


The line PQ is a common ray of the two complexes

so that

involutory.

and the transformation ST or TS determines an involution on


Let x and y be any pair of polar lines with respect to the

it.

first

complex, then

S(x)

= y,

TS(x)=T(y),
S{T(x)}=T(y),

T does

and the transformation


with respect to the
second complex,

first

not destroy the relation of polarity

complex.

Further,

if

a;

is

a ray of the

= x,
T(y) = S(x) = y,
T(x)

and y
*

is

also

reciprocal (Ball)

Two

ray.

The customary terms


;

the former

quantics are apolar

The

relation

between apolar complexes

for this relationship are in involution


is

when

awkward and the

latter suggests

(Klein)

is

and

false analogy.

their transvectant of highest index vanishes identi-

and this can be interpreted for complexes of any degree.


t Any two lines determine such a collineation " geschaart-involutorisches
System," Eeye, Geometrie der Lage, n, 17; "systeme involutif gauche," EeyeChemin, Geometrie der Position, 145; "windschiefe Involution," Sturm, Liniencally,

geometrie,

i,

70, 115.

20-22]

APOLAR COMPLEXES

39

therefore such that the polars with respect to one complex of the
rays of the other are also rays of the other.

The assemblage

rays common to two complexes is called


a congruence there are two common polar lines called its directrices, which meet every ray.
In the present case the directrices
satisfy the relation
of

oo

= T(x),
TS (x) = x,
S(x)

whence
and the common polar
transformation

ST

lines correspond

to

themselves in the

or TS, and therefore cut any

common

ray in

the double points of the involution on it.


Hence any two corresponding lines and the two directrices form a set of four

harmonic generators of a regulus.


An important property of apolar complexes is that they lead
to finite groups of transformations that is, the repetition of the
;

operation of taking the null-point (or null-plane) of a plane (or


point) leads to a finite

number

case of two complexes

if

of points and planes.


Thus in the
and S2 are the correlations determined
by them, they determine a group of collineations containing two
members 1 and S1 S2 so that an arbitrary point or plane gives rise
to a figure of two points and two, planes.
Si

GROUPS OF THREE AND FOUR APOLAR COMPLEXES.

22.

Three mutually apolar complexes determine three correlations

Su S2 Ss which
,

give rise to three collineations,

= S S y = /S (Si, T = SiS
(1, Tu T T ) whose multiplication

Ti

forming a group

2.

2,

Ti

T,

Ti

T,

T,

T,

Ti

Ti

similar to that of

table is

Hence an arbitrary point P gives rise to


S^P), S2 (P), Sa (P) and three points

three concurrent planes


Ti (P),

(P),

(P) lying on their lines of intersection.

S/Ti (P) = S,T2 (P) = S T

(P) =

is

the plane containing Ti{P), T2 (P),

3 (P)

SM

Since

(P)

the null-plane of each

LINE GEOMETRY

40

We

in the corresponding complex.

[CH. IV

have therefore altogether four

points and four planes forming a tetrahedron such that any three
faces are the null-planes of their

common

corner and any three

corners are the null-points of the face containing

them

in the

three complexes.

The rays common to the three complexes are the generators of


a regulus and the three pairs of directrices of the three congruences
belong to the complementary regulus. Hence the points P and
81 Si (P) being harmonically separated by the directrices of the
congruence (SiS^) are conjugate points with respect to the quadric
on which these reguli lie it follows that the tetrahedrpn is self;

polar.

Four

apolar complexes give


four correlations
an arbitrary point gives rise to points and
be denoted by the symbols of the corresponding
Thus from an arbitrary point 1 we derive

mutually

Slt $ S St and
2,

3,

planes which

may

transformations.

Slt S2 Ss S4
S 8i S SS ...,
$S S

four planes

six points

four planes

. .

and one point SiS^Si,

making

eight points and eight planes altogether.

If

we arrange

the points thus


1

SiS^SgSi

the

first

S2 S3
S S4
1

row contains the corners

SSS
S

$!

&,$!

S-lSz

o 2 o4

Si

of a tetrahedron

whose

faces are

Ss

and each of these planes contains one of the points in the second
row, which is its null-point in the complex S4
Thus the configuration can be regarded in four ways as a pair of circumscribed
and inscribed tetrahedra.
.

| 23.

The

SIX

APOLAR COMPLEXES.

existence of six mutually apolar complexes* depends on

the well-known fact that the condition of being in involution with


a given complex is a one-fold condition. Hence we may take
the first complex arbitrarily, the second from the oo 4 complexes
* Klein, Math. Annalen (1870), n, 198; Sturm, Liniengeometrie
(1892), i, 234
La Geomgtrie BigUe (1895), p. 92; Ball, Theory of Screws (1900), p. 33.

Koenigs,

22-24]

SIX APOLAR COMPLEXES

41

apolar to the

first and so on, the last being uniquely determined


by the preceding five.
Assuming such a set, we may denote the complexes by the
symbols 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Taken in pairs they determine fifteen
congruences (12), etc., and taken in threes they determine twenty

We shall first examine the relations of special


with these complexes, and afterwards consider
configurations derived from an arbitrary point, line, or plane by
reguli (123), etc.
lines connected

means

of the associated transformations.

1, 2, 3, 4, have two common


by the hypothesis of apolarity, the polar of either of
these with respect to 5 or 6 must belong to 1, 2, 3 and 4, it must
be the other common ray. Hence these lines, being a common
pair of polar lines with respect to 5 and 6, are the directrices of

Any

rays

four of the complexes, say

since,

the congruence (56).

The

and (13) do not meet, for they belong


and since the latter pair are rays of 2 and

directrices of (12)

to the regulus (456)

polar lines with respect to 1, they correspond in the collineation


determined by (12) and therefore separate the former pair harmonically (p. 39). In other words, the four directrices of (12)
and (13) cut the generators of (123) in harmonic ranges. Similar
reasoning shows that any two pairs of the directrices (12), (23),

(31) are harmonically conjugate.


The directrices of (12) cut

those of (34) and hence the


the edges of a tetrahedron.

directrices of (12), (34), (56) are

There are fifteen of these fundamental tetrahedra, which


be denoted by the symbols (12, 34, 56), etc.

24.

may

TEN FUNDAMENTAL QUADRICS.

Since the directrices (12), (23), (31) are rays of 4, 5, 6, it follows


that the reguli (123), (456) lie on the same quadric, which may be
These are the ten fundamental quadrics.
called (123, 456).

and (124, 356) intersect in the rays


and in those common to 3, 4, 5, 6. Hence
they have the quadrilateral of directrices (56), (12) common. It

The quadrics

common

to

(123, 456)

1, 2, 3, 4,

follows that the directrices (34), being the diagonals of the quadria pair of polar lines with respect to both quadrics.

lateral, are

Thus any two fundamental quadrics have contact at four points,


which are corners of a fundamental tetrahedron, and at each of
the sixty corners three pairs of quadrics have contact.

[CH. IV

LINE GEOMETRY

42

The tetrahedron
quadric (123, 456).

(14, 25, 36) is self-polar

Hence

of the

fifteen

inscribed in any one of the ten quadrics,

with respect to the


tetrahedra nine are

and the remaining

six

are self-polar, and of the ten quadrics six are circumscribed about
any one tetrahedron which is self-polar with respect to the re-

maining

Each

four.

of the four quadrics

(123, 456)

(126, 453)
(153, 246)
(156, 243)

with respect to which (14, 25, 36) is self-polar, is its own reciprocal
with respect to each of the other three for the first is completely
determined by the four directrices (12) and (13) whose polars with
respect to the second quadric are the same four lines.
;

25.

The
edge

is

common

fifteen

KLEIN'S 60 16 CONFIGURATION.

fundamental tetrahedra have thirty edges


each
to three tetrahedra, thus a directrix of (12) is
;

common

to (12, 34, 56), (12, 35, 46), (12, 45, 36).

Of the

sixty

on each edge and, as has been shown, are arranged


as three pairs forming three harmonic ranges.
So also of the
sixty faces, six pass through an edge and the pair belonging to
corners, six lie

one tetrahedron are harmonically conjugate with respect to the


pair belonging to either of the other two tetrahedra having the

same edge.

In each face are three edges, each containing

corners, giving fifteen corners in that face,

faces pass

and similarly

six

fifteen

through one corner.

We may

distinguish the directrices of the congruence (12) by

the symbols 12 and 21, and make the convention that sets of
three lines obtained by an even number of interchanges of figures

from 12, 34, 56 shall be coplanar. Then those obtained by an odd


number of interchanges will be concurrent. Thus, for example,
the rows
12 34 '56

46

25

13

35

61

24

are coplanar and the columns concurrent.

Hence the three planes

intersect in the line of collinearity of the three points.

An

even

24-25]

KLEIN'S 60 1B CONFIGURATION

43

number

of interchanges applied to the symbols common to two


rows and two columns leaves the rows coplanar and the columns
concurrent as before, thus the table of lines

21

43

56

64

52

13

35

61

24

possesses properties similar to those of the former table, and so on.

Hence

four pairs of corners, one

from each of the tetrahedra

and (34, 25, 16), are collinear with the point 56, 13, 24,
and the same is true for the other corners of (56, 13, 42) so that
tbe two former tetrahedra are in fourfold perspective. Hence the
three tetrahedra represented by the columns of the table belong
to a desmic system ( 1) and the rows represent the other desmic
system which is formed with the same edges.
Again the following three sets of lines are similarly related,
(12, 46, 35)

12

34

56

12

34

56

12

34

56

46

15

32

54

16

32

54

26

13

35

26

14

36

52

14

36

15

24

showing that there are four desmic systems containing the same
one tetrahedron (12, 34, 56). Hence through any one corner of
the configuration pass sixteen lines containing two other corners,
and in each face lie sixteen lines through which pass two other
From the desmic properties it follows that the assemblage
faces.
of these lines is the same in each case, and this number is
60 16/3 = 320.
.

It is possible in six different ways, corresponding to the six

pairs of different cyclical arrangements of five figures

select a set of five tetrahedra including all thirty directrices

their edges

common

= (12,

to

consequently no two tetrahedra of the same set have


One such set occupies the first column of the

edge.

following table*:

(aft)

6),

among

34, 56)

[CH. IV

LINE GEOMETRY

44

and the members of any one set are distinguished by two-letter


symbols having one letter common. Two tetrahedra such as (ab)
and (ac) from the same set belong to a desmic system of which
the third member is (be), not belonging to the same set. Thus
twenty desmic systems corresponding to the combinations
Further, three
b, c, d, e,/ three at a time.

we have

of the six letters a,

tetrahedra such as (ab) (cd) (ef) have two edges common.

26.

We

now turn

summer's 16 6 configuration.

to configurations containing arbitrary elements.

Using the symbols


point

6 to represent the permutable


by the, six complexes, we obtain from any

1, 2, 3, 4, 5,

correlations determined

the points

Call the last point Q, then

Now

1235P...

1234P,

ISP...

12P,

12Q = 3456P

123456P.

and the points are

P,

12P,

13P...

56P,

Q,

12Q,

13Q...

56Q.

was proved in the case of three complexes that the points


P, 23P, 31P, 12P form a tetrahedron self-polar with respect to the
it

quadric (123) similarly the tetrahedron Q, 56Q, 64Q, 45Q is selfBut these quadrics are
polar with respect to the quadric (456).
;

was proved in the case of four complexes


that the plane 23P, 31P, 12P contains the point 1234P, or 56Q.
Similarly this plane contains also 64Q and 45Q, so that the two
tetrahedra have a common face, and therefore P and Q coincide

the same, and, further,

it

with the pole of this face with respect to the quadric (123, 456).
We have therefore derived from an arbitrary point a configuration consisting of sixteen points
fact,

Kummer's 16 6

null-planes

and sixteen planes, which

configuration.

The planes

and ten polar planes of P.

polar plane with respect to (123, 456)

That the
lie

is,

in

consist of the six


six points in the

on a conic follows from

the fact that the triangles 12, 23, 31 and 45, 56, 64 are self-polar
with respect to the section by their common plane.

This method leads to the same nomenclature as was used in


An arbitrary point has six null-planes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 named

9.

after the corresponding complexes.

common

The null-points

of these planes

and are the remaining fifteen points,


named 12.., 56. The remaining ten planes are the polars of
with respect to the fundamental quadrics, and accordingly receive
lie

on their

lines,

rummer's 16 6 configuration

25-27]

45

the same names. The nomenclature is thus interpreted by regarding the name of each element as the symbol of operation
deriving it from an arbitrary point 0.
The symbol
itself must
therefore denote the identical operation and the other operations
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,

6 obey the laws expressed symbolically

=
The diagram

11

22

= 33 = 44 =

55

= 66 =

by

123456.

(p. 17)

46

62

24

35

12

14

16

51

32

34

36

13

52

54

56

showing which points are coplanar

now seen

be also a multiand (0, 46, 62, 24)


each of four collineations. The corresponding diagram for planes
may be written down from the known laws of incidence, and is
is

to

plication table for the sub-groups (0, 35, 51, 13)

135

146

162

124

346

362

324

546

562

524

but we see that it can be obtained from the former by operating


on each element with 135*.

27.

LINE COORDINATES.

and methods hitherto employed in the present


is no doubt that every
theorem can be deduced in this way but in many cases the proofs
are artificial and tedious and an analytical method is more direct
and throws more light on the true lines of reasoning.
The theory of apolar linear complexes may be investigated
with exceptional elegance by means of line coordinates f. With
be the
generalised coordinates w u #2 xs x it ccs xe let w(x) =

The

ideas

chapter are purely geometrical, and there


;

For detailed elaboration

of these configurations the following references

may

be consulted: Caporali, Memorie Lincei (1878), ser. 3, n, 3; Stephanos, Darboux


Bulletin (1879), ser. 2, m, 424; Hess, Nova Acta, Halle (1891), lv, 96; Martinetti,
Rendiconti Palermo (1902), xvi, 196.
f It is assumed that the reader is acquainted with the subject-matter of the first
two chapters of Prof. Jessop's Treatise on the Line Complex. See also Eoenigs,

La

GSometrie R&glee.

LINE GEOMETRY

46

among them and

quadratic relation

dition that the linear

complex

~Zas x,

m and

matrices of the coefficients in


plexes ~Za8 xs

and 26s *s

let

[CH. IV
fl (a)

may be

be the conthen the

special

The com-

il are inverse*.

are apolar if

2as 3fl (b)/db =

0.

When the two complexes are taken to be the coordinate


and x2 = 0, the condition for apolarity becomes
a^ =
3 fl (a^da^da, = 0,

complexes

term

in other words, the

in OjOj

must be absent from

squares.

We

is

the same

sum

that this has been done

shall suppose

Hence

XI (a).

the problem of finding six mutually apolar complexes


as that of expressing the quadratic form D, (a) as the

of six

then the

to (x) is at the same time reduced to the sum of


and by taking suitable multiples of the coordinates we

quadratic form
six squares,

can make
&>

By using

(x)

= H (x) = x? + x? + xi + x? + xi + x \
e

these coordinates calculations are

the meaning of general results


the identity of
ordinates

and

a>

fl.

much

simplified,

though

become obscured through


particular example of these co-

is liable

to

is

Xi=Pu-pw
ix2

=p u +p

Xs=Pu-psi,

ixt

!ia ,

=pM + p

sl

<i=Psi-Pn,
ixe

=p +p
si

1!i ,

where it will be noticed that all the coordinate complexes are real,
but three of the coordinates are imaginary. On referring to 16
we see that the coordinate complexes are the fundamental complexes employed in the construction of the 16 configuration.
The lines (xu 2 x3 xit xB xe ) and ( xlt xit xa x4 x5 x6 ) are
polar with respect to the complex x1 = 0.
Hence the transformation of lines associated with each complex consists in changing
the sign of the corresponding coordinate.
Taking only the first
three complexes, a line (x) gives rise to a set of eight lines
In order to deal with points and
(+ xi> + #2> 3> xt> x5> xe)planes we must suppose (x) to describe a sheaf of lines through a
point P, then {xx xit xs xit xs xs ) describes a plane field 8l (P),
the null-plane of P in the first complexf and ( xlt x2 x xt x5 xe )
describes a sheaf whose vertex is S2 S1 (P) or TS (P), and so on.
This method expresses the operations of the group (1, Tu T2 Tz )
in a form which brings out clearly the comparison with the group
,

of reflexions ( 2).
*

simple example in matrix notation.

t Compare

22.

FUNDAMENTAL QUADRICS

27-28]

28.

The condition

FUNDAMENTAL QUADRICS.

of intersection of two lines (y) and (z) being

+ 2/2*2 + yz + y z + y

2/i*i

it is

47

zs

za =

+y

evident that the lines


(j/i. 2/2. 2/s.

0. 0, 0),

(0, 0, 0,

z4 , z 5 ze )
,

this proves that the lines common to x = x2 = xs =


and those common to xt = xs = xe =
are the two systems of
generators of the same quadric surface (123, 456). The general

intersect

tangent line to this surface

by two

a ray of the plane pencil determined

is

and has coordinates

intersecting generators
tyi

where

yf

Hence any tangent


2

either of which

is

^2/2. ^2/s. /**, /^5. fi*e

+ yi + y =
s

>

= z + z + zg.

() satisfies the equivalent equations

+ xf + ooi = 0,

x?

+ x +

= 0,

the lime equation of the quadric (123, 456).


implies that the three poles of
xj> =

The equation x? + xg +

to the three complexes xx = 0, x2 = 0, xs =


form a triangle self-polar with respect to the section of the quadric

any plane with respect

for, if we substitute for the x8 bilinear expressions in


terms of the coordinates of two planes and regard one of these
planes as fixed, xx = 0, x2 = 0, x%
become the tangential equations of three points and a* + x + x<? =
that of a conic with
respect to which these points are mutually conjugate.
In a similar way the equation

(123, 456)

x?

shows that the

+ xi + # + x? + x? + x =
2

six poles of

any plane

lie

on a

conic, for it expresses

that the squares of the tangential equations of these points are


linearly connected,

which

is

a necessary and

sufficient condition

(p. 31).

In terms of real coordinates zx


equation

may be

=p u pw> Z2=Pu+p&,

etc.,

the

written

zf

+ zf + zf^zi + zf + zi,

showing that the triangle of poles 246 is obtained from the triangle
135 by a transformation which may be regarded as a rigid rotation
From this we infer that the points 135
in an " elliptic " plane.
points 246 on the conic.
If the quadric
with
the
alternately
occur
"absolute"
of
an
elliptic space,
the
regarded
as
is
(135, 246)

48
(!,

LINE GEOMETRY

[CH. IV

zs zs ) and {zit zA ze ) are the two Clifford parallels through a


,

corner of the tetrahedron of reference to any line *.

by eliminating one

It is easily seen,

from the bilinear expressions

set of point coordinates

terms of two points, that


any four line coordinates are connected by a linear relation in
which the coefficients are quadratic in point coordinates let one
for x in

such relation be

Qm = evidently represents the regulus


x2 = x = 0. Similarly we have relations

then the equation

common

to

^235*^1 "T Vl3e^2 "T Vl25^'8

VlSS^

(^286^1 "T

"T"

Vl23*^5

== ">

"r ^126^3 "T Vl28^6 == "

Then the equation 2# =

arbitrary,

2
s

relations,

of rays

0, in which x u x2 x3 are regarded as


shows that the coefficients of xlt x2 xs in the preceding
when divided by iQ123 form an orthogonal matrix ( 17).
,

FUNDAMENTAL TETRAHEDRA.

29.

Rays common

to the four complexes

xx = 0, x2 = 0, xs = 0, *4 =

satisfy

There are therefore two common rays


(1,

i,

0, 0, 0,

0) and

(1,

- i,

0, 0, 0, 0),

which are seen to be polar lines with respect to both of the complexes #! = 0, #2 = 0, and are therefore the directrices of the
congruence

Similarly

(12).

may be

directrices

The edges

is

= 0, x

ix2

ixk

= 0, xB

is

By taking
we may arrange that

= Pu-p23,

suitable multiples of the point

3=P2ipn.,

ixz =pu+Pas,
ixi = p u + p

so that the particular

cance.

= 0.

real

Pliicker line coordinate.

coordinates

ixe

and is taken for reference the equation


expressed by the vanishing of the corresponding

If this tetrahedron

any edge

the other

all

of the tetrahedron (12, 34, 56) have line equations

xx
of

the coordinates of

found.

example of

p.

31

46

is

Xn=pSi -p 2,
1

ix e =p3i

+ pn

really of general signifi-

In this way the Pliicker coordinates of


* Whitehead, Universal Algebra, p. 405.

all

the directrices

FUNDAMENTAL TETRAHEDRA

28-29]

may

49

be found and thence their intersections, forming the points

of Klein's configuration.

There are two tetrahedra (12, 35, 46) and (12, 36, 45) which
have the edges (12) in common with the tetrahedron (12, 34, 56)
of reference, and it has been proved ( 23) that the corners on a
common edge form three harmonic ranges. It is easily found
that the corners of (12, 35, 46) are (1, 0,
those of (12, 36, 45) are (1, 0, 0, 1), (0,

0,
1,

i), (0, 1,

*,

0),

and

In this way,

1, 0).

by taking different pairs of opposite edges of reference, six tetrahedra are found. The remaining eight form with (12, 34, 56) four
desmic systems, and it is therefore sufficient to give one corner in
each system ( 1). These points are (1, 1, 1, 1), (1, i, i, 1), (i, 1, i, 1),
(i, i, 1, 1), and the corners of any tetrahedron are obtained from
these by changing the signs of an odd or even number of co-

For example

ordinates.
(i,

1,-i.l),

(i, 1,

(13, 25, 46) is

i,

1, i, 1), (i,

1,

i,

1),

i,-l).

Klein's configuration can be constructed from a single tetra-

hedron as

follows,

arbitrary

constants

namely

and the process verifies that the number of


is
the same as for six apolar complexes,

+3+2+

15.

u=

and v = are the equations of


any two points then the general pair of harmonic conjugates is
given by u? X"v 2 = 0, and the condition that another pair,
u 2 fi*v" = 0, may be harmonically conjugate with the preceding

We

recall the fact that if

\2 + fi? = 0.
Take one tetrahedron

pair

is

arbitrarily for reference (twelve con-

Three of those which have two edges in common with

stants).

are in the

first

it

instance

(a,

0,

0,

(0,

a',

1,

1))

)J

b,

0,

1, 0,

V,

0,

1)|
)}

0,

(0,
(c',

c,

1,

0,

1)
)

and the new constants must be chosen so that the edges intersect.
The points (\a, \'a', V, X) and (fi, /J.b,jj,'b', p) can by proper choice of
\, \', (i, ix be made the same if aa! = b/b', and so on thus a' = b/c,
By taking new multiples of the coordinates and
b' = c/a, c' = a/b.
thereby absorbing three arbitrary constants we may put a=b=c=l,
;

and then

a'

(1, 0,
(0,

h.

1,

= V = c' = 1. The
0,

1,

1)1
)}

0,

1,

preceding three tetrahedra are


1,

0,

1))

(0,

0,

1,

)]

(1,

1,

1)

1, 0,

0,

now

LINE GEOMETRY

50

and the remaining three having

[CH. IV

pairs of edges in

common

with

the tetrahedron of reference are

The

(1,

0,

(0,

1,

0,

i,

t))
)|

0,

i,

1,

0,

0,

1,

rest of the configuration is

i)\

(0,

)j

(1,

0,

i,

1,

i)\

0,

)j

now completely determined by

the intersections of the edges of these seven tetrahedra.

The fifteen tetrahedra play symmetrical parts in the configuration and


each belongs to four desmic systems. It is possible to represent five tetrahedra by products each of four linear factors, such that the ten differences of
these products are also products of four factors and represent the remaining
In this way the two-letter nomenclature of
See the second example on p.

tetrahedra of the system.

may be

derived.

p.

43

CHAPTEE

V.

THE QUADRATIC COMPLEX AND CONGRUENCE.


30.

We

OUTLINE OF THE GEOMETRICAL THEORY.

have seen in the preceding chapter how the configuration

and tropes of a Kummer surface arises naturally in


elementary line geometry from the consideration of a set of apolar
linear complexes.
It will now be shown how the surface itself
occurs as the singular surface of a quadratic complex of general
of nodes

character, which

is self-polar with respect to each of the former set.


In the present section the leading ideas in the theory of quadratic complexes are presented in outline, and the reader is referred
The geoto existing treatises for proofs and fuller accounts*.
metrical method will be followed up to a certain point, after
which it is more advantageous to adopt the treatment by co-

ordinates.

The rays

of a quadratic complex which pass through any given

point generate a quadric cone.

At a singular point

this cone has

a double line and therefore breaks into two plane pencils. Correlatively, the rays which lie in any given plane envelope a conic

aud
Each of these points, being
the vertex of a pencil of rays, is a singular point, and similarly
each of the planes at a singular point is a singular plane and
which

in the case of a singular plane has a double tangent

therefore degenerates into two points.

A singular ray is a ray of the


complex characterised by the fact that all the tangent linear
complexes are special, and is the double line of the complex cone
at a singular point and also the double tangent of the complex
contains one other singular point.

curve in a singular plane.


* Jeasop,

The Line Complex, Chs.

vi

and

xvii;

Sturm, Liniengeometirie, in,

42

1.

THE QUADRATIC COMPLEX

52

Thus

[CH.

P the

complex cone consists of two


The complex conies
in which
in all planes through x touch x at P except for one plane
the complex conic consists of two points P lt P 2 on x. This plane
7r is the common tangent plane of all the complex cones whose
vertices are points on x, except when the vertex is P, in which
case the tangent plane through x is indeterminate.
A fundamental theorem states that the locus of singular points
Pis the same as the envelope of singular planes it and is a quartic
planes

at a singular point

77-,,

tj- 2

intersecting in a singular ray#.

-rr

The proof

surface.

and

used,

of this

is

instantaneous

when

coordinates are

follows geometrically from another fundamental theorem

that the four singular points on any line have the


as the four singular planes through

same

cross ratio

it.

We

have then a singular surface <J> of the fourth order and


a; is
a tangent line at P and meets <I> in the
remaining two singular points P1; P2 on it. The four tangent
The complex rays
planes through x are it repeated and tt^ 7r 2
no line of
in ir form two pencils whose vertices are Px and P 2
the tangent pencil (P, it) is a ray except the singular ray x,
unless Px or P2 coincides with P; then x meets <I> in three
consecutive points and is therefore an inflexional tangent. In
this case one of the planes it^ or 7r2 coincides with ir, and all the
fourth

class;

tangent lines at

are rays.

C there is one set of


mutually apolar. The polars of every ray
with respect to these complexes belong to G and hence G
be termed self-polar* with respect to them. By their means

Associated with the quadratic complex


six linear complexes,

G
may
of

we

are able to group together certain singular points

and planes

the singular surface, being determined by the rays of the

for

complex, must be invariant under the transformations determined


linear complexes in other words, all the points and planes

by the

obtained from any one singular point or plane by the correlations


of the six apolar complexes are also singular points and planes.

In future we shall denote the singular surface by <J>. Any


P of <t> gives rise to a 16 6 configuration inscribed in and
circumscribed about <3>, and the corresponding tangent plane ir
point

gives rise to another.

the other.
*

The

Each of these configurations is inscribed in


by the plane it contains its six

quartic section

The term apolar might

complex

is

also be used, for

suitably modified by

means

if

the equation of the quadratic

of the identical quadratic relation

the line coordinates, the transvectant formed from


complexes vanishes identically.

it

and any one of the

among
linear

30-31]

OUTLINE OF THE ALGEBRAICAL THEORY

null-points

P P P P P

a double point of the section.

which

is

lt

2,

4,

to the rth linear complex,

as the point of contact


line PP r belongs
P in this complex

The

and the null-plane of

Pr

the tangent plane at

P as well

53

Since this plane passes through P,


at
and r
Hence the bitangents
are rays of the fundamental complexes and form six congruences of
the second order and class.
is

PPr is

a bitangent, touching

<I>

OUTLINE OF THE ALGEBRAICAL THEORY.

31.

The simplicity of the algebraical treatment depends on the


simultaneous reduction of the fundamental relation satisfied by
the coordinates of any line and of the given quadratic complex to

These are taken to be

canonical forms*.

x? + x* + x? + x? + x? + xi =
+ ks x^ + k x + \x? + k x + ke xe =
coordinate complexes xs =
are the six
kx x-?

Then the

2
s,

complexes with respect to which (2)

and

signs of the coordinates,

(2).

self-polar

is

them are

formations associated with

(1),

fundamental

the line trans-

by changing the
obvious that (2) is unaltered by

it is

effected

this procedure.

At a singular ray the tangent linear complex is


k8 xs must be the coordinates of a line and therefore
kfx?

special

then

+ k*xf + kix? + k?x? + kfxi + kfxf =

(3).

When

(1), (2), (3) are satisfied the lines (x) and (kx) determine a
they also
singular point and a singular plane of the complex
;

determine a plane pencil of lines

ys

= k x fix
s

satisfying the equations

2
Hence

(y) is

(k,

- /*)- y. = 0,

singular plane

We

(*,

/*)- 2

yf = 0.

a singular ray of the complex obtained from (2) by


fi)-1 and the corresponding singular point and

replacing ks by (ks
therefore the

are

same

determined by (y) and (k

/*)_1y and

are

as before.

have thus found a singly

infinite

2(*,-/*)r *f
1

system of complexes

(4),

which have the same singular points and planes, and are therefore
* First adopted by Klein, in his Inaugwraldusertation (Bonn, 1868)

Annalen, xzin, 539.

Math.

THE QUADRATIC COMPLEX

54

[CH.

termed cosingular. The original complex (2) is the member of


= oo
this system which corresponds to
By differentiating (2) we obtain %kgXs dxs which is the
Hence
condition that the pencil (x, kx) may have an envelope.
the locus of singular points is the same as the envelope of singular
Every tangent line of <& is
planes and is the singular surface O.
expressible in the form (kx) fi (x), (x) being a singular ray of
(2), and is a singular ray of the cosingular complex whose co/j.

efficients are (ks

ft)~\

Hence the plane

pencils of tangent lines

and

to 4> are projectively related to each other

family in such a
of the

way

to the cosingular

that corresponding lines are singular rays

same complex.

To determine the
on any line

members

order of 4>

(y).

of the cosingular family,

and suppose

tains (y)

we

consider the singular points

Since these points are the same for

we may

its coefficients to

all

the

one which conAt each singular

select

be ks

point on (y) there is a plane pencil of rays (\x + fiy) containing


The conditions for the line (a;) are
(y) and the. singular ray.

2#g ys =

0,

1ks xt ys =

0,

Xks xs =
2

0,

determining a ruled surface of degree four which consists of four


pencils

whose vertices are the singular points on (y) and whose


hence <I> is of the

planes are the singular planes through (y)


fourth order and fourth class.

The

four generators of this degenerate scroll which

line (z) belong to

2xa ys = 0,
jectively.

meet any

a regulus determined by the equations

therefore cut their two

and

Whence

Xks xs ye =

common

0,

2xs zs =

0,

transversals (y) and (z) protheorem that the cross

follows the important

ratio of the singular points

on any line

of the singular planes through

is

equal to the cross ratio

it.

It will be observed that the proof of this


of the existence of

theorem is independent
and it may be used to prove that the locus
the same as the envelope of singular planes.

<E>,

of singular points is

For, if two out of four elements coincide, their cross ratio vanishes,
and conversely if the cross ratio vanishes, at least two elements
Hence the locus and the envelope have the same
coincide.
tangent lines and therefore coincide. It is important to notice

that

when the

cross ratio vanishes the coincidences

among

points and planes need not completely correspond, and there


exist lines
surface.

the

may

which do not bear reciprocal relations to the "singular

ELLIPTIC COORDINATES

31-32]

55

ELLIPTIC COORDINATES.

32.

When (x) is any line,


gives four values of

2<re2 =0 and the equation 2,(/cs /a)~1 xss =0


namely the parameters of the cosingular com-

/*,

plexes which contain

(x).
This equation is of great importance in
determining the relation of (x) to 4>; its roots are called the elliptic

coordinates of the line.

Let (x) cut <& in Plt P2 P3 P4 and let the tangent planes
through (x) touch <J> at A, B, C, D, respectively.
The lines
pencil
belong
to
the
tangent
at
A
and are
lt
2
S
t
respectively singular rays of four cosingular complexes whose
parameters are fi u fi 2 /as
The rays of the first of these
4) say.
complexes which lie in the singular plane PX AP4 form two pencils
one of which has its vertex at Px and therefore contains (x) hence
(x) is a ray of each of the complexes and fi u
jjls
2
^4 are its
elliptic coordinates.
We have seen that the lines
S of the
tangeut pencil at A are protectively related to the parameters
hence the same is true of the points Ps and the lines
fjbg and
Now four points can be proprojecting them from B, G, D.
jectively related to themselves in only four ways, and further
APi and BPX cannot be singular rays of the same complex if (x) is
not a tangent to <1> at P,; thus if we suppose that
GP3
lt BP2
DPi are corresponding tangent lines and singular rays of the
same complex, the four sets of singular rays must be
,

AP AP AP AP
,

/u.

/j,

AP

AP

APU BP GP PP
2

3,

BP GP DP,
AP PP CP DP
AP BP CP DP,
AP>,

lt

3,

4,

4,

3,

2,

in complex

fi lt

/i,,

/*,.

tn,

By

a reciprocal course of reasoning the four singular planes


cut the tangent plane at Pj in singular rays of the complexes
2
3
4 the com/is, Hi, and for the tangent planes at
/*!, /tt 2

P P P
,

plexes are permuted without altering the cross ratios of their


parameters. Hence the pencil of tangent planes through (x) is
projectively related to the elliptic coordinates of (x) in

any one

four equivalent orders.

Since

/^,

/it, /i3 , /i4

we must have

are the roots of

for all values of

O - h)-

/i

x*= Cifi-fh) (/*-/*!> O-Ms) (/*-M4>//(/*)

of

THE QUADRATIC COMPLEX

56

[CH.

where
f(ji)

(/j,

- h) (p - k) (/i -k

and

)(ji- k4)

(7=2A;8

(i

On

multiplying by

line coordinates in

ft

((jl

and then putting p

terms of the

- k ) (fi-k

= ks we

elliptic coordinates in

obtain the

the form

x? = C(ks - pi)(k, - /^) (ks - /is ) (ke - fit)//' (ka ).

CONJUGATE

33.

SETS.

We see that there is not a one-one correspondence between


the singular points on a line and the singular planes through it
but on the other hand, the three different partitions into two pairs
Thus if we denote the four tangent planes by their
correspond.
points of contact A, B, G,

P\"i, "l"l

we

m"(i

see that the partitions of points

PP

"l"it -tl-fg

correspond to the partitions of planes

AD, BG
and the elements of each
ratio remain unchanged.

BD, GA
set

CD, AB,

may be permuted provided

the cross

P1 Pi and either of the corresponding


BG, are said to form a conjugate set*.
When any two points PiPt are given a pair of planes forming
with them a conjugate set may be constructed by selecting any
one, for example /u 2 of the four complexes which contain PiPi\
the cone of rays through Pj breaks into two planes of which one,
B, contains PiP4 and similarly the plane G forms part of the
complex cone at P4 and these two planes complete the set. By
taking all four complexes in turn only two different pairs of
planes are obtained; for example, the plane pencils (Pi, G) and
(P4 E) belong to the same complex /is
Conversely, the planes and vertices of any two plane pencils
belonging to the same complex and having a common ray form a
conjugate set. For let P and P' be the vertices, which must
be singular points, and let A, A' be the points of contact of the
plane pencils at P, P' respectively with the singular surface, so
that AP and A'P' are singular rays of the same complex
it
follows, by comparison with the preceding work, that AP' and A'P
must be singular rays of another of the complexes containing PP'.
Any

pair of points, such as

pairs of planes, such as

* Klein, Math. Annalen, xxvn, 107.

32-34]

CONJUGATE SETS

57

The four points in which any line cuts <E> are determined by a
biquadratic equation, and the four tangent planes through the
same line by another equation. The relation between these
equations is that the cross ratios of the roots are equal. This
condition implies that the ratios of the roots of the reducing
cubic are the same for both equations, and hence that if one

biquadratic

two quadratic

factors,

separated into

two

is
expressed as the product of
the other biquadratic can be similarly

by rational means. Hence when three elements


conjugate set are given the determination of the fourth

factors

of a

depends upon finding the second root of a quadratic equation of


which one root is given, and can therefore be effected by rational
processes.

34.

With
family

KLEIN'S TETRAHEDRA.

reference to a particular complex (X) of the cosingular

let

the singular ray of the tangent pencil at the point

and _4 2 so that A lt A 2 and A repeated are the four


singular points on this ray.
Similarly let BB&, GGX G2 DD 1 D 2
be the singular rays at B, G, D respectively. The lines -4 1 PS
A 2 PS etc. are rays of the complex, and hence the eight points
Since
A-l.-.Dz lie on the complex cones at each of P 1; P2 P3 P4
Pe is a singular point the complex cone at Ps breaks up into two
planes each of which contains four of the eight associated points.
If the parameter X is taken equal to //.,, the complex contains
APt as a singular ray; then BP2 GP3 DP4 are also singular rays
and we may suppose that A 2 _B2 C2 D2 coincide with Plt P2 P3 P4
respectively.
One of the planes into which the complex cone at
Pj breaks up is A^^P^i and so the other must be P1 B1 G1 B1
similarly A^^C^^, A 1 B1 P S B 1 and J. 1 51 1 P4 are planes of rays
Returning to the original complex we
at P2 Ps P4 respectively.
cut

<E>

in

see that

it is

possible to

AiBzCsDi and

We may

name the

A^G^ are

1;

and so

on.

express this by saying that the table

A
A

Br

C,

XJ 2

C2

X/2

p*

is,

the five points in a row and a

p,
is

eight associated points so that

the planes of rays at

an incidence diagram, that

THE QUADRATIC COMPLEX

58

A^B^D^

and

is

Each of the tetrahedra

column, but not in both, are coplanar.

A^GiDi

[CH.

inscribed in the other, and the four

lines joining corresponding vertices,

tion of corresponding faces, have a

From what has been proved

and the four

common
it

lines of intersec-

transversal

P^PsPi.

PAPB

follows that

is

which are four edges of a


Two adjacent
tetrahedron, inscribed in <E>, whose faces touch 4>.
sides of this quadrilateral determine one of the complex planes at
their common point, so that the ends of any side and the two
faces through that side form a conjugate set; for example, the pair

twisted quadrilateral of rays of

of points

Now

PA
1

is

Pj [.AiPJ

of conjugacy

it

same complex

is

(A.)

PA

conjugate to the pair of planes P^A^P^,,


1
l B1
a pencil of rays of (^j), so that by the property

follows that

(ji^)

and

[Pi-B2 ]

is

a pencil of rays of the

A^B^ belongs to (/j^). Hence


of rays of (/j^) and similarly P i A 1 B P

in particular

Pj^ljSjPa is a quadrilateral
1
is a quadrilateral of rays of (/j^), and every edge of the tetrahedron
is a common ray of two of the three complexes (X), (/*,), (/j?).
Such a tetrahedron may be constructed by taking any three
points on a tangent plane section and completing the three conjugate sets determined by this plane and pairs of points; the
three new tangent planes meet on the surface.
We see in this
way that a given surface has oo 5 inscribed and circumscribed
!i

tetrahedra *.

RELATIONS OF LINES TO *.

35.

We

shall

among

now

consider the various equalities that can exist

the elliptic coordinates of a

relations to

The

line,

and

its

corresponding

$.

elliptic coordinates are

the roots of the equation in

fi

2 (*.-A*)^ *.*=<>
and are uniquely determined by the line (so) but conversely, an
arbitrary set of roots determines thirty-two lines, polars of each
;

In what

other with respect to the fundamental complexes.

follows,

the line (%) means any one of these.


If two roots are equal to X, then

t(k,-\)and
Put

x,i

and

(%) is a singular ray of the


x,

(kg \)ye,

then (y)

is

Z (k, - \)-2 */ =

complex (\) and

is

a singular ray of

0,

a tangent to

2is 82 = 0.

* "Ausgezeiohnete Tetraeder," Klein, Math. Annalen, xxvn, 110.

<1>.

The

34-35]

TANGENT LINES

elliptic coordinates of

59

x are the roots of

=
f =
(fi -^(p- fa) =

'2,(k.-\Y(kt -ii.Y*!f.*

0*-X)2(*f

or
or

(jj,

- X)

-^y

where fa and fa depend only on (y). As X varies we get all the


tangents of a plane pencil, fa and fa remaining constant among
these tangents are six special ones given by X = ks
Taking X = ftx
;

we deduce from the preceding equations

l(kg -k

^ = 0,
This shows that the line

is

)- 1

oc-'

= 0.

a bitangent, for the null-plane of the

point of contact and the null-point of the tangent plane in the

complex x1 = are a plane and point of $ by the invariant


<3>, and all four elements are incident with (x).
We
infer that as fa and fa vary, the tangent lines for which X = k are
linear

property of

bitangents
this

way

six

it is

easy to prove tbat

all

the bi tangents generate in

congruences of the second order and

Three roots can be equal only

if

X=

//. 1

class.

or fa.

Now we

have

seen that fa and fa are the same for all the lines of a tangent
pencil, and hence the whole pencil belongs to the cosingular complexes whose parameters are fa and fa but this can be the case
;

when the singular ray is an inflexional tangent (p. 52). Thus,


when (x) is a singular ray of 2A;g a;/ = and fa, fa are the roots of
only

we have proved that (kx)fa (x) and (kx)fa (x) are the inflexional
tangents at the point of contact, and the elliptic coordinates of
these lines are

(fa, fa, fa, fa)

and

(fa, fa, fa, fa) respectively.

If two pairs of roots are equal, say fa

= fa

and fa = fa, then,

omitting a factor of proportionality,

xs = (h - th) (h

- fa)

{/' (&,)}"*

and xa (k8 fa)" xs (ks fa) x8 are the coordinates of three


mutually intersecting lines. Every line which meets all three
has line coordinates of the form
-1

(oft,*

+ 6*. + c)

and consequently has two pairs


touches

<.

Hence

if

{/'(*.)}"*

of equal elliptic coordinates

the three lines are concurrent their

and

common

is a node of <3> and if they are coplanar their plane is a trope.


There are thirty-two cases obtained by taking all possible combina-

point

THE QUADRATIC COMPLEX

60

[CH.

tions of signs for the radicals, showing that 4> possesses sixteen

nodes and sixteen tropes. The identity of the singular surface


with Rummer's surface is thus completely established. It is
worth noticing that for a line through a node one pair of points
coincide and two pairs of planes, and for a line in a trope two
pairs of points coincide and one pair of planes in both cases two
pairs of elliptic coordinates are equal but, on the other hand, in
:

the case of a proper bitangent two pairs of points and two pairs of
planes coincide while only two elliptic coordinates are equal.
If four roots are equal, then

= (*. -**){/' (*.))-*

*.

Either (x) passes through a node and three points and four
tangent planes coincide, so that (x) is a generator of the tangent

cone at the node

or (x) lies in a trope and four points and three

Hence the
tangent lines at a node and the tangents to a singular conic are
projectively related to the tangents at an ordinary point, correplanes coincide, so that (x) touches the singular conic.

sponding lines being singular rays of the same complex.

ASYMPTOTIC CURVES.

36.

We

have seen that

if (x) is

a singular ray of "Zks x8*

inflexional tangents of the pencil (kx)

quadratic in

fi

(x) are

the

given by the

/a

S(*,-/*)"1

= 0.

If the roots are /^ and /x 2 the elliptic coordinates of the inflexional


tangents are fa, fi 1 /^, /j, 2 ) and fa, fj^, ^ % ^). y^ and
may be
regarded as parameters associated with a point on the surface <J>,
and the equation of any curve on the surface may be expressed
,

by a

single relation

We

shall

between these parameters.

now prove the remarkable theorem that the asym-

ptotic curves are given


fa

An

by

= const,

inflexional tangent at

or

/i 2

= const.

P can

be regarded as a tangent to.


the surface at two consecutive points P, P'. It is a ray of the
cosingular complex which has for a singular ray the other inflexional tangent at P.
Hence the tangent pencil at P' contains a

P'P of this complex which is not singular; therefore one of


the inflexional tangents at P' is a singular ray, and by continuity
it must be the one which is not nearly coincident with P'P.
ray

Hence

at different points of the

same asymptotic curve the other

35-36]

ASYMPTOTIC CURVES

61

inflexional tangents (not touching the curve) are


singular rays of

the same cosingular complex.


On account of the importance of this theorem we give an
analytical proof.
If

we want

tangent

is (y),

d^jd^ along the curve whose


= (ks -fi) xg we must express the condition

to find the value of

where ys

in elliptic coordinates that


(y)

The

condition

may intersect its consecutive position.

is

=
- x8 d/i}* =
2 (k - n)* dec* = 0,
(k,
to) (k, - p*) //' (kg ) for
2cfy,

or

or

{(ks

/j,)

dxs

and on substituting

ai this

becomes

+ 2d d ^ + ^d ,A=o,
T
%tr
f (h) \h^rd^
^^^h^to
k

to

fh

""*

(to~v)dto = (to- ft) dfa

or

Now along an asymptotic curve fj, = /^ and then this differential


equation can be integrated and gives
to = const.

Similarly when p = to> to~ const.


Hence along every asymptotic
curve the parameter of the other inflexional tangent is constant.

We

have seen that every bitangent has two of its elliptic cothe remaining two are parameters

ordinates equal to one of the k8

of the inflexional tangents at either point of contact.

Hence the

points of an asymptotic curve can be joined in pairs by bitangents.

As

to varies the line


m,

= (k - h) (k - to)h {K - Ma)*
s

/' (&)}"*

<l> at two points


on the asymptotic curve associated with toThe equation %a 8 x8 = 0, when rationalised, is of degree 8 in tot
showing that the scroll is of degree 8. The complete intersection
with the quartic surface consists of the asymptotic curve repeated,
which is therefore of order 16.
Two asymptotic curves cut at points where one touches the

describes a scroll each generator of which touches

scroll of

bitangents circumscribing

<I>

along the other, that

is

at

These points are obtained


from any one point by drawing successive bitangents and are
derived from a point or its tangent plane by an even or odd
thirty-two points beside the nodes.

number

of correlations.

THE QUADRATIC COMPLEX

62

When ^=fii,

the inflexional tangents coincide.

coordinates are equal and the line

is

[CH.

All the elliptic

either a generator of a nodal

cone or a tangent of a singular conic. The cusp locus for asymptotic curves reduces to the sixteen nodes, and their envelope is

Each trope

the sixteen conies which form the parabolic curve.

is

a stationary osculating plane of the asymptotic curves so that the

by
The parameter

sixteen points of intersection with a trope are accounted for

two at each node and four at the point of contact.

of this point, regarded as belonging to the singular conic,

same

is

the

as the parameter of the asymptotic curve.

PRINCIPAL ASYMPTOTIC CURVES.

37.

Among

the asymptotic curves are six principal asymptotic

curves corresponding to

/j. 1

=k

i.

The

inflexional tangents of the

surface which are not tangents of the curve have parameters

and therefore belong to one of the six systems of


have four-point contact.
These curves
pass once through the nodes and touch the singular conies
The coordinates of a tangent having four-point contact
there.
are given by
hi,

ki,

hi,

fi

bitangents, and hence

^ = {h-kif{k

-iM)lf\ka ),

and the rationalised equation of intersection with a given


is

of degree

8 in

/*.

line

Hence the four-point contact tangents

corresponding to any principal asymptotic curve generate a scroll


of degree 8 touching <1> all along an octavic curve.

The

principal asymptotic curves occur as repeated curves in

the family just as the fundamental linear complexes occur repeated


in the family of cosingular complexes, and this accounts for the

lowering of degree*

On

putting two elliptic coordinates equal to k x and /c2 respecthe line coordinates x 1 and <v2 vanish, and so the various
combinations of sign give only eight lines. Hence two principal
asymptotic curves cut in eight points, besides the nodes, where
tively,

they touch singular conies. At any common point both inflexional tangents have four-point contact, and the whole pencil of
tangents belongs to the congruence (12). Hence the eight common points lie by fours on the directrices of (12), which are so
related that the tangent planes through each touch at the points
*
conic,

Compare the occurrence of a straight line among the projections


and of a parabola among the harmonograms x = cos (t-a),y = cos

of a given
It.

'

THE QUADRATIC CONGRUENCE

36-39]

on the

63

Pairs of directrices are the only lines having this

other.

property*.
38.

We

THE CONGRUENCE OF SECOND ORDER AND

have seen that every bitangent of


which one is

CLASS.

belongs to one of

4>

six congruences, of
#i

0, (ft2

- k^x? + (ft, - h)' ^ + (ft4 - h)' ^


+ (ft, - fti)- ^ + (ft - *,)-, = 0.
1

Conversely, every ray of this congruence

one

elliptic coordinate

/i x is

equal to

ftj

is

a bitangent of

and the others must

<J>,

for

satisfy

- f^) (ft, - f^) (ft, - fii)//' (ft,) = 0,

(ft,

(k1 -fi 2 )(k1 -fi s )(k 1 -fii )

or

= 0,

so that a second elliptic coordinate must be equal to


<3>

is

ftx

therefore the focal surface of this congruence and

infer that the general

congruences, which

Kummer

may

we

surface is the focal surface of six

be called confocal, and that the six


them are mutually apolar. We shall

linear complexes containing

see presently that the six quadratic complexes, each of which


to a certain extent arbitrary,

may be taken

The preceding congruence

is

to

is

be cosingular.

of a general character, for every

(2, 2) congruence is contained in a linear complex, which may be


taken for one of the coordinates in an apolar system unless the

complex is special; then,, in order to reduce the general


congruence to the preceding form we have to reduce two quadratic forms in the remaining five coordinates simultaneously to
linear

sums of squares.
Thus the theory

of the focal surface of a congruence

is

made

depend on the previously developed theory of the singular

to

surface of a complex.
independent account.
39.

In the following section

is

given a short

SINGULARITIES OF THE CONGRUENCE.


x

= 0,

0.

2\,# a = 0,
through every point in space pass two distinct rays, the intersections of the plane

The equations

of the

congruence being

and the cone

X^

0,

+ X^ + \4 # + X,*, +
a
4

\6 a;6a

For farther particulars concerning asymptotic curves the following references


be consulted: Klein, Math. Annalen,v, 278, xxm, 579; Reye, Crelle, xcvh, 242;
Salmon-Fiedler, Geometrie des Raumes, n, 491.

may

THE QUADRATIC COMPLEX AND CONGRUENCE

64

The

[CH.

through which the two


have to prove that it is of the fourth order
and class and possesses sixteen nodes at the singular points of
focal surface is the locus of points

We

rays coincide.

the congruence.

Coincidence arises from a special situation of this plane and

when

cone and can occur only

and cone touch,

(1) the plane

(2) the cone has a double line

and the plane passes through


and another plane.

it,

(3) the cone breaks into the plane

Case (1) occurs twice on each ray


a consecutive ray,

(x) of

the congruence, for

if

(y) is

yx
so that (x)

and

(y) are

= 0,

t~ks xs y s

common

rays of

= 0,
the complexes whose

all

coefficients are
A3&3,

A, 2 372 ,

^fc,

Aqd/4,

A>gd?g

A^tf/g,

/x.
Now two rays of a linear congruence
do not intersect except on the directrices; these are the lines
whose coordinates are the preceding set of coefficients when

for different values of

/*

+ 2\V = 0.

Let them be called (f) and ('); then the two consecutive rays
through the point (x, ) pass through consecutive points of (f ')

and therefore
of the
(as

+ das)

lie

in the plane (x, ');

similarly the null-plane

complex xx =
be any consecutive ray; then

point

(x,

in the

')

= 0,
"Z^s dxg = 0,

Let

= 0,
X^s'dxs = 0,

'%\

dxx

whence

contains ().

xs dxs

which prove that the pencils (x, %), (x, %) have envelopes. These
the focal surface <J>, and we have seen that (x) touches it at two
Hence the surface is of the
points and meets it at no others.
fourth order, and reciprocal reasoning shows that it is also of the

.are

fourth class.

Case (2) arises when


complex so that

(x) is

2 Xe
Let

A be

a singular ray of the quadratic

W=

0.

the singular surface of the complex

X2 #2a +
then the pencil

(x,

?W + ?W + X.aV + ?W =
\x) of tangent lines of

0,

belongs to the

SINGULARITIES OF THE CONGRUENCE

39-40]

complex

65

= 0,

and the singular ray (as) counts as two intercomplex cone at the point
Hence A and <J> touch at this point. Since 2Xs2#g2 = 0,
(), (') coincide and (x) has four-point contact with <&.
!

sections of the null-plane with the


(x, \x).

the lines

In order that case (3) may arise, every line of the pencil (x, X#)
of the quadratic complex and hence (x) must be an
inflexional tangent of A.
These rays are given by the equations

must be a ray

^ = 0,

lx,a

and are sixteen

27W = 0,

= 0,

in

~Z\W = 0, X\

The

number.

fact

W=

0,

that every line of the

is a bitangent of <J> shows that their plane is a


These sixteen pencils form a 16 B configuration of nodes
and tropes of <E>, and the complete identity of <& with a Summer

pencil (x, Xa?)


trope.

surface

established.

is

RELATION BETWEEN

40.

4>

AND

A.

We have seen that at every common point of $ and A the


two tangent planes coincide and the singular ray is a tangent
having four-point contact with <t>. Hence the two surfaces
touch along a principal asymptotic curve of <!>. Since the osculating plane of the curve coincides with the tangent plane of the
being an
surface, the curve must be also asymptotic on A
octavic, it is a principal asymptotic curve of A and, counted twice,
is the complete intersection of the two surfaces. Thus the relation
between the surfaces is mutual the nodes of each lie on the other
:

and the tropes of each touch the

By comparing

S\,a:, a

we

see that

<1>

is

~kt x*
x

Since

is

other.

the equations

and 2

(k,

- k,)' x? = 0,
1

the singular surface of the quadratic complex

+ x,- ^ + xrx + xr ^ + \~W = o.


1

the singular surface of

X2 22 + Xs x32 + X4 #2 + X6 a;62 + X6 62 =

we

see again that the relation

is

0,

mutual.

same number to all the Xg changes the first


complex into another of the same cosingular family and so does
not affect <t>. Hence for different values of \, the singular surfaces

The addition

of the

of the complexes
Xj*! 2

+\

x2* + Xs *32

touch each other and

through
h.

all

<3>

+ X4 04 + X
2

6 a?6

+X

6 a?6

along the same curve, which passes

their nodes.
5

THE QUADRATIC COMPLEX AND CONGRUENCE

66

[CH.

CONFOCAL CONGRUENCES.

41.

Consider more generally the relation between the singular


S of a quadratic complex 1k,x,a = and the focal surface

surface

F of

the intersection of the same complex with a linear complex

zx =

not self-polar with

it.

Every singular tangent pencil of F forms part of a degenerate


complex cone and hence has its vertex on S and its plane tangent
to S at some other point.
Hence the 16 6 configuration of nodes
and tropes of Pis inscribed in and circumscribed about S. Again
the complex cone at a node of S consists of a repeated plane and
so the node lies on F; reciprocally the tropes of S touch F.
At any common point P of 8 and F the null-plane of P must
contain the singular ray, which is a ray of the congruence and
therefore a bitangent of F, touching at P and Q.
The null-plane
of Q touches F at the other focal point P and the complex
Hence it is the tangent
cone of Q along the singular ray QP.
plane to S at P ("ir" of p. 52). Therefore S and F touch at
all their common points and the curve' of contact is an octavic
passing through the nodes and touching the tropes of both surfaces.
Any trope of F meets this curve of contact in eight points
r
N t 6 2VG
lying on a conic; six of these are nodes
lt i\ 2
3
where the trope
of F and the remaining two coincide at a point

touches 8. The null-point of this plane is a singular point of


the congruence and a node on F, say JVi. All the lines through JV^
in the trope are rays of the congruence, and 0N~lt being a tangent
to

Now F is

at 0, is a singular ray of the complex.

the singular

= is one of six fundamental


may be taken to be
its
equation
complexes, and
2
3
X^ + Xa + X s s + ^itf + ^b5 + ^sV = 0.

surface of a complex for which z x


linear

and that quadstarted with the linear complex z2 =


complex of the cosingular family 2 (ks X) _1 #s3 = which has
O./V2 for a singular ray, N 2 being the null-point of the trope for
2S = 0, the singular surface and the curve of contact would be the
determines the remainsame as before, and the tangent plane at
ing fifteen planes of a circumscribed 16 c configuration which are
the tropes of F, so that the focal surface would be unaltered.
Hence when a congruence is given as the intersection of a
If

we had

ratic

quadratic and a linear complex,

it

is

in general possible to find

five other cosingular quadratic complexes and five other mutually

apolar linear complexes so that, taken in pairs, they form, in


six confocal congruences.

all,

CONFOCAL CONGRUENCES

41]

67

The parameters of the cosingular complexes are projectively


related to the positions of the nodes on a conic of F, that is, to
the coefficients Xs so that F, the singular surface of SX s ^s2 = 0, is
,

the focal surface of the six congruences

zt

2 S (ks - Xj)- x82 =

= 0,

and by symmetry

0,

the singular surface of


surface of the six congruences
S,

x{ =

and

it is

t,(\,-k y- zt' =
l

0,

2&s #s

= 0,

(i

= i,

is

the focal

6)

0,

easy by comparing these with the equations


<oj

to deduce that the

= 0,

two

2( kl -k )-*w/ = 0,
t

sets of coordinates

x and z are connected

by the orthogonal transfprmation


Zv
2

where

a rs (kr

-X)
s

/' (kr )

f(0) =(6- h)(6 <i


l

We

ZigdfgXg,
</>'

k )(0 2

= -/(X ) (kr)
k )(0 - h){6 - k )(d - h),

(Xs )

</,

(e)=(0-x )(0-\ )(e-\ )(0-x )(e-x )(0-x


F is given 8 can be constructed
1

e ).

can now see how when

" ways.
At any point P of F draw the tangent
draw any conic through P cutting the section
again in six points.
A partition of these into two triangles
determines the bases of two of Klein's tetrahedra having a common
vertex in this way ten more points and fifteen more planes are
found which complete the configuration of nodes and tropes of S.

geometrically in

plane and in

oo

it

For

different values of

ax the singular surfaces of the complexes

touch the focal surface of the congruence given by this equation and #j=0
along the same octavic curve, and for ten values of ax the discriminating
sextic has a pair of equal roots, and the corresponding singular surface has a
pair of coincident nodes in each trope and therefore a nodal line.

52

CHAPTER

VI.

PLUCKER'S COMPLEX ST7EFACE.


TETRAHEDRAL COMPLEXES.

42.

Plticker devotes the greater part of his

Raumes

to the study of the surface

tention of

complex.

named

Neue Geometrie des

after him, with the in-

making clearer the arrangement of rays in a quadratic


The surface is the focal surface of a special congruence

contained in the complex, and

is

therefore the locus of complex

conies in planes through a line and at the


of cones with vertices on that line.

same time the envelope

It is a degenerate form of

Kummer

surface due to two of the linear complexes with respect


which the quadratic complex is self-polar becoming specialand coinciding, and is the singular surface of a quadratic complex
to

with six double lines*


We have seen that every congruence of the second order and
class is contained in one linear complex and many quadratic com-

plexes.

It

is

natural at the beginning of the investigation to

choose the simplest complex, and


general quadratic congruence
plexes.

To prove

this

we

is

we have the theorem

that every

contained in forty tetrahedral com-

recall that

the singular and focal surfaces

touch along an octavic curve passing through their thirty-two nodes;


if then the singular surface is four planes, the curve of contact must

be four conies intersecting in four nodes. These sets of planes


form "Rosenhain tetrahedra,'' of which there are eightyf. Now the
linear complex containing the congruence is one of the fundamental
complexes for the focal surface and we must reject those Rosenhain
tetrahedra of which four edges are rays of this fundamental complex, for in that case the focal surface is easily shown to be a
Now any Rosenhain tetrahedron, such as
repeated quadric.
*

Sturm,

in, 355.

t See Chap. vn. (p. 78).

THE TETRAHEDRAL COMPLEX

42-43]

69

0, 23, 31, 12, has its edges belonging by fours to three fundamental complexes 1, 2, 3 so that by rejecting those whose edges
belong to a particular one the number of available tetrahedra
is reduced to forty.
We therefore start with a tetrahedral complex and select the
rays cutting a given line.
We shall take the singular surface of
the complex for tetrahedron of reference and use current point
coordinates x x x it xa x4 and plane coordinates u lt u 2 us u4 and line
,

coordinates

The

etc.

so that

following abbreviations are useful

&=

reference,

()

and

of reference

are the planes through a line and the corners of


V{

they

are the points where the line cuts the faces


are, in this case,

the singular planes through a

and the singular points on it. Again ^ are the coordinates of


the plane through (p) and (x), and v t are the coordinates of the
point where (p) cuts (u).
line

43,

EQUATIONS OF THE COMPLEX AND THE COMPLEX SURFACE.

Let the equation of the complex be


apuP-n

bpuPn.

+ CpuPn = 0,

which on account of the relation

PuPx + PnPn + PmPu =


PuPw/a =PuPsil@ = PuP^h,

gives

where

= b c,

and therefore

= c a, y = ab,
a + /3 + y = 0.
/3

The complex may be represented by an equation


point and plane coordinates, as Plticker shows (p. 164).
rays (p) in any plane (u) satisfy

+ UtPu + UsPsi = 0,
aih/p^ + fiu /p + yu /p =
UiPu

whence

sl

lss

0,

showing that the plane


4 =

p^i + Psix* + P^> =

touches the cone

Vaw^ + t/fiUzXz + Vyu

xa

= 0,

and therefore the rays in the plane

u x1 + M2 ie2 + u3 x3 + u4 x4 =
r

mixed
For the

in

=
plucker's complex surface

70

[ch. VI

touch the section of this cone. The last two equations give the
complex curve enveloped by the rays in any plane (w). If on
the other hand we regard (x) as a fixed point and the u s as current
plane coordinates the equations give the complex cone of rays
(a;), as may be proved by exactly correlative reasoning.
Hence the two equations completely represent the complex the
former can be replaced by the alternative forms

through

+ ^aUiSCi = 0,
/yujc^+ */au x + V^w 4 a;4 = 0,
vftihXi + vau^x^ + V7M 4 = 0,
+

*/yua x2

*Jftu a xa
3

(in

of

which the signs of the radicals are ambiguous), so that the want

symmetry

To

we

is

only apparent.

find the equation of the

complex surface in point coordinates

require the locus of the conic section


</au1 x1

u x1
1

+ V/3 + vyu x = 0,
+ u^x^ + W3# + u4 x = 0,
2 a?2

As we

as the plane turns round a given line.

need

we

for current line coordinates

or (q) and then the plane through

shall not

have further
be (p)

shall take this line to

it

and any point

(#') is

= 0,
?>i + f>2 + f>s + f
Hence if (x') is any point on the
'

where / = X^x,'.

fi'A*!

and the locus of the conic

&'/"

= fs'M

is

Vaf,^ + V/3& x2 + V7 fs *3 =
an equation which

is

conic section,

Z*'/ u*>

0,

equivalent to three others of similar form in

virtue of the identities a

ft

+7=

and %%s xe = 0.

Next, to find the equation in plane coordinates we require the


envelope of the cone

Va^Mj +

\//Sa;2

M2 +

^<yxs us

= 0, %x u =
s

0,

moves along the line (p). Since the coordinates


of the point where (p) cuts (w) are v;, the equation required is
obtained by replacing x{ by vi: and accordingly is

as the point (x)

VawjM-!

+ V/3u

w2 +

"i/yviUs

= 0,

or three other equivalent forms.

From

these equations

#i = 0, &=0

it is

evident that (p)

are singular planes and t

points of the surface.

= 0,

is

a nodal

Vi =

line,

that

are singular

SINGULARITIES OF THE SURFACE

43-44]

71

SINGULARITIES OF THE SURFACE.

44.

We
line.

must next examine the sections through (p), the nodal


Each consists of (p) counted twice and a complex conic
vaa^Xi

+ V/Sw^jj + Viyitg&Vj =

Regarded as a point locus


line for four

0.

this conic degenerates into

a repeated

namely those passing


Thus, putting 1^ = 0, u 2 = q w

positions of the plane (u),

through the corners of reference.

u3 = q13 ui = qli
,

we

see that the plane

& = q^i. + q3 + qua* = o


touches the surface

all

along the line in which

PqiA - yq x =
13

This
surface

line,

which

it

meets the plane

0.

called a torsal line*, lies entirely on the

is

the singularity

is

of a tangential nature and consists in

the fact that the tangent plane does not change as the point of
contact moves along the
plane,

is

line, as in

The plane

the case of a generator of a

= 0,

which is called a pinch


a trope in which the conic of contact has broken into two

torse or developable.

the nodal and torsal lines.


Regarded as an envelope the degenerate conic

lines,

is

touched by

planes (u) satisfying

Ui(PquUs + vqls u2 )

0,'

and consists of the two points (1, 0, 0, 0) and (0, y/q^, ftjqu, afau)
which are both nodes. These points are the vertices of pencils of
and correspond to
rays of the complex in the singular plane %x =

AA

the points

Thus

we have

of 34.

the point singularities on the nodal line


nodes lying by pairs on the four torsal lines;

in addition to

eight

they are

A
B

(1,

0,

0,

0)

A,

(0,

1,

0,

0)

B, ( 7 / ?21

(0,

0,

1,

0)

A (0,0,

0,1)

7/Sm

0,

08/ ?B

A (/?,

0,

a/q

/3/ ?13 ,

a/q u )

a/q,

0/qJ

0,

y/qj

/8/g,

7 /?.

Correlatively there are four points on (p) for which the complex
cone degenerates. Regarded as an envelope, the cone with vertex (ai)
Vowjjtt!
* Pliicker

names

+ V/Sa^ + ^yx3 u3 =

this a singular line.

See Sturm, n, 201

Cayley,

vi,

334.

72
is

plucker's complex surface


a repeated line when

<c,

then x2

[ch. VI

= pm x = p
,

ls

xt

= pu

and

the repeated line has plane equations

Wi

This

which

line,

^12^2 - VPu>us = 0,
= p12 2 + Pi S u3 + pu ut

is

= 0.

called a cuspidal axis*, is a singularity of

exactly reciprocal character to that of a torsal line; every plane

through
Vj

= 0,

it

is

a tangent plane to the surface at the same point

and every plane through

having a cusp there. Hence v lt


They correspond to the points
also called

v^

...

vt

cuts the surface in a section

maybe

called cuspidal points.

P P P P
lt

2,

s,

of p. 55.

They

are

pinch points, because the two sheets of the surface

touch each other there.

Regarded as a

line locus the

cone at

vj

breaks into a pair of

planes joining the lines


i (/3pi2#s

to the point v1 or (0,

12

xx

= 0,

Pn>Pu)'> they are both tropes

sect in the cuspidal axis

+ rpis^a) = 0, #4 =
and

inter-

which has point equations

yx2/p12 +

+ <Wi/Pu = 0.

y&Bs/Pm

In addition therefore to the four torsal planes through (p)


there are eight tropes intersecting by pairs in the four cuspidal
axes;

their

coordinates

are

obtained from those of the nodes

by changing prs into qrs


If we use the same letters
denote the points and planes, all the incidences can be exhibited
A,, ...

to

at

once in the table

An

zj 2

@i

row and a column, excluding their common member,


contain the names of four coplanar points and four concurrent
planes. This is the configuration of mutually inscribed tetrahedra
which has already been described in 34f.
in which a

45.

THE POLAR

LINE.

The locus of the poles of the nodal line (p) with respect to
complex curves in planes through (p) is a straight line, for it must
lie on the polar plane of (p) with respect to every complex cone
whose vertex is on (p). This polar line% cuts each torsal line and
* Pliioker

names

this line a singular axis.

geometrie, in, 5; Math. Ann. iv, 249; Zeuthen,

See Cayley,

ti,

Math. Ann.

iv, 1.

t Sturm, in, 1 ; Klein, Math. Ann. vn, 208.


J Weiler names this the adjoint line, Math. Ann. vn, 170.

123

Sturm, Linien-

44-46]

SHAPE OF THE SURFACE

73

harmonically conjugate to (p) with respect to the two nodes on


both lines cut each cuspidal axis and determine
with it planes harmonically conjugate with respect to the two

is

it; reciprocally,

tropes through

it.

The complex
complex

surface

is

the singular surface of a quadratic

which two fundamental complexes are special and


coincide for considering the situation of nodes on the eight tropes
we see that two coincide at the intersection with the nodal line,
which is the directrix of the special complex. It is easy to prove
that the other four fundamental complexes are, using Prs for
for

current coordinates,

+ (P*/pv + Ptjptd + 7 (Pu/Ph + Pv/Pm) = 0,


Pi4/Pu = Pn/Pu, PulPu = Psi/Psl PJPm = Pi3/Ph.
When the nodal line is at infinity the polar line becomes the

(Pu/Pu + Palp*)

locus of centres of parallel conic sections.

in this case are described

The

*3~*6 ^ g Kj k$ ^ 8_l~6 s.
x? TT
v? TJ
-<1 T
+ ?-J? -"S
+ t-^t
T--"5
? =
+ r-^r
T -"4

1*8
1

the tetrahedron

The

X,

'"2

i.

r.

0, 24, 46, 62.

unicursal, and the coordinates are expressible in terms of


p as follows
(6-e)(q+X)
(o-a)(b+\f

surface

parameters

is

(b-c)(c-a)(a-b)
ui + iivi
and three nodes, no two of which

g-6)( +X)

U^

+ ll.%

The nodal line, polar line


same torsal line, determine the remaining

lie

on the

singularities.

SHAPE OF THE SURFACE.

46.

Models of the surface

Collected Papers, vii, 298.

singular surface of the quadratic complex

J.

is

by Cayley,

special form of the configuration of

two mutually inscribed

tetrahedra consists of the corners of two rectangles placed in planes

perpendicular to the line joining their centres, the sides of one

being parallel to the sides of the other.


Plticker surface possessing two planes of

These are the nodes of a


symmetry but otherwise

exhibiting the features of the general case.

The diagonals of the


by pairs on

rectangles are the torsal lines and in this case intersect

the nodal

line,

which

is

here an axis of symmetry.

In

fig.

7 four

of the conies through the nodes are ellipses, touching each other

by pairs

at the

extreme pinch points on the nodal line; the other

four are hyperbolas, touching each other by pairs at the other two

pinch points.

PLUCKERS COMPLEX SURFACE

74

Now

[CH. VI

since the pinch points are points on the nodal line at

which the two tangent planes coincide they divide it into segments
through which real and imaginary sheets of the surface pass alternately.
Since the torsal lines are real both of the segments with
Such a segment is the common edge
real sheets are here finite.
of two finite wedge-shaped pieces of the surface, the angle of the

Fig.

wedge varying from


between the

7.

zero at the pinch points to the acute angle

torsal lines.

Each wedge contains two nodes, and the


by a plane through the nodal line is an

section of a pair of wedges

As

round the nodal line the elliptic


becomes indefinitely thin and coincides
with a finite portion of a torsal line terminated by the two nodes
on it; as the plane continues to turn, the section immediately
becomes a thin hyperbola, terminated by the same two nodes,
which widens and remains hyperbolic until another torsal line is
reached.
Thus two nodes which are joined by two arcs of ellipses
belong to an infinite piece of the surface, and there are four such
ellipse.

this plane turns

section narrows until

pieces.

it

CHAPTER

VII.

SETS OF NODES.
GROUP-SETS.

47.

On

account of their importance

be studied in

detail.

in

subsequent applications,

Kummer's

various sets of points and planes of

The terms node and

configuration

must

trope will be used for

convenience, and indicate the relation of the elements to the

Kummer

surface determined by them.

The 16 6

is transformed into itself by fifteen


which together with identity form the group of
sixteen members upon which the whole theory depends.
These
collineations have been expressed algebraically as simple linear

configuration

collineations

transformations of point coordinates

geometrically each

is

effected

by means of two opposite edges of a fundamental tetrahedron, any


point being transformed into

its

harmonic conjugate with respect

to the directrices of a fundamental congruence.

To each

collinea-

group corresponds a node and a trope represented by


the same two-letter symbol, and it will appear that those sets of
elements are most important which correspond to subgroups.
Such a set is invariant for the subgroup and is changed by the
other collineations into other sets each of which is invariant for the
tion of the

same subgroup. This set of different sets is here called a groupand contains the whole configuration. The sets of a group-set
are equivalent in the sense that they have the same projective
set

relations to the configuration.

The incidence diagram

( 5) is

of great use in representing

these sets of elements and in facilitating their enumeration, and


is

accordingly preferred to symbols.

upon the diagram

is

The

effect of

any collineation

simply to interchange two rows and at the

[CH. VII

SETS OF NODES

76

same time the other two rows, or


also the other two columns, or
taneously.
If the names of the

to interchange

two columns and

make

these changes simulcollineations are written in the


to

diagram, the symbol which after these changes is in the first row
and column is the name of the corresponding collineation.
48.

COMPARISON OF NOTATIONS.

For the general symmetrical treatment of the configuration in


relation to the group of collineations the two-letter symbols are
the most convenient, and agree with the notation subsequently
used for thetafunctions. If preferred, Humbert's algorithm * may
be used it has the advantage of showing more clearly the position
of each symbol in the incidence diagram. The two tables are given
:

here for comparison


11

47-49]

AND OCTADS

PAIRS

77

reduced to one containing three or fewer figures.


By the product
of symbols is meant the symbol of the product of operations.

A set

of elements, expressed in the last notation,

or even according to the

called

odd

of single figure symbols, that is,


of elements incident with a given element.
If the

number

the

is

number

parity

is independent of a particular given element, it is


an
important feature of the set and has an essential geometrical

significance.

PAIRS

49.

AND OCTADS.

There are fifteen subgroups of two members each. Any one of


these corresponds to a pair of nodes of which one is (dd) and gives
rise to a group-set of eight pairs, of which examples are given in
the diagrams

XX
XX

ITTT
I

One

pair of nodes possesses no special features in relation to

the configuration as distinguished from another pair. Two nodes lie


in two tropes, and are joined by one of the 120 Rummer lines.

The

pair

identity

is

invariant under a subgroup of two members, namely

and the

symbols.

collineation represented

The diagrams show that

by the product of their

of the eight pairs of a group-

odd and four even, and, further, the partition into two
sets of four pairs is invariant under the group. The four odd pairs
form an odd octad and the four even pairs form an even octad;
these two octads together make up a group-set, and are said to be
set four are

associated.

Hence there are

fifteen couples of associated octads,

one in each couple being odd and the other even.

An

octad

is

represented in the diagram by two rows, or two

columns, or two complementary rectangles, and thus corresponds


to a bilinear identity

among the

sixteen linear forms (p. 31).

It

is noteworthy that the terms of the identity indicate the pairs of


the octad. An octad of eight nodes is a group of eight associated
points lying on four pairs of planes forming an octad of tropes.

The eight Kummer lines of a group-set cut a pair of directrices and


determine on each three involutions whose double points are the corners of
the three fundamental tetrahedra having that directrix for an edge.
The eight nodes of an octad can be joined by four Kummer lines in seven
ways, and in six of these ways the lines belong to a regulus.

SETS OF NODES

78

[CH. VII

Two pairs from a group-set form a tetrad if they are taken


from different octads the tetrad is odd, and named after Rosenhain:
if the pairs are taken from the same octad the tetrad is even and
named after Gopel. In both cases the product of the four symbols
is identity.
These properties are sufficient to define the two kinds
;

of tetrad and will be found to agree with the geometrical definitions


given in the next two sections.

EIGHTY ROSENHAIN ODD TETRADS.

50.

These are tetrahedra whose corners are nodes and whose faces
Two of the nodes cap be chosen arbitrarily, the third
must lie in one of the two tropes containing them both, and then
the fourth is determined. There are two types of diagram, in (1)
the points lie in a line and represent the corners and faces of the
same tetrahedron in (2) the points lie in two lines and represent
the corners of one tetrahedron and the faces of another the faces
of the first and the corners of the second are represented by the
other points in the same two lines. The rows and columns give
are tropes.

(1)

(2)

'

...

eight tetrads of type (1) and each of the six pairs of rows and
columns give six tetrads of type (2), making eighty

six pairs of

in

all.

In symbols, type (1)


135,

is

1, 3,

represented by
5

or

by

0, 35, 51,

13

and this shows how a Rosenhain tetrad is constructed.


in any one trope are partitioned into two triangles
2, 4,

The nodes
1, 3,

the other tropes through the sides of these triangles

pass through the point 135 246 which


.

two tetrahedra having a common

face.

sixteen sets of ten tetrahedra having a

is

the

We

common

and
all

corner of

infer that there are

common

face.

All the tetrahedra of type (1) are self-polar with respect to one
Since there are ten quadrics
of the fundamental quadrics (p. 31).

we obtain in this
way ten sets of eight tetrahedra, making, once more, eighty in all.
The Rosenhain tetrads are sufficiently characterised by the

playiog symmetrical parts in the configuration,

properties of being odd and invariant for at least one collineation.

From the

latter property it follows that the

of a tetrad

is

identity

product of the symbols

and thence that the collineation which

inter-

49-51]

TETRADS

79

changes any two corners interchanges the other two at the same
time.
Hence each tetrad is invariant for a subgroup of four
members and there are four tetrads in a group-set. Each set of
eight which are self-polar with respect to the same quadric contains two group-sets
for example the four rows represent the
tetrads of one group-set and the four columns those of another.
:

The
which

faces of a

Rosenhain tetrahedron contain

all

sixteen nodes, from

follows that the four singular conies in the faces do not lie on a
quadric surface.
it

51.

SIXTY GOPEL EVEN TETRADS.

These are tetrahedra of nodes whose faces are not tropes, or


tetrahedra of tropes whose corners are not nodes. There are two
types of diagram according as the four points (1) form a rectangle
or (2)

lie

on different rows and columns.

*..
2
<

'.'.'.'.
.

'.

>

'.

Each tetrad can be divided in three ways into two pairs


belonging to the same octad, and each of the thirty octads
contains six tetrads, giving sixty tetrads in

The Gopel

all.

tetrads are sufficiently characterised by the proper-

being even and invariant for at least one collineation. As


is invariant for a subgroup and
there are four tetrads in a group-set. Examples are
ties of

in the case of odd tetrads, each

and

typical representation in two-figure symbols

is 0, 12,

34, 56

and we associate a group-set with a partition of six figures into


three pairs.
In order to construct a Gopel tetrahedron having a
given trope

by three

one face, we join the nodes in that trope in pairs


the other tropes through these lines complete the
Hence fifteen tetrads have one element common.

for

lines

tetrahedron.

The tetrahedron 0, 12, 34, 56 of either nodes or tropes and the fundamental
tetrahedron (12, 34, 56) belong to a desmic system. By taking the latter for
reference it is easily seen that the third member of the system together with
those obtained in a similar way from the other tetrahedra of the same groupFurther the faces of a group-set of Gopel
set form a 16 configuration.
tetrahedra of nodes form another 16 6 configuration.
fl

The

four singular conies in a Gopel tetrahedron of tropes

lie

on a quadric.

80

SETS OF NODES

ODD AND EVEN HEXADS.

52.

[CH. VII

symbols whose product is identity is necessarily


tetrads having a common element,
after excluding that element.
Hence an odd hexad of this kind is
derived from an odd and an even tetrad, and is found to be a set
set of six

derived, in

many ways, from two

of six elements from which the whole configuration can be linearly

constructed

( 6),

and

is

odd tetrad

A Weber

hexad

is

named

after

even tetrad

odd hexad

not invariant for any collineation and hence

a group-set contains sixteen hexads.


is

Weber.

The

total

number

of hexads

192.

The only other hexads of special interest are the Rosenhain


hexads of coplanar nodes, or concurrent tropes. Every trope contains either two or six nodes of such a hexad, which is therefore
even. The product of the symbols is identity, but this property is
possessed also by other sets of six points.
A Rosenhain hexad is
not invariant for any collineation, and there

is

only one group-set.

CHAPTEK

VIII.

EQUATIONS OP KUMMER'S SURFACE.


THE EQUATION REFERRED TO A FUNDAMENTAL TETRAHEDRON,

53.

Taking a fundamental tetrahedron

down the most

the operations of the group of

two coordinates

4,

that

we

for reference*

general quartic equation which

write

unchanged by
by changing the signs of

is

is

by the permutations of (ocyzt) into (yxtz),


(ztasy) or (tzycc).
All the terms which are derived from any one
term by these operations must have the same coefficient, and so
the equation must have the form
as

+ y i + zi + t + Wxyzt
i

+A

(oft*

Now make
ditions

+ y*z*) + B (tfl? + z*o?) + G (zH* + #y) = 0.

the point

-" -54
_ /3 + 7
a S -/3V
a/378(S +a -^ -7
4

n=

(a S

and on eliminating

among

'

node

D in the

G,

-S
B= 7 + -/3
-7 a
/3 S

8) a

(a, /3, y,

which determine A, B,

or

+ ff4__,y4_g4

'

- 7 -a )(S + 7 -a -/3 ) (a
2
7 ) (/S ^ - 7 a ) (rffr - a /3 )

(S 2 +/3 2

- yS

this gives four con-

forms

a, y8, 7,

S2

-a /3

+/3

'

+ 7 +S )
2

'

8 there results the single condition

the coefficients

Making use

- A - 52 2

(7

+ ABC + D = 0.
2

of the fundamental quadrics,

we can

write
'

_(

n_

g2

+ - & ~ 7s) (S + + /3 + 7 )
~
(a8 - 7) (a8 + 7)
2

64a/9y8 [do]

[eft]

[dc] [dd]

[aa] [ad] [66] [6d] [cc] [cd]


*
x,

The equation

is

[do] [dd]
[aa] [ad]

_
~ /37 S (2 .A)

(2

eK

'

- B) (2 - 0)

[dd]*

worked out from an irrational form by Cayley, Coll. Papers,


is given also by Borchardt, Crelle, lxxxiii, 239.

161; Crelle, lxxxiii, 215, and

h.

'

THE EQUATION OF RUMMER'S SURFACE

82

[CH. VIII

la order to express the coefficients in terms of the ka we require


a, ft, y, 8.
If the

the connection* between these numbers and

tetrahedron of reference

the fundamental tetrahedron (12, 34,

is

numbers

56), the six

Aug

rCi

"*4

"'S

""B

are projectively related to the parameters of the nodes


(ab)

(ac)

(6a)

(be)

lying on the section of the surface

J[cd] [db] (dd)

+ J[bb]

(cb)

J[da]

[cc] (ca) (dc)

= 0,

(dd)

and may therefore be taken equal

to the values of

->

[bb] [ad] (ab)

(ca)

~[da][cc](dc)

(bd)'
:

(cb)

35)

(p.

[ad] (ab) (bd)

by the plane

at the nodes

(ca)

these values are

[bb] [ad] [dd]

_[ad]

[66]

[dd]

[da] [cc] [aa]

and

[cc]

'

'

[da]

[aa]

'

'

their cross ratios are equal to the cross ratios of the corre-

Owing to the identical relations among the quadrics,


one among many ways in which the cross ratios of the
ks can be expressed. In particular we have

sponding

kg.

this is only

(&8 -fc6 )(fc6 -fc4 )


(k3

t)

(k6

k )

2-A

= [cta3[cfa] _
~

[aa] [ad]

'

A _ (k + h) (h + k)-2 (k k + kX)
2
(k -k )(k -k

w nM
.

|2 = (h

similarly
J

+ h)

^ -+k

s)

+ Ua)
~2(
^
f
k
2)
) (h
6

.*?

(kB

C ^ (K + h) (h +
(k

kt )-2 (k x k,
/c2
)

(kg

+ hh)

ki)

and we see that the vanishing of one of these

coefficients is the

condition for four nodes to form a harmonic range on the singular


conic through them.

Lastly

jy^

l,

when

it

k1 ka (k

ls

may

easily

be

verified that

+ki -k -k )+ki ki (k +ks -k -k2)-\-k k


li

(k1 +k2 -7ki -ki )

(*i-&2 )(&8-&4)(&6 -&6)


it is

noticed that the vanishing of the numerator


* Cf. Bolza,

Math. Ann. xxx, 478.

is

the

REFERRED TO A FUNDAMENTAL TETRAHEDRON

53-54]

83

condition for the three pairs

Thus

tion.

all

(kjc^), (k3 kt ), (&6 &) to form an involuthe coefficients in the quartic equation are expressed

in terms of the coefficients of the quadratic

surface

is

complex of which the

the singular surface *.

The equation may be written as the sum of the squares of the fundamental
quadrics multiplied by coefficients of which a typical one is
JifC-tlCafCa

~p AtvAlGeJCa

"T" 2i

"

fC prC (jtC'7

the summation extends to twenty products and the positive sign


the product of the symbols 123, par, 135 according to the laws

is

taken

if

= 11=22 = 33=44=55 = 66 = 123456,


is

a three-figure symbol t.

54.

THE EQUATION REFERRED TO A ROSENHAIN TETRAHEDRON.

Take the

new

any Rosenhain tetradj for


first column of the

linear forms belonging to

coordinates, for example, those in the

orthogonal matrix

(p. 30),

x1 = (dd),

xi = {ab),

The equation must be

x3

= (bc), xi = (ca).

invariant for the operations represented

by these symbols, but these transform the preceding coordinates


into
CLCb

o?i

CLO

Cg

OC

*3?3j

xit

ca

fl?2

>

""

""

***1 1

^4>

3,

~~~

***$

>

**4

*^1j

x2

***4t

^"8
"""

^2

#i

showing that the terms xfx? and xfxf have the same
and that the term x?x^x% gives rise to the expression

respectively,
coefficient,

x^x2 x3 + xfx^Xi xs*XiXx xfx3 x2 = {xx x2 x3 x^


and so on. From
nodes and all the faces

(x\x3

+ a^as4)

the fact that all the corners of reference are


tropes,

we

are able to write the equation in

the form
v?

faW + okW) + v* faW + avV) + w

(sW + a')

+ 2vw(x1 x2 -x3 xi)(x1 x3 + x2 xi)+2wu(

)(

+ 2uv{

)(

+ 2sx^xi x3 x = 0,
),

or

x? (m3 i2 + tfaif + w^xi 2vwx2 x3 2wux3 xx 2uvx1 xa )

+ 2x [VWX (x^ X ) + WUXs (x - X?) + UVX


+ (ux x + VX X + wx x^f = 0.
t

2
3

(!

- 2 ) + SXxXiOCt)
2

* Rohn, Math. Ann. xvm, 142.


t Study, Leipziger Berichte (1892), xlviii, 122.

X Cayley,

Coll.

Papers, vn, 126; Crelle, lxxiii, 292.

62

THE EQUATION OF KUMMER'S SURFACE

84

may be deduced from

This equation
surface

is

[CH. VIII

the fact that

the focal surface of the congruence of rays

Rummer's

common

to a

Using the notation of


we take the tetrahedral complex to be given by

tetrahedral complex and a linear complex.

Chap,

vi,

PuPn/a = PuPsi/fi = PsiPm/v,


equivalent to only one equation since
a

and the

linear

complex

<h*Pu +

<i*.Pv.

+ /3+7 = 0,

be

to

+ qsiPu + q-aPa+ q$iPsi + q^pn = o,

where now the qrs are any constants, not the coordinates of a line
Further we use the abbreviaas in the case of Plucker's surface.
Then the complex curve in the plane '2v,iXi =
tions ^i = 2g a;g.
,

is its

intersection with the cone


Vaitj^!

If Ui="EqigXs' then (x')

\//3w2 :2

+ "Jyu

= 0.

x3

the null-point of the plane, and the

is

two rays of the congruence through (a/) are the two tangents from
the complex curve. If (x') is on the focal surface-, these two
rays coincide and (x) must lie on the conic.
Hence the equation

(of) to

of the focal surface

is

Vaf^ + V/8&E, +
Before expanding

Vyf.aj,

= 0.

convenient to make a slight change


xl jx< by x1 Vqzi qsi /xi 'Jgsl qw and so on,
of making the coefficients in the linear comthis, it is

in the coordinates, replacing

which has the effect


plex equal by pairs.

We

<Zi4=<?28=

therefore write

qu

2,

%x

= q<u=m,

qm

nx2 mx3 +

nXi +

2 =

lx3

f,= ntX} lx2

= qns = n,

lxit

+ mxit
+ nxit

and then the equation

Vaf^+
gives,

V/3^*2 +

*/yi; 3 x3

on expansion, the former equation, provided

u=la,
s

= tfcr

The same

(y-/3) + v'13-1

surface

w = ny,

= m[3,

obtained

(a

- 7) + w'y-' (0 -

when

a).

/3 7 are replaced by any


other ratios satisfying the last preceding equation and

is

a + /S + 7

= 0.

REFERRED TO A ROSENHAIN TETRAHEDRON

54]

85

Regarding these as trilinear equations of a plane cubic and


a straight line, we see that there are three solutions i /3i 71,
:

ota

/82

72,

and a3

/33

73

and

it

is

w =

v2

v?

easy to prove that


2

+ oo"+
is
P1P2

71Y2

and two similar equations, and

v?

1?

aia a a 3

ftftft

71 727s'

Each of these fractions may be equated to 1 since only the


u v w are important, and then s can be put in the sym-

ratios

metrical form
3

= (A-7i)G8.-7)(ft-%)
+ (!-&) (*-&)(* -A).

The corresponding sets

of

numbers

(l lt

nh, r^),

(l2

m^, n^,

( 3 ,to3 ,w3 )

may be

regarded as the direction cosines of three mutually orthogonal lines, and Rummer's surface can be written in three equivalent

forms of which one

yli li x1

(1-lXi

is

+ Wi m^j) + Vm
2

+ Jn
t

tetrahedron

is

n t x l (n^i

ro3 a;2

(m^ + l^x^ 7hh)

+ m x l^) =
1

a degenerate form of

0.

Kummer

surface in

which the nodes on each conic have coincided by pairs. Hence


the set of six confocal congruences (p. 66), in which the quadratic
complexes are cosingular and tetrahedral, reduces to three. It is
immediately verified that the three linear complexes

k {Pu + P-&) + m* (P*i + P*i)

+n

(pst

are apolar, and are fundamental complexes

+ P12) =
The

for the surface.

others are

Pli=Pv>,

Pm = Psi,

and one fundamental quadric

Psi=Pll,

is

x12 + xi + x3 + xii = 0,
2

!>

so that the tangential equation has exactly the

same form

as the

point equation.

The equation

referred to a Gopel tetrad of tropes is

(cf.

p. 21 footnote)

[xi +yi +z i +t % +2p(xt+yz) + Zq(yt+zsc)+<Lr(zt+s:y)'Y=\6sxyzt,

where

sp^+q^+r^-Zpqr-l.

86

EQUATIONS OF RUMMER'S SURFACE

NODAL QUARTIC SURFACES.

55.

The equation

of

[CH. VIII

Rummer's

surface has frequently appeared in

the irrational form


Vara'

where

<v

= 0,

...z'

= 0,

are

+ 'Jyy' + \/zz' = 0,
When
six planes.

these planes are

arbitrary, the preceding equation evidently represents a quartic

surface having six tropes and fourteen nodes,

(xyz), (x'yz),

(xyz), (x'yz), (xyz), (xyz),

= x'\
a; =
yy'

= zst

)'

y = Q = y'\
zz' = xx

'

'

namely
(x'y'z),

(x'y'z'),

z=0 = z'
xx' = yy

Conversely, the general fourteen-nodal surface can be expressed

To prove this we notice that the sextic enveloping


cone from each node must have thirteen double lines and hence
must break up in one of the two following ways
in this way.

3, 1

2 2

1,

11,

where ^ denotes a cubic cone having one double line, and so on.
Let to be the number of nodes of the first kind then since each
;

number

trope contains six nodes, the


is 5, 6,

We take x = 0, y = 0, z =

or 7.

node of the

first

if

f=

is

is

(m +

28)/6, that

meeting in a
kind, and the quadric cone of tangents there to be

A = a? + y + z
Then

of tropes

to be tropes

- 2yz - Izx - 2xy =

any plane not passing through

0.

this node, the surface

has an equation of the form

Since the enveloping cone breaks up in the assumed wav,

B*-AC = fixyz0,
a constant and 8 =
along three generators.

where ^

A=

is

The nodal

on 8

line

is

a nodal cubic cone touching

may be taken

arbitrarily, say

7=0, Z = 0,
then 8

has to satisfy six conditions and can contain only three


It is sufficiently general to take

arbitrary constants.

= (x-y-z) YZ-yZ*-zY\

for this satisfies all the conditions

arbitrary constants, since

functions of them.

and contains implicitly three


be replaced by any linear
where

T and Z may

Introduce

X+Y+Z=0,
then

= xYZ + yZX+zXY.

NODAL QUARTIC SURFACES

55]

The

thirteen nodes other than

=0 = 2,

x=

= X,

x=y= z =

lie

x=

= = x,

87

on the

lines

= y,

X=Y=Z=0,
x=

= yZ + zY,

z=

y=

= Z,
z = = xY+yX,

0=Y,
y = = zX + xZ,

lying by sixes on the three cones

zX + xZ=0, xY+yX = 0.

yZ + zY=0,

Now
the

first

there are at least two singular conies not passing through


node and so we may take = to be the trope containing

the nodes on the

first

of these cones

then we must have

C=\(yZ+zY)\
and we may put \ =
2

leading

un-

- y - zj- 4,yz} (yZ + zYf + /xxyz (xYZ+yZX + zXY)


= 4 and
to
B = yZ (x y + z) zY(x + y z).
//,

of the surface

is

thus completely determined to be

+ y* + z* - 2yz - 2zx - 2xy) f


+ 2 {yZ {x - y + z) - z Y {x + y - z)}

By

is

{(a

The equation
(of

the absolute value of

since

Then

determined.

introducing

new

0.

linear expressions
*i

this equation

+ (yZ + z F) =

= -Z,

Z=+Y,

becomes the rationalised form of

Jx%

+ *Jyt) +

making evident the remaining

*fzt;=0,

tropes

-q

= 0, f= 0.

For this surface* to acquire a fifteenth node, the cubic cone


must break up into a plane and a quadric cone, intersecting in
lines passing through the fourteenth and fifteenth nodes.
The
'

cubic cone

with a'nodal line

= = f,
77

contains as part of itself the plane


l!j

when

For the equation

+ mT) + n= 0,

of a thirteen-nodal surface

one, two, or three constants are

(1866), p. 114,

and Cayley,

Coll. Papers,

made

which acquires additional nodes


Kummer, Berl. Abh.

to vanish see

vn, 293.

EQUATIONS OF RUMMER'S SURFACE

88
where

+ m+n =

[CH. VIII

0,

provided that, in consequence of these last two equations,


ranx

Hence an

+ nly +

identical relation of the

Imz =

0.

form

mnx + nly + Imz + k(l^ + mi) + n) =


must

Now

exist.

the quartic equation

unaltered

is

if x, y, z, f,

nj,

by px, qy, rz, qrg, rprj, pq% respectively, p, q, r being


Hence the preceding linear identity may have the

are replaced
arbitrary.

more general form

mnpx + nlqy + Imrz + klqri; + kmrprj + knpq= 0,


and, on writing

with undetermined coefficients

it

ax

+ by + cz + ag + fir) + y = 0,

the conditions become


aa.

There

is

six planes

of course one other linear identical relation

and the

coefficients in this

new

precedes, one of the

be

= bfi = cy.

verified directly,

and

tropes

is

may be

arbitrary.

ax + by + cz

= 0,

as

new

similarly the three other

among the
By what
may easily
tropes are

ax + fir) + cz = 0, ax + by + y = 0, passing through


the new node ax = ag, by = fir), cz = yf
<*

+ by + cz = 0,

For a sixteenth node

appear a second linear factor must


6, distinct from the former, but
the values f = / = Exactly similar reasoning leads

separate out from

vanishing for

the

to

cubic

to a second identity of the

a'x

b'y

where
and, as before,

four

form*

+ c'z + a'f + fi'rj + y' = 0,


a' a' = b'fi'= c'y',

new

tropes

whose equations are

appear,

+ b'y+c'z=0, a'+b'y+c'z=0, a'x+ fi'v +c'z=0, a'x+b'y+y'=0,


passing through the sixteenth node a'x = a'f, b'y = fi'r), c'z = y'f
a'x

etc.

In the notation of p. 85, writing x{


the two relations are
l 2 Xi

+m

ls Xi

+ m8 a;3 + ns x + lf

x2

+n

xs + lfx Xi
t

x(

- n^a?, + l^)

ljs (,,

+ m -^x2 + nf
2

+ mf x + w
l

* Jessop, Quarterly Journal, xxxi, 354.

x^

-1
8

a;s

'

= 0,
= 0.

CHAPTEK

IX.

SPECIAL FORMS. OF RUMMER'S SURFACE.


56.

THE TETEAHEDEOID.

We

have seen in preceding chapters how the general 16 6


upon six apolar complexes, and when
these are given, is completely determined by a single element.
Special configurations arise in two ways, either by specialising
configuration depends

the linear complexes, as in the case of Plilcker's surface, or


by specialising the position of one of the elements. With the
former case we are not here concerned* and confine our attention
to the case when the set of apolar complexes is general, and consider the consequences of taking one node or trope of the surface

in particular positions.

With

respect to a single fundamental tetrahedron particular

positions of a point are in a face, on an edge, or at a corner.


this tetrahedron is

taken

If

for reference, these three cases correspond

to the vanishing of one, two, or three of the coordinates

(a, /3, 7, 8)

of one node.

We

recall that the

operations which deduce

nodes and tropes are named after the


(a, /S, 7, 8), and their equations

them from

are obtained by equating to zero the sixteen linear forms


(aa)

(ab)

(fia)

(fib)

(ca)

(cb)

(da)

(db)

(ac)

(p.

29)

90

SPECIAL FORMS OF KUMMER'S SURFACE

[CH. IX

and the tropes pass by fours through the corners of reference.


These sets of nodes are called Gopel tetrads, being corners of
tetrahedra whose faces are not tropes, and the four groups make
up a group-set, being either unchanged or interchanged by the
group of sixteen operations. Thus, when 8 = 0, four tetrahedra
belonging to a group-set become plane.
This special kind of
it is

Kummer surface is called

a Tetrahedroid*;

characterised geometrically by the fact that the section by

each of the faces of a certain tetrahedron

is

two

conies, intersecting

in four nodes.

The

four tropes through any one corner intersect in six lines

which, since they contain pairs of nodes, must

Hence each trope

lie

in the faces.

cuts three faces of the tetrahedron in three con-

therefore the six nodes on


any singular conic belong to an involution in which the chords
joining corresponding points pass through a fundamental corner.
This is characteristic of a tetrahedroid, that the six coefficients ka
in the complex of which it is the singular surface form three pairs
of an involution.
If the tetrahedron is (12, 34, 56), it is easy to
see that the pairs of coefficients are k^, ks kit k B k6
Since the sides of the quadrangle of nodes in any face pass
through the corners, these form the common self-polar triangle of
the two conies into which the section breaks up.
From this fact
it is easy to construct the equation of the surface, for it must be

current lines containing pairs of nodes

of the form

F (x

and

after equating

factors.

z\

t )

+ Xxyzt = 0,

any coordinate

Under these

to zero,

must break into

conditions the equation represents a surface

which touches each of the planes of reference at four points if


one of these is a node X must be zero and then the other fifteen
;

The

points of contact are nodes also.

the equation

may be

h
h

to
2

x2

f m

'

By

conditions for

F show

that

written in the form

=0.

z2
2

replacing (frrmfix, (gntyy, (hlmftz, (fgh)H by


* Cayley, Coll. Papers,

i,

302

new

Liouville (1846), xi, 291.

coordi-

THE TETRAHEDROID

56-57]
nates x, y,
the form

z, t

and putting a

= (fl)l,

rf

/3

= (gm)l, y = (hn)i,

a2

of
/3

f
7

z2

7*

this takes

=0,

x*

a?2

r
/3

/3

91

or on expansion

tfjSV (xi + yi + z* +

+
which

is

(/3

- </ - a

+a

(y

2
i!

what the general

In order
(a 4

t')

- /34 - 74) (a + y z )
+ z x ) + 7 ( 7 - a4 - /3 (< + a?f) = 0,
equation (p. 81) becomes when S = 0.
(a 4

to exhibit the conies in the planes of reference

- /34 - y)/^

= (ji + v)j'iiJiv,

7
2
2
2
y vvX, z by z "/X[i

put

and replace x2 by x2 \f]w, y 2 by


then the equation becomes

etc.

+ y + z ) (fivx + vXy + X/iz )


+ t {(/M + v)x + (v + X) y + (X + /*) s + P = 0,
= -2 = c~2 = 1, we get
and finally on putting X = a-2
(x 2

yu.

ft

i/

the ordinary equation of the wave surface


(x2

+ y + z ) (a
- {a
2

The two

x2 +
(b

+c z)
+ c ) x + b (c + a ) y2 + & (a + b ) z + a
b2 y2

b 2 c2

= 0.

common

points of contact of a

tangent of the conies in a face of


the tetrahedron lie on the same singular conic and are the double points of
the involution of nodes on that conic.
If a given linear complex is apolar to the complex of polar lines of its
rays with respect to a variable quadric having a fixed self-polar tetrahedron,
the envelope of. the quadric is a tetrahedroid. If the given complex is

the variable quadric touches eight fixed lines and the tetrahedroid

special,

degenerates into a repeated quadric.

The

intersections of corresponding surfaces in an involution of quadrics

inscribed in a

When

common

developable generate a tetrahedroid.

the determining node

taken on an edge of a fundamental tetra-

is

hedron, the surface becomes a scroll of which a typical equation


a/3

(kW - /3 2) (xH2 -t-yV) + a/3

(a2

is

- F/32 ) (ft2 + zV) + Zk (a4 - /34) xyzt = 0.

MULTIPLE TETRAHEDROIDS.

57.

Double tetrahedroid.

The

which

trope, from

all

the remaining singularities are

obtained, passes through one corner of each of two fundamental

These must not belong to the same desmic system,


would be collinear with the other two and so
Hence the two tetrahedra have two edges
in the trope.

tetrahedra.

else a third corner


lie

Eohn, Math. Ann. xvm, 156.

SPECIAL FORMS OF RUMMER'S SURFACE

92

common, and without

loss of generality

t0 be
(0, 0, 0, 1)

This gives 8

and

= 7,
ft

and

[CH. IX

we may take the

(0, 1,

1,

corners

0).

and the equation of the tetrahedroid

becomes*
{a?

As

- 1*)* +

{y

J {a?# + fz*) - S (*

- zj +

in the case of the single tetrahedroid,

a fundamental corner

it

joining pairs of nodes.

* )

(^ +

**)

when a trope contains

cuts the three concurrent faces in lines


The corner is therefore a centre of per-

spective for two triangles formed by the six nodes in the trope.

In the present case the two corners lie one on each of the common
edges of the two tetrahedra, and the line joining them lies in a
Hence in the case of
face of each and therefore joins two nodes.
a double tetrahedroid every trope passes through two fundamental
corners which are collinear with two nodes, and a second trope
passes through the same two corners.
The arrangement of nodes on any
conic
that

is

projectively equivalent to

shown in

mental

fig. 8,

sextic

II (k

and the funda ks ) may be

linearly transformed into the

Ak + Bk* +
s

the

Ck.

arbitrary

form

Corresponding to
numbering of the

two tetrahedra are


and (12, 36, 45) having
the edges (36) common, and the triangles 153, 246 are in two-fold
perspective, and so also are the triangles 156, 243.
By an
imaginary projection we may take 3 and 6 to be the circular
points at infinity and then 24 and 15 become diameters.
the

figure

(14, 25, 36)

Triple tetrahedroid.

Each trope passes through three fundamental


these are collinear,

it is sufficient to

make the

corners.

a corner of each of two desmic tetrahedra, for example

and

(1, 1,

1, 1)

so that

Then

and a + /3~7=0.

the equation of the surface

is

Rohn, Leipziger Berichte

If

trope pass through,

(1884), xxxvi, 10.

(0, 0, 0, 1)

MULTIPLE TETRAHEDROIDS

57]

93

The collinearity of the three centres of perspective shows that


they are the three points on a Pascal line.
Projecting them to infinity and the conic
into a circle we have fig. 9, and the
fundamental sextic may be taken to be
The tetrahedra
of the form Ak" + Bk* + G.
corresponding to the figure are (12, 36, 45),
(34, 25, 16), (56, 14, 23), of the same

desmic system and the triangles 135, 246


Fig. 9.

are in threefold perspective.

Quadruple tetrahedroid.

Any

three corners which

are not

collinear

are

necessarily

any three tetrahedra two belong


coplanar with a
three have two common edges.
or
else
all
system
to a desmic
Start with one tetrahedron (14, 25, 36) and
take two others each having two edges in
common with it, for example (12, 36, 45)
and (23, 14, 56); these two belong to a
desmic system of which the third member
fourth, for of

is (34, 16, 25).

It is sufficiently general

to take the three corners to be

(0,0,0,1), (0,1,-1,0), (1,0,-1,0),

and then

= 0,

Fio.

= /3 = 7,

and the equation is


gA+yi + tf + tf- tftf. _ yip _ itf _

yitf

10.

_ # & _ ^yl. = Q

figure of coplanar nodes is projected into a regular hexagon


and the triangles 135, 246 formed by alternate corners are in
The fundamental sextic when linearly transfourfold perspective.

The

formed into

its

simplest form

Sextuple tetrahedroid*

is

ke

1.

be shown that the case of only five coplanar corners


but that there exist planes passing through six
corners, and that the tetrahedra to which they belong are a set
having pairs of edges in common with the same tetrahedron. For
It can

does not

arise,

example the plane


ix

+y+z+t=

Segre, Leipziger Berichte (1884), xxxvi, 132.

SPECIAL FORMS OF KUMMER'S SURFACE

94

[CH. IX

contains the corners


(i,

0, 0, 1),

(0, 1,

-1,

0),

-1),

(0, 1, 0,

0, 1, 0),

(*,

(0, 0, 1,

-1),

(i, 1,

0, 0)

of the tetrahedra
(12, 35, 46),

(12, 36, 45),

we

so

take a

surface

(34, 15, 26), (56, 14, 23), (56, 13, 24),

(34, 16, 25),

p = <y== 8 = 1.

i,

Then the equation

of

the

is
l
os

The nodes

+ yi + zl + t + 4<ixyzt = 0.
i

+y+z+t=

in the trope ix

are

(1,-1, l,-i),(l,l,-l,-i),(l,l,-i,-l),(- l,l,i,- 1),(-

l,i,l,

-l),(l,-i, 1,-1),

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 respectively, the names


show the six ways in which the lines joining
them are concurrent. The six corners lie by threes on four lines
and the corresponding tetrahedra belong to four desmic systems.
The pairs of nodes 12, 34, 56 lie on the three diagonals of this

and

if

they are denoted by

of the tetrahedra

quadrilateral.

By

replacing ix by x
x*

we obtain a

+y

+ zi +

ti

real equation

kxyzt

= 0,

representing a surface with four real nodes.


of the fundamental sextic is k(k*

may

The canonical form

and

six coplanar nodes


be projected into the corners of a square together with
1),

the circular points at infinity.

The whole

configuration of nodes

into sixteen points lying

58.

The

is

projected from a corner of reference

by fours on twelve

lines *.

BATTAGLINl'S HARMONIC COMPLEX.

tetrahedroid

is

Rummer's

a special form of

surface

due

to

the fact that the six coefficients in the quadratic complex

k^ + hat* + hx

belong to an involution f.

which the surface

is

+ hx? + k x,? + k

xe2

the fundamental tetrahedron to

If

specially related is (12, 34, 56) the condition

for involution is
/Tl/i'o

Ki ~r

A/g

n/gn/4

/C3 "f~ i^

fC^fCg

tCB

ftg

^ U.

* Eantor, American Journal, xrs, 86.

m, 328 ; Battaglini, Giornale di Matematiche, vi and


Mathematische Annate n, xxi, 515.

t Sturm, Liniengeometrie,
vii ; Schur,

BATTAGLINI'S HARMONIC COMPLEX

57-58]

95

By making a suitable linear transformation of the ks thereby


producing another complex of the same cosingular family, we may
arrange that
K + h = 0, &3 + = 0, kB + ks = 0,
,

so that the complex has the form

h Ox - + h Os - oot) + h (*e 2

2
3 )

O=

0,

or, in Plticker's coordinates,

+P12 ) = 0,
distinguished, in this notation, by the absence of product

h (Pu* + P*s + h (pj + pj) + k


2

and

is

(Ps4

terms.

This complex consists of

the lines cutting two quadrics

all

using point coordinates xlt x2 xs xit and taking


the quadrics to be
harmonically,

for,

a^ + a xf + a x? + a x? =

0,

+ \xl =

0,

b x x?

+ \x* +

b % x

the condition for a line (p) to cut them in two pairs of harmonically
conjugate points is
l,(ar b 8

+ ag br )prs =0,
>

and by a slight change of coordinates this can be reduced to the


preceding form.
Since the line equation of the quadric

is

it follows

Xae xs2 + XXbgW,? = 0,


+ Xbs) pr? = 0,

(ar + \b r ) (as

that two quadrics of the pencil obtained by varying

touch any given line. If their parameters are X and X' and the
line is a ray, the equation of the complex expresses the condition

X+V=

0.

Singular rays belong to the tetrahedral complex

% (ajaA&a + a2 a &A) PuP = 0,


s

and

it is

easily proved that

when

this condition is satisfied, all the

polar lines of (p) with respect to the pencil of quadrics intersect


and generate a cone of rays of this tetrahedral complex. The two

polar lines of a singular ray (p) with respect to the two quadrics
which touch it pass through the points of contact and lie in the

tangent planes, which must' coincide since the two polar lines
Hence the congruence of singular rays consists of all
intersect.
the generators of the developables circumscribing the pairs of
quadrics

Xas xs2
for different values of X.

ktbgXn 2 =

SPECIAL FORMS OF RUMMER'S SURFACE

96

When

the complex

given, there

is

may be used

pairs of quadrics that

an

is

to define

infinite

[CH. IX

number of

Let the complex

it.

be written

%Ap' =

0,

A = a^bg + a br
A=a a a a = A2& /a
= O3a4.Au + <ho>z -Am.
A (c^a^f (aia ) + A A = 0.

where
Let

then

and

4,

Si

Write 4A

= a-

2
,

s,

Xi

then

2A M a

a2

= (1 + ^/l-aAA M

2A li as ai =

Similarly

rs

(1

).

Vl aA^A^

and so on, giving the ratios of the a8 in terms of an arbitrary


parameter tr.
When they are found, the bs are uniquely
determined.

= 0, and
complex
cone
B,
Again
at any point of it breaks up into the two tangent planes.
the intersection of A and the reciprocal of A with respect to B
lies on the singular surfape, for the polar plane of any point of it
with respect to B cuts A in two straight lines and the complex
cone consists of the planes through them. The quadric surface
G, 1c s <vs * = 0, where
2
c8 = as + ftbg /as
quartic intersection of the quadrics A, 2aa:s2

The

"ZbgXg' = 0,

lies

on the singular

surface, for the

passes through this second quartic for

value of

fi

exists for

G is one
If '= b b

which

can define the complex.

/' and we

all

values of

fi,

and one

of a pair of quadrics which


i b s b i 'Za s/bg

this value of/* is

find
.

Cl=

2A Si c

whence

!i

AWA AU
1S

a,'

etC

'

= ~^~2A u a

a4

= "(l-^l-aA w A )
2A u ci ci = " (1 + Vl <rA A u),
Si

say,

and

so that

12

corresponds to the same value of the parameter

a different arrangement of the signs of the radicals.


In a similar way the quadric D, IdgXg* = 0, where
a\

cuts

= @& + @V/&i = A^A^Au/bi,

B in a quartic

etc.

curve lying on the singular surface.

a but

to

4
n

BATTAGLINI'S HARMONIC COMPLEX

58]

The harmonic complex can be

97

defined in a reciprocal

manner

as the assemblage of lines from

which the tangent planes to two


quadrics form two harmonically conjugate pairs.
Taking the two.
tangential equations to be
otiWj

ft h,

the complex

a2 w 2 2

+au +
2
3

+ &,' + /3 w + /3
2
3

= 0,

a4 M42
4

2
4

= 0,

is

2(a3 /34 +* 4 #,)^23 = 0.

On putting as = of1 ft = df1 this becomes the same as before


accordingly the quadrics G and
can be used to define the

complex tangentially.
The harmonic complex includes among its rays all the generators of
the quadrics in terms of which it is denned and conversely if a quadratic
complex contains both sets of generators of a quadric it must be
:

harmonic.

The complexes 2A npu2 =0, sA 3l ~ 1p 12i =

have the same singular


and are the only harmonic complexes in the cosingular family.

The

series of surfaces 2as,jn a;s 2 =0, 2& 8| .8 2

as,n+l = 0, n a

l,

a % a Z, n ai,

^Og, n/a a, n

6,

s,

= 0,

where, for every n,

n/"a, n) "1, n "2, n "3,

e+^-en

',

surface,,

u i, n

^ aa, n/"a, n

say,

"a,n

terminates after six

members

if

%A 2i A zl A u A 12 - 2A 3i A 12 A ti A 23 - 2A u A 23 A 2i A 31 =0.
Express this result in terms of the invariants of the

first

two

surfaces.

common tangent plane of the two quadrics <S1 + XjS2 = is a singular


plane of the complex of lines cutting S'1 = 0, S2 =0 harmonically. The singular
ray joins the points of contact, and cuts the singular surface on S1 +itS = 0,
if S1 ~nS2 =0 is the third surface of the pencil which touches the plane.

!i

The

singular surface of the complex 2.4 12 p 12 2 =

is

generated by the inter-

section of the surfaces

Xxf +

A li x12 +

12

^2 2 + A 13 x3 * +

ixi 2

+A lix^+A

2
u xt = 0,

2i

xii =0,

where X and p are connected by a certain homographic


H.

relation.

38

SPECIAL FORMS OF RUMMER'S SURFACE


59.

When

one node

lies

IX

LIMITING FORMS.

on a fundamental quadric the quartic

degenerates into that quadric, repeated;


is

[CH.

for,

since the quadric

invariant for the group of linear transformations which derive

the nodes from any one of them, in this case


therefore all the singular conies
order.

all the nodes and


on a surface of the second

This also follows easily from the equation of the surface,


Vaalf + V/3yi7

(cf. p.

lie

35), for

when a =

\/yz=

0,

the rationalised form reduces to

O8yi/-7*0*=O.
Since the polar plane of a node

is a trope containing six other


a tangent plane to the quadric and contains seven nodes, the additional one being at the point of contact.
Hence the nodes are at the intersections of four generators of one
system with four of the other system.
When one node is very near the fundamental quadric, the
whole quartic surface lies near the quadric, and consists of thin

nodes, here each trope

is

pieces joined together at the nodes.

We may suppose

by each point of the


two, which may be real and distinct,

the quartic

to be derived from the quadric

latter separ-

ating into

or conjugate

imaginaries.

It

is

evident that the tropes touch the thin pieces

of surface near their edges, just as, in two dimensions, a bitangent


touches a thin branch of a curve near the points where it is folded
on itself. If we regard the points of the quartic as determined by

one node and varying continuously with it, we may distinguish, on


the quadric, regions of points which are just going to separate into
real and into imaginary pairs of points of the quartic these regions
are bounded by the singular conies, and so we have the figure
;

Fig. 11.

LIMITING FORMS

59]

99

which either the shaded or the unshaded portions may be


considered as the real surface. By regarding the generators as
closed curves we see that the surface consists of eight fourin

cornered pieces, and that each of four A, B, G,


each of the other four P, Q, R, 8 at one node.

is

attached to

The general Kummer surface can be obtained from a degenerate


by a continuous variation of its points, without

surface of this kind

passing through any other degenerate form for the nodes can be
varied so as to avoid the edges of the fundamental tetrahedra.
;

For

form has an important bearing on the


In particular, the incidences of
nodes and tropes remain the same during the variation, except
that in the limiting form there is an extra node in each trope,
namely the point of contact. Hence the preceding figure, which is
this reason the limiting

topology of the general surface.

an actual representation of the limiting surface, is also an incidence


diagram for the general surface*- Conversely, the rows and
columns of the diagram of incidences can be regarded as generators
of a quadric which is a limiting form of Summer's surface.
Let the fundamental quadric be (135, 246) the directrices
(13) (35) (51) are generators of one system and (24) (46) (62) are
generators of the other system.
One node, 0, may be taken arbitogether
trarily on the surface; then the two generators through
with their harmonic conjugates with respect to the pairs of directrices are the eight generators whose intersections give the nodes.
If the harmonic conjugates are named after the directrices, and if
the intersection of 13 and 24 is called 56, and so on, we have, as
on p. 17, the incidence diagram
;

Eohn, Math. Ann.

xv,

46

62

24

35

12

14

16

51

32

34

36

13

52

54

56.

339; Klein, Evanston Lectures (1893), p. 29.

72

CHAPTER

X.

THE WAVE SURFACE.


DEFINITION OF THE SURFACE.

60.

The Wave

surface

so

is

a special form of the Tetrahedroid, and the

by a general

linear transformation from the former,


have
the same projective features. In
two
surfaces
that the

latter is derived

addition, the

Wave

surface possesses metrical properties of great

and is probably the best known example of Rummer's


surface on account of its connection with the physical world*.
The specialisation is that the tetrahedron whose faces contain
the nodes by fours is a rectangular frame of reference, one face
being the plane at infinity and one of the conies in that face being
the imaginary circle at infinity. From this it follows that one of
the two conies in each of the other faces is a circle.
interest,

The

details of the transformation

are given on

p.

from the general Tetrahedroid


Wave surface is obtained

91 and the equation of the

in the form
(x 2

+ y + z ) (a2 * + &y + cV)


- a? (&2 + c ) x - b (c + a ) f - c
2

which

is

(a 2 + b 2 ) z2

+a

b2 c2

= 0,

equivalent to
b y
cV
Zk + 2
Zi + Zh
Zh= >
r*

r
b
c r
2
r" = a? 4- y" + z
2

a?a?
a'

where

Ti.

It is convenient to take this equation as a starting point and


If r is regarded as a
to deduce properties of the surface from it.
constant, the equation represents the cone which is reciprocal to

the cone
(ar2

- r--2) a? + Qr - r-2) f + (c~ - r-"2 ) z =


2

* Fresnel, (Euvres Computes, n, 261

Preston, Theory of Light, p. 260.

APSIDAL SURFACES

60-61]

101

passing through the intersection of the sphere

+ y* + z* = r
+ &_2 y + c-2 ^ = 1.
2

a?

and the

Hence

ellipsoid

-2

Wave

points on the

by taking any
and measuring lengths equal to the

surface are obtained

central section of the ellipsoid

semi-axes along the perpendicular at the centre, in both directions.


If

we suppose

that a

finite distances

>b>

c,

all

the points of the surface are at

from the origin varying from


61.

c to a.

APSIDAL SURFACES.

OM

be the perbe any point of a surface S and let


on the tangent plane at Q. Draw
and OR at right angles to the plane QOM then Q is an apse

Let

pendicular from any point

QT

Fig. 12.

ROQ with respect to the point 0, for


QT is perpendicular to OQ. If OQ' is erected
ROQ and of length equal to the apsidal radius

of the section by the plane

the tangent line


perpendicular to

OQ, the locus of Q' is called the apsidal surface S'.


A sphere with centre and radius OQ cuts S in a curve to
by a
which QT is the tangent at Q this curve is projected from
;

a tangent plane. Hence as OQ describes


this cone, OQ' describes the reciprocal cone which cuts the sphere
We thus have a
in a curve lying on the apsidal surface S'.

cone having

ROQ

for

method of generating $' by means of spherical curves corresponding to spherical sections of 8, and the relation between the
From this it follows that Q' is an apse of
surfaces is mutual.
the section of S' by Q'OR, and hence the tangent plane at Q' is
perpendicular to Q'OQ.

THE WAVE SURFACE

102

The

may

apsidal surface 8'

also

of a congruence of circles having a

whose axis and radius


point of

From

near Q'.
is

near

OQ

is

be regarded as the focal surface

common

touches S' at

QOQ

centre 0; for the circle

Q'.

Corresponding to a

a circle touching S'


easily seen that the tangent plane at Q'

in the plane

this it is

[CH.

'

there

is

obtained by rotating the tangent plane at

Q through

a right

angle about OR.

The fact that the relation between the tangent planes is


independent of the curvatures shows that each of two apsidal
surfaces is derived from the other by a contact transformation*.
This may easily be verified from the equations which define Q'
x'*

x'x

(y'z

+ f + z'" = a? + f + z>,
2

+ y'y + z'z = 0,

- yz') + (z'x - zx') Jj- - (x'y - xy') = 0.

The perpendicular from Q' on

0M

is

whose axis

The

is

OM

OM
MQT is

of length

follows that the apsidal of the tangent plane

and radius OM, touching S' at

whence

it

a cylinder

Q'.

between two apsidal surfaces is unaltered by


fig. 12, 0m .0Q = 0q. OM= 0m'. OQ' = Oq. OM',
the perpendicular on the tangent plane at the point q

relation

reciprocation. In

and 0m is
on the reciprocal surface it is evident that the triangle qOm may
be displaced into the position q'Om' by rotation through a right
;

angle in

its plane.

SINGULARITIES OF THE

62.

Wave

Since the

surface

many

is

WAVE SURFACE.

the apsidal of an ellipsoid with

may be deduced in an
elementary manner from those of the ellipsoid. In fig. 12, Q and
It are apses of a central section and the perpendicular at
meets
the wave surface at points Q' and R' such that 0Q'= OQ and
respect to its centre,

0R'= OR, and

QOR

of its properties

at the images of these points in 0.

As the plane
Q' and R' describe different sheets which
OR, that is, when the central section of the

varies, the points

meet only when

0Q=

ellipsoid is a circle.

In this case every point on the section is an


number of tangent planes at Q'

apse and there are an infinite

* Lie-Scheffers, Beriihrungstram/ormationen.

which

WAVE SURFACE

SINGULARITIES OF THE

61-62]

Hence the two

therefore a node.

is

103

sheets are connected at

four nodes lying on the perpendiculars to the circular sections of

the ellipsoid

their coordinates are

c(a 2

- c )-*,

6 2 )* (a 2

+ a

0,

(b

- c )* (a - c )-*.

Reciprocally, the curve of contact with the ellipsoid of a circumscribing circular cylinder gives on the apsidal surface a curve
at every point of which the tangent plane is the same.
The reciprocal singularities may be obtained by considering
the reciprocal ellipsoid and we infer that there are four real tropes
;

(a2 - 6 2 )* x
It

-c

(b 2

)*

= b (a - c
2

easy to verify that the curves of contact are

is

The

section

by the plane x =
2

(y

+ z - a ) (b
2

(z 2

+ cV - 6

+ x - ) (&z + a
2

a circle of radius b and an


section

by z =
(x 2

a circle of radius

circles.

c )

x2 - c 2 a2 )

two conies

0,

ellipse of

semi-axes

= 0,

ellipse, intersecting in

the four nodes.

is

+ f- c ) {a?x + b
2

-a

&2 )

+ y + z ) (a
2

= 0,

ellipse and lastly, the plane


two imaginary conies

surrounded by an

at infinity cuts the surface in the

(x 2

)K

consists of the

namely a circle of radius a surrounding an


b and c.
The section by y = is

The

x2 +

b2 y2

+ c2 z*) =

0.

The symmetry with respect to the planes of reference is evident


from the fact that only squares of the coordinates occur in the
equation.
By drawing quadrants of the preceding conies, an idea
of the shape of the surface

may be

obtained.

Fig. 13

shows one

node and the trace of one trope.

The shape may be more completely realised by tracing the


The proseries of sphero-conics cut out by concentric spheres.
jection of the intersection with a sphere of radius r

plane

z =

is

a2 -c2
2X
a 2 -r
which

is

upon the

b2
b

-c _
C
-r2y ~
2

a hyperbola for the outer sheet {a

2
'

> r > b), and an

ellipse

THE WAVE SURFACE

104

inner sheet (b > r

for the

we get the family


qa

> c).

for

Again, projecting on the plane

of ellipses

-6

62

2
3

-c

^rr^+^-c
having

[CH.

*2

_,
"''

envelope the four lines

+ (a2 - b*)i x

(6

- c )* z = b (a - c
2

)*.

Fig. 13.

63.

PARAMETRIC REPRESENTATION.
a2 by

P,

a, 6 2

by

and

by c. Let
diameter
ellipsoid
conjugate
to
the
end
of
the
of
the
be
(, 77, f
QOR (p. 101), then if OQ" = X and OR1 = fi, \ and /* are the parameters of the confocals through P and we have
It is convenient* to replace

b,

),

b) (a c) = a (a X) (a /*),
(b-c)(b-a)^ = b(b-\)(b-fi),
(c a) (c b) = c (c X) (c /*).
a

(a

ff

If P.

at

P to

i'x. 2>2

are the central perpendiculars on the tangent planes

the ellipsoid and the two confocals,


\/jp

X (\-fj,)p

2
1

H- it* ~ V) Pi

= abc,
= (a-X)(b-X)(c-X),
= ( - P) Q> - H) (c - /*)

Darboux, Gomptes Eendus, xcvn, 1039; Cayley,

xiii,

238.

X
62-63]

PARAMETRIC REPRESENTATION

The point Q' of the wave surface


length X s in the direction
p%/a,

and

therefore given

is

105

obtained by measuring a

is

p/c,

prj/b,

by

(a b)(a

c) X* = bcfjr (a X) (a /*),
(b
a) if = ca/x- (b - X) (b - p),
c) (b
-1
(c a)(c b) z* =
(c X.) (c /*),
1

afc//.

expressing the coordinates of any point in terms of two parameters

X and

fi.

Conversely the parameters are expressed in terms of the

coordinates by
a?

ax 2
Tn order to express
replace

X and p by

f + z = X,
l

+ by + cs = abc/i-1
2

y and z as uniform functions we must


new parameters p and q*.

x,

elliptic functions of

For the outer sheet

a>\>b> /m>c,
so

we take
t

&2

o 6
ac

,,
,,
sn 2 (p, )

=a

abT

*=F^F - ^) =
2

^,

= 6*sn(p, /<;)dn(g, k
y = a* en (p, A) cii (g, A^),

then

aj

a*

dn

),

(p, &) sn (g, A^).

For the inner sheet

a> /i>b>\>c,
and

so, in

order to have real parameters

p', q',

we

define the elliptic

functions by

^ = d>

sn2

(?'.^')=

and then
#=
y

c*

dn

(p', A;')

c* en (/,

A')

sn

en

(<?',

A/),

(g', &/),

5 = 6*sn(p',A;')dn(g',^').
* Appell et Laoour, Fonctions Elliptiques, p. 167; Weber, Vierteljahrsschrift der

Naturf. Ges. in Zurich (1896), xli, 82.

THE WAVE SURFACE

106

OM* = v

so that v*

Wave

tangent plane to the

plane at

is

parallel to

the central perpendicular on the

is

surface at (x, y,

POR and

tangent plane at P, whence by

abcv^fjr 1

the plane

Now

the tangent

is parallel to

the

- v)/v = QM /0M* = p*lf,

(X v) (X /a) = (a X) (b X) (c X),
2

giving v in terms of the parameters

The

z).

QOR

similar triangles

(X

or

TANGENT PLANES.

64.

Let

[CH.

direction cosines of

OQ

X and

/*..

are those of the normal at

P to the

con focal X, namely

p^/(a-\),

p^/(c-X),

Pivl(b-\),

OM are
#X^ 7y/6(6-X),

hence the direction cosines of

vi\ip^/a(a-\),
Those of

OR

are

ptvl(b-p),

P2?/(a-/*),

OM'

and since

v^p^/c(c-X).

is

p^Kc-fi),

OR

at right angles to

and OM,

direction

its

cosines are
V

PlP* Vi b

(6

- X) (b - /) c (c - X) (c - /i)

aw* (X^

6+

6c (X

The equation

c/i

etC ''

+ 6c)

n)

of the tangent plane is taken to be

+ my + nz = 1,
P + m? + n? = v~\

lx

and then

= x(\p I + c/* + be),


ca(fi-\)m = y (X/* - c + a,fi + ca),

and

bc(fi-X)

ab(/j,

>

\)n = z (\/m a + bp + ab),

giving the coordinates of any tangent plane in terms of

X,

and

fi.

The tangent plane may also be determined indirectly as follows.


The intercept on the normal at any point Q of an ellipsoid between
Q and the plane of symmetry perpendicular to the axis OA is
0A /0M. After rotation through a right angle about OR we have
fig. 14 in which 00 is the projection of the axis OA upon the
plane Q'OM and Q'G is the normal at Q' to the Wave surface, and
2

'

GQ'.0M'=0A\

TANGENT PLANES

64]

107

Complete the parallelogram OQ'OH: then the circle on Q'H


M' and has its centre on OG and cuts

as diameter passes through

Fig. 14.

the plane x at the ends of a chord perpendicular to OG. This


chord is bisected at
and of length 2 (M'0 0H)t = 20 A.
Hence the sphere through the circular section in the plane
.

and any point of the Wave surface passes

projection of the centre on the tangent plane.

also

through the

Similarly two other

spheres pass through the same two points and the circles in the

other planes of reference. This theorem* gives a method of constructing the tangent plane at any point and the point of contact
of a given plane.
If the equation of the tangent plane
Ix + my + nz =

and
(Iv,

1$ is

mv,

spheres

the length of the central perpendicular, the foot

Hence the equation

nv).

of

the

first

the

of

is

three

is
Iv

and

is

(#

2
2/

22

a) = (v a) x,

this gives the relation between tangent plane and point of

contact in the form


Iv

v a

mv

X a'

v b

nv

X
m, n

b'

v c

Xc
terms of X and
:

in
from which the expressions for I,
fi may be
deduced by means of the formulae already obtained. On substitution for x, y, z in the tangent plane, the tangential equation of
the surface is obtained in the form

-
+
=
vb vc
va -^-r+

0,

(v-^=P + m* + rf).

* Niven, Quarterly Journal (1868), ix, 22.

THE WAVE SURFACE

108

v,

[CH.

Let the second root of this equation, regarded as a quadratic in


be u, then w* is the central perpendicular on the parallel tangent

we have

plane and

b)(a c) P = (a u) (a v) v~\
(b -c)(b- a) rn? = (b- u) (b - v) tr
(c a) (c b) v? = (c u) (c v) ir
ir = p + m3 4- 2
w = 6cP + cam + aim
(a

2
.

THE FOUR PARAMETERS.

65.

The complete theory of the Wave surface depends on the


employment of four parameters \, p, u, v connected by two
independent relations. The fact that two apsidal surfaces remain
apsidal after reciprocation shows that from any formula we may
obtain another by replacing

xyzabcXfiuv
m

by

We

respectively.

a-1

-1

-1

ir1

-1

u~*

/*

\_1

have already proved that

abcv^fj,- 1 (X

v)(\

fj,)

= (a X) (b X) (c X),

whence we deduce
v (v

X) (v u) = (v a)

(v

b)(v c),

and from these

(0- a)
for all

-b){6-c) + abcv- /*- (0-v) (0-fi) = 0(0-X)(0-u)


values of 0.
By giviDg
special values, other, but not
1

(0

independent, results can be obtained, in particular

= /j,(iM- X) (fi - u),


a) (u 6) (w c) = abevr^fir (u v)(u
-1
bcir
(a v) (a p) = {a X) (a u).
(fj,

and

and

-a)(/j,-b){fj.-c)

(u

fj.),

//,

Further, the differentials of the four parameters are connected by

the two relations included in


abcv-"fi- 2 {v (0

- v) d/x + fi (0 - fi) dv] = (0-u)dX + (0- X) du.

Notice how X and u play symmetrical parts in these formulae,


and v. For the inner sheet

as also do

(j.

b>
and

(i

>c,

a> >b;

for the outer sheet

a>X>b, b>^ > c, a>v> ac/(a + c b).

CURVATURE

64-66]

109

CURVATURE.

66.

Let L, M,
be the direction cosines of the normal at (x, y,
then a principal radius and direction of curvature are given by

_ dx
P

Now

dy

dz

~dL~ M~dF

= Xxdx = Xaxdx
%xdL

XaxdL

z),

'

from the formulae already obtained

= xdx + ydy + zdz,


dfi = axdx + bydy + czdz,
v* = Lx + My + Nz,
= Ldx + Mdy + Fdz,

%dX

^abcfi~

since the direction of curvature

in the tangent plane,

is

whence by

differentiation

\v~ldv

= xdL + ydM + zdN.


XaxdL

It remains only to express

(a

b)(a- c) L =
2

2dL
du
-^- =
L
ua

whence

Again

(a

in terms of the four para-

Now

meters.

(a

u) (a v),
dv

a'

easily proved that

it is

b)(a

Hence

c) Lx = vl(a X) (a u) = 6c/*-1 ir* (a /*)


2laxdL = 22a (Lx) dLjL
X a .u a du
= 2av*
b a c u a
be fi a.v a
dv
+ 2ai>*
fjLv'ab.ac'v a
= v*du.
_ ifidX _ abcfir'dfi

(a

v).

v*du

dv

giving the differential equation of the lines of curvature in the

form

= abed/judv.

v/i?dXdu

When
'

dX*

expressed in terms of

[X a
\v a

Xb
v

or

X and

Xc

X\

vl

(v
*

The

curves.

first

expression for p

is

v only this takes the form


,.

dXdv

-a)(v b)

(v

c)

the analogue of the formula rdrjdp for plane

THE WAVE SURFACE

110

and

since the first equation

that

\ may be

symmetrical in

is

\ and u, it follows
The equation

replaced by u in the last equation.

giving the radii of curvature

obtained by substituting

is

= v*p.

dX/dv

The

[CH.

have geometrical interpretations,


intercept on the normal by the plane x = 0,
coefficients

for if

is

the

= x/lv* = * (X - a)/(v - a).


- (N, + iV + JSfs - \ir*) p + N^N^-l = 0.
f(X) = (X-a)(X-b)(X-c),
(X)//W = (X- )- + (X - 6)- + (X - c)-,
x

Hence

If

the differential equation of lines of curvature can be written in


the form

d\2 -

{(X

1;)

/' ()//() + 3

This has been integrated when


the general case,

is

- X/v} dXdv + dv*f (X)//(v) = 0.

f is

quadratic but not when, as in

cubic*.

c-a

'

showing that the intersections of the normal with the planes of reference
and perpendicular central plane form a range of constant cross ratio.

The

line

element

is

given by

d\ 2

abcdfi 2

Xv

{ufi)'

ASYMPTOTIC LINES.

67.

The

3
fi

differential equation of asymptotic lines is

dxdl
^,

or

dX

2,lx

\\
further

+ dydm + dzdn = 0,

adu

^
u(/M

du

a)J \u

=^
U = ^"g^""^
(a o)(a c)

coefficients

of

aj =0;

fr-g(-)
(a b)(a c)

fiv

The

dv

aH

dXdu and dpdv

are 0,

and the equation

reduces to
/j,(fi

This equation

is

u) dXdv + v (v X) d/jidu = 0.

unaltered

if X, p, u, v

v~x u~\
,

fir

1
,

are replaced

X~

by

l
,

respectively, illustrating the fact that asymptotic lines are re-

ciprocated into asymptotic lines.


*

Darboux, Comptes Rendus, xcn, 446; xcvn, 1133.

'

ASYMPTOTIC LINES

66-67]

When

expressed in terms of u and

111

only, this equation takes

the form
d\?

dtf_

(u

To

a)(u b) (u c)~(X a) (X b) (X c)

integrate

(^2/3))

we

use the theorem that

if

three points (x^), (x^),

of the curve

y*=f () = (x-a)(x- b) (x - c)
are collinear, then

+ dxi/y* + dx /y = 0.

d#i/2/i

Hence the equation

du/\/f{uj + cZX/V/(X)

expresses that the points (u, V/(w)) and (X, V/(\)) are collinear

with a fixed point (x^) on the curve.

If the equation of their

line is

= mx + n,

then
(x

(x x ) (x u)(x \);
= (x^ a) (a u) (a X).

a)(x b) (x-c) (mx + nf =


(ma + nf

and

The

required integral

is

the constant of integration

obtained by eliminating
instead of

it

we

m and n;

xx

is

introduce

= (6 c) (#! a),
P = (c-a)(x -b),
y = (a-b)(w -c),
a + /3 + 7 = 0,
a

so that

and then the integral is*


,

/(o- tt)(o-X)

This

is

oi

which, again,
69).

(c-it)(c-X )_

the same as
'Jct.lx

(p.

/(b-u)(b-\)

+ VySmy 4- VyriF = 0,

the point-plane equation of a tetrahedral complex


inference is that at each point of an asymptotic

is

The

curve the complex cone of a certain tetrahedral complex touches


the surface. By varying the constant of the complex all the

asymptotic lines are obtained.

In terms of
(a

/a

and

v the equation is

- fi) (b - /*) (c - /)

(a

v) (b

* Darboux, Thgorie des Surfaces,

v)
1,

(e-v)'

143.

THE WAVE SURFACE

112

[CH.

As in the general Kummer surface, the asymptotic curves have


an envelope consisting of the singular conies, and a cusp locus
which reduces to isolated nodes. Hence the elliptic and hyperbolic regions of the Wave surface are separated by the circles of
contact of the four tropes and the four nodes.
It is easy to see on
which side of these boundaries the curves lie and that the hyperbolic regions consist of four detached portions, each bounded by
one circle and one node (fig. 13, p. 104). A complete asymptotic
curve consists of four branches, one in each portion, and each
branch touches the circle at one point and has a cusp at the node.
There are two elliptic regions, namely the entire inner sheet,
and the outer sheet bounded by the four circles.
painvin's complex.

68.

The quadratic complex


singular surface

of which

the wave surface

the tangent planes to a quadric are at right angles


generation of the harmonic complex, p. 97, 58).

the

is

Painvin's complex* of lines through

is

which

(cf.

the

Let the quadric be

then the complex, with current Hue coordinates


(/3

m,

I,

n,

I',

m',

n', is

+ 7) I + (y + a) m + (a + /3) n = I' + m' + n'\


2

of rays through any point is the director


cone of the enveloping cone of tangents to the quadric the latter
referred to its own axes has equation

The complex cone

x2/X
where
point.

X,

fi,

+ y'/fi + z \v = 0,
2

parameters of the confocals through the

v are the

Hence the complex cone


(ji

v)

x2

is

+ (v + X) f + (X + n) z =
2

For a singular point


two planes, which can happen only if
referred to its axes.

(ji

Now

if (x, y, z) is

must break into

this

+ v)(v + X) (\ + fi) = 0.

the singular point, X,

/a,

v are the roots of the

equation in \,

x2

w2

z2

=
a V+-a^+
X p X y TX
whence

!>

+ fi + v = a + /3 + y a? y2 z

* Painvin, Nouvelles Annates (1872),

11,

49 ; Sturm, Liniengeometrie, hi, 35.

67-68]

painvin's complex

113

The

condition for a singular point shows that X +


p
and hence the equation of the singular surface is

root

a?

tf

+ tf + z*-

0- y

a?

to make this agree with


we must put

In order
surface

Thus we

y,

find that the

ic

+ y* + 2*-a-/3

is

=1

'

the former notation for the wave

= y + a,

wave

z*

+ y* + sP-y-a

surface

= a + /3.

may be

generated by lines

of curvature on confocal quadrics, being the intersections of confocals

whose parameters are equal and opposite. Taking \ + v =


the parametric expression of the wave surface in the form

we have

(a-/9)(a- 7 )^ = (a-X)(a- A *),

= (p-\*)(0-p),
-)*.=
a) ( 7
(7
(t* -V) y -/*).

(/3-v)(/3-a)tf

It

easy to see that the curves

is

fi

= const., X = const., are the same


X = const., = const.

as those which in the former notation were

The

singular line at a singular point

is

/j,

the line of intersection

of the two singular planes


(fi

-X) a? + (X + /t) 2* =
Hence it
X = const.

referred to the three normals to confocals.


to the confocal

/j,

and tangent to the

line

These two planes touch a sphere whose centre


is independent of /x*.

is

the normal

at the origin

is

and whose

radius

Having considered the rays through any point we next consider


nr.
Let any ray cut the section of the
director sphere by ir in P and Q. Then the planes through P and
Q perpendicular to PQ must touch the ellipsoid. It is easy to
the rays lying in any plane

deduce from this that

PQ

touches a conic confocal with the pro-

jection of the ellipsoid on the plane

Hence

as a plane

are confocal conies.

wave

surface

moves

it.

parallel to itself the

It is a singular plane

and then the rays in

it

when

complex curves
touches the

it

pass through the

foci.

When

real ray, the

it contains one
which is singular. When the plane touches the inner
sheet the major axis is the singular ray and cuts the outer sheet

the plane touches the outer sheet

minor

axis,

at the

foci.
* Boklen, Zeitschriftfur

H.

Math, xxvn,

160.

THE WAVE SURFACE

114

[CH.

Prove that the plane joining PQ to the pole of n touches a confocal whose
parameter is minus that of the confocal touched by n.

The quadratic complex being


a 2 2 +6 2 TO 2 + c2 m 2 =Z' 2 + m' 2 +?i' 2

we

by

see that the fundamental complexes are given

cfix\=al+il'\

b*x 3 =bm + im'}

c^x6 =cn+m'}

ioFx^al il')

b^xi = bm im'\

c"xB =cn in'j

The

and are pairs of conjugate imaginaries.


also conjugate in pairs if

The

kt in the complex are

coefficients

we take

coordinates of any tangent line of the

Wave surface are given

(p.

58)

by

2
P x*={kt - X) (A, - h ) (k, - ,^lf (ka )

where

^ and

of contact

ji

are the parameters of the asymptotic lines through the point

this gives

p {al+il')

= {ia - X) V(& 2 - c2

(ia

(ia -

n 2 ),

etc.

From

the relations connecting line coordinates

point coordinates,

it is

2 (a 2 - v 2 ) (6 2 - c2 ) (a 2 + tff (a2 + ,*,)*+ (i 2 -

and

(I,

c 2 ) (c 2

2(6 2 c 2 -,)(6 2 - C 2 )(a 2 + Fl 2 )^a2 +M2 2 )*+ Mlft2 (

where

n, V, m', n')

with

them as

- a2)
)(

(a 2 - 6 2 )
)(

=0)

=xi +y2 + z\

v =a?x

giving the connection between


It is easy to verify

rn,

easy to deduce

X, p,

fi

+b2y 2 + c*z2
p, 2

integrals of the equation of asymptotic lines.

CHAPTER

XI.

REALITY AND TOPOLOGY.


REALITY OP THE COMPLEXES.

69.

In this chapter we examine and distinguish the different kinds


surface which have sixteen distinct nodes and are
given by real equations, the surface itself not being necessarily
real*.
We are not here concerned with degenerate cases iu which
of

Rummer's

the nodes coincide -f-.

The equation

completely determined by six apolar comSince the equation is to be real,,


imaginaries must occur in pairs and the primary classification
is

plexes and one arbitrary node.


all

We

according to the number of complexes which are real.


arrange them in three pairs 12, 34, 56 and consider in turn the
cases when three, two, one, or none of these pairs are real.
In
all cases three congruences are real and their directrices form a
is

real

fundamental tetrahedron 12 34
.

reference.

Then by taking

coordinates

it

56 which will be taken for

suitable real multiples of the point

can be arranged that in the four cases respectively

X 1 =p u

-p

i3

II.

III.

IV.
* Eohn, Math. Ann. xvm, 99, may be consulted for a more detailed account,
t See an exhaustive paper by Weiler, Math. Ann. vn, 145.

82

REALITY AND TOPOLOGY

116
so that in all cases

%x* = ^PuP-n =

0.

When

the point coordinates are not restricted to be

be reduced to the

first

by the substitutions

1.

[CH. XI

the multiples of

real, all

the cases can

REALITY OF THE COMPLEXES

69]

be conjugate imagiDaries.
have

is

ie

then in case I we must

e ;

= pr^e^9

r,e^>.

where p

=r

Put ks

117

= 1,

(s

'

2, 3, 4, 5, G)

a factor of proportionality, whence

n = ri = ri = r4 = r =
2

2
5

= p,

r<?

showing that p

is real and positive, and that the points representing kg in the plane of the complex variable re ie lie on a circle.
In case II a\ and x2 are conjugate and we must have

/or e~"
r2 e~* e = pr^e^ 9
rH e-^> = prr <r*>
r 1 e~i

ifl

>

',

(s

3, 4, 5,

6)

r^2 = r = r4 = r = r = p

whence

0i =

and
showing that the points
on which ks kt k5 ke lie.

hje^ are inverse with respect to the circle

Similarly in case III

n =
2

=r

" 2

03

= 6*,

r4

= r r = p,
5

Ss=06,

showing that ks k4 and k5 k6 are two pairs of inverse points with


k^2 lie. In these three cases p is
necessarily positive, but in case IV p may be either positive or

respect to a circle on which

negative;

if

is

positive

nn = r r = r r = p,
4

and the

six points

2,

=6

#5

ks form three pairs of inverse points

if

is

negative

0!

nr = rs r = r r = -p,
= 4 = 0a =

is

obtained from k^ by an inversion followed by

and the point k2s_1

ir

a reflexion in the origin.

When p is positive it is convenient to effect a linear substitution


on the complex variable so as to transform the circle into the real
axis; then in cases I, II, III and the first subcase of IV the
coefficients ke may be taken to be either real or pairs of conjugate
imaginaries according to the reality of the corresponding com-

plexes.
possible.

In the second subcase of IV no further simplification

is

REALITY AND TOPOLOGY

118
70.

The

SIX KEAL

[CH. XI

FUNDAMENTAL COMPLEXES.

different kinds of surface included in case I are distin-

These
guished by the order of magnitude of the six coefficients ks
quantities are the parameters of the six nodes on any singular
.

conic,

and their order of magnitude determines the

cyclical order

in which the nodes follow each other consecutively.

The order of klt k3 k among themselves is immaterial, since a


permutation of odd suffixes is equivalent to the choice of a new
real fundamental tetrahedron of reference; similarly for k2 kt ke
so that the only permutations which are essentially distinct are
123456, 123465, 126453.
,

r>

I a.

Sixteen real nodes.

We

begin by investigating the shape of the surface when


k\

The
given

>k >k > k > k > k


2

pencil of tangents at

(p.

any point

(fa, fa) of

the surface

is

58) by

sf ( ks) = c (k - fa) (k - fa) (k - X)


s

where

/ O) = O - ^i)
and

c is

(/"

- 2) (M - h) (/* - h) (/* - h) (/" - h)

a factor of proportionality.

For a real line xs2 is alternately positive and negative and so


also is /' (ks ) for s = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 so that all the left sides have the
same sign. Hence fa and fa are either conjugate imaginaries, or
are real and lie between the same two consecutive ks
In the
former case the inflexional tangents X = y^ and X = /i2 are imaginary
and the point is elliptic in the latter case the inflexional tangents
are real and the point is hyperbolic.
The boundaries of elliptic
and hyperbolic regions are given by /^ = /u 2 that is by the singular
Now if (as) is a real line, so also all the lines
conies and nodes.
obtained from it by changing the signs of the coordinates are real;
since it is possible to have f^ = 2 it follows that there are sixteen
real nodes and sixteen real tropes.
The region described by a point whose parameters fa and fa
take all real values between ks and &g+1 is a connected portion of
the surface bounded by two arcs of conies terminated by nodes
whose parameters on either of them are k3 and kg+1 (for the same
collineation which interchanges two nodes interchanges also the
two conies through them both). Each pair of consecutive coefficients kg, ke+1 gives eight hyperbolic segments and hence there are
.

/j,

SIX REAL

70]
forty-eight in

all

FUNDAMENTAL COMPLEXES

of the thirty-two points having the

119

same para-

meters

fa, fa, four lie on each of eight segments.


Consider the course of any one asymptotic curve fa = const,
over one segment. It has a cusp at each node and touches each

by

conic once at points given

fa

= fa.

The extreme values

of fa

give the points where the curve crosses the two principal asym-

= & and //, = ks+1 at each of these points the


curve has an apparent inflexion because the tangent to it has fourpoint contact with the surface.
The figure shows two consecutive
ptotic curves

//.

nodes on two conies with the three points whose parameters are
ks fa ks+l indicated on each of them. As /a varies from ks to Jcs+1
the asymptotic curve
sweeps out the whole segment twice and
the two branches of the curve coincide in the case of the principal
,

/x.

The

asymptotic curves.

meet in a point which is on one of


= 0, xs+1 = 0, and is a point
tangents have four-point contact.
latter

the directrices of the congruence xs

where both

The

inflexional

elliptic region of

fa
fi

and

ft

being

real,

/j,

fj.

+ ifi'

'

is

fa =

given by
fi

ifi,

and the complete boundary by


//

For any value of

the surface

= 0,

00

<

/i

<+

00

the line given by

either lies in a trope or passes through a node, and as /j. passes


through any one of the six values ka one coordinate changes sign
,

and accordingly the


as

fi

line passes

from one state to the other.

Hence

takes all possible values the variable point of contact describes

three arcs of conies joining three nodes and forming the boundary
of an elliptic triangle at the same time the points of contact of
the lines obtained from (x) by changing the signs of the coordinates
;

describe the boundaries of other elliptic triangles so that the


number of them is thirty-two. The two nodes on each side of any

BEALITY AND TOPOLOGY

120
one

[CH. XI

interchanged either by one of the colby one of 23, 45, 61. Hence the nodes

elliptic triangle are

lineations 12, 34, 56 or else

of the Gopel tetrad 0, 12, 34, 56 are the corners of a tetrahedral


(p. 22) having four elliptic triangles for faces

portion of the surface

segments for edges. Each pair of opposite


is cut by an edge of the fundamental tetrahedron 12.34.56 of which one corner is surrounded by the
tetrahedral piece.
The remaining three tetrads of the group-set
containing 0, 12, 34, 56 give other tetrahedral pieces surrounding
the other three corners of the tetrahedron 12 34 56, and divided
Again, four
into elliptic and hyperbolic regions in a similar way.
other tetrahedral pieces have for corners the Gopel tetrads of the

and

six hyperbolic

hyperbolic segments

group-set containing

Thus the whole

0, 23, 45, 61.

surface consists of eight pieces containing forty-

eight hyperbolic segments and thirty-two elliptic triangles


piece

is

its

nodes to each of four other pieces.

shown in the frontispiece where thirteen nodes are


and portions of the conies joining them.

clearly
visible

attached at

Two

b.

each
is

actually

hyperbolic sheets.

In this subcase the order of the ks


fC\

As

This

A/2

fC$

n/4

>

before, thirty-two tangents are

given by the inequalities

is

iCq

rCt),

given by

//' (h) = c(ks - fa) (ks - fa) (ks


but now the signs of the
lines are real, so that fa

left sides

- X)2

+,+,+,+,,, when

are

the

and fa cannot be imaginary, and the

surface has everywhere negative curvature.

The

real values fa, fa

must

satisfy the inequalities implied

by

the cyclical order


fa,

so that

it is

k u k2 ks kt
,

impossible to have fa

fa,

ke k6 fa
,

= fa, and all

the n odes

and tropes

are imaginary.

There are only four real principal asymptotic curves, namely


those whose parameters are ku kit ke kB
As fa varies from kt to ke
the corresponding asymptotic curve sweeps out a connected region
,

of the surface, which, since the envelope of asymptotic curves is


imaginary, must be a sheet without a boundary like a hyperboloid

Along any one curve fa varies from k5 through ink 1} giving the intersections with another family of asymptotic curves covering the same sheet.
By continuously varying
of one sheet.

finity to

k
70-71]

k a

REAL FUNDAMENTAL COMPLEXES

SIX

121

and fi2 it is possible to change the signs of all the coordinates


of a tangent line except x2 and xs
Hence of thirty-two associated
points sixteen lie on one sheet, and we conclude that the whole
fa

surface consists of two infinite hyperbolic sheets.


real points

These are cut in

by the

directrices (14), (16), (54), (56) and the corresponding collineations transform each sheet into itself. The re-

maining

five real pairs of directrices do not meet the surface in real


and of the corresponding collineations, (12), (52), (43), (63)
change the sign of x2 x% and hence interchange the sheets, while

points

(23) transforms each sheet into

Any

itself.

ray of the congruence

(23) cuts each sheet in two points forming a harmonic range with
the points where the ray meets the directrices.
Hence these direc-

are separated by both sheets, just as a line

trices

separated from

is

polar with respect to a hyperboloid of one sheet which does not

its

cut

it.

Imaginary

c.

surface.

In the third subcase

>

fCi

fC<%

^ iCq ^ A?4 ^ A?g > rg

and the signs of x*f (kt ) are +, +, -, +, +, -, for s = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6


respectively showing that ^ and 2 must be separated by & 6 and h6
and by no other of the ks which is impossible. Hence the surface
has no real tangents and is therefore altogether imaginary.
/u,

EQUATIONS OF SURFACES la, 16, I

71.

C.

of Kummer's surface with sixteen nodes


a fundamental tetrahedron is (pp. 81, 82)

The equation
etc. referred to

a?

+ yi + z + t + A (xH + y
l

(a,l3,y,B)

+ B (y t + z*x )
+ C {zU* + x y-) +Dxyzt =
+ 7 ) = Xk -h)(k -k )
2

z2)

Where

~A =
B

(a

+8 )

2 2

(ff

2 8

)
2

S2

/,

\k -k )(k -k
i

- (7 +
-7
2

3 2

'

5)

(h - k) (k - k)

*(h-K){K-hy

D = a/3yS (2 - A) (2 - B) (2 - G) (S + a + + )+ h- h - + kjcj (k + - - k ) + k k,(ki+ .- 2

(k s

e)

(&i

- k ) (k - k ) (k - k )
2

<y

/3

0,

and
,

^-/3V
/3

_ h

-(/3

4)

REALITY AND TOPOLOGY

122

[CH. XI

the nodes are real, and we have the


any of the ratios a /3 7 8 are imaginary, all the
nodes are imaginary and the equation represents I b or I c. To
obtain 1 6 we have simply to interchange k5 and ke in the coefficients, which has the effect of changing the signs of A, B and
If

JD

7, 8 are real, all

a, /3,

equation I

a.

If

accordingly the equation I b

x*

is

+ y + z4 + ti -A (xH* + fz*) - B (yH + z x )


+ C (* P + a?f) - Dxyzt = 0.
2

This can also be obtained from la either by replacing a, /3, 7, 8


by ia, iff, 7, 8 respectively or by replacing x, y, z, t by ix, iy, z, t,
and it is then obvious that all the nodes are imaginary. The
equation I c can be obtained from I a by interchanging k3 and ke
and from I b by the real linear transformation which interchanges
x3 and x5
But it is interesting to notice that the preceding

equation after the coefficients are expressed in terms of

a, ft, 7,

C.

For to
every real point (x, y, z, t) on 16 correspond a pair of imaginary
points (ix, iy, z, t) and ( ix, iy, z, t) on la lying on a real ray of
the congruence (56). Now certain rays of this congruence cut I a
in four real points (for example lines joining two nodes), and the
passage to imaginary intersections can take place only through
positions in which two coincide, that is, intersections of the surface
with the directrices (56). Now the line x = 0, y = cuts I a where

is

typical of both I b

and

I c according to the sign of 2

zi

and

all

C>

2,

+ ti +GzH^ = Q

the intersections are real

if

G<

2 and

all

so that these inequalities are necessary

distinguish I b and I

are imaginary

and

sufficient

if

to

c.

FOUR REAL AND TWO IMAGINARY COMPLEXES.

72.

In case II &x and kt are conjugate imaginaries and the shape


depends upon the cyclical order of k3 kit k5 ke which may be of
two essentially different kinds, according as the odd suffixes are
separated by the even suffixes or not.
,

II

a.

Eight real nodes*.

Consider

first

the case

when

k3
*

> kt > ks > ke

figure of this surface is given in the Catalog mathematischer Modelle, Halle

(1903), p. 92, of

sixteen, eight,

Martin Schilling, from whom models of


real nodes may be obtained.

and four

Kummer

surfaces with

FOUR REAL AND TWO IMAGINARY COMPLEXES

71-72]

Any

tangent line

is

given by

*s2 /' (h) = c(k,~

and

fa) (ks

- fit) (k - X)

a real line xff'fa) and x 2 /'(k 2 ) are conjugate imaginaries

for

while, for s

be

123

3, 4, 5, 6,

x82f'(ks )

positive.

is

Hence fa and fa may


must lie between
The
cyclical order.

real or conjugate imaginaries; if real, they

the same pair of consecutive k8 taken in

hyperbolic segments are of the same nature as in la, but their

number

is

only thirty-two and there are only four real principal

asymptotic curves fi = ks k it ks or k6
Since for a real line xx and x2 are conjugate imaginaries, only
sixteen out of a group of thirty-two lines are real. Hence there
.

are only eight real nodes and eight real tropes, namely

0, 12, 34,

56, 35, 36, 45, 46.

At
/t
fj,

ifi,

points of an elliptic segment, fa and fa have the form


and the complete boundary is described when fi = and

takes

all real

As

values.

of the pencil of tangents

and remains

returns to

varies the point of contact


\,

at a node, alternately

cycle of real values xx and


&3> %i, #5, #6

fi

(fi, fi,

have

all

cc2

after

fi

has

made the complete

recover their original values but

changed their

its original

(fi, /i)

X) describes an arc of a conic

signs.

position only after

The
/jl

pencil of tangents

has taken every real

value twice and then the point of contact has described four arcs
and passed through four nodes. Hence the elliptic segments have
four sides and four corners each.
The collineations which interchange the nodes at the ends of a
Hence the nodes 0, 34,
side are either 34 and 56 or 45 and 63.
12, 56 taken in this order are the corners of two elliptic segments,
being joined consecutively by hyperbolic segments so also are the
;

nodes of the one other real tetrad of the same group-set, namely
Similarly the tetrads of nodes 0, 45, 12, 63 and
35, 54, 46, 36.
35, 43, 46, 65 are connected

by

elliptic

segments.

Each tetrad

forms a four-cornered piece of the surface having two elliptic faces


and four hyperbolic edges. Each of one group-set is attached at

two nodes

to each of the other group-set.


is taken on
Consider the degenerate case when one node
the quadric 123.456. Of the harmonic conjugates of the real

generators through
trices

with respect to the six pairs of direcnamed after them, only (12) of

lying on the surface and

one system and (45) (56) (64) of the other system are real, since
the correlations associated with a^ = 0, and x2 = 0, separately, transform a real line into an imaginary one. Hence the nodes in this

REALITY AND TOPOLOGY

124

[CH. XI

lie at the intersections of two and four generators,


a diagram of their relative situation in the general

degenerate case

and

this gives

case.

IIP

Hi

mm

Fig. 16.

As

in case I each piece

cut in pairs of points by three

is

directrices; there is this difference to I

a that each

elliptic

segment

contains a point where the two inflexional tangents have fourpoint contact, but are imaginary.

These points

lie

by

fours

on

the directrices (12).


II

b.

One hyperbolic

sheet.

Consider next the case when

(kg

/j,,)

(ks

fi

respectively.

2)

(ji^,

/j, 2 ,

are +, +,

The

it is

whence

""4

and

fa
fi 2

> A;s

real

only

if

the signs of

or the opposite, for s

cyclical order of

impossible for

imaginaries,

jt6

are

A.)

Ml 3

and

>

>A;4

/^

The tangents

= 3,

4, 5,

magnitude must therefore be

""6

to

""

fat

be equal, or to be conjugate

there are no real nodes.

The

surface

is real,

and everywhere hyperbolic there are four real principal asymptotic curves, and the discussion is the same as in I b except that
there is only one real sheet
for of thirty- two associated points
only sixteen are real, corresponding to the different signs of ws xit
#, #6 and these can be reached by continuous variation of the
elliptic coordinates fi lt n 2 and accordingly lie on the same sheet.
;

Equations of II a and II

b.

The case when two fundamental complexes are imaginary can


be obtained from the case when all are real by the substitution of
If at the same time we substitute
(x, #y, ih, t) for (cc, y, z, t).
(a, #/3, $y, S) for (a, /3, -y, B) in the equation I a we obtain the.
equation II a representing a surface having nodes at the points
(, /3, 7. S),

(*ft . s

>

h)>

(*7> S,

a *),
>

(S, 7, /3, a),

FOUR REAL AND TWO IMAGINARY COMPLEXES

72-73]

125

and twelve others obtained from these by changing the signs of


pairs of coordinates.

If

8 are real, eight of these nodes

a, /3, 7,

are real.

The

substitution of

(ioc,

iy, z, t) for (%, y, z, t) in

II a has the

interchanging k 5 and ke and hence produces II

effect of

evident that

all

By

the nodes are imaginary.

It is

b.

reasoning similar to

it may be deduced that II & is a


from the fact that the directrix x = 0, y = cuts II a in

that employed in the case of I b


real surface

two real

points.

TWO REAL AND FOUR IMAGINARY COMPLEXES.

73.

III.
is

In

this case

two pairs of complexes are imaginary.

There

here no subdivision as the question of order of magnitude does

not

arise.

The

condition for a real tangent

is

that (k x

y^) (k fa)
x

and (k2 /Aj) (k2 /i2 ) must be of the same sign hence ^ and fa
may be imaginary, but if real do not occur alternately with kx and k2
and so may be equal. Of thirty-two associated points only eight
;

are real since the signs of conjugate imaginary line coordinates

must be changed simultaneously.

There are therefore four real

nodes and four real tropes. Two singular conies cut in two nodes
whose parameters are kx and k2 terminating two hyperbolic seg,

ments, and the other two conies cut in the other two nodes, so that
there are four hyperbolic segments altogether.

There are two

elliptic

segments, each bounded by four arcs of conies and four

nodes.

The complete

surface consists of two pieces each con-

taining two hyperbolic and one elliptic segment, and attached to

each other at the four nodes.


Consider the degenerate case when one real node is taken on
the quadric 134 256. The imaginary directrices (34) belong to
.

one reguhis and (56) to the other.


the figure

The

surface

is

represented in

Fig. 17.

showing that there are two pieces attached


nodes.

to

each other at four

REALITY AND TOPOLOGY

126

The equation
(ix,

$y, ih,

four real nodes

a,

j8,

of III

for (x, y, z,

t)

7, 8),

are

Four

obtained from

and

(ia, $fi, ily,

(a, /S, 7, 8),

la by

substituting

S) for (, $, 7,

/S, 7,

(a,

8),

XI

8).

a, /3,

The
7, 8),

forming a Gopel tetrad.


SIX IMAGINARY COMPLEXES.

74.

IVa.

is

t)

[CH.

nodes, two real sheets.

when the three pairs of complexes


There are two subcases. In IVa lcjc^, ks kiy ks ke
are pairs of conjugate imaginaries.
For a real tangent the line
coordinates must be pairs of conjugate imaginaries, and this is
Lastly we consider the case

are imaginary.

the case

when the

elliptic coordinates

If one

imaginary.

()

of

thirty-two

fj^^ are real or conjugate


associated lines is real

namely those obtained from (%lt x2 x3 x4 x5 ass ) and


(ixlt - ix2 ,ix s ixit ia;s ixe ) by changing the signs of pairs of conjugate imaginary coordinates. Since it is possible to have ^ = 2
there are four real nodes and four real tropes, and these are not
incident since the parameters of the six nodes on a conic are all
imaginary. A hyperbolic segment is funnel-shaped, bounded by
one whole conic and one node. Each asymptotic curve consists of
four branches one in each hyperbolic segment having a cusp at the
node and touching the conic boundary. There are no principal
asymptotic curves. There are two elliptic segments, one bounded
by the four conies and the other by the four nodes. The wave
surface is an example of this case.
then eight

are,

/j,

IV b.

Four

nodes, no real sheets.

In the second subcase IV b the coefficients ks have the form


r{~ x em\ r3 eie*, r3~ eiis rs eie , rf^e*,

r^

and if one of thirty- two associated lines is real, then eight are.
There are no real pencils of tangents to the surface but the line
-1
(X, X, n, /a) is real provided X and /a
are conjugate imaginaries,
and this line either passes through a node or lies in a trope.
Hence there are four real nodes and four real tropes, but the
surface

As

is

imaginary.

in preceding cases the topology

can be inferred from the

degenerate case of a repeated quadric.

The equations of IVa and IV b can be obtained by means of


The four real

the imaginary linear transformation already given.

nodes form a Gopel tetrad.

CHAPTER

XII.

GEOMETRY OP FOUR DIMENSIONS.


LINEAR MANIFOLDS.

75.

By

is to be understood a method
numbers and equations, in which the

'geometry of four dimensions

of reasoning about sets of

'

of elementary algebra are clothed in a language


analogous to that of ordinary geometry. Although we cannot

principles

bring our intuition to bear directly upon four-dimensional con-

we can do so indirectly by creating an artificial intuition


based on analogy. Many theorems in algebra are readily extended
from three variables to four and the new theorems are expressed

figurations

by an extension of ordinary geometrical nomenclature. Thus


when we have learned the laws of extension we can reason

new nomenclature without being

in the

able to attach an actual

geometrical significance to the terms used.

A
is

set of five coordinates

called a point (x).

It

xlt 2 x3 x4 xs> used homogeneously,


be determined by four independent
,

may

linear equations.

Two
(\x

4-

points (x) and (y) determine a single infinitude of points


a line. Three points (x) (y) and (z) determine

fiy) called

points (\x + fiy + vz) of a plane provided (z) is not


determined by (x) and (y), that is, if the three points are not
Similarly four points determine the oo 3 points of a
collinear.
space provided they are linearly independent, that is, if they
do not lie in a plane. On eliminating X, /x, v, p from the five

the

oo

equations
tv

we obtain a

= \x + fxy + vz + pt
s

(s

= 1,

single relation linear in the coordinates

a space consists of
linear equation.

all

The

2, 3, 4,

ws

5)

so that

the points whose coordinates satisfy one


line, plane,

and space are

linear manifolds

of one, two, and three dimensions respectively.

The

following table gives the

number

of equations and points

required for the determination of the various elements

128

GEOMETRY OF FOUR DIMENSIONS


element

[CH. XII

75-76]

LINEAR MANIFOLDS

129

The meaning of projection, like that of intersection, may be


extended to space of higher dimensions. If A, B, G are manifolds,
to project B from A on to C means to construct the smallest
manifold containing both A and B and then find its intersection
with G. Thus if A is a point and G a space the projection of B
has the same dimensions as B; so too if A is a line and C a
plane*.

CONSTRUCTION OF THE 15 6 CONFIGURATION FROM


SIX POINTS IN FOUR DIMENSIONS f.

76.

We

now proceed

to

show that the general 16 6 configuration

in ordinary space can be obtained by the operations of section

and projection from the figure of

points in space of four

six

dimensions.

Let the points be called 1, 2,


which may be called 12,

fifteen lines

3,
...,

They determine
5, 6.
and twenty planes 123 ...,

4,

and fifteen spaces 1234.... The line 12 cuts the opposite space
These fifteen diagonal points lie by
3456 in a diagonal point P12
.

threes on fifteen lines, for

12

Pu P

56

lie

in each of the spaces

3456, 1256, 1234, and any three spaces have a line in common.
transversal lines and may be denoted by
Thus the line (12.34.56) contains the points
Again the three lines (12.34.56), (12.35.46),
-P 12 Pa, Pm(12 45 36) meet in the point P12 and are contained in the same

These

are

(12.34.56),

called
etc.

space 3456.

Corresponding to a partition of the six points into two sets


e.g. 123.456, we get nine diagonal points

of three,

Pys

* 36

-*26

"l5

Pss

Pie

14

34

24

which are seen to lie upon six transversal lines corresponding


Hence the space
to the rows and columns of the scheme.
determined by any four of these points which are linearly independent contains the remaining points and is called a cardinal
It follows that the six
space and denoted by (123 456).
transversals are three generators of one system and three
generators of the other system of a quadric surface lying in
.

* Veroueae-Schepp, Grundziige der Geometrie von mehreren Dimensionen.


t Eiohmond, Quarterly Journal, xxxi, 125 xxxiv, 117.
;

H.

GEOMETRY OF FOUR DIMENSIONS

130
the

cardinal

[CH. XII

There are ten cardinal spaces and the


lie by sixes on ten quadrics contained

space.

transversal lines

fifteen

in them.

Consider now the three-dimensional figure obtained by cutting


cardinal space is
the transversal lines by an arbitrary space.

cut in a plane and the six transversal lines in it in six points


We have therefore a 15 6 configuration of fifteen
lying on a conic.
points lying by sixes on ten conies.

This

the configuration

is

of nodes and tropes of a general fifteen-nodal quartic surface, and

we

see presently that

shall

surface

this

the section by an

is

arbitrary space of a certain quartic variety or curved threefold

when

Further,

space of four dimensions.

in

the section

is

by

a tangent space, one more node appears and we have the general

Kummer

surface.

ANALYTICAL METHODS.

77.

In space of four dimensions a point

represented by five

is

homogeneous coordinates, but it is convenient to use


xa xt xs x6 connected by the relation
,

six,

xlt

as2 ,

#!

The equation

which

is

xs + UiXt + u s x5

+u

xe =

when the same quantity


values we assume

added to the

is

fix their
"i

The

+ xt + x5 + xe = 0.

is

+ v^x + u

unaltered

To

ocs

of any space

UiXx

coefficients.

+# +

coordinates

+ + w + + + u = 0.
2

may be

so chosen that the equations of the

and x2 = xs = xt = x6 = x6
and similarly for the other points.
Hence the space 3456 has coordinates (1,-1, 0, 0, 0, 0) and
equation x-, = x2
from this it may easily be proved that the

point

are 1^

in space coordinates

in point coordinates,

diagonal point

]2

is

x1 = xi

m1 + m2 = 0;

the transversal line (12 34 56)


.

,-1-^ =

m3 + m4 = m5 -|-m6 = 0;

= Ui = m3 = Ui = - = w,

= xi

xs = x4 xB = x6
,

is

is

and the cardinal space (123 456)


!

x3 = xi = xi = xe

#!

+ # + x = Xi + x + x = 0.
2

ANALYTICAL METHODS

76-78]

An

131

arbitrary space

+a

a^xx

x2 + as xs

+a

xt + as xs + a6 tee =

cuts the transversal line (12 34. 56) where


.

(a x

a 2 ) xl

+ (a + a ) x + (a + a ) x =
3

so that the equation of the point of intersection can be expressed

in the equivalent forms

+ M _ M + 4 _ + U
+a a +a a +a

Ml
(h

'

In this way we have a symmetrical expression of the 15 6 configuration.

THE 16 6 CONFIGURATION.

78.

ways to select a group of five transversal


which contain all the diagonal points and of which no three
belong to the same cardinal space
in fact these groups correspond to the six pairs of cyclical arrangements of five figures,
or to the six pairs of mutually inscribed pentagons whose edges
It is possible in six

lines

are the intersections of five planes


to 23456 or 24635

Thus, corresponding

(p. 10).

we have the group

of transversal lines

12.36.45

13.42.56
14.53.62

15.64.23
16.25.34.

We

proceed to prove that when 2<z ss

intersection of these lines with the space

The

plane containing the

first

= the
2as #s =

three points

five

points of

are coplanar.

determined by the

is

three tangential equations

U1 + U2
a1 + a

Now

1l

_U +U
~ +a
S

U 2 + Uj
'

a2 + a4

_U +m
s

ae

+ as

+a )
2

(a 2

+a)
4

(at

ui + u1
at + a
x

_ u +u
a + az

'

= 0, 2as = 0, we have
+ a ) + (a + a ) (a + a ) (a + a ) =
3

in consequence of 2a
(!

'

whence, by the preceding equations,


(!

+ U 2)

(w 2

leading to 2,u s3 =

Q,

( 4

+ Mi) + (s + Me)

(e

+ u)

+U)=
3

this result

the plane through the first


Hence when the single condition 2a/

two.

(b

shows that
three points passes through the other

and the symmetry of

is satisfied,

92

the

GEOMETRY OF FOUR DIMENSIONS

132

[CH. XII

configuration of fifteen diagonal points contains six sets of five

coplanar points

on

in addition to the ten sets of six points each

a conic.

One
"ZagXs

of the last six planes

= 0,

= 0, the

"2usXs

is

the intersection of the two spaces

uB being given by the preceding equations.

It is evident that those equations are still satisfied if the

replaced by us + Xas

showing that the

six

X being arbitrary.
new planes meet in

us are

SMs ga =

>

the point of which this

is

It follows that

the tangential or space equation, so that this point completes, with


the

Kummer

the

fifteen,

configuration of

sixteen

points

and

sixteen planes *.

GENERAL THEORY OF VARIETIES.

79.

here given to the threefold locus of x *


points which satisfy a single relation.
The simplest variety is

The name

when the

variety

is

relation is linear

and then the special name space

is

used, as an abbreviation for linear threefold space.

Let the equation of a variety in four non-homogeneous coordinates be

f(x,

y, z, t)

= 0,

then in the neighbourhood of any point


approximation is given by
(x

y,

z', t')

of

it,

first

- x) Bf/dx + (y- y') dfldy' +(z- z') dfjdz + (t- t') df/dt' = 0,
1

which, by analogy,
{as, y', z',

Change

the

and

the

tangent space at the point

coordinates
i

in a series of

variety

called

is

t').

considered,

(x',

is

so that the origin is the point


the tangent space; then, on expanding

homogeneous polynomials, the equation of the

is

= t+f {x,y,z,t)+f
3

+...

and it is seen at once that the section by the tangent space t=


is an ordinary surface in that space having a node at the origin.
If x', y, z' are any small quantities of the first order, {x y', z 0)
is, to this order, a near point on the variety and the tangent
,

space

is

xdfjdx'

+ ydfjdy' + zdfjdz +t = 0,

small quantities of the second order being omitted. This cuts the
space t =
in the polar plane of the point (x, y', z') with respect
* Similar analytical treatment can be applied to the theories of lines on a cubic
and Pascal's figure. See Richmond, Camb*

surface, bitangents of a plane quartic,

Phil. Trans, xv, 267.

Cremona, Math. Ann. xm, 301.

GENERAL THEORY OF VARIETIES

78-79]
to the cone

= 0.

Thus

133

planes which lie


and pass through the point of contact may
tangent planes and cut the variety in a curve having
2

(#, y, z, 0)

all

the oo

in a tangent space

be called

a double

A finite

point.

number

of tangent spaces, equal to the

class of the variety, pass through an arbitrarily given plane,

in

the case of

two of the

a tangent plane,

and

tangent spaces

coincide.

points in which any line x/x' = y/i/

The

variety are given

f(kx', ky', kz,

The degree

= z/z' = t/t'

cuts the

by the equation in k

of this equation

is

let')

= 0.

the order of the variety and

One

equal to the order of any space section.

root

is

zero,

is

and

a second is zero if t' = 0. Hence all the oo * lines in a tangent


space which pass through the point of contact may be called
tangent lines.
Of these, oo 1 have three-point contact and are the
generators of a quadric cone f2 = 0, t = 0, and of these six have
four-point contact, being the intersections of the two cones

= 0,

0)

z,

= 0,

/,(*, y,

z,

theorems can be reciprocated.

these

All

/,(*, y,

equation of a space

0)

= 0.
If

the

general

is

Ix

+ my + nz +p + qt =

a single equation
< {I,

m,

n,

p,q)=0

regarded as the tangential equation of a variety in space


It is unnecessary to repeat all the
I :m:n :p
q.
theorems. The equation of the point of contact of the tangent

may be

coordinates

space

(I',

m,

n,

d^/dl'

is

p', q')

+ m d<j>/dm + n d<j>/dn' + p d<j>/dp' + q fy/dq = 0.

is

singular point of a variety is one at which the tangent space


The conditions that (as, y, z, t) may be a singular
indefinite.

point of /=0 are


df/dx

Thus

if

= 0,

the origin

df/dy

is

= 0,

d//dz

= 0,

df/dt=0.

a singular point the equation has the

form
=/,(*, y,z,t)

+/,+

....

by every space through the origin is a surface having


lines through the origin have three-point contact.
a node,
Let the
oo 1 singular points is a singular line.
of
A locus

The

section
oo

GEOMETRY OF FOUR DIMENSIONS

134

= y = z = 0. Then we must have df^jdt =

tangent to this line be x

and the variety

[CH. XII

is

0=Mz, y, z)+f (x,


3

y, z, t)

+ ....

is a surface for which the nodal


section by Ix + my + nz =
cone at the origin breaks into two planes.
A singular tangent space is one whose point of contact is
indefinite.
Taking this to be t = 0, and the general equation

The

of a plane to be
Ix

+ my + nz + t+p =

the tangential equation of the variety must be

=$
The

m,

2 (I,

p)

(f><)

+ ....

approximation, instead of being linear and giving

first

a single point of contact,

is

fa

and represents a quadric

now
(I,

that

therefore infer

quadratic,

m,

n,

p)

all

= 0,

We may

surface.

tangent space has contact at

We

n,

say that the singular

the points of a quadric surface.

this surface appears

repeated

in the

complete section by the tangent space.

SPACE SECTIONS OF A CERTAIN QUARTIC VARIETY.

80.

Returning to the six homogeneous space coordinates us connected by the relation

+ u2 + u3 + ui +u + u =
6

consider the variety of the third class

ls

whose tangential equation

uf + u2s + uss + w4s + u53 + u63


In consequence of
(u 2

2g =

is

= 0.

this can be written in the

form

+ w ) {u + u ){u + u ) + (m + u ) (m + M ) (Ui + u ) =
3

and in nine other similar forms.


Ml

This equation

is satisfied

by

+ = 0, u + u = 0,
2

by every space containing the transversal line


Hence the oo 2 spaces through this line are all
(12.34.56).
tangent spaces, and of them oo 1 have a given point of it for point
of contact.
On taking an arbitrary space section we get a point
on a surface at which there are oo x tangent planes hence the
point is a node on the section.
Thus we see that the section
of the variety by an arbitrary space is a surface having fifteen
nodes, the sections of the transversal lines
these have been
that

is

to

say,

SPACE SECTIONS OF A CERTAIN QUARTIC VARIETY

79-80]

shown

by

to lie

sixes

135

on ten conies, the sections of the cardinal

spaces.
It follows

immediately from the general theory that the point


(ma) = has coordinates whose

of contact of a tangent space


differences

are

proportional

ur2 us2

to

Hence the only

etc.

singular tangent spaces are given by

which have ten possible solutions of which one

U1 = U 2 = U3 =

!/,

=M =U
5

touches the variety at

Hence each

the cardinal space (123.456).

or

is

cardinal space

the points of a quadric surface, and

all

we get a plane touching the fifteennodal surface along a conic containing six nodes. We recognise
in the arbitrary space section

that the section must be a quartic surface with fifteen nodes and

ten tropes.

By

taking a tangent space for the space of section

new node

the

at

point

The

of contact.

section

is

we get
now a

Kummer surface and therefore six new tropes must appear.


Now in a tangent space (w) to a variety there are six planes
through the point of contact such that four consecutive spaces
In the present case the
through them are tangent spaces.
variety is of class three and so every space (u + Xv) through any
one of these six planes

2w3 = 0, 1u v = 0,

The

a tangent space.

is

= 0,

conditions are

and show that the point of


contact of (u + \v) lies in (u) and therefore in the plane. This
plane has therefore oo points of contact with the section, and
in this way the additional tropes are accounted for.
The point equation of the variety 2ws3 = can be written in
2

2.uv 2

2,1?

a great
{(#!

many

X.2 )

ways.

One

- (x + X4 - 5 3

is

}*

+ {(#3 - *4) ~ (#5 + #6 ~ 1 ~ a*)"}*


+ {(x - x f - (x + x -x - x y\i =
2

in which no use

xs

There are

is

made

of the linear relation which connects the

fifteen equations of this type.

It

may be

written

{xxj + ( yyy + (zzy=o


where x

...

are the equations of six cardinal spaces

the identical relation connecting them

x+y

and

is

+ z + x + y + z' =

(1).

GEOMETRY OF FOUR DIMENSIOXS

136

[CH. XII

From the point equation of the greater variety it is evident


that the cardinal spaces are singular tangent spaces. The general
tangent space
(xt'/xo)*

is

+ (#/<)*

+ (y7y)* y + (2/0/2/0')* Vo + (V/*o)* ^


+ (VV)W =
(<,<>')* + (yo2/o')* + (^V)* = -

where

so,'

(2),

Equations (1) and (2) are of the same kind as those of 55


which must connect the six tropes of a fourteen -nodal quartic
surface in order that two additional nodes may appear.
The
present chapter gives an interpretation of those equations by

means of space of higher dimensions.

By

starting with

reciprocal processes

the reciprocal variety and proceeding by

we

shall

arrive at reciprocal results.

On

account of the duality of Rummer's surface we reach it again by


this method.
Thus instead of taking a space section of the

we may take the reciprocal cubic variety and the


enveloping 'cone' from any point. Thus any space section of
this 'cone' is a surface having ten nodes and fifteen tropes, the

quartic variety,

reciprocal of the fifteen-nodal quartic surface.

of the

'

cone

'

is

on the variety, the section

is

When the vertex


Kummer surface.

CHAPTER

XIII.

ALGEBRAIC CURVES ON THE SURFACE.


81.

GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE.

In preceding chapters Rummer's surface has been considered


as a figure in space of three dimensions, mainly in relation to

various systems of points, lines, and planes.


The surface has
been treated as a whole, being uniquely determined by its singularities, and these form a configuration which is conveniently
studied first and independently. Now, however, we must turn

our attention to the surface as a two-dimensional

field of

and consider the curves which can be traced upon


further subdivision of the subject arises according as

geometry,

it.

we

Here a
investi-

gate the curves in the neighbourhood of a particular point, or


treat them in their entirety, the former branch is especially
devoted to transcendental curves and those defined by differential
equations the latter to algebraic curves.
:

An
surface

important step

when the

made

is

in the

theory of an algebraic

coordinates are expressed as uniform functions

of two parameters, for we are then able to transfer theorems in


plane geometry to the surface. Every curve on the surface has an
equation, expressing a relation between these parameters. The
properties of a surface depend largely upon the kind of function

which must be employed

in the

detailed study of these functions

parametric expression, and a


is

therefore necessary.

another method of investigating algebraic curves


based upon their characteristic property of cutting every algebraic
surface in a finite number of points; for a surface of sufficiently
high order can always be found to contain the whole of such

But there

is

a curve, and the curve

common

may

to several surfaces.

therefore be defined as the part

In this way a curve

is

defined by

several equations taken together, which have the advantage of

ALGEBRAIC CURVES ON THE SURFACE

138

The

being algebraic.

chief difficulty in the theory

general two equations do not

suffice, for

a given curve

[CH. XIII
is

that in

may

not be

the complete intersection of any two surfaces; the simplest example


It is possible, however, to arrange

of this is the twisted cubic.

that two surfaces

may

pass through the curve and cut again in

straight lines only, as in Cayley's representation by

The given curve

cone and a monoid*.

is

means of a

projected from the

x=y=z=0

by a cone f(x, y, z) = 0, the vertex being


chosen so that not an infinite number of chords pass through it.

point

arbitrary values of x:y:z determine one value of the remaining coordinate, which must therefore be given by an equation
of the form
*X ( x y> z ) = ylr 0. V> z )

Then

>

representing a monoid surface.

The complete

cones

f= 0,

^=

0,

intersection consists

may be common

of the given curve and any lines which

to the

$ = 0.

of algebraic curves on the general Kummer surface


by the remarkable theorem that a surface can be
found to touch Rummer's surface all along any given algebraic
curve lying thereon and have no further intersection with the surface
the curve, counted twice, is the complete intersection of two surfaces
and can therefore be represented by the equation of the tangent

The theory

is

simplified

When

surface alone.
it

may happen

the

Kummer

surface

that curves exist on

it

for

is

not perfectly general

which the theorem

is

not true.

82.

ALGEBRAIC CURVES ON RUMMER'S SURFACE.

Let the equation of Kummer's surface

<J>

be written as

in

10

in the form

<^2 +
so that the point

2(f) 3

< 4

0,

x=y=z=0

is a node at which the tangent


curve on the surface can be represented
as the intersection of a cone

cone

is

$2 = 0.

Any

f{x, y,z)

and a monoid

tx (*,

y, %)

= $ (*,

y, z)

after excluding the lines common to/= 0, % = 0, i/r = 0. If/ were


a general polynomial in its arguments the curve of intersection
with <& would have the special property of cutting each generator
* Collected Papers, v,

7.

ALGEBRAIC CURVES ON RUMMER'S SURFACE

81-82]

139

monoid representation would fail. It is


/ must have in order that the
complete intersection may break up into two, projections of each
of the cone twice, and the

required to find what special form


other from the node.

On

solving the quadratic for


fat

find

V fa fa fa
2

language of two dimensions, /=

so that, in the

which

+ fa =

we

is

a curve

upon

fafa

has a rational value in terms of the point


\/fa
coordinates, namely fatylx + fa
an d the problem of finding all
!

the algebraic curves on the surface

/=

plane curves

and

F G
2

polynomials in

x, y,

factors

all

necessary

a, factor of an expression
and G are homogeneous
where
F
(fa
fafa),
z; but this does not define the form of/ with

Now

sufficient precision.

factors

that/ must be

sufficient condition is

of the form

the same as of finding

is

having the preceding property*.

fa

fa<j>

the product of six linear

is

x1 x2 x3 xi x6 xe
let
be the product of some of these
and T the product of the rest, then /must be a factor of
;

F X H Y.
fafa = is a

an expression of the form


2

Since the sextic fa


the conic

2
fa = y xz=0, we

adopt a

having special reference to this conic


for x. y, z respectively.

Then

and

fa

Let

U be the

and substitute

of coordinates
1,

\ (u + v),

uv,

(p. 18),

= (u- k ) (v - k )
fafa = IIa;s =U (u ks) (v k ) =
xs

hexagram circumscribing

new system

Il say.

product of six of the twelve factors of IT involving all


let
be the product of the remaining factors, so

the six kg and

u and v are interchanged further let P be


any polynomial in u and v and let Q be what P becomes when
u and v are interchanged. Then the equation
that

U becomes Fwhen

P*U-Q?V =
uv
is

integral

and symmetric

in u,

v,

and therefore represents a plane

algebraic curve upon which V'ZTFhas the value

and

this value,
It is a

being symmetric in

(P2 U+ Q>V)/2PQ,

u, v, is rational in x, y, z.

remarkable theorem, and one not easy to prove

that every curve upon which

wx

directly,

is rational is ex1 xi x3 xi xB x6
pressible exactly in one of these two forms, that is, without

Hudson, Math. Gazette, July, 1904,

p. 56.

ALGEBRAIC CURVES ON THE SURFACE

140

[CH. XIII

provided klt k 2 ,k 3 kt k 5 ke are perfectly general.


none of the curves

extraneous

factors,

Expressing

this differently,

F X-G Y=0,
3

or

is

uv

reducible except into curves whose equations have one or other

of these

At present we assume

two forms.

this

theorem in order

to be able to enunciate subsequent propositions with complete


generality.

can however be verified for the curves of the

It

different orders taken in turn.

The equation P*TJ Q2 F=0 represents two curves on the


surface which are distinguished by the pairs of equations

P>JU+QJV=0\
+ 4> = ^UV)
t
<f>.2

P</U+Q</V=0)

and

fct

^-VzM"

In what follows the equation of the surface will be understood to


be given in a definite irrational form, and then a single equation
P *JU + Q*/V= determines a single curve on the surface.
We have next to show that the equation of any curve can be
expressed in terms of products (with repetitious) of the sixteen
radicals >Jxs \/xrst where, as on p. 19,
,

xs
#123

This

is

= (u k ) (v - ks ) = UgVn

(s

= 1,

2, 3, 4, 5, 6),

= #456 = (V^MjjlW^,, + t/vMVaUiUiUgyftu V)\

evident for the symmetrical equation

F*JX + G*/Y=Q.

The expression is not unique on account of numerous


among the radicals, of which an example is

identities

Vf t/xusOCua = (ihUqVaVg + VjV2 U U ) Vw + (w 4 + V U4 ) */ X& F


The case of the equation P*/U+ Q^V=0 may be illustrated by
(M

an example.

3 i>

e,

Let

then
(u

- v) 2 fa - k ) */x^cm = -(*.- h) (k - K) (K - K) W U+ V V),

(u

v)

(fa

^3) fa V#2aVi23

234

= - (fa - k ) (fa - fa) (fa -k^)(u>jU+v*J V),


3

and so on, whence the general pair of terms


be found.

in

P*/U+ Q^V can

THE -EQUATION OF A CURVE

82-83]

141

THE -EQUATION OF A CURVE.

83.

With the assumption made at the end of 82 it has been


shown that, when the equation of the general Kummer surface <3>
is

given in an irrational form with a definite sign to the radical,


curve on <i> is expressible by an equation of

every algebraic

the form

x Vpi +
x

\ \/p

...

= o,

where ps is a product of some of the sixteen linear forms here


denoted by oc s x rst and \s .is numerical*- We shall generally use
,

to denote the left side of this equation, so that

= 2\ p
s

distinguished by the following three properties.

is

From the nature of the coordinates used, must be homogeneous in the linear forms. The number of factors in any product p s is called the order of , or of the equation.
After substitution for the radicals in terms of u and v every
term of the equation takes the form P*JU+ Q\/V, [/"and V being
the same for

all

the terms.

If the equation is of the first kind,

0, U and V are symmetric in


and hence p s contains an even number of factors of the
type %rst if the equation is of the second kind U becomes V when
u and v are interchanged, and p s contains an odd number of factors
of the type xrst
Accordingly is distinguished by its parity^
being even or odd. The parity of a product and of an equation is

formerly written

u and

F*JX + GV Y =

',

thus defined in reference to a particular set of six elements


As a rule it is not the same for all the sixteen
>\, #2> x 3, xi, t>, esets,

that

is,

it

is

not an invariant property under the group of

sixteen collineations, and accordingly does not imply any essential

geometrical distinction.

It

is,

however, an important feature

when the factors of a product


which is even, or a Rosensuch
as
x-^x^x^x^
form a Gbpel tetrad
which
is
odd (see pp. 78, 79). It
x
a!
tx
hain tetrad such as x 2 s im
count
the number of factors
parity
to
estimating
is customary in
result when the
a
different
leading
to
of
x
instead
of the type xs
rst
when

it is invariant, as for instance

order

is

odd.

Thirdly,

we have to
u and

tution in terms of
of radicals

*JU and

tJV.

consider the property that after substi-

term of involves the same pair


one of the radicals in the case of

v every

Now

would involve no assumption and might therefore be more satisfactory to


with equations of this kind and show that they represent algebraic curves.
But we could not be sure of dealing with every curve in this way. To complete the
theory transcendental methods are required (cf 104, below).
*

It

start

ALGEBRAIC CURVES ON THE SURFACE

142

[CH. XIII

is the same as in V'x^x^x, \/ w u i u i u u i u s from which it follows,


both for even and for odd equations, that if in the terms of
every factor of type x rst be replaced by the corresponding product

V#m

xr xs x

all

it

the terms will contain one of two irrationalities whose

product

is Va;T a;2 a;3 a; 4 a;5 a;6


This gives an important rule for finding
which products may be associated in the same equation it may
be expressed in another way. The suffixes of the sixteen linear
forms are the symbols of dualistic transformations obtaining the
tropes from one node the laws of compounding these transformations are simply that every two are permutable and that
.

11

22

33

= 44 =

55

= 66 = 123456 = identity.

Accordingly we have the rule that if the operations represented


by the suffixes of the factors in any term of are compounded,
the resulting operation
of this operation

is

the same for every term.

The symbol

called the characteristic of the product, and

is

of , and of the equation

one which

= 0.

Of the

sixteen characteristics

distinguished from the

rest, namely the


symbol of identity, dd, or 0. The remaining fifteen characteristics
may be treated alike and will be denoted by two-letter or twofigure symbols.
It will be necessary to speak of the parity of
a characteristic a/3, and by this is meant the parity of xa p.
An
equation of order n and characteristic a/3 is written

there

is

is

()

=0.
a/3

When

parity, and characteristic are given the


belong to a certain family. In order to construct the general equation of a given family we pick out from
among the sixteen radicals all possible products having the given

equation

order,

the

order,

is said to

parity,

and

characteristic,

linearly independent

with undetermined

84.

retain only those which are


on the surface, and combine these linearly

coefficients.

GENERAL THEOREMS ON CURVES.

Let p lt p2 ... be all possible products of n of the sixteen linear


forms satisfying the conditions of having given parity and characteristic; we consider the family of curves represented by the
equation of order n

= \ Vpi + X, \fpi +

= 0.

GENERAL THEOREMS ON CURVES

83-84]

Let

and '

The product '

family.

{W' + ^t\') 'JpiPi',


same

if

we replace the coordinates by

u and

<1>.

means of the equation

<1>

their

2 is

the

and integral on the

rational

is

Hence the equation '

surface of order n cutting

Vpip

v the irrational part of

vx x2 x3 xi x5 xg which

as

surface

be the equations of two curves of the


is rational except for terms of the form

but

expressions in terms of

143

can be rationalised by

0,

and then represents an algebraic

<E>

in the

= 0,

curves

'

only.

Hence we have the theorem

Any

two curves of the same family form the complete intera surface of order n.

section with

By making

the two curves coincide we infer

Every curve

is the

curve of contact

tangent surface of order

Every curve

is

is

sole intersection with

n.

The equation of the tangent


This
ising by means of <I> = 0.
complete intersection

and

surface

is

= 0,
2

of order 4m

after rational-

n and

of order

is

therefore the

hence

of even order 2n.

2m-ic curve meets a 2n-ic

curve

where

The 2mn

n-ic surface tangent along the latter.

it

meets the

intersections of

curve and surface all lie on <E> and are contacts except at nodes.
Hence any two curves of orders 2m and 2n intersect at an even
number, 2p, of nodes and at mn p other points.
Let S1 = 0, 82 = be the surfaces of order n, tangent along two
of the same family, and let 8 =
be the
curves i = 0, 2 =
surface of the same order containing both curves then, in virtue
;

of <&

= 0,
/ = #!, 2 =
a

whence

S& = S

in virtue of

2,

<>

0,

,,

= ,

and therefore we have the

identity

SAs/Sf + G*.

O=

being a surface of order 2n

4,

the remaining intersections with 8.


remarkable results can be deduced.

The

first

two theorems of

S2

along

this identity

many

touching Sj and

From

this section are particular cases of

the following

is

Every equation of even order, even, and of zero characteristic


rational on the surface and represents a complete intersection.

ALGEBRAIC CURVES ON THE SURFACE

144

For, from the first

two

qualifications it follows that the

of factors of type V^ia in any term


is

the same as

V x x6
teristic

on

when

is

number

even hence the irrationality

is

by wx^-^ or by
which
has zero characV^s

this factor is replaced

But every product

[CH. XIII

of V#i

Va^a^a^

either rational or is

which

is

rational

<I>.

From

this

theorem

deduced another which greatly facilitates

is

the study of curves on the surface, namely

Every curve and not more than four singular conies together
form a complete intersection.
For, if =
is the equation of any curve, it can be rationalised
by finding a product p of the same parity and characteristic whose
order has the same parity as that of
then *Jp =
is an
equation of even order, even, and of zero characteristic and therefore, by the preceding theorem, is rational on <3> and represents an
and the singular
algebraic surface cutting <J> in the curve =
We shall show in the next section,
conies in the tropes p = 0.
by examining all the different cases that arise, that p need not
contain more than four factors.
Thus when a family of curves is given by the equation
;

= X
the

first

^=
g

step in the investigation

= 0,

is

to find a product

=P

order such that, in virtue of

<E>

function of the coordinates

then the family of curves

>Jpps

of least

a rational integral
is

cut out

by the family of surfaces

X
having

P + X P + ...=0
1

for base curves the singular conies in

The curves
less

the tropes

therefore form a linear system whose dimension

than the number of linearly independent

s,

after

p = 0.
is

one

making

* = 0.

use of

The

surface

p=

2\ P =
8

passes through

all

the nodes in the

and, for general values of \, .through no others.


Since the tangent cone at a node is of the second order, the

planes

0,

complete intersection passes an even number of times through


a node and hence the curve =
passes through only the nodes
common to an odd number of the tropes p = 0. Thus all the
curves of a family pass through the same nodes, which are the only
base points of the linear system.

84-85]

CLASSIFICATION OF FAMILIES OF CURVES

145

CLASSIFICATION OF FAMILIES OF CURVES.

85.

We shall now examine all the different kinds of equations and


the least products which are required to rationalise them, and
show that the number

shall

exceed

of factors in this product does not

four.

When

the order is given, there are thirty-two different families,


with each of the sixteen characteristics the equation may be
even or odd. We shall find that families of even order are of
for

three distinct kinds and those of odd order are of only two distinct
kinds.

n be even and the characteristic zero. If


even it has been proved to be rational on <E>, and the curves
are the complete intersections with surfaces of order \n, and have
no base points, and in general pass through no nodes.
If % is odd the factors of p form an odd or Rosenhain tetrad,
First let the order

""

for

is

example

x-^x^x^x^,

and then %*Jp

intersection with a surface of order

Since an odd

conies.

number

represents the complete

\n +

2 passing through four

of the planes

p=

pass through

each node, the curves of the family pass through all the nodes.
If the characteristic is not zero it determines two associated
each consists of four pairs, giving four even and four odd
products of order two and the same characteristic. /j may be
rationalised by means of any one of the four products of the same
octads

and then we have surfaces of order \n + 1 passing through


These two conies have two common nodes and the
remaining nodes on them form an octad and are the base points
parity,

two

conies.

of the system.

Secondly

let

cording as

In this case

the order be odd.

may be

characteristics

all

sixteen

treated alike but a difference arises ac-

and %ap have the same parity or

are both even or both odd,

afi

t/x a p

is

not.

rational on

If they

and

represents the complete intersection with a family of surfaces of

The six nodes on this


order (n + 1) passing through one conic.
conic are the base points of the system of curves.
If a p and x^ have opposite parity, the factors of the product
p are three linear forms which with x^ make up a Rosenhain
odd and has zero characteristic it
is
follows that p and a/3 have opposite parity, and ^^p =
family
with
of
intersection
a
rational, and represents the complete
One
surfaces of order (n + 3) passing through three conies.
tetrad.

Then

since

pxap

is

10

ALGEBRAIC CURVES ON THE SURFACE

146

node

is

common

to all three, they intersect again

three nodes, and pass singly through nine others.

[CH. XIII

by pairs

in

The curves

therefore pass through ten nodes obtained by excluding six co-

planar nodes from the whole configuration.

We

can exhibit these results clearly in a table showing the

and the
which the curves of each family pass.
a typical Rosenhain tetrad and suppose

typical rationalising factors for the various equations

number

We

of nodes through

take x xl2 xu xw for

that x

is

even and xu

is

odd.

85-86]

LINEAR SYSTEMS OF CURVES

numbers

147

of conditions for an m-ic surface to pass through one,


two, three or four conies of a Rosenhain tetrad are given by the
following table.

conies

ALGEBRAIC CURVES ON THE SURFACE

148

properly choosing

equation

Sin-4

the

may be reduced

number

[CH. XIII

of arbitrary coefficients in the

to

(m + l)(TO + 2)(m + 3)-(m-3)(m-2)(m-l) = 2m2 + 2.


In this put m = $(n + t), subtract 1 for homogeneity, subtract
also the preceding number of conditions, and we find for the
dimension of the linear system of curves
i (n

+ ty + 1 - tn - |(i 2 + s) =

+ i (n - s).
2

We notice

incidentally that the number of linearly independent


even
and odd, of any given characteristic, is m2 for if
both
ap
an even a p in) vanishes at 2s nodes, then an odd ap tn) vanishes at
the remaining 16 2s nodes.
Next to find the degree of the system we recall that each
curve is the curve of contact of a surface of order n, and any other
curve of the system cuts this surface at 2s nodes and touches it at
{n)

all

the remaining points of meeting; hence the

intersections

number

of variable

is

\{2ni -2s) = n?-s.

The

deficiency of a curve in space

surfaces

again in

many ways

may be

defined in various

draw through the curve two


of sufficiently high orders ft and v, which will intersect
one or more other curves. The surfaces of order fi + v 4

It is possible in

ways.

to

passing through the residual intersection are called adjoint to the


given curve, and although their definition leaves them to a great

extent arbitrary, yet they cut the curve in a definite linear series
of groups of points.

If

arbitrarily chosen.

the present case

the deficiency of the curve, each

is

of these groups consists of 2p

This series

we put

section consists of the


surfaces of the family.

//.

= 4,

points of which

p 1 may

called the canonical series.

is

= \ (n + 1)

be

In

the residual inter-

conies and the adjoint surfaces are the

Hence the curves of the system cut any

one of them in groups belonging to the canonical series, and on


equating the two expressions for the number of points in each

group

2p-2 = n
or

-s,

p-l + t(n-8),

so that in this case the deficiency

is

equal to the dimension.

CHAPTER

XIV.

CURVES OF DIFFERENT ORDERS.


87.

QUARTIC CURVES.

After the sixteen singular conies, which are easily seen to


the theorems and formulae of the preceding chapter,
the simplest curves on the general Kummer surface are quartics,
illustrate

represented by equations of order two.

Taking

first

the characteristic to be zero, the equation,

if

even,

represents the complete intersection with a surface of order one.

We

have then the family of plane sections, of which only four are
In attempting to form an equation of zero
characteristic we see from the multiplication table of the group
that the two factors of each term must be equal, and the product
is simply one of the sixteen linear forms.
This shows that the
equation cannot be odd, and therefore no quartic passes through
linearly independent.

all

sixteen nodes.

Corresponding to any other characteristic there are two families


of curves passing through

complementary octads of nodes. Each


is cut out by a pencil of

family includes four pairs of conies and

The curves of the


quadrics containing any one of the four pairs.
same family have no variable intersections since only one passes
through an arbitrary point.
The curve cuts each trope of one octad at four nodes and each
.

trope of the (complementary) octad at two nodes and therefore

touches the latter at one point.


touches each trope of an octad.

Two
common

Hence

also the inscribed quadric

curves of associated families do not pass through any


Hence one touches the quadric inscribed along
nodes.

the other in four points, and the curves have four variable inter-

CURVES OF DIFFERENT ORDERS

150
sections.

The two

[CH.

XIV

inscribed quadrics touch in four points and

therefore cut in four generators.

Let S1 = 0,S2 = be the quadrics inscribed along two curves of


be the quadric containing both
the same family, and let S =
curves; then the equation of Kummer's surface can be written in
the form

which

is

the envelope of the quadric

S + 2\S + X'Si = 0.
1

This

along any curve of the family.

surface touches 3>

If two fixed quadrics A, B have quadruple contact with a variable quadric


passing through a fixed point, the envelope of G is a Kummer surface.
[Humbert, Rendiconti di Gircolo Matematico di Palermo, XI, 1.]
At a common point of two quartics of associated families the two tangents
[Darboux, Comptes Rendus, xcn,
are conjugate directions on the surface.

p. 1493.]

Two

curves of

families

with

different

characteristics

pass

through the tetrad of nodes common to two octads. Hence of


the eight intersections of one with the quadric inscribed along
the other, four are at these nodes and the rest are at two points
of contact.
In this case there are two variable intersections and
the inscribed quadrics touch at two points.
From the incidence
diagram we see that if two octads have a common tetrad, the two
remaining tetrads together form an octad; accordingly a third
family exists such that three curves, one from each family, cut by
pairs in three tetrads of nodes. The three inscribed quadrics have
double contact with each other.
We shall now prove that the
nature of the intersections of these quadrics depends upon whether
the tetrads are even or odd.
Tt is necessary to

characteristic, say 12.

form the equation of a family with given


Possible terms are

from one octad, and

yx13 x23

Va;14 a;24,

^^u^,

v&ioze

from the associated octad. But since the equation of the surface
expressible as a linear relation between any three terms from
each set of four, only two out of each set are linearly inde-

is

pendent.

QUAETICS THROUGH THE SAME EVEN TETRAD

87-88]

151

QUARTICS THROUGH THE SAME EVEN TETRAD.

88.

Select any four linear forms x, y,

tetrad, as in the

diagram

and

79)

forming an even or Gopel

z, t

then the quartics

(cf.

p.

\/xt

+ 'X"Jyz = 0,

'Jyi

+ pt/zx^O,

pass through the four nodes represented by the same symbols as


x, y, z,

t,

We
<t>

forming an even tetrad.

know

may be

that Vxyzt

is

rational on

xyzt

and

<j)

<I>,

so that the equation of

expressed in the form

is

2
<$>

a quadric containing four

conies.

The equations of

the inscribed quadrics are obtained, by squaring and rationalising,


in the forms

A=xt + 2\<p + \*yz = 0,


B = yt + 2/a</> + fi?zx = 0,
/j.AXB = (/ax Xy) (t Xfiz),

whence

showing that the complete intersection of A and B lies in two


planes, and is therefore two conies.
There is a third family of quartics passing through the same
four nodes, namely
>/zi

+ v\/xy = 0,

and the corresponding inscribed quadric

+ v*xy 0.
vB - fiG = (yy - fiz) (t - /mvx)
\C-vA = (\z - vx) (t - v\y)
fi,A-\B = (/MX- \y) (t - \fiz),
C=zt+2v<t>

Then

and the quadrics

5 = 0, 0=0

touch at two points on the line

yyt

In

this

is

way we get

contact of A, B, O,

^ =0)

fivx = 0]

'

three lines joining the pairs of points of


in the point

and they meet


x/\

= y/fi = z/v = t/Xfiv

.each line cuts two opposite edges of the tetrahedron

aoyzt

= 0.

CURVES OF DIFFERENT ORDERS

152

[CH.

XIV

The product
(y/xt
is

rational on

<t>,

+ X Vyz) ( Vyt +

whence we

/j,

*Jzx) (*Jzt

+ v V#y)

infer that a cubic surface

S=

can

be found such that

where

a quadric.

is

lying on 8;

ABC = S*+G,
A and G

Evidently

touch along a conic

in fact

G = 4sfivA (t + fivx vXy X/az)


= 4>v\B (t pvx + v\y \/iz)
= 4>\/j,C (t fivx vky + Xfizy.
2

Hence A, B, G are all circumscribed about the same quadric


and the three conies of contact and the three quartics (of contact
with ) lie on a cubic surface.
The planes of contact of A and B with G intersect in the line
joining the points of contact of

with B, proving once more that

the three lines are concurrent.


Conversely, the three lines through an arbitrary point (X,
X/if) cutting pairs of opposite edges of

/a,

v,

an even tetrahedron of

tropes, cut

of \,

If A', B', C", are obtained from

in twelve points which include the six points of


contact with a quadric G; the remaining six points are points
of contact of a quadric G' obtained from G by changing the signs
fi, v.

A, B,

in the

same

way, so that

A' = xt- 2X0 + yz,

G-G' = 4>^v{A-A') = 4\<p,


quadrics G and G', A and A',

then

and the pairs of


etc. intersect in
quartics lying on <J>.
Changing the signs of /i and v merely permutes the quadrics
so as to form the two sets AB'C, A'BC.
The points of contact of
A and B A' and B are collinear with (X, n, v, X/ji>), and so on.
In this way we obtain four points of concurrence forming a tetrahedron desmic with the tetrahedron of reference.
Thus a Gbpel tetrahedron of tropes and any desmic tetrahedron
determine six quadrics having twenty-four points of contact lying
by fours on the six edges of the latter tetrahedron. The quadrics
can be arranged in three pairs, each pair determining a pencil
which includes the quadric passing through the conies of the
Gbpel tetrahedron. The eight sets of three quadrics, one from
each pair, are circumscribed to eight quadrics, and the twenty-four
conies of contact lie in the faces of the desmic tetrahedron.
',

QUARTICS THROUGH THE SAME ODD TETRAD

88-89]

153

QUARTICS THROUGH THE SAME ODD TETRAD.

| 89.

Consider now families of quartics passing through the same


odd or Rosenhain tetrad of nodes (p. 78).
The last three rows in the diagram of incidences taken in
pairs determine three octads of tropes and three families of
quartics

z'

any two of the octads contain a common Rosenhain tetrad of


nodes through which the corresponding families pass. Now since
each family

of only one dimension

is

we may take

the equations

to be

+ X >Jy'z' = 0,
\/zx + fi "Jz'x = 0,
*Jxy + v vx'y' = 0.
*Jyz

Further
<> = 0,

V zz' are linearly connected in virtue of


take the irrational equation of the sur-

\/%x', "Jyy',

and we may

'

face to be

Vaac'

*Jyy' 4- 'Jzz'

0.

Then, by squaring and rationalising, the three inscribed quadrics


are

= yz + X (xx yy zz') + X'y'z'

- \y') + \xx' = 0,
B = (z - fix') (x - /iz') + fiyy' = 0,
G = (x vy) (y vx') + vzz = 0.
1

= {y- Xz )

(z

Hence

and

G contain

the line

vy' fiz' = 0)
fiy + vz fivx' = 0j
x

and have no other commou generator.


intersection

generators

is

lie

a cubic

curve.

Since the line


it,

common

in the plane

\x + fiy +
meets

Hence the remaining

Evidently the three

vz

common

= fivx' +

to

vKy'

+ Xfiz

and G must touch

where

it

the two variable points of intersection of the quartics are

the points of contact of a bitangent to

4>.

CURVES OF DIFFERENT ORDERS

154

As

XIV

before, the product


(\/yz

is

[CH.

rational on

+ \ >Jy'z') (\/zx +

<E>,

/j,

*Jz'x')

{*Jxy

+ v \/x'y')

and therefore the three quartics form the complete


and the three quadrics are

intersection with a cubic surface 8,

circumscribed about a quadric

in

consequence of the identity

ABC=S*+G<S>.

Since

contains the curves (A,

and

Since through any point of

<J>

S,

<E>), it

touches

S and

<t>

of

at

therefore lies

common to (AB), (BC), (CA)


which therefore consists of their

Since the three lines

it.

on

on

(B,

a bitangent of the cubic surface

is

entirely on
lie

<1>),

Hence the common generator

their points of intersection.

they must also

lie

plane repeated.
six bitangents

can be drawn, and

there are thirty octads, it follows that five quartics


families cut in the
five characteristics

same two

points.

from different

It is easy to see that the

together with the zero characteristic

make up

a set representing six coplanar nodes.

90.

SEXTICS

THROUGH

SIX NODES.

There are thirty-two families of sextic curves on the surface,


for each characteristic.
They are of two kinds sixteen are
cut out by surfaces of order \(n + 1), = 2, passing through a conic,
and the other sixteen are cut out by surfaces of order ^ (n + 3), = 3,
passing through three concurrent conies.
Taking a family of the first kind, the quadric is subjected to
five conditions in containing a given conic, and there remain five

two

arbitrary coefficients.

Hence the family contains

five

linearly

independent curves.
The sextic meets one trope at six nodes and every one of
the fifteen others at two nodes and two points of contact.
The
inscribed cubic surface cuts the one trope in a plane cubic passing
through the six nodes, and every other trope in a conic and the
line joining the

Two
conic

two points of contact.

quadrics through the same conic cut again in another

hence two sextics of the same family have six variable


The corresponding inscribed cubic

intersections lying on a conic.

surfaces touch at these six coplanar points

cuts

them

in the

Among

and therefore the plane

same cubic curve.

the quadrics cutting out the family there are fifteen

containing the four conies of a Gopel tetrad, for

when one

conic is

89-90]

THROUGH

SEXTICS

NODES

SIX

155

given, three others can be found in fifteen ways to complete a

Gopel tetrad, and

four

all

on the same quadric. Hence fifteen


into three conies, and in each case

lie

sextics of the family break

up

the inscribed cubic surface breaks up into the three tropes con-

By

taining the conies.

any

the last paragraph these three conies cut

sextic of the family in six coplanar points, other than the six

common

nodes, and the three lines in which this plane cuts the

three tropes

lie

been shown

to

also

on the inscribed cubic surface, which has thus

contain fifteen lines, one in each of fifteen tropes,


lying by threes in fifteen tritangent planes.
If Si

= 0, S2 = 0,

are the cubics inscribed along two sextics of

S=

the same family, and

we have

the cubic containing both,

is

the identity

where G is a quadric. Now we have seen that 8^ and S2 touch


one another at the six variable intersections of the sextics and
therefore also touch S and <1>.
Hence S contains the common
plane cubic section of $j and S2 and G must be this plane
,

repeated.

We

is

proceed to demonstrate these theorems analytically.


Let x, y, z, t, be a Gopel tetrad of linear forms; then, since xyzt
an even product of characteristic zero, the five products xyz, xH,

yH, zH,
teristic

same

are linearly independent and of the

and

The equation

parity.

through the six nodes in the trope


"Jxyz

order, charac-

of the family of sextics passing


t

is

+ (ax + by + cz+ dt) \Jt = 0.

Write the equation of Kummer's surface in the form


<E>

so that

<j>

is

= xyzt -

2
<f>

=
Then

the quadric containing the tetrad of conies.

the linear system of oo


sented by the equation
<j)

quadrics cutting out the family

+ (ax + by+cz + dt) t = 0.


$ = we

By squaring and rationalising using

is

repre-

find the inscribed

cubic to be
$,

= xyz +

2 (ax

+ by + cz + dt)(j> + (ax +

Obviously one tritangent plane

ax

Another sextic

by

(a'x

+ cz + dt)

is

+ cz + dt =

of the family

*J~xyz

by

b'y

0.

is

+ c'z + d't) s/t = 0,

= 0.

CURVES OF DIFFERENT ORDERS

156

and the common points

and

consisting of a conic

XIV

on the curve

a'x + b - b'y + c -

(a

Write

lie

[CH.

c'z

+ d d't) \/t =

a plane section of

3>.

for abbreviation

= ax + by + cz + dt
2 = a'x + b'y + c'z + d't,
2u
+ u*t
$! = xyz
=
S xyz + 2w $ + ut
S = xyz + (u + u )(j> + uiu 2

S' = (wj ujf (xyzt $ )


Si.S
/Sj - S = (wj w )
+ i t)
=

S S (u uj
+ w t),
Wj

then

-t-

1 (j>

whence

1,

and

(</>

(<f>

showing that the three cubics have a common curve in the plane
i = 2
Two sextics from different families cut in two nodes and eight
other points. We may take their equations to be
.

s/x

= 0,

\Jy

= 0.'

+u
\fxzt + u

*Jyzt

They both

on the quartic surface obtained by rationalising

lie

+ u^x) (v'xzt + w s/y) 0


= 0.
that is, on
zt(<j) + v x + u y) + i^u^
If in particular we take u^ = w = u, the points of
V zt
'

(\/yzt

<j>

lie

intersection

on the two quadrics


<fi

<f>

+ ux = 0,
+ uy = 0,

cutting in two conies in the planes u (x

y=

y) =

0.

The

conic in

two common nodes and four other common


points.
The conic in u = lies on = 0, and cuts <J> in four pairs
of points on the four conies in xyzt = 0.
Hence the remaining

cuts

<3>

in the

<f>

four

common

and u

We

points are the points of contact of the lines

with $.
are thus led to consider the four sextics
t

+ u\lx = 0,
/3 "Jztss + n\jy = 0,
a vyzt

+ u*Jz = 0,
8 ^xyz + uJt = 0,
<y"Jtxy

u=

= z,

90-91]

THROUGH TEN NODES

SEXTICS

157

cut out by four quadrics, one through each conic of a Gbpel tetrad,

and the same plane section of the quadric containing the four
conies.
They pass by threes through the pairs of points u = 0,
= 0, etc., and the remaining twenty-four intersections lie
x = 0,
by fours on the six concurrent planes
<j)

xja

SEXTICS

91.

The

= y/8 = z/y = t/S.


THROUGH TEN NODES.

sextics of a family of the second kind are cut out

conditions for the cubic

pendent

is

sixteen, leaving

by cubic

The number

surfaces passing through three concurrent conies.

of

four linearly inde-

surfaces.

The

sextic passes through the ten nodes not lying

on the trope
which completes the Rosenhain tetrad, and therefore has three
contacts with this plane and one contact with every other trope.
The same is true of the inscribed cubic which therefore contains
three lines lying in one trope.

Two

curves of the same family cut at ten nodes and at four


The two inscribed cubics Si, S2 and the cubic S

other points.

containing both curves,


further

we have the

all

touch

<!>

at the

same four

points,

and

identity

SA -S> = (?*,
where

is

a quadric.

This shows that the twenty-seven

common

Now
points of the three cubics are singular points on G<& = 0.
the four contacts count for sixteen intersections and ten more are
at ten nodes of

be a node on G.

<f>

there remains one not lying on

Hence G is a

<J>

which must
S.2 along

cone circumscribing Si and

the residual cubic intersections with S.


Again points common to S, G, <l> are singular points on
These include the four points of contact of Si and Sa
SiS2 = 0.
<>, each counted four times, and four more on each
sextic
which are therefore nodes on Si and Si.

with

lie

Since the inscribed cubic has four nodes the lines joining them
it and therefore touch <E> where they cut the sextic

entirely on

of contact.

Hence

inscribed in

<&,

lines

the

four nodes are

whose edges touch

<.

the corners

The

on the nodal cubic surface and the

six

six

of a tetrahedron
edges are torsal

pinch planes cut the

surface in three lines cutting the pairs of non-intersecting torsal


lines

and lying

in a tritangent plane.

The cubic

possesses only

CURVES OF DIFFERENT ORDERS

158

[CH.

XIV

one tritangent plane beside those containing the nodes, and in the
present case this has been shown to be one of the tropes of <t>*.
In order to construct the nodes of an inscribed cubic surface
we have only to take any three points on one conic of 3> and draw
the six tangent planes through pairs of them. These planes meet

Thus an inscribed tetraby threes in the four points required.


hedron whose edges touch <E> can be constructed in oo 3 waysf.
OCTAV1C CURVES THROUGH EIGHT NODES.

92.

There are thirty-two families of three different kinds. The


the family of complete intersections with quadric surfaces,
and is of no particular interest. It is represented by an even
equation of order four and zero characteristic, containing ten
first is

terms.

Corresponding to each of the thirty octads is a family of


by cubic surfaces passing through any one of the
There are eight terms
four pairs of conies containing the octad.
in the equation.
Four linearly independent curves of the family
are given by a pair of conies and any plane section let xt =
and
yz =
be two pairs of planes containing the octad, then the
octavics cut out

equation of the family can be written in the form


(ax

+ by + cz + dt) *Jxt + (a'x +

or

u^fx~t

b'y

+ c'z + d't) 'Jyz = 0,

+ v*Jyz=0.

Evidently the four points in which the line

on

u=

=v

meets

4> lie

this curve, so that the line is a quadruple secant.

The octavic passes through an octad of nodes and therefore


meets each of an octad of tropes at four nodes and two contacts,
and each trope of the associated octad at two nodes and three
contacts.

The

inscribed quartic surface has eight tropes of

<I>

for

tritangent planes.

The planes

xyzt

the equation of

<I>

form a Gopel tetrahedron of tropes and so


taken to be

may be

=$

xyzt

and then the inscribed quartic


v?xt

having the quadruple secant

is

2uvc{>

for

+ v*yz =

a double line

there

is

a pencil of

quartics

xyzt <f> 2
*

+ \ (u'xt +

2uvcj)

+ v*yz) =

These theorems are easily proved by taking the tetrahedron of nodes for
+ Humbert, Liouville, ser. 4, ix, 103.

reference.

OCTAVIC CURVES THROUGH EIGHT NODES

91-93]
all

touching

<3>

along the same curve.

By

159

writing this equation in

the form
(yz

+ Xm ) (xz + Xu ) 2

we

see that the surface has eight nodes,

for

X=

common to three quadrics


the nodes coincide by pairs, at the pinch points on the

oo

nodal line w

The

- Xw) =
!

(</>

= =

v.

fact that the inscribed quartics

have eight nodes on the

octavic curve of contact can be inferred from the identity

S& =S*+ G,
for each of the twelve common points of contact of Si, S2 <& is
counted four times among the points common to S, G, <J>, leaving
,

sixteen singular points


Sj

S2

and

of

S + GQ> =
2

to be divided between

93.

OCTAVIC CURVES THROUGH SIXTEEN NODES.

The remaining family

is

represented by an odd equation of

order four and zero characteristic, and the curves are cut out by

The surfaces
must be made to pass through the four corners of the tetrad
and six more points on each conic, making twenty-eight conquartic surfaces through an odd tetrad of conies.

now a quartic surface contains thirty-five terms, but for


purposes of intersection these terms are connected by one linear
ditions

relation

(I>

= 0.

Hence the family contains

linearly

six

inde-

We

have already had examples of these curves


in the principal asymptotic curves (p. 62) and in the curves of
pendent curves.

contact of inscribed

Two

Kummer

surfaces (p. 66).

curves of the family cut in eight points other than nodes;

at these points the inscribed quartics touch.

The

identity

shows that the sixty-four points common to Slt S2 S are singular


Of these, thirty-two are accounted for by the
points on G& = 0.
intersections of the octavic curves and sixteen are at the nodes
of <J>; hence the remaining sixteen are nodes of G, which is
Similar reasoning shows that Si
therefore a Kummer surface.
,

and <S2 have also sixteen nodes each. Hence the quartics touching
a given Kummer surface along an octavic curve passing through

Of these inscribed
the nodes, are also Kummer surfaces.
quartic surfaces ten have double lines and are Pliicker surfaces

all

(p. 68).

Hence the

octavic has ten quadruple secants.

CHAPTER

XV.

WEDDLE'S SURFACE.
BIEATIONAL TRANSFORMATION OF SURFACES.

94.

S be any four homogeneous polynomials


same degree. The equations

Let P, Q, R,
x, y, z,

t,

of the

in

X/P = YjQ = Z/R = T/S


establish a correspondence
(x, y, z, t)

other,

and

between two spaces: to any point

T) of the
n variable points common

of one space corresponds one point (X, Y, Z,


to the latter correspond the

to the three surfaces

P/X = Q/Y=R/Z = S/T.


when n = 1. The correspondence

is then
unique and therefore rational both ways, and the equations constitute a rational transformation between two spaces *.

special case occurs

If (x, y,

z, t)

describes a surface

fix,

y, z, t)

= 0,

the corresponding point (X, Y, Z, T) describes a surface

F(X, Y,Z,T) =
into

which/

is

transformed.

The plane

sections

aX + bY+cZ+dT=0
correspond to the linear system of curves cut out on

by the

family of surfaces

aP + bQ + cR + dS =

0.

In general those curves of this system which pass through an


assigned point do not all pass through another point accordingly
to a point (X, Y, Z, T) on F determined by three planes corresponds on f the unique point common to the three corresponding
:

curves of the linear system.

In other words the correspondence

* Cayley, vn, 189.

BIRATIONAL TRANSFORMATION OF SURFACES

94]

between the two surfaces


the equation
for x, y, z,

/=

is

unique, and therefore by means of

the equations of transformation can be solved

rationally in terms of

161

X, Y,

If a simple point of

is

For

Z, T.

the transformation between the two surfaces

this reason

called birational.

is

a multiple base point,

we have

approximately

X/Pm = Y/Qm = Z/Rm =

TjSm

and the denominators can be expressed as rational


nomials in y/x;

hence the base point

rational m-ic curve.

More

is

mi-ic poly-

transformed into a

generally, if the point has multiplicity

m' on y, the corresponding curve is of order mm'. For example,


a node on f at which the tangent cone is expressible parametrically in the form x = y/d = z/ff> is transformed into a rational

An

2m-ic curve.

Pm = 0,

Qm =

important exceptional case is when the cones


= 0, Sm =0 have a common generator; taking

0, i?TO

x = 0, y = 0, we find that after substitution the highest


power of 8 is # 2m_1 and in this case the node is transformed into
a rational (2m l)-ic curve.
Thus, for example, a node through
which all the surfaces of the family pass is in general transformed
into a conic, but if it lies on a simple base curve it is transformed into a straight line.
Next consider a simple curve on f which is a simple base
curve for the family of surfaces. At any point of it, the tangent
line being x = = y, P
Qu R, 8r are linear in x and y only,
and for near points on f, y/x has one value, so that the ratios
There is therefore a unique corre-Pi
Qi -Si 8 are definite.
and
its
locus
represents the base curve. More
sponding point on F,
curve
is
m'-ple on f, y/x has m' values
if
a
m-ple
base
generally,
The locus of
giving m! points on F lying on a rational m-ic.
these points is a simple curve on F corresponding to the multiple
this to be

'

curve

on/

If only oo

surfaces of the family pass through a simple curve

three of them to be P, Q, R: then the whole


The
transformed into the single point
multiplicity of this point is equal to the number of ratios

onf, we may take


curve

X Y
:

X=Y=Z=0.

is

satisfying

aX + bY+cZ=0,
corresponding to points (x, y, z) in the neighbourhood of the
curve, and this is equal to the number of points in which
with
the curve cuts the residual intersection of /=

aP + bQ + cR = 0.
h.

11

weddle's surface

162

XV

[ch.

The transformation depends on the linear system of curves


and not on the particular surfaces cutting them out, for these
may be modified by means of the equation / = 0. The degree
or number of variable intersections of two curves of the system
is equal to the number of intersections of two plane sections of
the new surface, that is, its order, and further, for the transformation to be possible the dimension or multiplicity of the
system must be at least three.
= Z=Q correspond on
Let the points x = y = z = 0,
the two surfaces / and F. Put t=\, T=l, and let P, Q, R, S
be expanded in series of homogeneous polynomials in x, y, z, of
degrees indicated by suffixes, thus

X =T

P = P + P,+
1

...,

Q = Q + Qs + ...,
R = Ri + i2 + ...,
S = $<> + $! + $ +
1

since (0,
is

0,

0) is not

.,

supposed to be a base point.

From

this it

obvious that the tangent cone at a multiple point on

linearly transformed

is

by the equations

X/P = Y/Q^Z/R^l/Sc
x

into the tangent cone at the corresponding point on F, so that

corresponding points have the same multiplicity.

Next,

let (0, 0, 0)

be a simple base point, so that

S = 0.

We

now have approximately

z/p1 -r/Q = z/A =


1

and by means

i/s1

/ the four
denominators can be expressed as linear functions of x and y.
Hence to the pencil of tangent lines to / correspond the points
of a straight line on F, that is, a rational curve of order 1, as
was shown

before.

95.

Among

of the equation of the tangent plane to

TRANSFORMATION OF KUMMER'S SURFACE.

the birational transformations of a given surface the

most useful are those in which the order of the new surface is
as low as possible, and also the order of the surfaces employed
in the transformation.
We require a linear system of curves
having as many intersections as possible at base points so we
shall consider only those systems which are contained in the
:

94-95]

TRANSFORMATION OP RUMMER'S SURFACE

163

number

of variable

families of curves already investigated, the

being further diminished by fixed multiple base

intersections

points *

The base

may be

points of the system

of three kinds, ac-

cording as they are at base nodes of the family, or at other nodes,

In the first case, if the curve be cut out


by a surface passing through It 1 concurrent (t= 1, 2, 3) conies
and having a (A, + *)-ple point, the multiplicity of the point on
the curve will be 2\ + 1.
To find the number of coincident
intersections of two such curves we employ the principle of
continuity, and vary the two surfaces until each tangent cone
breaks up into planes t 1 of these planes may be supposed
to contain the tangent lines to 2t 2 conies, and may be thrown
off.
We are left with \+ 1 planes through the node of which one
Hence the number
passes through the tangent line to a conic.
of coincident intersections of the two curves is
or at ordinary points.

2\2

2X

1,

and the consequent reduction of degree is 2\(A + 1).


In the second case, the curve must have a point of even
multiplicity

2fi,

The number
system

is

of orders

number

the
fi,

the surface cutting

of coincident

/jl,

that

2,

it

out having a

/x-ple point.

two curves of the

intersections of

of coincident intersections of three cones


is,

2fi?,

and

this is the corresponding re-

duction of degree. Thirdly, a p-ple point at an ordinary point


gives v* coincident intersections.
Now if the curves of the family are of order 2n and pass

through 2s base nodes, the degree of the family


hence the degree of the new system is

N = tf -

- 2 (2X2 +

2N = 2n* - 2

A
is

(2X

l)2

birational transformation of

by means

s (p.

148)

2\)

- 2

2fi?

- %v\

16 -2s

2s

so that

16-2S

2s

is

- 2

(2/*)

- 22^

Kummer's

2
.

surface

is

effected

of four linearly independent curves of this system,

therefore possible only

if

the dimension

is

and

sufficiently great.

determine the number of conditions that curves


In the first
of a given family may have assigned singularities.
we require
treated
alike,
be
nodes
may
base
case, since the 2s
out
on
Kummer's
cut
curve
that
the
conditions
the number of
l)-ple
point
a
(2X
=
have
may
+
surface
F=0,
a
surface <E>
0, by
It is necessary to

* Cf.

Humbert,

cendental methods.

who obtains the same results by transSee also Hutchinson, Amer. Bull, vn, 211.

Liouville, ser. 4, ix, 449,

112

weddle's surface

164

at a node on a conic through which


for origin

fc-ple

and

Take

passes.

the tangent to the conic for axis of

point the

number

XV

[ch.

of conditions for a (k

this

node

If

z.

has

l)-ple point

is

K* + l)(*+2)-l,
since the term zh

is

absent.

Hence when

is

arbitrary, subject

only to the condition of passing through the conic, the number


of conditions for a (X+l)-ple point

is

(\+l)(X + 2)(X + 3)-(X +


But

as far as the curve of intersection

.F=0 may be
cients in

F+G^> = 0,

replaced by

of the terms of order

<X

i(x-i)x(x +

We

of these conditions.

the coefficients in

In the second

<

fi

1) conditions

among

terms of order
3>,

and

< p1

for this the

in

F + G<&

terms of

of

be used, leaving

J/t(/.+ l)0*
conditions

i)

X(X +

are left with

case, the

may

concerned the surface

and the arbitrary coeffi2 may be used to satisfy

alone.

must disappear at -a node of


order

is

l).

among the

+ 2)-i0*-2)0t-l)/* = A*

coefficients in

alone.

In the third case, the terms of order < v 1 in F + 0<t> must


disappear at a simple point of <3>, and for this the terms of G
the number of conditions for F
of order ^ v 2 may be used
;

is

therefore

148) the dimension of the family is 1 + (w 2 s), and


therefore the dimension of the new linear system determined by

Now

(p.

the preceding three kinds of base points

D = l + Hn -s)-2\(\ + l)2

Hence

Now

for

JV

t /J?-t^v(v +

- 2D = - 2 + %v.

the transformation to be possible

and therefore

is

iV> 4 +

Xv.

we must have

l).

95-96]

TRANSFORMATION OF KUMMER'S SURFACE

165

QUARTIC SURFACES INTO WHICH KUMMER'S SURFACE


CAN BE TRANSFORMED.

96.

The

shows that when N=4>, 2z> = 0, and therefore


for a birabional transformation (of Kummer's

last result

every v=0, that

is,

surface) into another quartic surface, all the base points must be
at nodes*.
Further, the multiplicities at the base points must

be

(p.

163) so chosen that


16

2s

2 (2\ +
and then the dimension

l) 2

-2s

+ S

(2/^)

of the system

2w2

8,

exactly

3, so that in this
case the linear system of curves by which the transformation is
effected is complete, for it is determined entirely by its base points.

We
of

now attempt to satisfy


s, that is, we have to

is

this equation for different values

n and

express 2n2

odd squares and 16 2s even squares.


Taking n = 2 we must have s =

as the

= 0,

/a

0,

sum

of 2s

and we get the

general linear transformation.

Taking n

3,

=3

s
1

the only possible

and the transformation

is

way

+ 1 + 4=
by

effected

is

10,

sextic

curves passing

through six coplanar nodes and having a double point at one


other node
these are cut out by quadrics through one conic
and a seventh node.
This is projectively equivalent to in;

version f.

Next, taking n =
1

3, s

= 5,

(ra

4) = 10.

+ 1+1 +

The

orjly

way

is

+ 1 + 1 = 10,

and the transformation is effected by sextic curves passing


through ten nodes and cut out by cubic surfaces through three
concurrent conies. This leads to the surface which is considered
in the next section.
It may be remarked that this is the only
case in which the family of curves receives no additional base
points, for the condition for this is

2s

or
*

= 2 <y - 4),
= s + 4,

This theorem follows at once from the fact that the rational curve into which
is transformed, lies on an "adjoint" surface of order

a base point, not at a node,

N-i.
t Neither, Math. Ann. in, 557; Cayley, Proc. London Math. Soc. in, 170;
Papers, vn, 230.

Coll.

weddle's surface

166

and since

can have only the values

admissible value

Any two

is s

giving n

5,

[ch.

0,

1,

3, 4, 5, 8,

xv

the only

= 3.

of the cubic surfaces cut in three conies and

variable cubic curve passing through the point of concurrence


of the conies.

This curve cuts each conic in two other points and

therefore of its nine intersections with a third cubic surface, eight


are on the base curves, leaving one variable intersection.

This

is

a particular case of the lineo-linear transformation

considered by Cayley (Coll. Papers, vu, 236) and Neither (Math.

Ann.

in, 517).

weddle's surface*

97.

We

into which Rummer's


consider in detail the surface
transformed by means of sextic curves passing through
ten nodes (cf. p. 157). These will be termed even nodes (123 456),

surface

now

<3>

is

'

'

distinguished from the remaining six

etc. as

6 which are

lie in the trope x


in the notation of pp. 16, 18, 140.
the general theory of transformation, the six odd nodes, not
being base points, become nodes on the new surface W, while the

'

and

1, 2, 3, 4, 5,

odd,'

By

ten even nodes become straight

The trope x meets every


contact.
Hence the conic

lines.

sextic of the family at three points

in x is transformed into a curve


Since it
which cuts every plane section of
in three points.
passes through the six nodes of
it must be the unique cubic
curve determined by them.
Any other trope, x12 meets every sextic at four nodes and one
point of contact.
Hence the conic in xw is transformed into a
straight line joining the two nodes on
corresponding to the two
nodes common to x and x 13
Through each of the ten even nodes (123 456) pass two sets
of three tropes %%,, x31 x12 and xK xM xi5 each of which forms with
# a Rosenhain tetrad. The two sets of three conies are reducible
sextics of the family and correspond to the plane sections of
through the nodes 1, 2, 3 and 4, 5, 6 respectively. The node
(123 456) is transformed into a line which must lie on both of
of

these planes.
of

Hence

two planes containing

to the ten even nodes of

contains the ten lines of intersection


all six

nodes, and these lines correspond

Rummer's

* First mentioned by T. Weddle, Gamb.

surface.

and Dubl. Math. Jour.

(1850), v, 69, note.

weddle's surface

96-97]

We

167

have now established the following correspondence between

the two surfaces.

weddle's surface

168

birational transformation

between

surfaces through the six nodes of

<!>'

and

[ch.

xv

W by means of quadric

W*.

In order to reverse this transformation we require the curves


<E>' corresponding to the sextics on <E>, that is the reciprocals
The enof the developables circumscribed to <& along a sextic.
veloping cone from any point touches <t> along a curve of order
on

twelve, passing through all the nodes


sextics,

points.
sections.

triple

= 18

Of these ten are at nodes, leaving eight variable interHence the class of the developable is eight. Of the

xa touches the

tropes,

and cutting any one of the

along which a cubic surface can be inscribed, in|3.12

sextic at three points

plane of the developable;

and

is

therefore a

every other trope touches the

Hence the corresponding curve on <!>' is an octavic


which passes through all the nodes, and has a triple point at one
of them.
This is the case of birational transformation when
n = 4, s = 8 the number 2n 2 8, = 24, must be expressed as the
sum of sixteen odd squares, and this can be done in only one way
sextic once.

..

+ 1+9 = 24.

The surfaces cutting out these curves are quartics through a


Rosenhain tetrad of conies having a node at one of the nodes of $,
other than a corner of the tetrahedron.
It may easily be verified
that three surfaces of the system cut in only one arbitrary point.
We do not give an independent investigation but give references to the literature of the subject. We are concerned with
the surface as a birational transformation of

and in this view

all its

properties

Ku miner's

surface,

may be deduced from known

Kummer's surface. Attention must be called to the


correspondence between the sheaves of lines through the nodes
properties of

of

W and the six quadratic congruences of bitangents on

<3>,

which

may be explained as follows.


Two quadrics through the
curve which cuts
at the nodes.

six nodes of W cut in a quartic


W in sixteen points of which twelve are counted

The remaining

four points correspond to the four

common to the planes


Since tangent planes to 4>

points of intersection of <& with the line

corresponding to the two quadrics.

correspond to cones through the six nodes of W, a bitangent to <&


corresponds to the intersection of two cones, each of which passes

through the vertex of the other. Their quartic intersection must


therefore break up into the line joining their vertices and a twisted
*

For

this transformation consult

Bendiconti Lincei,

ser. 4, vi, 3.

De

Paolis,

Memoire Lined,

ser.

4,

i,

576

97-98]

EQUATION OF WEDDLE'S SURFACE

169

Since the complete intersection passes through all the


must pass through five of them, and the straight
line through the sixth.
Hence any two points on
collinear with
a node correspond to the points of contact of a bitangent to <&.
cubic.

nodes, the cubic

The theorems already proved

can be at once carried

for bitangents

example
Complete quadrilaterals can be inscribed in

over, for

having two

opposite corners at nodes.

By successively projecting any point of


from the nodes,
on to W, and also the projections, a system of only 32 points is
obtained*.

98.

EQUATION OF WEDDLE'S SURFACE.

P = ^P

Let

rs

xr xs =

Q = 2Qn xr xs =
R = ~ZRrs xr xs

= 1, 2, 3, 4)
{P = Pgr etc.)

(r, s

be four linearly independent quadrics passing through six points


then every other quadric through the same points is obtained by
linearly combining these in the form

aP + bQ + cR + dS = 0.
Any

surface
YV

is

\Xl, X%, X^y X^)

transformed, by taking P, Q, R,

as

U
new

point coordinates, into

a surface

V(P,Q,R,S) = 0.

corresponds a point (xlt x2 xs x)


To any point (P, Q, R, S) on
or briefly (x) on W, and another point (*'), forming with (x) and
,

the six base points a group of eight associated points. The locus
of (*') is another surface W' = 0, and there must be an identity
of the form

(P,

Q,

R,

8)=

WW

have been expressed in terms oix1 xz xs #4


The locus of a point (00) which coincides with the eighth
associated point (a/) is the Jacobian surface
after both sides

j_

d(P,
\30\i

Q,R,S) _
Q
#2> ^3> ^4)

* Baker, Proc. Lond. Math. Soc, ser. 2,

i,

247.

weddle's surface

170

Now J=0
vertices

is

[ch.

the quartic surface* which

of cones passing through

is

XV

the locus of the

the six base points of the

family

aP + bQ + cR + dS = 0,
for the conditions for

a cone with vertex at

adP/dxs + bdQjdxs + cdR/dxs

and on eliminating
at once that

a, b, c,

J contains

{x^

ddS/dxs =

x2 xs xt) are
,

(s

= 1,

d we get J=0, and from

is

2, 3,

4)

this it follows

the fifteen joins of the six points and the

ten lines of intersection of two planes containing


If

the points.

all

intersect in twenty-five lines,

and therefore coincide

J and
and then
and W, also

the surface considered in the preceding section,


;

which passes through all points common to J


is then the surface <&' reciprocal to the
Kummer surface first considered and we have the important

W,

coincides with J.

identity!*

&(P,Q,R,S) = J>
which admits of direct verification.
Let four of the base points be taken for tetrahedron of reference
and let the remaining two be (e^ e2 es> e4 ) and {f\,fz,f<i,fi). Then
the equation of Weddle's surface can be expressed in the convenient form |
,

Vl

^"1

EQUATION OF WEDDLE'S SURFACE

98]

171

tangential equation of <&', which is the same as the equation of


the reciprocal surface <i> in point coordinates a, b, c, d. We
thus obtain the equation of Rummer's surface in the form of

a symmetrical four-rowed determinant each element of which


linear in the coordinates.

is

If the base points are taken as in

the last paragraph the elements of the leading diagonal are zeros,
and the equation has the form

= 0,

z
z

which

x'

y'

the same as

is

*Jxx'

where the

letters represent linear functions of the

In

a, b, c, d.

+ >Jyy + 4z3 = 0,
coordinates

fact

x = aPw + bQss + cR 23 + dS^


x'

= aPu + bQu + c.R + dSu


14

Making use of the fact that the


we find that x, y, z, x, y', z'

etc.

points

points

(e)

and (/) are base

are connected by the two

relations
e2 es x

+ e&y + e

e^z

+ e^x' + e^y' + e^z' = 0,

A/.0 +f*Ay +/i/i# +fif*f +f*ftf +Af** = 0,


which are of the kind required to make the general 14-nodal
surface have two additional nodes (p. 88).
Incidentally we notice that the Jacobian of four quadrics

having

four, five, or six

by means
a

common

of these quadrics

quartic

surface

having

points

into

a-

fourteen,

is

birationally transformed

surface
fifteen,

whose reciprocal
or

respectively.

On

solving the

first

three of the four equations

(aP + bQ

+ cR + dS) =

doc.

for &i

a?2

x3

xt we find

VX

z "

%yz'

sixteen

is

nodes

weddle's surface

172

[ch.

xv

= xx' yy' zz'


X = -ocx' +yy'-zz'
yjr = xx' yy' + zz

where

<

and the equation of Rummer's surface

expressible in the

is

equivalent forms

kyy'zz = % ^zz'xx' =
1

(fy*

we observe

-ty*

4sxx'yy' =

that the denominators represent linearly independent

cubic surfaces containing the three concurrent conies in the tropes


a;

0,

2/

= 0,

= 0;

this agrees with the first

method

of trans-

formation.

Again, on solving the same three equation^ for a

find these coordinates proportional to cubic functions of

vanishing on the three lines xt

on Weddle's

lying

surface.

= 0, x^x^ = 0, and
Thus plane

b c d we
xx x2 xs xt
:

on a cubic curve

sections of

Kummer's

surface correspond to sextic curves on Weddle's surface.

Caspary* gives the equation in terms of the tetrahedra whose corners are
the nodes A, B, C, D, E,
and any point
of the surface, namely

PABC. PAEF. PBFD PCDE=PBCD PGAE PABF. PDEF.


.

Cayleyt gives the equation


3 (xp 3 +zPl

- 2t) dF/dx+tfzpz-tpJ dF/dy + (xp5 -2ypi

m-

+ 3 (2xPa 3
F= Sxyzt - ixz - iyH + 3yh2 - x2

where

and the

six

dF/dz

tp 3 ) dF/dt=0,

fi,

nodes are given by

/(d^-p^+p^-p^+p^-psd+p^O.
A parametric expression of the surface is
x :y z t= U+ V: vU+uV v U+v?V: v U+u
where
W=f, V*=f{v).
:

Darboux

Coll.

Bulletin, xv, 308.

Papers, vn, 179.

V,

(Richmond.)

CHAPTER

XYI.

THETA FUNCTIONS.
99.

UNIFOEMISATION OF THE SURFACE.

how the coordinates


Rummer's surface may be expressed in terms of
two parameters, which we now call x and ad, by functions which are
It

shown

is

in the second chapter (p. 19)

of any point on

algebraic, but not uniform, since they involve the radicals

V( k,) (x &8) (x k3 ) (x k4) (x k5) {x ke),

and

\/{x

&i) (x' k ) (x' k ) (x' &4) (x' k ) (x' k


2

2/

that
If,

In other words, the points of


of points on the curve

<E>

6 ).

are represented uniformly

by

pairs

= / (x ) =(>- h) ifo - & ) (x - k ) (x - ki) (x - k ) (x - k


2

is,

then,

a ),

by four variables, x, y, x, y', connected by two relations.


we can express these four as uniform functions of two

parameters, the uniform isation of the surface will be effected.


This is done by means of the integrals Jdx/y and fxdx/y,

which are

With

finite

when taken along any portion


x', we put

arbitrary lower limits xQ

v1

=l dx/y+\

v2

dx'/y',
1

rx

rx
I

of the curve.

xdxjy +

x' dx'/y',

and then invert, that is, solve these equations for x and x'. It can
be proved that x + x' and xx' are uniform periodic functions of
The latter property is obvious since the integrals are
v 1 and v 2
.

indeterminate to the extent of additive multiples of their values


when taken round the loops of the curve.

THETA FUNCTIONS

174

[CH.

XVI

terms of which the solution of the


inversion problem may be expressed, arise in the attempt to
construct periodic functions of two arguments in the form of
doubly infinite series of exponentials. In the next section they

The

theta functions, in

are

shown

let

the result of inversion be

to give a uniform parametric representation

x=
If

<$>

x'

(! , v),

(/>'

(v x ,

at present

Vs).

Vi

and v2 are connected by the relation


</>'

(l

"a)

the second integrals disappear and


Vi

dxjy,

va

= <>
we have

xdx/y,

x from these two equations leads to


an equation which is really independent of a?
Thus the coordinates of any point on the sextic y2 =f(x) can
be expressed in the form
so that the elimination of
4>' (vi>

^)

= *o')

'.

Vi

and

v2

<j>

(v lt v s ),

being connected by
<' ("1,

v 2 )=

'.

Now

any quartic curve with one node can be transformed


and the ks are projectively
related to the tangents from the node.
Since the six bitangents
through any point of the singular surface of a quadratic complex
birationally into a sextic of this kind,

are projectively related to the coefficients in the canonical equation of the complex,

Kummer's

follows that all the tangent sections of

it

surface can be transformed birationally into the

same
and therefore into one another, and can be uniformly
represented in terms of the same pair of integrals.
sextic

The

chief use of this representation of plane curves lies in the

application of a particular case of Abel's theorem.


result that the

sum

of the

(ax + b) dx/y

has a constant value

Namely

of integrals

when

the summation

is

extended to

all

intersections of the sextic


2

2/

=/() = (/- h) (x - k2)

(x

- k ) (x - kt) (x - k) (x - k )
3

the

99-100]

TJNIFORMISATION OF THE SURFACE

175

with a variable algebraic curve of given order. The same theorem


is true for any curve into which the sextic can be
transformed
birationally. The proof is elementary and may be given here.
In
the equation of the variable curve substitute f(x) for y* so as to
reduce it to the form
<f>

and

let

(x)

= yf(x),

the symbol 8 refer to a change in

intersections are given

its coefficients.

The

by

F(x) =

^-ff' = 0,

whence, on slightly varying the curve, the corresponding change


is given by

in each intersection

F'

which

is

O) Sx + 2 0S$ - 2/2 2l|rSi/r =

0,

the same as

- yjrS<f>)/F'(x).

F'
Now X (ax + b) (<j}Sylr tyhfy) j (x) vanishes when the summation is extended over all the roots of F(x) =
because the degree
Sx/y = 2 (c/>0>

in

x of the numerator

is

two

at least

less

than the degree of F(x).

Hence

%(ax + b)8x/y = 0,
which proves the theorem.

The
as

DEFINITION OF THETA FUNCTIONS.

100.

functions which uniformise

We

theta functions*.

shall

Kummer's surface are known


them by their explicit

define

and deduce their chief properties from these alone.


made by Jacobi in the theory of
functions was the introduction of the singly infinite series

expressions,

One
elliptic

of the greatest advances

exp (aw2

+ 2nu)

as a uniform entire function possessing certain

periodic properties.

It is convenient to

modify

this slightly

and

write

6 (u)

= exp (27rmw + irirn

the summation extending over

),

and negative integer


values of n, and t being any complex constant whose imaginary
part is positive, to ensure convergence. There are three other
functions, 8*p, connected with this one and obtained from it by
*

all

positive

For information concerning these functions beyond what

is

required for the

present purpose, and for references to the original authorities, see Baker,
Functions (1896) Krazer, Lehrbuch der Thetafunktionen (1903).
;

A belian

THETA FUNCTIONS

176

n by n

replacing
either

or 1

+ 1a

and u by u + ^/3, where a and

the ratios of these

[CH.

XVI

$ may

be

single' theta functions are elliptic

'

functions.

We

can generalise 6 (u) without altering

formal expression,

its

n and u are now to be


row-letters (see p. 25) and t a symmetric square matrix, and
we then have a multiply infinite series and a function of several
arguments. In the case of a double theta function the general

by interpreting the

letters differently,

exponent, written in
2iri (n^ij

and the summation


n2

The condition

full,

is

+n u)+
is

for

iri

(T n ??! 2

2^2?^ n?

+ T^nf),

extended over all integer values of ^ and


convergence is that the coefficient of i in

T n n1 2 + 2T12 M 1 n 2 + T22 ?7 22 must be positive and not vanish for any


values of Wj and n 2 other than n 1 = n 2 = 0.
"With this 0(u) are associated fifteen other functions

obtained from 6{u) by replacing


!

u2 + /32

|/S1;

respectively,

r^,

n2

w,,

u2 by

where a lt a2 &,
,

/32

Wi

+ ^otj,

a p(u),

n2

+ ^a2

are integers.

It

evident that these sixteen theta functions, being functions of

is

only two arguments, must be connected by a great

We proceed
to

many

relations.

by elementary algebra and


coordinate them systematically by bringing them into connecto find all these relations

tion with the orthogonal matrix considered in 16.

CHARACTERISTICS AND PERIODS.

101.

By

definition
Bap

0) = 2 exp {2m(n + $a) (w + i/3) +

which t

in

is

Til

\ T21

all

+ a)

},

a two-rowed symmetrical matrix,


I

and

ttm-(?i

^12

T22/

the other letters are row-letters, standing for pairs of

suffixes 1 and 2.
The summation is for
and n 2 from oo to + oo
i and a 2 are
integers which may be taken to be either
or 1, since the integer
parts of \ a may be absorbed in n
and /82 are also integers, and
since the addition of even integers to /3 can at most change the
sign of the function, it will generally be supposed that /3 X and /S2
letters distinguished

all

integer values of

by

are either

is

or

1.

This being

so,

&

the matrix

a,

a2 \

/V

and will be indiIn accordance with the usual matrix

called the characteristic of the theta function,

cated by the suffix

afi.

100-101]

CHARACTERISTICS AND PERIODS

177

notation aft denotes a 1 ft 1 + a 2 fti and the parity of the function


depends on the value of this expression for by taking a new pair
of summation letters n', = - n - a, we change the order of the
,

terms without altering the value of the function, since the series
absolutely convergent the general exponent is now

is

2tm
from which

it

+ J a) (- u - %ft) + wir (' +

('

+ ft, that is
Til 5i + tm 2 + ft u
TaSi +T S + ^

pair of quantities rd

22

called a period

is

Mu).

**(-) = (_-)"

a) 2

follows that

on account of the periodic properties

+ ft) = (-yee^(u),
(u + to) = (-) 5 P exp (- 27rt'aw -

8e(u
#0

The

of these

first

taking n

is

easily

new

a for a

7rtVa 2 )

a/3

().

the second depends on


pair of summation integers
thus the
verifiable

typical exponent on the left

is

+ \ a) (u + to. + $ft) + ttc't (n + \ a)


= 2iri (n + | a) (w + %ft) + iri-r (n + Ja + a) - tvi-to?
= 2iri (ri + a) (u + %ft) + irir (n' + \ of - 2-jria (u + %ft) - mra
where n' = n + a, and this is the typical exponent on the right.
2-iri

(n

There are sixteen different


four elements alt a 2

the elements are

is

ftlt ft 2

by a

or

The one

1.

called the zero characteristic.

Any

period.

characteristics, since each of the

may be

to these there are sixteen half periods


differ

(rot

in which all
Corresponding

+ ft), and

no two

other half period differs by a period from

one of these, and is said to be congruent to it. There are therefore


only sixteen incongruent half periods.
The effect of adding a
half period to the argument of a theta function is to change the
characteristic and multiply by a non-vanishing function.
The
formula
0*? (u
is

+ t5 +

easily verified

I ft)

= exp

{- wia (u

+ %ft + %ft + tS)}

by comparing the exponents

of n, which are identical.

We may

for the

9 a+Ei p+ ^ (u)

same values

say that the addition of half

periods interchanges the thetas except as to exponential factors.

odd and ten are even.


and vanish for u = 0. By
adding the corresponding half periods to the arguments it follows

Of the sixteen
Hence six thetas

characteristics six are

are odd functions

the last formula that the theta with zero characteristic

from
h.

12

THETA FUNCTIONS

178

vanishes for six half periods.

Whence

since the

[CH.

sum

XVI

of two half

is a
There is a close connection between the squares of the sixteen
Accordthetas and the sixteen linear forms considered in 15.
ingly we adopt a notation for the characteristics which brings out
clearly the analogy. This is sufficiently indicated by the schemes

periods

half period, every theta vanishes for six half periods.

I)

"2

CHARACTERISTICS AND PERIODS

101-102]

It is evident that the half periods \ (ru

+ /3)

laws of addition as the characteristics, and since 6

u = \ (ja +

179

obey the same


vanishes

when

which are the half periods corresponding to the


other symbols in the same column and row as dd, it follows that
the same is true for any other 6, that is to say
b), etc.,

and a'/3' lie on the same row or on the same column. Hence
what was before an incidence diagram becomes now a table of half
if a/3

period zeros of the theta functions.

IDENTICAL RELATIONS AMONG THE DOUBLE


THETA FUNCTIONS*.

102.

The general exponent

in the product

tt/3

(m)

6^ (v)

is

2m (m +

|a) (u + |/3) + 2tti (n + \ a) (v + /3)


+ wit (m + %uf + ttit (n+% a)
= -ni (m + n + a) (u + v 4- /3) + 7n (m n) (u v)
+ \irir (m + n + a) + \ttit (m nf.
2

Now

the pair of integers m,

n can be of four different kinds


when divided by 2 may be

as regards parity, for the remainders


a, b,

c,

Write

or d respectively.

m+n=
in

where

ix

sum

the

a,b,

c,

2fj, + a,
n=2v + a,

Then 8ap (u)

or d.

tt/3

(v)

may be arranged

of four series in one of which the general exponent


2iri (/*

as

is

+ a + |a) (u + v + $) + 2tri (v+\a)(u- v)


+ 27HT + a + a) + 2iriT (v + a)
2

(//,

Since the summation

is

now with

respect to the independent

\x and v, this leads to the product of two theta functions


formed with periods 2t instead of t. If we write

integers

a (u) = 2

exp {2m (n + %a)u

the terms in #a(3 (u) 0*p


in the form

(v) for

(_)3+a0

Hence giving

o+

which a
-

(u

a the values a,

+
is

2iriT (n

},

the same can be

+ v) - ( u _ v

b, c,

+ \ a)

summed

).

d and adding the

results,

we

find

o*

()

ea+5 ( + ) ; ( - v)
= Z a+-a (u-v)(-ye (u + v)

e+ () = 2 (-ye+v

di

* Cf. Clifford,

Abelian Functions,

"On
p.

the double theta-functions," Coll. Papers, p. 369; Baker,

526.

122

THETA FUNCTIONS

180

XVI

[CH.

the values a, b, c, d
we obtain a matrix of sixteen elements which is evidently the
product of the two matrices whose elements are

By

on rearranging the terms.

a+;

and

(-)*"

O - )
(u

Written in

respectively.

giving a and

(a.

+ v)
full

(a,

ft

= a,b, c, d),
ft = a, b, c, d),
a

they are

b (U - V), a {U - v)'
a (U - V), 6 {U - v)
e d (-), e(-t;)
(u-v), d (u-v)_
a(u + v),- a (u + v),-a (u + v), a (u + v)~
-b (u + v), (u + v),- b (u + v), b (u + v)
- (u + v),-@ (u + v), (u + v), (u + v)
d (u + v), d (u + v), d (u + v), d (u + v)_
d ( - V),

(u - v),
(u - V), d (U - V),
(u-v), e. (-),
a (u-v), (u-v),
c

'

-'<

and we recognise that they have the same form as the matrices
which were multiplied together to give the sixteen linear forms
(cf.

We

pp. 29, 30).

infer that the sixteen products

a/s

() 6 afi (v)

are connected by exactly the same relations as the linear forms

In particular they can be arranged as the elements of an


orthogonal matrix

(a/3).

eM (u) e (v),
ecb () ecb (v)~
odd (v) d dd (v),
ba (u) e ba (v),
-6ab {u)8ab (v), 0<fo(w) 0<to(), - (w). (), 6 bd (u) 6bd (v)
- ebe (u) ebc (v\ &cd (u) ecd o), e^ () edb (), - eM (u) eaa (v)
- Qca, (") Oca (v), ~ Obb (") &bb (), ^ad () &ad (v), 6dc (u) do (v)_
ais

flsc

C(!

From
relations

this,

by giving v the values u and

among

103.

the sixteen functions

ap

0,

nearly

all

the

(u) can be deduced.

PARAMETRIC EXPRESSION OF RUMMER'S SURFACE.

Firstly put v

u and

x =e(2u), y

(2m), g

(2m),

= d (2u),

= d (0),
y
then 6\ s (u) actually becomes the linear form denoted by (rs) in
which a, ft, y, 8 have been replaced by x y z, t respectively.
Xo

= a(0),

= b (0),

= o(0),
,

Hence the squares

of the sixteen theta functions satisfy

all

the

which have been proved for the linear forms, and it is


unnecessary here to enumerate them in detail. Any four 6 2rs (u)
which have a common half period for a zero are linearly connected,
and all the quadratic relations which can be deduced from the
identities

102-103]

PARAMETRIC EXPRESSION OF RUMMER'S SURFACE

181

linear forms are consequences of the statement that the sixteen

6\s (u) can be arranged as the elements of an orthogonal matrix.


Secondly put v =
this gives an orthogonal matrix
;

"

"0(O)M)>

0,

0,

8 da (0)

0,

6* (v), -

CC

(0)

6 M (0) 6 M ()

(u),

o,

ed

(o)e cd

(u),

edb (o)6 db ( u )-e aa (0)eaa {u)

o,

-ehb

(0)0 m

(u),

e ad (0)d ad

and the

relations

equations of

(u),

deduced from this show that

0^

(0)

all

the irrational

dc

().

Rummer's

surface ( 19) are identically satisfied after


the preceding substitution. Hence

= a (2u),

y=

(2u),

= e (2u), t= d (2u)

are the coordinates of any point on a Kummer surface expressed as


uniform functions of two parameters u-y and u2
.

The parameters

of the nodes are deduced by a comparison with


the algebraic representation. After substitution for the coordinates
the equation of any trope becomes

so that

we may

sixteen conies.
period,

say that

8^

(n)

the equation of one of the

is

Six of these equations are satisfied by each half

and accordingly the half periods are the parameters of

the nodes.

From
x, y, z,

their definitions, the functions to

which the coordinates

are equated are theta functions of the arguments 2u,


t.

The

all

even.

constructed with constants 2t instead of


are ad, bd, cd,

dd

respectively,

and are

characteristics

Hence

for all

four functions

(-2k) = 6 (2w),
and from the periodic property

(2m + 2ra + 2/3) = exp (- 2-Tria


so that

and

by the addition of a period

to.

2w - 7ri2ra

!1

(2m),

+ /3 to the arguments

acquire the same exponential factor.

Thus the

x, y, z,

ratios of the

coordinates are quadruply periodic functions.

Every pair of values ult w2 gives one point on the


by what has just been proved, all the values

surface,

but

u+ period
give the same point.

Additive periods will therefore be neglected,


and then every point on the surface has two pairs of parameters
(+ u) except the nodes which have only one.

THETA FUNCTIONS

182

[CH.

XVI

addition of a half period to (u) permutes the sixteen


functions 6\p (u), save for exponential factors, in the same way

The

4 permutes the sixteen linear


by the fundamental
Hence
forms.
half periods to
different
adding
the
effected
complexes are
by
as the group of operations of

the collineations determined

the parameters.

THETA FUNCTIONS OF HIGHER ORDER.

104.

theta function of order r and characteristic (a/3) is defined


as a one-valued entire analytic function satisfying the equation

^ (u + to"

4-

0) = (-)^+^ exp {- 27m- a (u + $ t)}

^ (w).

Obviously when the order and characteristic are given, the sum
number of theta functions is another of the same kind.
Again, from this equation it follows that the product of any two

of any

theta functions
teristic are

is

another theta function, whose order and characthus


its factors

obtained by adding those of


a/3

By

a'/3'

repeating this process

Wa +

we

a', |3+/3'

find that the product of

sixteen theta functions of order 1

is

n of the

a theta function of order

n,

whose characteristic is the sum of the n characteristics.


In consequence of the parametric expression of the surface,
the terms of the irrational equation of any curve upon the surface
become products of theta functions of the first order. The
number of factors in each term is the order, n, of the equation,
and the sum of the characteristics in any product is denoted by
the symbol (a/8), which was called the characteristic of the
equation.

Further an odd (or even) product of radicals contains, after


an odd (or even) number of odd thetas, and is therefore an odd (or even) function of u so that the former qualifications of order, characteristic, and parity can now be taken to refer
to theta functions.
It follows from the properties of the irrational
equation that
substitution,

Every algebraic curve of order 2n on

the

general

Kummer

surface can be represented, by an equation of the form

where
either

is a theta function of order n and characteristic


odd or even.

(a/3)

and

103-104]

THETA FUNCTIONS OP HIGHER ORDER

The converse
even or odd

of this theorem

theta

number

to

To prove

algebraic curve on the surface.

show * that the

also true,

is

when equated

function,

183

namely that every


an

zero, represents

this it is sufficient to

of linearly independent jl

is

equal to the

number

of linearly independent curves belonging to


families of order r and characteristic (a/3), namely r %
From the defining equation it follows that

the two

2(+/8)=(-)*2(u).

so that

(u) is simply periodic in u^

the period being


it is

and in u2 independently,

Hence, by an extension of Fourier's theorem,


possible to expand in the form
2.

^ (u) = %tA n{lh e" <*+*%) = %A n e


On

say.

substituting in the preceding condition and equating coeffi-

cients of e evi+v^

we

find

flffm,
-"n^a e

7cin 2
fi

J3A-n n
A
lL

pTria,
z

>

p nia 2

so that only those terms occur for which Wj

both even.

a x and m 2

a 2 are

Further, on substituting in the condition,

^ (m + to) = (-)=3
and equating

exp {-

2irira (u

irinu

find

coefficients of e
eirinra

we

iriafi rrirra^

+ \to)} ^ (u),

A ni+Wj7h

and A ,,,+ in terms of A n^. Hence


chosen
arbitrarily for s, t
be
... r 1 and then
-4m +2, +2J
the remaining coefficients are determined. This proves that there
expressing
1

i!

maJ

are not more than r 2 linearly independent

Since however

the equation of every curve leads to a theta function, the

must be exactly r2

number

From this point the properties of theta functions of any order


may be deduced from the properties of the corresponding families
For example the number of even functions is \r'1
of curves.
,

+ 4) according to the nature of the order and


Another example is Poincare's theorem f that the
characteristic.
equations for u x u 2
|(r2 +

1),

or (r2

%(u + v) = Q, e( + tO = o
have Irs common

solutions.

and the functions have

Consider
definite

* Baker, Abelian Functions, p. 452.

first

parity.

the case when v

= v' =

Then the equations

t Beference, footnote

p.

186 below.

THETA FUNCTIONS

184

[CH.

XVI

represent curves of orders 2r and 2s intersecting at 2p nodes and


Each of the latter gives two values of the
rs p other points.

arguments and each of the nodes only one, additive periods being
always neglected.

Hence the
2 (rs

Again

it

total

number

-p) + 2p =

of solutions

is

2rs.

follows at once from the definition that

e2(+.)eJ(t.-.) S e(),
and of

definite

parity if the functions on the left have also definite parity.

Under

a theta function of order

2r,

zero characteristic

a similar hypothesis

and the 8rs common solutions of

must be evenly divided among the

pairs of equations

''

v') = 0>
^(u+O-o)'

eg,

@2
e2(-*)=i
ls(-")=
*2<-)=i e
=
or
(+*')
e(
5.(t.+o-or
It
i
; -) =
s

<>.

105.

The whole

SKETCH OF THE TRANSCENDENTAL THEORY.


subject

may

be approached from an entirely different

point of view* by defining a hyperelliptic surface as one for which

the coordinates of any point are proportional to uniform quadruply

then shown that the


and on the basis
of certain fundamental propositions in transcendental analysis the
geometrical theory of the surface is built up.

periodic functions of two parameters.

coordinates

may be equated

It is

to theta functions j-,

The hyperelliptic equation of an algebraic curve G on


Rummer's surface <J> is obtained as follows. Let S=Q and 8' =
be two surfaces cutting <& in the curve C, and in residual intersections having no common part.
If the coordinates are replaced
by theta functions, S/S' becomes a uniform quadruply periodic
*

Humbert, " Th^orie generate des surfaces hyperelliptiquea," Liouville,

ser. 4,

ix, 29.

See Krazer, Lehriuch der


t Painleve\ Comptes Rendus (1902), cxxxiv, 808.
Thetafunktionen, p. 126, and elsewhere for theorems and references.

104-105]

SKETCH OF THE TRANSCENDENTAL THEORY

185

function of the parameters u lt

w2 and by a known theorem* can


be expressed in the form </>/$' where <j>, cf>' are uniform entire
functions not simultaneously vanishing except where S/S' is indeterminate, which is not the case along G.
Then by another
theorem f

= #'/$' = e"

S/4>

F (u),

(M)

where

a uniform entire

is

function possessing the periodic properties

= F(u M
+ l) = e " iau F(u),

Ffa + l,
F(u lt u2

F (% + t
F (U + T

2 ),

F (u),

u2 + t31 ) = e (6i+.+*

1T)

12 ,

ui)

U.2

+ T&) = e

2,ri (ft'v.+e'u.-Hi')

i? (

M).

By comparing

the effects of adding periods in different orders


easily find that
a,

b,

aTu>

b',

If

we

are integers.

c'

write

ar 12

6t 12

= aru +

e,

+ ct &'ru - c't
c' = ar w + e, the last
22

we

21

result

gives

- b'ru + (b- e') T + eT + a (t t - t


ia

where /
periods

is

is

another integer.

22

22

2
12

+/= 0,

relation of this form

called a singular relation

in general it is

among

the

assumed that

no such relation exists, in which case all the integer coefficients


vanish, and therefore a = c = b' = 0, b = c' and F becomes a
theta function of order b. Accordingly the equation of every
algebraic curve is obtained by equating a theta function to zero.
The converse proposition depends on the theorem that any three
quadruply periodic functions are connected by an algebraic re-

must

lation]:.

This
to

fill

is

the

the theorem which was required in Chap. xiii.

gap

on the surface.

in

a continuous

theory of

algebraic

(p.

140)

curves

purely algebraical proof that the equation of

every algebraic curve can be written in a certain irrational form


when the constants ks upon which the surface depends are perfectly

probably be long and complicated, because the


which may hold among the ks for the theorem to fail are
On the
of many different forms, as will be seen in Chap. XVIII.
other hand the transcendental expressions of the same relations
have a perfectly definite form, only the integer coefficients in a
linear relation being variable, so that an appeal to functiongeneral would

relations

* Perineal, Acta Math, n, 97.


t Appell, Liouville, s&\ 4, vn, 183, 196.

J Krazer,

p. 116.

THETA FUNCTIONS

186

[CH.

XVI

theory seems to be essential to the complete development of the


subject.

One

other theorem*

zeros,

additive

being

periods

importance, namely
and n have 2mn common

of fundamental

is

that two theta functions of orders

Then the

disregarded.

surface

obtained by equating the coordinates to theta functions, of the

second order and zero characteristic, can be identified as a quartic

and other properties follow as already

surface with sixteen nodes,

The tetrahedron

obtained in a more elementary manner.


reference

is

of

here a fundamental tetrahedron.

By

equating the coordinates to the squares of theta functions


first order forming a Gopel tetrad and eliminating the
arguments, an equation of the surface referred to a Gopel tetrad
of the

This

of tropes

is

relation f

and corresponds

obtained.

'Jasas'

after z

is

the well-known Gopel's biquadratic

form of

to a rationalised

\/yy'

*Jzz'

and z have been replaced by


*'.

on',

y,

0,

linear functions of

y'.

Again, if we take any one of the sixteen thetas of the first order,
and equate the non-homogeneous coordinates to the negatives of

dHog6jdui, d'loge/du^u,, 3 2 log 6/duf

we

Kummer's

obtain another parametric expression of

If the

fundamental sextic in k

surface^.

is

X + \^k + Xik" + Xsk3 + X4 fc + X


4

5
6

/<;

*-6&

6
,

by taking a new origin the equation of the surface can be written


in the symmetrical determinant form

-X
|X!
2z

-2;/

-2y =

X
-4<z-\2
2i/ + \ 3

-4>cc-\4

2x

iX

2z

2y

+ ^\

0.

2x

\
-X
B

The transcendental theory suggests two generalisations of


Kummer's surface. By interpreting the matrix notation differently
we can define theta functions of p variables u ... up with 2^>
different characteristics.
These may be arranged in " Gopel
1

* Krazer, p. 42.

PoincarS, Bull, de la Soc. Math.,

xi,

129.

t Gopel, Crelle (1847), xxxv, 291. This is the historical origin of the transcendental theory. Baker, Abelian Functions, pp. 338, 466.
J Baker, Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc, ix, 513 and xn, 219.

SKETCH OF THE TRANSCENDENTAL THEORY

105]

187

systems " of 2P characteristics (a g /3 s ). With one of these systems


a ^-fold in space of 2? 1 dimensions is denned by

xs

= 6\t

{u),

(a

= l,

2,

...&),

a factor of proportionality being omitted.

many

properties analogous to those of

This p-fold possesses

Kummer's

surface*.

suggested by the
hyperelliptic theta functions, for which the elements of the symmetrical matrix t are connected by | (p 1) (p 2) relations,
generalisation in a different direction (

is

and the absolute constants upon which the function depends are

independent cross ratios of the roots of the fundaSelecting any one of the 2 2p thetas
equation.
there are \p (p + 1) functions 3 2 log 0/du r dus (r, s, =1 ...p) connected by \p (p 1) relations. This set of relations represents a

the 2p

mental (2p

+ 2)-ic

p-fold in space of
* Wirtinger, (for

\p

p = 3),

(p

1) dimensions.

Gottinger Nachrichten (1889), 474, and for the general

case Monatshefte fur Mathematik

und Physik

t Baker, Proc. Gamb. Phil. Soc,


557.

ix, 521.

(1890),

i,

113.

See also Klein, Math. Ann., xxviii,

CHAPTER

XVII.

APPLICATIONS OF ABEL'S THEOREM.


TANGENT SECTIONS.

106.

The hyperelliptic representation of the surface consists in


equating the coordinates to theta functions of the second order
and zero

characteristic.

independent

is

22

= 4,

The number

and

of these which are linearly

so every equation of the form

(2)

represents a plane section, as in the theory of quartic curves.

From

the definition of theta functions of higher order

it

follows that

e ? (u - v)
(

ttp

? (u
v

III j

+ v) = o

In particular, using theta functions of the


6 a?
is

"-

'

().
*

first

order,

O - v) 0p (u + v)

a theta function of the second order and zero characteristic, with

arguments

Wj,

u2

hence the equation

o* ( represents a plane section.

e* ( + v) = o
At every point

v)

of the section there

are two pairs of parameters, (u 1} u 2 ) and (- u lt U2), one of which


satisfies

and the other


Oafi

{U

+ V) = 0,

so that either of these equations

equation of the curve.

may

The advantage

be taken separately for the


of this

is

that by means of

the equation

eafi

(u-v)=0

a single pair of parameters () is associated with each point of the


curve, additive periods being neglected. Using x, y, z for non-

106]

TANGENT SECTIONS

homogeneous coordinates,

189

da x\doa and
and
z*
further,

in passing along the curve

du^/dx are uniform quadruply periodic functions of w 1( u 2


therefore

expressible rationally in

terms of

oc,

y,

and w2 are finite, so that jdu^ and fdu2 are " integrals of the first
kind" for the curve. The number of such integrals is equal to
the deficiency of the curve, and so the plane section is of deficiency 2

Uy

at least.

The equations

0(u-v) = O,

0(u + v) = O

therefore

186) two common solutions, differing only in sign, and


representing the same point.
Since either solution

satisfies

both of the equations

have

(p.

^-{0(u-v)0(u + v)} = 0,

-{O(u-v)0(u + v)}=O,

must be a double point on the curve. Hence the section


by a tangent plane, and has a double point at the point of

this point
is

contact.

In the equation of a tangent plane section it is indifferent


which of the sixteen thetas is used. Selecting that with zero
characteristic,

we can

In the identity

(p.

easily find the

coordinates of the plane.

179)

= e( - v) a (u + v) + b (u- v)(u + v)
+ (u-v)c (u + v) + d (u- v) d (u +
replace u by u + v and v by u v then
( + V) 0o (U - V) = a (2) a ( + 6 (2) l (2)
+ (2d) c (2m) + d (2d) e d (2m)
= a (2d) * + 6 (2d) y + c (2d) + d (2d)
0,(u) 6>(d)

v),

so that the coordinates of the tangent plane are the

of d as the point coordinates of

parameters of the plane.

u,

and (+

v)

may be

same functions
regarded as the

This shows the self-polar nature of the

2
surface with respect to the fundamental quadric x

+ y + z + t = 0.
2

Similarly by selecting another theta it may be shown that the


surface is self-polar with respect to another quadric or a funda-

mental complex.
(0

Incidentally

odd), the line joining (u)

we

and

notice
(d) is a

that

if

(u v)

= 0,

ray of a fundamental

complex, and the curve of intersection with a fundamental quadric


is

given by

0(2w)

O,

(0

= even).

* Krazer, p. 117.

APPLICATIONS OF ABEL'S THEOREM

190
Let

(it)

be the point of contact of the plane

0(u-v) = O,
if (P),

plane

= (PXi P )
2

and

(v),

is

is

an odd

0(u

(v),

[CH. XVII

then

+ v) = O;
+ P) lies on the
+ \P), which
joining (u) and (v + $P)

period, the point (v

the point of contact of the plane (u

Hence the

contains the point (u).

line

is a bitangent, touching the surface at both points.


bitangents through the double point of the section
o

Hence the

six

(u-) = O

touch the surface again at the points

u=

+ odd

half period.

Univocal curves.

The tangent

sections are the simplest case of univocal curves*

on the surface, so named because of the two pairs of parameters


The
of any point only one satisfies the equation of the curve.
general univocal curve

is

represented by

<">( -t;) =

where (u) is
and (v) is any pair of constants.

0,

n and zero characteristic,


The other parameters of its

a theta function of order

points satisfy

u-v) = 0,

( u v) is an

<>(-

and

since

(n)

(u v)

in)

even theta function of

order 2n and zero characteristic, the univocal curve

and the complete intersection with an


double points on the curve given by

e(u-ti) = o,

is

n-ic surface.

<)(_ u -v)

of order 4w
There are m2

= o.

Thus the univocal curves occur among the ordinary curves on


the surface, and are distinguished by the corresponding thetafunction breaking into factors.
If and ' are of the same order
and zero

characteristic, consideration of the functions

(u - v) ' (- u - v)

leads without further analysis to

(- u - v) ' (m - v)
numerous geometrical theorems

of considerable interest.

107.

We

have seen that

v^

COLLINEAK POINTS.
and u2 are integrals of the

first

the curve

0(u-v) = O,
*

" Courbes univoques," Humbert, Liouville,

4, ix, 154.

kind for

COLLINEAR POINTS

106-107]

191

by Abel's theorem, the sum of the parameters of four


is constant.
If two of these points are at the
double point, their parameters have zero sum hence if (u) and (')
and

so,

collinear points

are collinear with the double point

+ u' =

const.

Since u and u' are indeterminate to the extent of additive periods,


this equation should be written

By

+u =

considering a bitangent

const, (mod. P).

we

find that

+u =

2v (mod. P),

which gives another interpretation of the parameters of the


tangent plane. This result may also be inferred from the fact
that if (u) is any point on the curve, so also is ('), = (2v u)
for this establishes an involution on the plane quartic, and it is
;

known

that the only involution

double point.
putting

u'

= u,

is that of points collinear with the


Bitangents of the surface are deduced from this by
giving
u = v + %P,

the half period being subject to the condition

0(iP)

The

= O.

four points of intersection of the two tangent sections (y)

and (v) are given by

0(u-v)0(u + v) = O,
0(u-v')0(u + v') = O,
and are the solutions of the four

0(u-v) = O\ n
0(u-v') = O) K)
0(u-v) = O)
0(u + v') = 0]

'

'

pairs of simultaneous equations

+ v) = O\
+ v') = O\ Kh
0(u + v) = O)
(u - v') = 0)

0(u
0(u

Let (a) and (b) be the two solutions of (1), (a) and (6) of (2),
and (d) of (3), (- c) and ( d) of (4). Then the four collinear
have parameters (a), (b), (c), (d), and the
(u v) =
points on
same points on (u v') = have parameters (a), (b), ( c), ( d).
Hence any two tangent sections cut in four points, whose parameters on the two curves are the same except for two changes

(c)

of sign.
If then (a), (/3), (7), (8) are the (pairs of) parameters of four
tangent planes through a line which cuts the surface in (+ a),

APPLICATIONS OF ABEL'S THEOREM

192

may

(+ b), (+ c), (+ d) we
parameters
(

(a)

(-a)

(b)

(-c)-(d)

(c)

(d)

(c)

(d)

0(u-8)=O.

(-a) (-6)
(a)

(b)

sum

Since the
8 (u

v)

is

suppose that the four points have

a) = 0,
0(u-ff) = O.
0(u- 7 = O,

( c)

b)

(d)

on the section 6 (u

of the parameters of four collinear points on

we have

2v

a-b -c + d= 2a +P
-a + &-c + d = 2/3 + P

-a-& + c + d = 2-y+P
a + b + c + d = 2S + P
Substitute for

6>(a-a) =

a, ft, y,

0{(a

lt
2

8 in the conditions of incidence

6>(&-/3)

0,

then

[CH. XVII

= 0,

0(c-7) = O,

+ & + c-d)-iPs =
}

0(d-8) = O,
(s.=

O,

l, 2,

3,4)

implying that four theta functions vanish for the same point
^ (a + b + c d). But singular conies do not intersect except at
nodes, and so

we

infer that

iP = P

Hence
(

c),

= PS = P4

(mod. P).

the conditions of collinearity of four points (+ a), (+

6),

( d) are that

+ c + d), ^(a-b + c + d),


^(a + b-c + d), ^(a + b + c-d)

\ (- a +

must

all

be zeros of the same theta function, that

Of

sent points lying on the same singular conic.

is,

must

repre-

course, in these

b, c, d may be changed.
2Q = P + P2 + P3 + P4 wefind

conditions, the signs of a,


If

= |( -/3- 7 + 8) + iQ,
& = -H-a + /3- 7 + S) + !Q,
c = (-a-/3 + -y + S) + Q,
d = ( a + /3 + y + 8) + lQ,
a

and

^(-a + b + c + d) = ^(-a + l3 + y +

(mod. P)

8)

+ %Q,

so that the conditions for collinear planes are of the

By way

of illustration

we

various kinds of lines with the surface.


for

any one of the sixteen theta

same

form.

shall consider the intersections of

In the following, 6 stands

functions.

COLLINEAR POINTS

107]

Let a tangent line at (+ u) meet the surface again at (+ a)


Put c = u, d = u and the four arguments become

(1)

and (+

193

b).

$(a-b) + u, \ (a + b)
= u, d = u the arguments become
%(a-b), $(a + b)u.
;

if

however we put

This is practically the same case, since the sign of b


mined, and we have the conditions
6

(4H-*

<(-; )-.
for Oi,

2 b lt b2 leaving one arbitrary.


,

0(a-v) =
showing that
and (6).

= b = u,

showing that the


put a=b = u, c =
0(O)

showing that (u
function.
(3)

(w),

then

0(u+v) = O,
and contains

at (u) and (v) there are

(a)

two

= d = v.

conditions of collinearity are

0(u)

will

= 2v,

First put

The

a+b

the tangent plane at

(v) is

undeter-

*(^-)-o

0(u-v) = O,

O,

For a bitangent touching

(2)
cases.

0(b-v) =

O,

If

is

This

is

6(v)

Q,

= 0,

line is a chord of a singular conic.

d = v;

= O,
v)

Secondly
then the conditions of collinearity are

0(u-v) = O,

0(u

and {u + v) are zeros of the same odd theta

the result already obtained.

For an inflexional tangent put

be found that there

= b = c = u,

d=

+ v) = O,

is

Then the

v.

fU

V\

+a=+6= + c = w.

only one distinct case, so

It

we take

conditions are

fSu

n
-o,

V\

a
= o,
*(2^)

showing that + ^ (u v) is the parameter a of the tangent plane


Thus v = u 2a, and these are easily seen to be the points
u.
where the tangent lines at the double point to the tangent section

at

cut the curve again.

For a four-point contact tangent there are two cases


according as the parameters are taken to be u, u, u, u, or u, u, u, u.
(4)

In the former case the condition

is

0(u)
h.

= O,
13

[CH. XVII

APPLICATIONS OF ABEL'S THEOREM

194

and the

In the second case

line touches a conic.


6>(0)

and 0(2w) = O;

whence the locus of the points of contact

is

one of the six curves

0(2u) = O,
where

an odd

(a/3) is

These are therefore the

characteristic.

equations of the principal asymptotic curves.

108.

Let

ASYMPTOTIC CURVES.

(u) be the point of contact of the plane (v), then

0(u

v)

0(u-v) = O,

O,

and simultaneous increments are connected by

+ v) (die, + dvj + 0 (u + v) (du +


w _ ) (rfWl _ jVi ) + 0(2) ( M _ ) (du (

(u

0(i>

= 0,
dv ) = 0,

dv^)
a

where W and 0 are the partial derivatives with respect to the


first and second arguments.

The

inflexional tangents at the point (u) are the directions of

the two branches of the tangent section

(u

One

of these

Making use

is

0W

(u

of this

we

+ v) du, + 0

0W{u +

v),

0(u + v)

0(u-v)

di^

du 2

(u

= dv,)
dv

0,

'

2)

we deduce

alternative

0v(u-v),

and
first

+ v) du = 0.

(u

find that either

or

the

= 0.

given by

From

v)

-v)du + 0
l

(u - v) du 2 =

0,

showing that the two inflexional tangents coincide and the locus
of u is either a cusp locus or an envelope of asymptotic curves
the cusp locus consists of isolated points at the nodes, and the
envelope, which is the parabolic curve, consists of the sixteen
If (u) is a general point of the surface we must
singular conies.
take the second alternative and find the integrated equation*

u
* Reiehardt,
v, 465.

= v + k.

Nova Acta Leopoldina

(1886), u.

Hutchinson, Amer. Bull. (1899),

107-108]

Hence the

ASYMPTOTIC CURVES

195

hyperelliptic equation of an asymptotic curve

0(2u-k) =
where the constant k

is

O,

satisfies

0(k) = Q.

The sixteen points (k + \P) are the points of contact of the curve
with the tropes.
The equation should be written
0(2u + k)0(2u-k)

O,

and

it is easily verified that this product is an even theta function


of order 8 and zero characteristic, and therefore the asymptotic

curve

is

an algebraic curve of order 16 and the complete

section of a quartic surface passing through

the asymptotic curves do not belong to the

all
"

the nodes.

inter-

Thus

singular " family, for

these are given by the vanishing of an odd theta function.

The asymptotic curve has

sixteen double points, beside the

cusps at the nodes, given by

+ k) = 0,
0(2u-k) = O;
(2m

them by the addition


by the group of sixteen

these points are obtained from any one of


of half-periods to its parameters, that

is

collineations.

The equations

0(2u-k) = O,

0(k)

= O,

regarded as equations for (k), have two solutions, the parameters


of the two asymptotic curves through any point (u) if (&') is one,
then (k') = (2m k) is the other. Hence the curves, whose parameters are (k) and (k'), cut in the points given by
;

= k + k',
\ (k + k') + \P.

2u
that

is,

in the sixteen points

of the second curve

may

Since the equation

be taken in the form

(2u

+ k') = 0,

it

follows that the sixteen points J (k - k') + \P are also on both


The points \ (k + ) and \ (k k') are the points of
curves.
of
contact
a bitangent, and so we have here the configuration of

thirty-two points obtained from one point by drawing a succession


of bitangents, and corresponding to the projections of any point on

Weddle's surface from the nodes.


For six special values of (k), namely half-periods satisfying
(2m + k) (2m k) become essentially
(k) = 0, the two factors of

132

APPLICATIONS OF ABEL'S THEOREM

196
the same, and
order

We

8.

we get the

six

[CH. XVII

principal asymptotic curves of

have

+ to + y8) = (-)"*+? exp (- 2-iria.u - th'to ) 0^ {u),


O (2m + 2ra + 2) = exp (- 8-rriau - 4ariTa*) a p (2m),

#aj3

(m

and a p (2m) is a theta function of order 4 and zero characteristic,


and of the same parity as o/3 (u). Hence the principal asymptotic
curves belong to the family cut out by quartic surfaces through
four conies.

As an example

of the application of Abel's theorem to curves on the

surface the following

may

If a 4ft-ic curve passes through all the

be given.

nodes, any tangent plane cuts


of contact lie on an infinite

it

in

4n

number

points,

which together with the point

of plane (w+l)-ics

each of the latter

cuts the tangent section again in two points collinear with the point of
contact.
If the point of contact is on the 4w-ic the remaining in 2 intersections lie on a plane n-ic through the point of contact.

109.

INSCRIBED CONFIGURATIONS.

The power of this method is well shown by the ease with


which certain inscribed and circumscribed configurations may be
Only a few examples are given here.
constructed.
It must be remembered that in speaking of a point (w) of the
surface we mean the point whose parameters are (u lt 11^) to
which any (pair of) periods may be added.
We have seen that the points (a), (b), (c), (d) are collinear
if the points (x), (y), (2), (t) lie on the same conic, where
2x = a + b+c + d
2y= a b + c + d
2z =
a+bc+d
2t= a + b + c-d,

and that then the four tangent planes through the


(a), 08), ( 7 ), (8), where

bc+d
+d
2y= ab + c + d
28 =
a + b + c + d;
x = d a = c +/3 =6 +y = -a + S
y = c + = d /3 = a + <y = -b + S
z = b+a. = a + $ = d-y=c+8
t=a-a=b /3 = cy= d + 8,
2a

2@ = -a+b-c

thus

tx

line are

108-109]

showing

INSCRIBED CONFIGURATIONS
the incidences

all

contain a point (w)

the condition that a plane (v)

for

197

may

that (u v) be a point on a certain conic.

is

Klein's tetrahedra.
If
is

now we suppose

that

does not

(t)

lie

on the

conic,

but

arbitrary, all the incidences still hold except those indicated

by the

last line, so that

the planes and points are the faces and

These are Klein's " principal tetrahedra "


are arbitrary and so the number of tetra-

corners of a tetrahedron.

x1 ,y ,z

( 34).

hedra

is oo

t2

5
.

Instead of taking

we might have taken

(x), (y), (z) arbitrarily

(a), (6), (c) arbitrarily

on the conic 6 (w)


on the section

0(u-8) = Q;

+ a = 6 + 8 = 3/
b+a= c + 8 = z

then the equations

show that the planes


for

when

, 8, b

are given c

the corresponding point

From

are

(a), (8)

is

"

conjugate

" to

the points

rationally determined.

the relations between the points and planes, having

regard to the fact that the signs are indeterminate,


there
a, /3,

(6), (c),

uniquely determined and therefore

is

7, 8 but the three partitions into

we

see that

d and
two pairs correspond, giving

not a one-one correspondence between

is

a,

b,

c,

six conjugate sets, incident with the six edges of the principal

tetrahedron.

Expressed in terms of

x, y, z,

t,

the points and planes are

=x+y+zt
2/3= x- y + z -t
27= x + y z t
2S= x + y + z + t

=x+y+z+t
26= x y + z + t
2a

=
2d=

2c

2<x

x+yz + t

x+y + z-t

and a typical conjugate

set is given

by

a= h + y + z\
b = S y\
S = S
c = 8-z)
arbitrary and 8{y) = = 6 (z).
j

where 8

is

Bohn's theorem.

The

condition of incidence of point (u) and plane (v) being

0(uv) = O
we can

write

down the parameters

of sixteen points of

Rummer's

surface and sixteen tangent planes forming in themselves a 16

198

APPLICATIONS OF ABEL'S THEOREM

configuration.

Let

(a), (b), (c), (d), (e),

(/) be any

[CH. XVII
six points

on

the conic

6 (u)
then the plane

^(a + b + c + d + e +/),

=v

contains the six points

^(a + b + c + d + e-f)

%(-a + b + c + d + e+f)

and these lie in the planes obtained from the first by changing the
signs of two of the parameters, and so on. The group of operations
is precisely the same as that which deduces thirty-two lines from
a given one in Klein coordinates. The sum of the parameters
of the above six coplanar points is 4u, showing that they lie on
a conic through the point of contact of their plane *.
Humbert's tetrahedra.

The parametric representation


(p.

158)

is

Humbert's

of

tetrahedra "f"

obtained in an equally simple manner by taking

any three points

on the conic

(x), (y), (z)

()

0.

The plane (y + z) contains the point (y) since the difference of the
parameters represents a point on the conic, and for a similar reason
contains (z). The second tangent plane through these two points

- z). The planes (x - y), (y + z), {z x) meet in the point


{-x + y + z), and so on; thus the six tangent planes through the
is

(y

sides of the triangle (x), (y), (z)

meet by threes

in the points

= (-x + y + z)
(b)= (x-y + z)
(c) =
( + y - z)

(a)

(<*)

(*

+ y + )

which are the corners of an inscribed tetrahedron. It remains to


be shown that the edges are tangent lines. Now the tangent
plane (y + z) contains the points (a) and
(a)

the

line

joining

them

(d),

and since

+ (d) = 2(y + z),

passes

through

the point of

contact.

Similarly for the other edges.


* This is Kohn's 'first theorem,' see Math, Ann., xv,
350.
Generalisations and
extensions are suggested by Klein, Math. Ann., xxvn, 106, where the transcendental
representation is deduced directly from line coordinates without the introduction
of
theta functions.

t Humbert,

Liouville, ser. 4, ix, 123,

where generalisations are given.

'

109]

INSCRIBED CONFIGURATIONS

199

Since the configuration is determined by three arbitrary points


on a conic, the number of such tetrahedra is triply infinite. It can
be shown that no other inscribed tetrahedra have the property
that their edges are tangent

The

lines.

pairs of parameters (u) of points on a conic 6 (u)

may

be taken to represent the points on a plane quartic curve with


one node, in such a way that points collinear with the node differ
only in the signs of their parameters.

The

points of contact of

the tangents from the node are represented by the half-periods


which are zeros of 6 (u). We may take a cubic curve in space and
establish a correspondence

between

its

points and the pencil of

through the node of the plane quartic*


A group of three
points on the quartic determines three lines of the pencil and
three points of the cubic and therefore the plane joining them.
Consider the groups of three points cut out by conies through the
node and three fixed points of the quartic they depend on one
variable and hence the corresponding planes in space form a
Since a given line through the node determines two
developable.
lines

groups of the series, therefore two planes of the developable pass


through a given point, and the developable is a quadric cone.
This cone meets the cubic at points for which the two planes
of the developable coincide and which therefore correspond to the
tangents to the quartic from the node. Thus the cone passes
through six fixed points and the locus of the vertex is Weddle's
surface.

The group of points (x) (y) (z) on the quartic belongs to


a linear series if, by Abel's theorem, (x + y + z) has a constant
Since at the same time {x y z) has a constant value,
value.
it follows that the groups (-x) (-y) (-z), projections of the
former groups from the node, belong to another linear series.
These two series determine the same point on Weddle's surface,
which may be denoted by the pair of parameters (x + y + z) or by
/_ x y z). By comparison with the parametric representation
of Humbert's tetrahedra we see that if AA', BB', GC are the
intersections of the quartic curve with any three lines through the
node, the corners of a Humbert's tetrahedron are represented by
the pairs of groups of points

ABC]

A'BC]

A'B'G']

ABC]

AB'G)
A'BC)

ABC'}
A'B'G]

* Wirtinger, Jahresbericht der Deutschen Mathematiker Vereinigung, iv, 97.

CHAPTER

XVIII.

SINGULAR KUMMER SURFACES.


ELLIPTIC SURFACES.

110.

We have seen in the case of the Wave surface that in consequence of a special situation of the nodes in each trope and
a corresponding relation among the coefficients ks of the quadratic
complex, the point coordinates may be expressed in terms of
In the present section we seek the correspondelliptic functions.
ing relation among the periods of the theta functions. Starting
with the more general problem of linearly transforming the
arguments of the theta functions into arguments of
functions,

we

find

certain definite form,

of this form

we

of which the

Wave

Kummer

the periods has a

and by examining the

different relations

are led to a series of elliptic

surfaces of

elliptic

among

that the relation

surface

which

is

the

first,

and

Kummer

elliptic surfaces are particular cases.

Consider the general theta function 0(u^, w 2 ) of the


for which a general pair of periods is
1

u2

surfaces

also to other singular

Tn ai +
T 21 a! +

Ti 2 0,

TjgOs

first

order

+ /3
+ /32
1

where a a2 /3 U /82 are any integers. We seek the conditions that


it may be possible to take linear combinations of ?, and u 2 for new
arguments IT, V so that
may be expressible in terms of elliptic
functions of IT and other elliptic functions of V; that is, so that 6
may be doubly periodic in U alone and in V alone.
,

Assume

U = <)\U\ + gi^,

then the four periods of IT must be linear combinations of the two

110-111]

ELLIPTIC SURFACES

periods 12 and
integers

m m
8

'

fi' of the elliptic functions of U.


can be found so that

S T n + st t = m l + m/fi'
g^n +92^12= nitl + m 'D,'
f

2i

=m n + m 'n'
s

whence, on eliminating g 1
Tn

g2
g2

=m
,

i Cl

+ m i'Q,';

X2, Xi',

= 0,

201

Hence eight

'

SINGULAR KUMMER SURFACES

202

[CH. XVIII

Next take new arguments


v

= (T7 + S) -1 u

two pairs of periods to the normal form

so as to reduce the last

(!!)
Then the

first

two pairs of periods are given by the columns of

the matrix

= (TY + 8)-

(Ta

+ /3).

a transformation is that t must be a


symmetrical matrix; on equating it to its conjugate we have

The

condition

for

+ /8) = (fir + 0) (yr + S)-\


whence
(t<x + /3) (yr + 8) = (ry + 8) (5t + ),
or
T(ay-ya)T + (^y -8o)t + t (aS - 7/8) + /38 - 8/3 = 0,
(ry + S)- 1 (t

which leads to a single relation of the form

Atu + Btu +Gt^ + D (t - tuTjb) + # = 0,


coefficients being integers.
Now in the case of an
2
12

the

assumed that no relation of


that we must have

transformation*
so

it is

ordinary
form exists,

this

7a =
=

8a
yS-y = r = a.8 y&,
017

/3S-8y8

where by r is to be understood a numerical multiple of the unit


matrix. These represent five conditions for the sixteen integers.

The integer r

is

called the order of the transformation.

These equations can be written in another form which


useful.
As they stand they express that

S-J8N

(S

/3\

\y

a)

\-y

8J

/r

0\

\0

r)'

is

often

each matrix having four rows since the right side is a numerical
multiple of the unit matrix, the order of the factors on the left
;

may

be reversed and we have

0\/r

5 -ySx (8
8/ \7 a)
V-7
/

which

is

0\

\0 r)

equivalent to the equations

= r=8~0L yfi,
aP-J3a = = y8-8y.
a8 J3y

As considered by Hennite, Comptet Rendm (1855), xl, 249.


memoir is given by Cayley, Quarterly Journal, xxi, 142

of this

358.

reproduction

Coll. Papers, xn,

THE INVARIANT

111-112]

112.

When

203

THE INVARIANT.

a relation of the form

4t + Bt12 + Gt22 + D (t122 - rn r.a ) + E=0


the corresponding theta functions are called singular. The
surface represented by them is also called singular, and

exists,

Kummer

possesses geometrical features which are absent in the general

from what precedes that a singular theta-

It is evident

case.

may

function

allow a transformation which does not exist

the periods are arbitrary


are not here concerned *

when

with such singular transformations we

We have next to prove that the preceding relation is changed,


by any transformation, into another of the same form, and that
A, = B* 44 C 4<DE, is an invariant for linear transformations.
Consider first the elliptic case. Let the new periods of g x u^ + g 2 u 2
be written in the form
s Cl + MID!, then

Mi

ft

+ MID,' = (m D + nh'D,') an + (m2 ft + m 'ft') a


+ (m ft + mi ft') /3U + (m ft + ml ft') /3
thus M
Ml are integers given by
2

and

so

on

/a

y\

\/3

SJ

this

and from the relations

M,

21

. . .

M M M \_ /m, m m

{Ml Ml Mi Ml) ~ [ml ml ml ml)

/M,.

From

21

satisfied

by

'

a, /3, 7,

we deduce

SINGULAR KUMMER SURFACES

204
If r

= 1,

the inverse transformation

[CH. XVIII

that

also linear, so

is

we

have in this case o-2 A = A', where o-Sl; whence p=l = <r and
A' = A, proving the invariance.
In the general singular case in which A is not a square, m,,m,',
not necessarily integers, can be found in many ways to express the
given singular relation in determinant form. The lines of the
preceding proof may then be followed and lead to the same two
properties of formal and numerical invariance.
It can be proved* that by a linear transformation the singular
relation can be reduced to one of the canonical forms

-iAT +T

sa

11

=0,

- i (A - 1) t + T + T* = 0,
Both of these are included

according to the parity of B.

in the

form

Arn +Br +Cr = Q,


lt

from which

it

follows that the invariant is always positive

for

At^ = (B* - 4A C) t22 + iA (Atu + Btu + Ctv)


= 44 2 t11 + 44 Bt12 + 2 t22
j

and the coefficients of


t(2A, Bf are positive

V 1

in the quadratic forms t(0, l) 2

Since the canonical forms involve the invariant alone,

any two singular

that

and

(p. 176).
it

follows

same invariant can be


This important theorem

relations with the

linearly transformed into each other.


shows that in the elliptic case a linear transformation can be found
which reduces the singular relation to the form

-1=0,
We shall suppose

&T]2
for this has invariant

done

then different

A=

It?.

elliptic surfaces are

values of the positive integer

113.

The
is

and

k.

PARAMETRIC CURVES.

chief geometrical peculiarity of elliptic

the existence upon

that this has been

distinguished by different

them

of

Kummer

two families of curves,

= const.,

surfacesf
u^

= const,

which, since the coordinates of a point on any


one curve are expressible in terms of elliptic functions of one
parameter, are algebraic and of deficiency 1
2

' Humbert, Liouville, sen 5, v, 245.


+ Humbert, Amer. Jour., xvi, 221.

112-113]

On
(A,

205

surfaces, as on the general surface, the point


the same as the point (+ ^ + U a 2 +
where
2 ),
any pair of periods; hence the curves

elliptic

a2 )

(ai,

PARAMETRIC CURVES

is

Pa)

is

= !,
Wg =

0t 2

intersect in all the different points given by

i= a 1 + P
m2 = (h + Q 2

1 ,

where (Q1;

any pair of periods, and the ambiguous signs are


These are the same as the points given by

2 ) is

independent.

=
w2 = a2

Mi

+ Pi - Q u

Since (1,0) and (JcTn /- 12 1) are pairs of periods, whatever


integer k may be, and in the elliptic case when kr 12 = 1 the latter
is (krn 0), it follows that all the distinct points of intersection
,

are given by

= &! + rmn + mtjj,


=
< m < & 1. Hence there

W2

<m^

where

&

1,

C&2,

are

2/c

common

points.

We

see that the coordinates are doubly periodic functions of

and kru in fact if is a double


theta function of the second order and zero characteristic, and if in
!

alone, the periods being 1

the relation

(i + Tn a +

+ ftu 2 + T-nCli + T
+ /3 )

= (u ,u )ex.Tp 4<Tri(a +a u )-2Tri(Tn a + 2T


krn = r
a = 0, /3 = a,
we put
ai = ka,
i

22 CC2

TiaOta

we

1 tt 1

12

a 1 a2

+T

2
22 or 2 )},

find

(! + TjS + /8
showing that is a

1(

m2 )

= (!, m )
2

exp ( ikirioiih

2&7n.Ya

2
),

The
number of zeros* not differing by multiples of 1 and Tx is 2k, and
a parameter curve w2 = const, cuts one of the coordinate planes in
2k points, and

is

If a surface

single theta function of u^ of order 2k.

therefore of order 2k.

of order k be

points of the curve w x


deficiency

is

1.

arbitrary point of

If,

further,

w2 = a2 ,it

* Krazer,

made

Oj, it will

will

to pass

contain

through 2k? arbitrary


it

entirely, since its

be made to pass through an


cut this curve in 2&2 + l points

Lehrbuch der Thetafunktionen,

p. 41.

SINGULAR KUMMER SURFACES

206

and therefore pass through

Now

it.

2&2

1 is

[CH. XVIII

number

exactly the

of conditions which the complete intersection of

Kummer's

surface

with an undetermined k-ic surface can be made to satisfy, and so


we have the theorem that the curves Wj = ! and w2 = a^ form
together the complete intersection with a surface of order

k.

Since the curve u 2 = a 2 was determined by a single point of

it,

the parametric curves belong to two linear systems of dimension

and either system

1,

cut out by

is

surfaces through

A--ic

any curve

of the other system.

may be

Analytical proofs of these theorems


single theta functions
(u, t)

where
tion

obtained by using

denned by

= 2 exp {2nd (n + a) (n + \ /3) + irir (n + a)

the letters represent single quantities and the


for all integer values of ??.

all

is

2
}

summa-

may be shown directly, by rearranging the terms, that the


double theta functions to which the coordinates are equated may
It

be replaced by the expressions


k-l

22 exp - faik-

+ l-a,,) + I
{2u, + (2*, + a ) k~\ 2t u X {2 + (2/ + a ) k~\ 2rw
where (a a ) = (10), (11), (01), (00) in succession.
The two parametric curves u = a and w = a are given by
1

(v,.

(j/j

lt

<*!>}

i0

],

2,

the equation
Sii (ku!

kdj

krn ) S-n (ku

%i (ku 2
The

&t22 ) S-n (ku2 + ka2 &t22 ) =


,

0.

a double theta function of order 2k and zero


and therefore represents the complete intersection

with a surface of order

k.

114.

The curves w

UNICURSAL CURVES.

= o +^P
1

and

= a + \P are
When Oj is small

w,

being any pair of periods.

2)

+ |Pi, ) and ( Oj + JPuMis) are


= \P occurs repeated in the linear

(!

u1

krn )

left side is

characteristic,

(Pj,

+ ka^
ka

near.

the points

Hence the curve

system and

the same,

is

therefore of

Again the points (oj + \ P] w2 ) and (- c^ + Px u2 + P2 )


same,
so that at any point of the curve u1 = \P1 the varithe
are
able parameter w2 can have two values whose sum is P2
the
order

k.

coordinates

are therefore

functions of a

new

even doubly periodic


and hence are rationally

proportional to

variable u 2

\P2

113-114]

UNICUBSAL CURVES

207

expressible in terms of one even elliptic function.


Hence the
curves obtained by equating the parameters to half-periods are of

order k and unicursal.

When

is

odd, there

lie

on the curve

Mi=i( Tni +

T 12 a 2

),

the nodes associated with the characteristics


(i

a2 \

l& OJ

(<*i

<h\

Vft

1/

Vft

<*i

+l\

+1

<*i

U+i

a 2 +l
1

the first parameters of these nodes are either equal to the preceding value of m x or differ from it by | (t 1s + 1), which is here equal
to the period (k + 1) t12 on account of the singular relation. The
for

sum

of these four characteristics

product

is

is zero and the parity of their


odd: accordingly they belong to a Eosenhain tetrad.

Hence there

are only four unicursal curves in the

first

family of

parameter curves, and each passes through a different Rosenhain


tetrad of nodes.

Similarly the curve

M2

= i (Taii + TjjOa + /3 )
2

passes through the nodes associated with the characteristics

aA

/a,

a 2\

\o

&)

\i

&)

/Oj

+1

/ x

+l

A+U Vi A +

i/

forming a Rosenhain tetrad, having one corner in common with


the preceding one. Hence the unicursal curves of the second
family pass through the tetrads of another group-set and one
curve of each family passes through each node. Since a unicursal
curve counted twice is a particular case of a parameter curve,
every intersection of two unicursal curves, except their common
node, counts as four common points of two parameter curves, the

node itself counting as two, so that the two unicursal curves cut in
one node and \ (k 2 - 1) other points.
A surface S of order \ (k + 1) can be drawn through these
|(A; 2 +1) common points and ^(k + 1) arbitrary points on each
2
S then passes
curve, for this makes ^(k+l) + l conditions.
through both curves. Now each curve meets the common face of
the two Rosenhain tetrahedra in three nodes and \ (k 3) points
of contact, so that 8 meets the conic in that face in k + 3 points,
and therefore contains it entirely. Hence two unicursal curves of
different systems, together with one conic, form the complete intersection with a surface of order %(k + 1).

SINGULAR KUMMER SURFACES

208

When k

is

[CH. XVIII

even the curve


i

= i ( Tu a + Tu a2 + &)
i

passes through the nodes associated with the characteristics

a2\

/,

aA

lo

oy

vo

1/

forming a Gopel tetrad.


s

passes through the

/a, a.A

/Oj a s \

U u u

or

Similarly the curve

= h (T

si

ai

+ Ts2s + &)

same nodes.

There are four unicursal curves


by pairs in

in each system of parameter curves, and they intersect

the nodes of four Gopel tetrads of a group-set.

Two unicursal
2 points. A
of these common

curves through the same nodes cut again in \k*


surface of order

\k can be drawn through $k* +

points and then contains both curves.

GEOMETRICAL INTERPRETATION OF THE SINGULAR


RELATION &T]2 = 1.

115.

Each pencil of parametric curves determines an involution on


each singular conic, that is, groups of k points depending linearly
on one

group is determined by any one


Four of these groups are cut out by unicursal
curves (counted twice), and are of a special character. Upon this
depends the situation of the six nodes on each conic and the
variable, so that each

point of the group.

geometrical interpretation of the singular relation.

When k

is

even the four unicursal curves pass through Gopel

tetrads of nodes, forming a group-set,

and three of the tetrads have

common with any

trope, as is at once seen from

each two nodes in

the diagram, in which the four tetrads and one set of coplanar
nodes are indicated.
Hence three groups of the involution consist of two nodes and
\ (k 2) points counted twice, and one group consists of \k points

counted twice.

The other pencil

of parametric curves determines

the same involution.

When

is

odd the unicursal curves pass through Rosenhain


and the

tetrads of which one contains three nodes of a given trope

INTERPRETATION OF THE SINGULAR RELATION

114-115]

others one each.

Hence one group

209

of the involution consists of

three nodes and \ (k 3) other points counted twice, and three


groups consist of one node and |(& 1) points counted twice

The other pencil of parameter curves


determines another involution in which the parts played by the

(pairs of coincident points).

two

sets of three

nodes are interchanged.

To illustrate this, consider the case when k = 2.


The nodes on each conic form three pairs of an involution, and
therefore the chords joining them are concurrent.
This has been
shown

to

There exist eight


by pairs in

be the condition for a tetrahedroid.

unicursal curves of order

2,

four Gopel tetrads of nodes

that
;

is conies,

intersecting

these tetrads are therefore coplanar.

Three of these pairs of conies cut any singular conic in three pairs
of nodes the remaining two conies touch the singular conic at the
double points of the involution to which the nodes belong.
There exist on the surface two pencils of elliptic quartic curves
(intersections of pairs of quadric surfaces), obtained by making one
parameter or the other constant. These results agree with what
has been proved before by other methods.
Next suppose k = 3.
Each pencil of parameter curves consists of sextics* cutting
each singular conic in groups of three points of an involution
;

including one group of three nodes, say 1, 3, 5. Now the chords


joining points of the same group touch a conic C, since two
C touches the sides
pass through any point of the singular conic.
of the triangle 135, and since the two tangents to it from each
of the other three nodes

2, 4, 6,

are coincident,

Hence a necessary geometrical

them.

passes through

conditidn for an elliptic

is that a conic should pass through three


nodes and touch the lines joining the other three it is easy to show
The corresponding relation
that this condition is sufficient.

surface of invariant 9

among the

coefficients

k s or modular equation,
,

|(t-i-y 4 = 0,

is

(r,s=l,

and the symmetry of

2,

3)

this result, as well as the existence of the

other pencil of parametric curves, shows that another conic can be


circumscribed about 1, 3, 5, and inscribed in 2, 4, 6.
The group of nodes 1, 3, 5 of the first involution is cut out on
the singular conic by a twisted cubic passing through the re-

maining node 135 of the Rosenhain tetrad determined by them.


This cubic is projected from the node 135 into the conic circum*

Further properties are given by Humbert, Amer. Jour,

xvi, 249.

14

[CH. XVIII

SINGULAR KUMMEE SURFACES

210
scribing

1,

and inscribed in

3, 5,

2,

Similarly there

6.

4,

is

twisted cubic of the other system passing through the nodes


2, 4, 6, 24G, and is projected from the last, which is the same as
135, into the conic C.
The two cubics, taken together, form
a degenerate member of the ordinary family of sextics through six
nodes cut out by quadrics through one conic.

INTERMEDIARY FUNCTIONS.

116.

Consider

now Kummer's

surface defined by theta functions in

the usual way, except that the periods are connected by a singular
relation

whose invariant

is

They

not a square.

are characterised

geometrically by the breaking up of some of the ordinary curves


lying on the surface into curves of lower order which do not in

general exist.

The general transcendental theory shows that the


equation of any curve

F (u) = 0,

is

\og{F(u + Ta

hyperelliptic

where

+ /3)/F(u)}

By multiplying
1.
by the exponential of a
2 1, and making the periodic conditions consistent we can arrange that

is

linear in

ult u2

quadratic in

v^,

F( Ul + l,u2) = F(u),
u2 +l) = F (u) exp

F{ih.,

2-Kimu^

= F(u) exp 2-jri (wut/j + n + rm^


F (Mi + TWI W +
= F (u) exp 2ni {n a u + % + mT
{

12

u2 ) +

const.},

1-22)

12

u2)

+ const.

J,

where m, n11 n n n^,n^ are integers and the periods are connected
by the relation
,

WiiTia

+ (rh2 + it)

In the ordinary case


T11,

in this relation
tion of order

t-22

all

=n

21

Tn

+ (n m + mT

must be
or n^

the preceding relation

zero,

-t

2
12 ,

and then

but when
may be made
;

+ integer.

the integer coefficients of

tj2 ra Tn T22
,

t 12

12 )

and

1,

becomes a theta func-

a singular relation exists,


equivalent to it and then

functions different from theta functions can exist and have the
preceding properties. By a linear transformation it is possible
= and reduce the singular relation to the form
to make

WsiT n

+ (^22 - Mil) tm - n a Ta =

0,

115-116]

INTERMEDIARY FUNCTIONS

which includes the two canonical forms

211

odd and even

for

in-

variants.

Take new arguments (U) denned by


\n\ C/'1 = w 11 w + 12 m 2
1

U =n

\n\

where
in

+
= n^n^ n

\n\

21 u 1

matrix notation the substitution

The new periods


fined by

12

n 2i

is

U = nu.

are the elements of a matrix t which

is

symmetrical on account of the singular relation.

is

de-

w T = TIT,

and

n 22 u 2

Then

* = *(&),
U + l) = $(U),
<I>(t/i + l, U = (U
* (Cfi + Tu, U + t = $ U) exp \n\ ^ + const.},
=
* #1 + t 17 + t^)
U) exp - 2m \n JJ + const.},

where

2)

12 ,

21 )

<I>

2-jri

showing that constants clt c2 can be found so that (U) is a


theta function of the arguments (U c), of order n and zero
,

characteristic.

The

We

shall take (c) to be a half-period.

integer elements of the

equalities,

as

Since

follows.

the

matrix (n) satisfy three ininvariant of the singular

relation
"si Til
is

positive,

T 22

ra 12 ra 21 )

>

- %l) T - n

(22

12

12

we have
(n n

+n

22 )

4 (nn n 22

0.

Again, in order that the matrix t may be suitable


struction of a theta function, if rrs = r rs ' + iT rs ",

then

the con-

> 0,

t"

for,

but

|ra|

and

= |ra||T"|,
> 0,
n = n-aU^, n n n > 0.
rn " = WnTn" + n t " > 0,
2

|T"|

=
|

so that
Lastly,

|rcT"|

t"

21

12

may be proved by elementary


inequality may be replaced by
nn + w > 0.

and

it

21

considerations that this

22

These three inequalities are implied by the single condition


l

?? 22

>

Vn u n22 - n 12 n

2l

142

SINGULAR KUMMER SURFACES

212

SINGULAR CURVES.

117.

Taking

<& (

characteristic,

equation

is

we

[CH. XVIII

and
whose

t) to be a theta function with definite parity


find that a family of singular curves exists

F (u) =

where

F (u + tS + /S) = ( - y#+i> F (u) exp - man (2m + th)},


{

and

F is

either even or odd.

This

differs

from the periodic property of a theta function by

the presence of the matrix (n) in place of a single integer.


we assume an expansion

F(u) = e"m 2
the preceding relation gives
of

A SiiSi

whence

If

2 "*

and

-4, 1+Blli S2+ 12 ,

-4 Sl+%1

,2+ n M

in terms

number of linearly indeF(u) having the same characteristic a/3 and


that the

follows

it

pendent functions
matrix n is the area of the parallelogram whose corners, referred
to rectangular axes, are (0, 0), (n^, Wj. 2 )> (au ^22), (%+%, n 12 + n22),
that is, n
The nodes through which the singular curve F (u) = passes
are given by the half-periods for which F vanishes.
These are
seen from the periodic relation to be \ (tS + #) where
I

|.

fi/3

+ ayS + an/3

has the opposite parity to F.


pass through the same nodes.

Hence

all

the curves of one family

If the elements of the matrix

n"

satisfy the condition

n*j

> 'vVi22 -

WiaWai,

so also do the elements of

n n _1 =
I

12
1

11'

and the singular relations are the same in both

cases.

By adding

the exponents in the period relations we see that


the product of two intermediary functions, one from each family, is
a theta function of order n11 + n w and characteristic the sum of
those of

its factors.

Hence the curve F(u) = is of order wu +to22 and arises from


the breaking up of an ordinary curve of order 2 (n + n ). The
B
base points of this ordinary family are divided among the two
singular curves which intersect in a certain number of other nodes

117-118]

SINGULAR CURVES

213

It can be proved that the number of intersections of two


singular curves, distinguished by different matrices n and n', is

K< +

- n^tia - n n
On putting n,,' = n = 2, n = n = 0, the second
plane section, and we get the order n n + n
i

22u'

12 ).

21

'

22

12

21

curve becomes a

22 .

The

SINGULAR SURFACES WITH INVARIANT

118.

5.

existence of singular curves upon a singular surface of

invariant 5 depends

upon the choice of four integers n n n12 n21 n 22


,

satisfying

nn

The

+ n^ = V4 (nu n^ - n

12

n 21 )

5.

smallest values give the most interesting result and accord-

ingly

we take n = n 12 = w =

equation F(u)

21

the characteristic

nw =

1,

The

2.

is

corresponding

+n

= 3,

and if
through the nodes \ (ra + /3)

represents a curve of order


zero, it passes

rin

22 ,

where
<*i

A + i/3

has the opposite parity to F.

+ 2/3i + 2a /3
Now it is easily
2

found that the

congruence
(!

+ O & + !& =

(mod. 2)

has ten solutions, and the congruence


(*!

+a

2)

&+

oti/3.,

(mod. 2)

has six solutions; the latter are underlined in the diagram

and are seen

to

dd

ac

ba

cb

ab

-da

cc

bd

be

cd

db

aa

ca

bb

ad

dc

form a Weber-hexad.

The cubic cannot

pass

and
through the ten nodes since five of them
the
projected
from
node
is
It
so must pass through the hexad.
(aa) by a quadric cone passing through the intersections of the
tropes (cd), (dc), (bd), (db), (cb), (cd) taken consecutively and
therefore touching the remaining trope (be) which passes through
the node (aa). The fact that such a conic can be drawn is a
consequence of the singular relation, and it is easy to express the
lie

in the trope (ab),

conditions in terms of the constants of the surface.

SINGULAR KUMMER SURFACES

214

The values

i11

= 2, n^=l,

? ]2

passing through the nodes J (toc


2a 1 /31 - <*!& - a 2
or

that

(i
is,

+ as)

= n = 1,
21

+ /3)

give another cubic

where

A + a A = 1 (mod. 2)
A + A = 1 (mod.
2

<*

the underlined hexad in the diagram

dd

[CH. XVIII

2),

118-119]

SINGULAB SURFACES WITH INVARIANT 8

215

the singular relation has the canonical form

2t

+ rm = 0.

The

singular family of characteristic

(a/3)

given by

that

is

a'/3'

passes through the nodes

+ a'/3 + an/3 = or 1 (mod.


(ft + ft') + a ft' + a/ft =
a/ = a = ft' = ft' =
a ft = 1
= ft= 1, giving four nodes

aft
(!

')

First take

2),

or

1.

'

the congruence

has one solution a x

since a 2

and ft are

These nodes are

arbitrary.

lj
or

lj

and form a Gopel

(l

(ba)

(act)

The

tetrad.

l)

(ab)

(l

lj'

(bb)

alternative congruence

*,&

= (>

gives the remaining twelve nodes, which are inadmissible since

there are tropes containing six of them.

Hence there

exists

on this surface a singular family of quartics

passing through four nodes and depending on one parameter.


This parameter can be chosen to make the quartic pass through

an additional node which


since it

is

will

not a base node.

then be a double point on the curve


projecting from this node we get

By

a quadric cone passing through the four lines of intersection of


four tropes taken in order, and touching the remaining two.

The

nodes in any trope and


reciprocal property holds for the
conic
can
be described through two
a
characterises the surface
quadrilateral
the
sides
a
formed by the other four.
nodes to touch
of
six

By taking

different values

for.

a2

'

and

ft'

we get three other

families of quartics passing through the remaining three tetrads of

Again taking

the group-set.

we

/u

i.W

\n n

nj

-2\
2

find a family of quartics of characteristic

a' ft

passing through

the nodes given by


ttift'

so that it

Thus there

is

is

+a

ft'

+ a/ft + 'ft + a
2

ft

or

1,

necessary only to interchange a and ft a! and ft.


a second family of quartics through the nodes (aa),

(ab), (ba), (bb),

and by the general theory any two curves, one

from each family, lie on a quadric.

[CH. XVIII

SINGULAR KUMMER SURFACES

216

BIRATIONAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF
INTO THEMSELVES.

120.

KUMMER SURFACES

Examples of these are the fifteen collineations which with


make up the group of sixteen linear transformations upon
which the whole theory of the general Kummer surface depends.
Other transformations, not linear, are geometrically evident,
namely the sixteen projections of the surface upon itself from
the nodes, and the correlative transformations by means of tangent
planes collinear with a trope. The question was proposed by
Klein*, and answered by Humbert^, as to whether any other

identity

such transformations exist.


A method is given in 96
quartic surfaces into which

be transformed birationally

finding in succession all the

for

the general

among

Kummer

can

surface

different orders

these, for

of the transformation, the surface itself occurs, as for example

when n = 6, s = 0. Two examples


who refers the surface to a Gopel

are pointed out by Hutchinson {

The equation

tetrad of nodes.

has the form

A (xH* + y*z*) + B (ft* + z*x*) + C {ft* + x*y*) + Dxyzt


+ F(yt + zx) (zt +xy) + G (zt + xy) (xt + yz)
+ H (xt + yz) (yt + zx) =
and

is

unchanged by the transformation


x'x

so that

by using

= y'y = z!z =

different tetrads

we

t't,

obtain in this

group of birational transformations.


Weddle's surface
<*r\ xs e /,

Again

way an

the

(s

infinite

equation of

= 1,

2, 3,

is

unchanged by the same

substitution.

There are

of this form, referred to different tetrahedra of nodes, and

obtain in this

Kummer's
two

way another

4)

fifteen equations

we

group of transformations of
a one-one relation between the

infinite

surface since there

is

surfaces.

There

exist special

Kummer

surfaces which admit other trans-

formations than those indicated.

We

consider only the problem

of finding those surfaces which can be linearly transformed into


themselves|| otherwise than by the group of sixteen collineations.
* Klein, Math. Ann. (1885), xxvii, 112.

t Humbert, Liouville (1893), ser. 4, ix, 465.


t Hutchinson, Amer. Bull. (1901), vii, 211.
Showing that the six parameters of three nodes on a unieursal quartie are
those of six nodes on a conic, Humbert, Comptes Rendus (1901), cxxxm, 425.
Kantor, Amer. Jour. (1897), xix, 86.
||

120]

TRANSFORMATIONS OF KUMMER SURFACES

217

Suppose that such a transformation exists it changes the nodes


on one conic into the nodes on the same or some other conic, and
by combining one of the sixteen collineations we may arrange
;

that the conic

the same.

Conversely if the six nodes 1,2,3, 4, 5, 6


same nodes in a
different order 1', 2', 3', 4', 5', 6', then it is easily seen that a
linear transformation can be found which interchanges the Gopel
tetrahedra of tropes 0, 12, 34, 56 and 0, 1'2', 3'4', 5'6', and leaves
the surface unaltered. Thus the problem is reduced to finding
in the plane

is

are projectively related to the

the conditions under which six points on a conic can be linearly


transformed into themselves *.

Now in a linear transformation of a conic into itself the chords


joining corresponding points touch another conic having double
contact at the self-corresponding points.
These conies may be projected into concentric circles and
then any cyclic permutation must represent a regular polygon
inscribed in one circle and circumscribed about the other; for
instance a cycle (12) means that the points 1 and 2 are the ends
of a diameter, and the inner circle has zero radius.
Now any

permutation can be arranged as a set of cycles, the elements of


each cycle being permuted in cyclic order among themselves;
the present case there must not be more than two points
unchanged, and the remaining points must be the corners of
one or more regular polygons, the number of corners being the

in

same

for different

polygons.

Under these

restrictions the only

possible permutations are represented by the following six types

I.

SINGULAR KUMMER SURFACES

218

The

third

[CH. XVIII

column describes the projective nature of the

situation of coplanar nodes regarded as lying on a circle passing

through / and J the circular points at infinity. By comparison


with the results of 57 we identify the corresponding surface as
a tetrahedroid except in case V.
It is interesting to see

how

these surfaces arise in the theory

of the birational transformation of the hyperelliptic surface into


itself*.

The general

hyperelliptic surface is defined

by equating

the coordinates to theta functions of the same order and zero


characteristic, and in general each point has a single pair of
parameters Wj, w2
Then diii and du2 are differentials " of the first
kind " for the surface and must be linearly transformed when the
.

Thus we

are led

to the special kind of transformation of theta functions

known

surface undergoes a birational transformation.


as complex multiplication in which the

new

periods are the same

as the old, and in order to be uniquely reversible the transformation

must be of the

first order.

former case

it

There are two

cases, according

ordinary or singular (pp. 202, 203). In the


can be shown that when the surface is not singular

as the transformation

is

the only transformations are given by

ul = Mj + const,
w/ = M

and by

Kummer's
surface
(i,

2)

surface

+ const.,

= w + const.,
uj = m + const.
w2

'

distinguished from the general hyperelliptic

is

by the fact that each point has two pairs of parameters


and (-U!, 2), and the preceding reasoning fails. In fact

the transformation
Wi'

= Hj + ai,

w 2'=w2 +a a

+ a) and ( u + a) corresponding to one


a half-period, in which case the transformation is one of the group of sixteen collineations.
The
preceding equations do, however, express a one-one relation
between the points of the tangent sections (v) and (v + a),
gives two distinct points (u

point (u) unless (a)

is

where (v) is arbitrary, because each is a univocal curve (p. 190),


and this affords a proof that all tangent sections have the same
moduli.

When the hyperelliptic surface is singular it may admit


other birational transformations depending on ordinary transformations of theta functions. It can be shown that this depends
*

Humbert, Liouville,

Ber. 5, vi, 367.

TRANSFORMATIONS OF KUMMER SURFACES

120]

219

on a linear transformation of the integrals fdx/y and Jxdx/y


where
y* = {x- h) (x - k2 ) (x - k3 ) (x - k4 ) (x - k 5 ) (x - k s ),

and
into

this again
itself,

depends on a linear transformation of the sextic

leading to the same six sets of relations

among

the

constants, to each of which corresponds a certain type of singular

Kummer

surface.

INDEX.
Theorem 188
Algebraic curves on
Abel's

Elliptic coordinates 55

Summer's

surface

137; general theorems 143


Appell 185

Kummer

surfaces 200

Four dimensions 127

Appell et Laeours 105


Asymptotic curves 60, 110, 194

Fresnel 100
Geiser 12

Baker

24, 169, 175, 179, 183, 186, 187

Ball 38, 40

Gopel 19
even tetrads

Battaglini's complex 94

79, 85
Gopel's biquadratic relation 186

Birational transformation 160, 216

Group 4

Bitangents 53, 59, 195


Boklen 113
Bolza 36, 82, 217
Borchardt 81
Burnside 4

Harmonic complex 94
Hermite 202
Hess 45
Hexads 80
Hierholzer 170

Hudson 139
Humbert 3, 76,

Caporali 45

Caspary 170, 172


Castelnuovo et Enriques 146
Cayley 71, 72, 73, 81, 83, 87,

150, 163, 184, 190, 198,

199, 203, 204, 209, 216, 218


104,

90,

Hutchinson 163, 170,

194, 216

138, 160, 165, 166, 170, 202

among theta functions

Characteristics 142, 176

Identical relations

Clifford 48, 179

179
Incidence diagram 7
Intermediary functions 210
Irrational equations of Kummer's surface 35

Complex, Battaglini's Harmonic 94


Painvin's 112
quadratic, singular points and planes
51
tetrahedral 68

Complexes, apolar 38, 52


the six fundamental linear 33,
46
Configuration, the 16 6

5, 44,

Jessop 45, 51, 88


40,

131; the

60 16 42

Congruences of bitangents
Cremona 132

53, 63, 66

Kantor

94,

63, 99, 187, 216


Koenigs 40, 45
Krazer 175, 184, 185, 186, 189, 205

Kummer
Darboux

De

19, 104, 110, 111, 150,

14, 77, 87

170
Lie-Scheffers 102

Paolis 168

Desmic tetrahedra

216

Klein 36, 38, 40, 42, 49, 53, 56, 57, 58,

1,

43

Line-geometry 37

INDEX

222
Martinetti 45

Schroeter

Matrices 24

Schur 94

Minchin 37

Segre 93

3,

12

Serret 31

Niven 107

Sextic curves 154, 157

Node 14

Singular conic 14

Notation for 16 6 configuration 11, 16, 76


Nbther 165, 166

gtaude 36
Stephanos 3, 45
Study 3, 83

Octavic curves 158, 159

Sturm

38, 40, 51, 68, 71, 72, 94, 112

Painleve 184

Tangent section of Bummer's surface 188

Painvin's complex 112

Tetrahedra, fundamental 48, 81

Pairs and octads 77


Parametric representation of

Klein's 57, 197

Summer's

surface 19, 181

Humbert's 158, 168


Tetrahedroid 89
Theta equation of a curve 141

Picard et Simart 146

complex surface 68

Poincare 183, 185, 186


Preston 100

functions 173
Transformation of Rummer's surface
163
of theta functions 201

Quadrics, the ten fundamental 32, 41, 47

Trope 14

Pliicker's

Quartic curves 149, 151, 153

Unicursal curves 206


Keality of

Summer's

surface 115

Keichardt 194
Eeye 12, 38, 63

Eichmond

Univocal curves 190


Varieties in four dimensions 132

43, 129, 132,

170

Veronese- Schepp 129

Bodrigues 32

Bonn

83, 91, 92, 99, 115, 197

Bosenhain 31, 68
odd tetrads 78, 83

Bouth 37
Salmon-Fiedler 63
Schilling 122
Schottky 170

CAMBEIDGE

Wave

surface 100

Weber

12, 80, 105


Weddle's surface 160, 199
Weiler 72, 89, 115
Whitehead 48
Wirtinger 187, 199

Zeuthen 72

PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A. AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.