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INSTITUTO SUPERIOR DE GESTO COMRCIO E FINANAS

FACULDADE DE ADMINISTRAO E GESTO

Licenciatura Degree in Law

INTRODUCTION TO TECHNICAL ENGLISH MODULE

Authors:

David Lugundu
Maria Helena
Titos de Jesus

Instructional Designer:

Language Reviser:

Table of Contents

Introduction.....................................................................................................................07
Module objectives............................................................................................................08
Study recommendations..................................................................................................08

Unit 1...............................................................................................................................09
Introduction.....................................................................................................................09
Unit 1 objectives..............................................................................................................09
Leisure activities..............................................................................................................09
Expressing habits and general truth.................................................................................14
Compulsory Reading.......................................................................................................18
Unit 1 Summary...............................................................................................................18
Unit 1 Tasks.....................................................................................................................19
Unit 1 Answer Key..........................................................................................................21

Unit 2...............................................................................................................................24
Introduction.....................................................................................................................24
Unit 2 objectives..............................................................................................................24
Describing feelings..........................................................................................................25
Expressing progressive and temporary actions...............................................................27
Compulsory Reading.......................................................................................................30
Unit 2 Summary...............................................................................................................30
Unit 2 Tasks.....................................................................................................................31
Unit 2 Answer Key..........................................................................................................34

Unit 3...............................................................................................................................38
Introduction.....................................................................................................................38
Unit 3 objectives..............................................................................................................38
Computer What is it?....................................................................................................39
Expressing finished actions.............................................................................................41
Compulsory Reading.......................................................................................................44
Unit 3 Summary...............................................................................................................44
Unit 3 Tasks.....................................................................................................................45
Unit 3 Answer Key..........................................................................................................48

Unit 4...............................................................................................................................51
Introduction.....................................................................................................................51
Unit 4 objectives..............................................................................................................51
Dates and special occasions.............................................................................................51
Expressing opinion and necessity....................................................................................54
Compulsory Reading.......................................................................................................57
Unit 4 Summary...............................................................................................................57
Unit 4 Tasks.....................................................................................................................57
Unit 4 Answer Key..........................................................................................................59

Unit 5...............................................................................................................................62
Introduction.....................................................................................................................62
Unit 5 objectives..............................................................................................................63
Appearances.....................................................................................................................63
Comparative and Superlative adjectives..........................................................................66
Compulsory Reading.......................................................................................................69
Unit 5 Summary...............................................................................................................69
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Unit 5 Tasks.....................................................................................................................70
Unit 5 Answer Key..........................................................................................................70

Unit 6...............................................................................................................................72
Introduction.....................................................................................................................72
Unit 6 objectives..............................................................................................................73
Intentions and wishes.......................................................................................................73
Predictions Will and Wont..........................................................................................76
Compulsory Reading.......................................................................................................78
Unit 6 Summary...............................................................................................................78
Unit 6 Tasks.....................................................................................................................79
Unit 6 Answer Key..........................................................................................................80

Unit 7...............................................................................................................................82
Introduction.....................................................................................................................82
Unit 7 objectives..............................................................................................................82
The Simple Past...............................................................................................................83
The Present Perfect Tense..............................................................................................87
Compulsory Reading.......................................................................................................89
Unit 7 Summary...............................................................................................................89
Unit 7 Tasks.....................................................................................................................90
Unit 7 Answer Key..........................................................................................................91

Unit 8...............................................................................................................................94
Introduction.....................................................................................................................94
Unit 8 objectives..............................................................................................................94
Countable and Uncountable Nouns.................................................................................95
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Countries and cultures.....................................................................................................98


Compulsory Reading.....................................................................................................102
Unit 8 Summary............................................................................................................102
Unit 8 Tasks...................................................................................................................103
Unit 8 Answer Key........................................................................................................104

Unit 9.............................................................................................................................106
Introduction...................................................................................................................106
Unit 8 objectives............................................................................................................107
Hobbies and Interests.....................................................................................................107
Gerund...........................................................................................................................109
Unit 9 Summary.............................................................................................................109
Unit 9 Tasks...................................................................................................................111
Unit 9 Answer Key........................................................................................................113

Unit 10...........................................................................................................................116
Introduction...................................................................................................................116
Unit 10 objectives..........................................................................................................116
Present Simple Passive..................................................................................................119
Past Simple Passive.......................................................................................................120
Unit 10 Tasks.................................................................................................................121
Unit 10 Answer Key......................................................................................................123

Unit 11...........................................................................................................................126
Introduction...................................................................................................................126
Unit 11 objectives..........................................................................................................126
Present Perfect Continuous............................................................................................129
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Present Perfect Simple and Present Perfect Continuous...............................................131


Compulsory Reading.....................................................................................................132
Unit 11 Summary...........................................................................................................132
Unit 11 Tasks.................................................................................................................132
Unit 11 Answer Key......................................................................................................136

Unit 12...........................................................................................................................138
Introduction...................................................................................................................138
Unit 12 objectives..........................................................................................................139
Money Facts..................................................................................................................139
Compulsory Reading.....................................................................................................141
Unit 11 Summary...........................................................................................................141
Unit 12 Tasks.................................................................................................................142
Unit 12 Answer Key......................................................................................................143

Introduction

Welcome to Introduction to Technical English Module. This module,


as it reads, will basically provide you with some key technical
concepts as well as general English pattern, as a way of boosting
your knowledge and getting your skills ready for the following
Learning Stage, Technical English.
This module has been carefully designed so as to easily allow
knowledge flowing and bring about a quick understanding from any
autodidactic students. The module is structured as follows: there is
first of all the Module Objective, where you will learn the general
purposes and aims of this module, i.e. what you will be able to do by
the end of the module; then we recommend you HOW, WHEN,
WHERE and WHICH didactic materials should you use to aid your
studies.
There are twelve Units in this module, each of which dealing with a
specific matter. The units, however, are preceded by a Unit
Introduction and its specific objectives. After every four units we
will provide you with a Compulsory Reading bibliography. This will
allow you broaden some specific contents that could not be brought
to the present module. There is an allocated time (4 hours) per Unit.
Finally we have provided a Unit Summary at the end, where you can
get the gist of it. Furthermore, there is a Unit Task, in case you want
to exploit a little more and consolidate the contents. For all the
unresolved exercises and tasks, there is always at the end of each
Unit, a Unit Answer Key provided with the correct answers.

Module Objectives
By the end of this Module, you will be able to:
talk using your linguistic competence attained throughout
general schooling formative years;

Write simple and complex sentences;

build your capacity to use the basic English technical


vocabulary in your daily specific tasks;

develop your communicative abilities from presentations as


well as taking part in various Professional communicative
activities;

Read and interpret commercial correspondence.


.

Study Recommendations:
Study recommendations are some pieces of advice on how you
should take your lessons, given that, you will have to do it almost
certainly alone. Thus, throughout your studies you will have to
ensure that certain conditions are set beforehand so that the learning
process is carried out smoothly. First of all you must bear in mind
that the learning process should not happen randomly, that means you
must plan the days for your module study. Then get seated in an
environmentally suitable place for learning and avoid noisy places as
you might get distracted.
To aid your studies, you will need a good Dictionary and a Grammar
book if possible. Make sure you follow all the instructions given as
well as the length of time recommended for each lesson.
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Do not forget to check the answer key ONLY and ONLY after
answering the exercises.
UNIT 1
INTRODUCTION
In this unit you will learn about different kinds of leisure activities. You
will also learn to describe and talk about them and about the frequency
of doing them. In addition, you will learn to express your habits,
routines and general truth.

UNIT 1 OBJECTIVES
By the end of this Unit, you will be able to:
-

Describe different leisure activities and talk about them;


Say when, where and how often you do leisure activities;

Use the present simple to describe your routines and habits.

Describe different leisure activities and talk about them


Use the adverbs of frequency to say how often you do a
particular activity
TIME LENGTH: 4 Hours

LEISURE ACTIVITIES
1. Level one
a) Read this text carefully and find out what Diana usually does in her free
time. You can note down or underline in the text the activities that Diana
Does. After having understood the text, do the exercises that follow.
Diana Rumson is 21 years old. She lives in Norway but studies in Birmingham,
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England. She doesnt have free time on weekdays. At weekends she does many
leisure activities because she has enough time. She normally goes to picnics with
friends. When its hot, she goes to the beach in the afternoon. She doesnt like
swimming but she likes sunbathing a lot. Diana also likes sports. She plays football,
basketball and volleyball. On Saturdays morning, she often plays football near the
garden with her friends. She only plays basketball and volleyball at school as
physical education. In winter she sometimes goes skiing. She enjoys skiing generally
between February and May. Diana rarely rides a bicycle but she enjoys horse
mounting. She also prefers playing video games and listening to music than reading
or going to cinema.
Lugundu, 2011

b) Which activities does Diana do as pastime? Tick the activities that the
text says Diana does. You can add activities from the text which are not
in the list below. After you have finished the exercises, compare your
answers to the one presented in d.1. It is strongly recommended that
you checked your answers only after completing the exercises.
Climbing
playing tennis
Swimming
skiing
Playing football
running
Listening to music
playing basket
Reading
going to cinema
Playing volleyball
fishing
Riding a horse
playing video games
Riding bicycle.
sailing
Watching TV
going to the gym
___________
____________
___________
___________

c) Study again the activities Diana usually does. Match the activities with
the pictures below. You can use a Portuguese/ English dictionary to find
the meaning of the activities before matching them with the pictures.
Then compare your answers with the answers in section d.2 below.

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d) Answers to b) c). Use the answers below to correct the answers you
provided for exercise b) and c) above. It is strongly recommended to do
the exercises in b) and c) before looking at the answers in d.1 and
d.2 below.
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d.1. answers to section b) above

Climbing
Swimming
playing football
listening to music
reading
playing volleyball
riding a horse
riding bicycle.
watching TV
going to picnic
sunbathing

playing tennis
skiing
running
playing basketball
going to cinema
fishing
playing video game
sailing
going to the gym
going to the beach

d.2. answers to section c) above


A Swimming
B Playing basketball
C Watching TV
D Riding a horse
E Skiing
F Running
G Climbing
H Playing volleyball
K Listening to music

L
M
N
O
P
Q
J
I

Fishing
Playing football
Doing the gym
Riding a bicycle
Reading
Playing video game
Playing tennis
Sailing

2. level two
e) Look at the text in a) again and match each question in box A with its
answer in box B:
Box A

Box B

1. Where does Diana play football?

a) Diana Plays football with her friends

2. When does Diana play football?

b) Diana plays football near the garden

3. At what time does Diana play football?

c) Because she doesnt have free time on


weekdays

4. Who does Diana play football with?


5. Why does Diana do many leisure
activities at weekend?

d) Diana plays football on Saturdays


e) Diana plays football in the morning

Look at the questions in Box A again. You must have noticed that some words
are in bold (very black) such as where?, when?, at what time?, who with?,
why?
We use WHERE in questions to ask the PLACE where the action

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took place. For example:


Question: Where does Diana play football?
Answer: Diana plays football near the garden.
We use WHEN in questions to ask the period of time (the day,
month, year, date, time, etc.) at which the action occurred. for example:
Question: When does Diana play football?
Answer: Diana plays football on Saturdays.(day)
We use AT WHAT TIME to indicate the exact time at which the
action happened. For example:
Question: At what time does Diana play football?
Answer: Diana plays football in the morning (or at 8h am)
We use WHO WITH in questions to try to find the person the
subject did the action with. For example:
Question: Who does Diana play football with?
Answer: Diana plays football with her friends.
We use WHY to try to find the cause or reason of a particular
action or happening. To answer a WHY question we normally use
BECAUSE. For example:
Question: Why does Diana do her leisure activities at weekend?
Answer: Diana does her leisure activities at weekend because she
doesnt have free time on weekdays.

EXPRESSING HABITS AND GENERAL TRUTH


Level one
a)

Look at the sentences below taken from the text about Diana
in lesson 1 above.
1. Diana lives in Norway but she studies in Birmingham, England.
2. Diana plays football, basketball and volleyball.
3. She goes to the beach when it is hot
In the sentences above, we describe what Diana does as habit
(sentence 2 and 3) and we describe something that is permanently
(always) true in Dianas life (sentence 1)
In sentence 1, Diana lives and studies indicates something that is
permanent and true. Here are some other examples
about something true and permanent:
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a. Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius (100 C)


b. The earth goes around the sun for 365 days
c. She works at Vodacom
In sentence 2 and 3 Diana plays football and she goes to the
beach indicate habit or regular actions. Here are some
more habit/ regular actions examples:
1. My family eats 3 times a day (its a habit).
2. The bus takes me to school and brings me back home.
b) Now, compare these 2 sentences:
1. Diana lives in Norway but she studies in Birmingham.
2. I live in Maputo but I study in Matola
When the subject is the third (3rd) (he, she, it) person of
singular, we usually use s with the verb. Example:
play
plays, speak
speaks, write
writes
go
goes, do
does, study
studies, teach
teaches
(note that the use of S depends on the last sound of the
verb: play plays but study studies)
Here are more examples:
1. We speak Portuguese but you speak French
2. He teaches her Spanish but she speaks German
3. The dog eats quickly. The cat drinks water slowly
c)
1.
2.
3.

Study the following sentences


You like meat but I dont like meat
They live in Beira but Sandra doesnt live in Beira
My parents dont like European music

In the sentences above the use of dont / doesnt indicates


negative idea. In the simple present we use do not (dont) and
does not (doesnt) before the verb to express a negative idea. For
example:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Diana doesnt like swimming


My sister doesnt like watching TV
I dont enjoy skiing
They dont prefer sunbathing.

All the 4 sentences above are in the negative form. The use of dont
and doesnt makes them negative. Correct the sentence below
1. Ann dont eat meat. Ann _______________________ meat.
14

Note the use of dont and doesnt: doesnt is at the 3rd person of
singular as we explained in the previous section. When doesnt is
used, the s of 3rd person is not used. Example:
1. Gina loves you. But, Gina doesnt love you.
d) If you understood section (c) above, this section will be easier
for you. Now study the sentences below
1. Do you smoke?
2. Does your mother (she) speak English?
3. Do they know you?
In the sentences above (1, 2, 3) we make use of DO/ DOES to ask
questions. In sentence 1 we want to know if you smoke. In
sentence 2 we want to know if your mother speaks English and in
sentence 3 we want to know if they know you.
Study the sentences below:
1. I don't smoke.
Do you smoke?
2. She doesnt love you.
Does she love you?
You must have noticed that we say I dont, she doesnt (negative)
but we say do you?, does she? (question). In English we normally
invert subject/ verb (do you?, does he?) when we ask a question.
Level two.
a) Read the sentences below. While reading, consider the words
in bold.
1. I always wake up at 6 oclock in the morning
2. Diana often plays football near the garden
3. Sandra usually visits the Zoo with her family
4. Diana sometimes goes skiing in winter.
In the sentences above we say how often or how frequently the
subject (I, Diana, Sandra) does the action. In the 4 sentences above
the words such as ALWAYS, OFTEN, USUALLY and
SOMETIMES show the frequency of the action. These words,
and many others, are called adverbs of frequency. They answer the
question how often? Or how frequently? For example:
1. How often does Diana go skiing in winter?
Diana sometimes goes skiing in winter.

15

2. How frequently does Sandra visit the zoo?


Sandra usually visits the zoo.
Each adverb of frequency presents a different level of frequency
as shows the diagram below:

Always

usually

Frequently

often

sometimes

------------------------------------------------------------------------

seldom

never

Occasionally

Always = at all time


Usually = most of the time
Often = many times
Sometimes = on certain occasions
Never = at no time
So, there is more frequency in:
We always go shopping on Saturday. than in
We often go shopping on Saturday.
Adverbs of frequency such as always, usually, often, sometimes,
never, normally, generally, occasionally, etc. are of indefinite
frequency because they dont tell us exactly how often the action
takes place. Example:
They occasionally help their mother.
They help, occasionally, but we dont know how often.
b) Study again all the examples given above and see where the
adverbs of frequency are placed in the sentences. These
adverbs are generally placed before the main verb of the
sentence. For example:
We often go to school by bus. (not we go to school often
by bus)
Adverbs of frequency such as everyday, daily, weekly, monthly,
hourly, twice, once, etc. are of definite frequency. They tell us
exactly how often the action happens. For example:
The manager checks the toilets hourly (every hour).
Most companies pay taxes yearly (every year).
I meet him twice per month
Look at the position of the adverbs. They come after the main
idea (after the object).

16

Compulsory Readings
Murphy, R. (1997) Essential Grammar in Use. A self-study
reference and practice book for elementary students of English,
Cambridge. CUP

Unit 1 Summary
In this unit we discussed different kinds of leisure activities. You
learned to describe and ask about them, say when, where and how
often you do leisure activities. You additionally learned to describe
routines and habits and frequency (using the simple present and
expressions of frequency).
The objective was to enable you (the learner) to get different leisure
related expressions so that, by using the simple present (I do) and the
adverbs of frequency (usually), you can be able to say how often you
do things.
e.g. I always do the housework.

Unit 1 Tasks

Activity 1
1. Write the correct form of the verb in bracket for each sentence
below
Diana prefers _________________ (play) video game and
_____________ (listen) to music than _________________(read)
books and ________________ (go) to cinema.

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2. Choose the right word to complete the sentence


Diana doesnt like ____________________ (swim/ swimming/
swimming) but she enjoys ________________________ (sunbathing/,
sunbathing/sunbathing). She rarely rides _______________ (a bicycle/
bicycle/ bicycle) but she enjoys _______________ (a horse mounting/
horse mounting/ horse mount).
3. Choose the correct expression from the brackets for every blank
space below
Diana normally goes _______________ (to picnic/ at picnic/ picnics)
with her friends. She doesnt have ______________ (free time/ fee
time/ free time) _______________ (at weekdays/ on weekdays/ in
weekdays) but she has enough time _____________ (on weekends/ in
weekends/ at weekends).

Activity 2
1. Ask question to each answer below
1. __________________________________________________
_______________? I play volleyball every Sunday.
2. __________________________________________________
_______________? I live with my grandparents.
3. __________________________________________________
_________________________________________________?
I prefer playing video game because it is more interesting.
4. _________________________________________________?
I listen to music at home
5. _________________________________________________?
I go to the beach in the Afternoon

Activity 3:
a) Put the verb in bracket in the right form to give the sentence a
correct meaning. The first is already done as example
1.
2.
3.
4.

Angelina smokes (smoke) three packets of cigarette per day.


My father ____________ (repair) 10 cars every week.
We ________________ (live) in a big house
These police officers ______________ (arrest) people with no clear
reason.
5. In Mozambique people ______________ (speak) Portuguese.
6. She _____________ (like) watching TV a lot.
b) Turn these sentences negative. The first is already done as
18

example.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

I drink coffee. I dont drink coffee


We play tennis at school. ___________________________________
My friends like hot weather. _________________________________
She pays me beer at weekends. ______________________________
He works in a big shop in Maputo. ___________________________
I want to be famous like my father. ____________________________

c) You are asking somebody questions. Write questions with DO/


Does? The first is already done as example.
1. I work hard. Do you work hard?
2. Ann plays football. _______ Ann __________________________?
3. I do exercises every morning. And you? _____________________
______________________________________________________?
4. They do the same thing every day. And you? _________________
______________________________________________________?
5. We dont wake up early. _________ your family ______________?
6. I dont like reading newspaper every time. And you? ___________
______________________________________________________?

Activity 4: frequency adverbs


a)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Tick the correct sentences. Cross the incorrect ones


My boyfriend and I hold always hand when dating __
I do exercise every morning __
My wife usually listens to rock music __
They have never talked to me __
I dont speak twice. I speak once __
People dont go to bed in the morning normally___

b)
1.
2.
3.
4.

Ask how often. Number 1 is already done as example


I wash my hair twice a week. How often do you wash your hair?
I seldom go to bed early. _________________________________?
I watch TV every day. ___________________________________?
We frequently start work at 9 oclock. ______________________
_____________________________________________________?
5. I go to cinema a lot. ____________________________________?
6. My father sometimes takes traditional beer. _________________
_____________________________________________________?

19

Unit 1 Answer Key

Activity 1.
1. Write the correct form of the verb in bracket for each
sentence below
playing
listening
reading
going
2. Choose the right word to complete the sentence
swimming
sunbathing
a bicycle
horse mounting

3. Choose the correct expression from the brackets for every


blank space below
to picnic
free time
on weekdays
at weekends
Activity 2.
1. When do you play volleyball?
2.

Who do you live with?

3. Why do you prefer playing video game?


4.

Where do you listen to music?

e). At what time do you go to the beach?


20

Activity 3
a) Put the verb in bracket in the right form to give
the sentence a clear meaning
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

smokes
repairs
live
arrest
speak
likes

b) Turn these sentences negative. The first is already


done as example.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

I dont drink coffee


We dont play tennis at school
My friends dont like hot weather
My friends dont pay me beer at weekends
She doesnt work in a big shop in Maputo
I dont want to be famous like my father

c) You are asking somebody questions. Write


questions with DO/ Does?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Do you work hard?


Does Ann play football?
Do you do exercises every morning?
Do they do the same things every day?
Does your family wake up early?
Do you like reading newspaper every time?

Activity 4
a) Tick the correct sentences. Cross the incorrect
ones

1. X
2.
3.
4.
5.

6. X

b) Ask how often. Number 1 is already done as


example
1. How often do you wash your hair?
2. How often do you go to bed early?
21

3.
4.
5.
6.

How often do you watch TV?


How often do you start work at 9 oclock?
How often do you go to the cinema?
How often does your father make traditional beer?

UNIT 2
INTRODUCTION
In this unit you will learn to describe your and other peoples
feelings and sensations. In unit one you learned to express
customary actions. In this unit you will also learn to describe
temporary and progressive actions.

UNIT 2 OBJECTIVES
By the end of this Unit, you will be able to:
-

Describe or talk about different kinds of feelings

Describe progressive and temporary actions

Describe your feelings, saying what and how you feel

Describe other peoples feelings

Describe progressive and temporary actions

Distinguish between habitual/ permanent actions and


progressive/ temporary actions.
TIME LENGTH: 4 Hours

22

DESCRIBING FEELINGS
Level one:
a) Normally, human undergo emotional and physical sensations.
These feelings may result from illness, bad news, etc.
Now, tell me. What can you feel if you fail the class?
Happy or Sad? In these situations you can say:
1. I am sad. (Or I am feeling sad)
2. I am happy. (I am feeling happy)
You can also say why you are or feel sad or happy.
For example:
1. I am sad because I failed the class. Or I am feeling
sad because I failed the class
2. I am happy because I passed the class. Or I am
feeling happy because I passed the class.
The following words can also be used to describe feeling. Use an
English/ Portuguese dictionary to find the meaning of each of
them.
Tired, scared, afraid, angry, hungry, bored, disappointed,
embarrassed, excited, impatient, well, fine, nervous,
relaxed, surprised, worried, ill, thirsty, glad, etc.
Here are some example:
After working too much, you can say:
1. I am tired (I am feeling tired)
2. Naira is very tired (is feeling very tired) because she
worked too much.
If you see a snake in your house, you can say:
1. I am scared. OR I am scared of the snake.
2. I am afraid. OR, I am afraid of the snake.
3. Laura is scared (Laura is afraid).

23

b) Complete the following sentences. Use the words in the box


above. Remember to use a dictionary to check the meaning of
the words before using them:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Paulo is ________________________________
Mayra and Cynthia are _____________________
We are all _______________________________
My parents are very _______________________
You are ________________________________

Read this text carefully and answer the questions that follow
I am always happy when all my family meets at my Grandpas home in
Bilene Macia. But I also feel very sad when I see my cousins alone since
their mother passed away and their father is permanently ill. When we
meet, my cousins and I usually play hide-and-seek in my grannys field.
When she sees us playing in her field she gets very angry and punishes
us. We dont feel hungry or thirsty when we are at our grandmas. She
cooks and makes banana juice for us. We also relax and respire fresh air
of the mountains. The last time I visited my grandparents, my uncle
Simon got very surprised to see me. The last time he saw me I was only
5 years but I am now 16. Uncle Simon doesnt visit relatives and he is
ashamed of that. When people ask him why he doesnt visit he usually
gets nervous and embarrassed. My father once said he is disappointed
with his brothers behaviour.
Lugundu, 2011

Check:
Grandpa: grandfather
Grandma/ Granny:
Grandmother

1. What feelings are described/ mentioned in the text?


2. What kind of feelings are they? Choose one:
A. Positive
B. negative
C. both
3. Write a similar text in which you describe some of the feeling
you normally experience when your family meets for a
particular occasion such as family parties or New Year
celebration, or when you visit your grandparents or aunts and
other relatives. Try to include the expressions of feeling
studied in this lesson. You are also free to include other
expressions of feeling of your own. Remember to use the text
24

above as model.
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

EXPRESSING PROGRESSIVE AND TEMPORARY ACTIONS


a) Look at these examples below:
1. Sandra works at night
2. Sandra is working now
In unit 1 lesson two, we learned how to express regular, habitual
or permanent actions.

The action in sentence 1 above, Sandra works at night, is a


regular action.
Now look at sentence 2 above, Sandra is working now. What
is Sandra doing now? She is working. In this sentence the
action is happening now (at this moment). It is not a regular
action. It is a progressive action (action that is in progress at the
moment of speaking).
Check:
Regular action (present simple): Sandra works.
Progressive action (present continuous): Sandra is working
Study these examples
1. I am writing a book about my life. (this is what I am doing
now or around now)
25

2. We are studying hard to pass the exam (this is what we are


doing now or around now)
3. My grandparents are planting maize in their field (this is
what they are doing now or all this week or month.)
4. I cant hear what you say because everyone is talking.
(everyone is talking now)
5. Take your umbrella. It is raining outside. (it is raining now;
at this moment)
6. Hello, Jennifer. I am driving my fathers car today. (now OR
all day to day)
The actions in the sentences above are in progress (they are
happening now or around now: all day, all this evening, all this
week, all this month
consider the sentences below

I am not studying Mathematics

Sandra is not (isnt) speaking English

You are not (arent) singing.

The sentences above are in negative form. The negative form of


present continuous is formed by placing NOT between am/
are/ is and the ing form of the verb. For example:

We are not watching TV

My aunts are not cooking Matapa

Study the sentences bellow

We are eating pizza. What are you eating?

They are climbing the wall. Are you playing basketball?

In the sentences above we ask questions with the present


continuous (are you eating?). Study the sentences carefully
and see how the questions are made. Remember we said in the
sections above that in asking questions we normally invert
subject verb. Example:

26

We are are we?


He is buying a car. is he buying a car?
b) Now study the following sentences
1. Pedro works at the airport but this week he is working at the
port.
2. We normally assist widows but this month we are assisting
prisoners.
Q: Where does Pedro work?, Answer: he works at the airport
(regular action)
But
Q: where is Pedro working this week?, Answer: this week Pedro
is working at the port (temporary action).
In sentence 1, the work that Pedro is doing at the port is
temporary (only this week: he is working) but the work that he
does at the airport is permanent, regular: he works there.
More examples:

You live with your parents in Museu/ Polana. So, you live
(permanently) in Museu/ Polana. But, during your school
holidays you take 2 months to stay with your grandmother in
Matola. In this situation you can say: I am living OR I am
staying with my grandmother in Matola. (temporary)
Here is another example:

If you need to contact me, I stay at Polana Hotel.

(This sentence is not correct. We cant say I stay at Polana hotel


because nobody lives (permanently) at hotel.)

If you need to contact me, I am staying at Polana hotel. (this


sentence is correct because the speaker means that he is staying
(temporarily) at Polana hotel.

study the sentence below then Answer the questions that follow.

We normally assist widows but this month we are

27

assisting prisoners.
a) What do we normally do?__________________________
b) What are we doing this month? ______________________
________________________________________________
c) Between a) and b) above, which one is regular action and
which is temporary?________________________________

Compulsory Readings
Soars, L&J (1996) New Headway Pre- Intermediate
students book, Oxford.OUP:

Murphy, R. (1997) Essential Grammar in Use. A selfstudy reference and practice book for elementary students
of English, Cambridge. CUP.

Unit 2 Summary
In this unit you learned to describe feelings and sensations by using
different ideas that express feeling such as be happy, worried, etc.
when describing a feeling, you may also say why you have such a
feeling. E.g. I am unhappy because George left me.
In this unit we also learned to describe progressive and temporary
actions. To describe progressive and temporary actions we make use
of the present continuous (I am doing). We learned that the context
determines whether the action is temporary or just happening at the
moment of speaking.
e.g. - She is planting maize. (it may be now or around now all
this week).
He lost his camera. So, he is using mine until he buys another. (he
28

is using my camera temporarily. When he buys another camera he


will return it.)

Unit 2 Tasks
Activity 1
Use the words in the table below to answer the questions. Remember to
use your dictionary to see the meanings of the words to answer the
questions correctly. After answering all the questions, you can compare
your answers to the answers in the answer key below. Remember, you
can only use the answer key after completing the exercises.
Tired, scared, afraid, angry, hungry, bored, disappointed,
embarrassed, excited, ashamed, impatient, well, relaxed
nervous, surprised, worried, ill, thirsty, glad, lonely, etc.
a) What do you normally feel in the situation below:
1. When you are at home watching TV? _______________
______________________________________________
2. Just before an important exam? ____________________
______________________________________________
3. If you have to speak in front of a lot of people? _______
______________________________________________
4. If you have to wait for long time in a shop? __________
______________________________________________
5. If you lose your wallet? __________________________
_____________________________________________
6. If you go to a big concert at Coconut? ______________
_____________________________________________
7. If you miss your bus? ___________________________
_____________________________________________
8. If you see a big snake? __________________________
9. If your girlfriend cancels your program? ____________
_____________________________________________

29

b) Choose the correct alternative


1. Whenever I remember what happened, I always feel (sad/
sadly/ unhappy)
2. How is your mum? She is very (thirsty/ lonely/ angry) with
me.
3. How do you feel about your new boss? I think he is (cynic/
impatiently/ aggressively).
4. How is your family? My family is (angrily/ fine/ glading)
5. I feel sorry about what I said to Anna. I am really
(disappointed/ ill/excitedly) with myself.
c) Put the letters in bold in the correct order to make words
to describe feelings. These letters are the expressions of
feeling we studied in this lesson
1. I am so ervuson. I dont think I will pass this exam.
2. My sister is really decras of the cat
3. Everyone is very dieponditsap with our football team
4. I am really purdriess by what she said
5. I feel brassrameed at making such a stupid mistake
d) Complete the expressions below. Use the table of
expression of feelings above in this practice section.
1. d_ _a_ _o_n_ _d

7. _e_a_ _d

2. _ _p_t_ _n_

8. t_i_ _t_

3. _ _r_d

9. _ _r_o_ s

4. _u_ _r_ _e_

10. a_ h_ _e_

5. w_r_ _e_

11. l_ _e_y

6. e_ _a_r_ _s _d

12 _u_ _r_

Activity 2
a) Write the ING FORM of these verbs.
1. Break_______

clean_______

wash________ live______
30

2. Come________

die________

enjoy_______

go________

3. Make ________

play ______

sing _______

jump ______

4. Write ________

start ______

get ________

feel _______

5. Begin ________

put _______

hit _________

rain ___

6. Rob ________

shop ______

dream ______

sleep ______

7. Shout _______

sit ________

stand _______

talk _______

8. Turn ________

open ______

visit _______

forget ______

b) Fill in the blanks with the verbs in the present continuous


tense
1. John and I ............................... (stay) in a beautiful hotel.
2. Kevin ........................................ (work) at home today.
3. I ................................... (wait) for a very important letter.
4. You ...................................... (walk) too fast.
5. We ........................................... (plan) our next holiday.
6. The girls ......................... (visit) their grandmother today.
7. She ....................... (read) in her bedroom at the moment.
8. The baby ...................................... (learn) how to walk.
c) Rewrite the sentences in the negative. Use the present
continuous
1. They .......................................... (buy) a new car.
2. He ............................................... (learn) to read.
3. I ..................................................( look) for your keys.
4. We ............................................... (sell) the house.
5. They ........................................ (drink) tea.
6. You ....................................... (work) very hard.
7. Jack and Jill ....................................... (run) downhill.
8. I ....................................... (go) home now.
d) Write the questions. Use the present continuous
1. What /Jessica / do? ____________________________?
2. Why / John and Patrick / laugh? _________________
___________________________________________?
3. What book / you / read? ________________________
31

___________________________________________?
4. What / we / watch? ___________________________?
5. Where / they / stay? ___________________________?
6. Why / we / sit in the dark? ______________________
____________________________________________
7. Where / they / wait? __________________________?
8. What / you / sell? _____________________________?
e) Rewrite these sentences so as to give them clear meaning.
Use the Simple Present or Present Continuous tenses
1. Usually/she/work/at the office, but this week she/work/
at
home_________________________________________
_____________________________________________
2. You/ not/ eat/ very much/at the moment. Are you ill?
_____________________________________________
3. I travel/ to Chicago/ this year, but every/ year/ I travel/ to
British Columbia_______________________________
_____________________________________________
4. A: Where ............................... (you/work)?
I ....................... (work) in a big shop.

B:

5. I usually (work) as a secretary


but this summer I (study) .French at a
language school.

Unit 2 Answer Key


Activity 1
a) How do you normally feel in the situation bellow: (note that the
answers in this exercise are just suggestions? Answers to these
questions are relative and can vary from person to person. You
can provide your own answers depending on your feeling. )

1. When I am at home watching TV I feel relaxed

32

2. Just before an important exam I feel nervous


3. If i have to speak in front of a lot of people
4. If i have to wait for long time in a shop, I feel impatient
5. If i lose wallet , I can feel worried
6. If i go to a big concert at Coconut, I feel excited
7. If i miss the bus, I feel angry
8. If i see a big snake, I feel scared
9. If my girlfriend cancels my program, I feel disappointed

b) Choose the correct alternative


1.

Sad

2.

angry

3.

cynic

4.

fine

5.

Disappointed

c) Put the letters in bold in the correct order to make words to


describe feelings. These letters are the expressions of feeling we
studied in this lesson
1. I am so nervous. I dont think I will pass this exam.
2. My sister is really scared of the cat
3. Everyone is very disappointed with our football team
4. I am really surprised by what she said
5. I feel embarrassed at making such a stupid mistake

d) Complete the expressions bellow. Use the table of expression of


feelings above in this practice section.
1. disappointed)

7. relaxed

2. impatient

8. thirsty
33

3. tired

9. nervous

4. surprised

10. ashamed

5. worried

11. lonely

6. embarrassed

12 hungry

Activity 2

a) Write the ING FORM of these verbs.


Break/ breaking

clean/ cleaning

wash/ washing

live/ living

Come/ coming

die/ dying

enjoy/ enjoying

go/ going

Make/ making

play/ playing

sing/ singing

jump/ jumping

Write/ writing

start/ starting

get/ getting

feel/ feeling

Begin/ beginning

put/ putting

hit/ hitting

rain/ raining

Rob/ robbing

shop/ shopping dream/ dreaming sleep/ sleeping

Shout/ shouting

sit/ sitting

stand/ standing talk/ talking

Turn/ turning

open/ opening

visit/ visiting

forget/ forgetting

b) Fill in the blanks with the verbs in the present continuous tense
1. John and I are staying in a beautiful hotel.
2. Kevin is working at home today.
3. I am waiting or a very important letter.
4. You are walking too fast.
5. We are planning our next holiday.
6. The girls are visiting their grandmother today.
7. She is reading in her bedroom at the moment.
8. The baby is learning how to walk

34

c) Rewrite the sentences in the negative. Use the present


continuous
1. They arent buying a new car.
2. He isnt learning to read.
3. I am not looking for your keys.
4. We arent selling the house.
5. They arent drinking tea.
6. You are not working very hard.
7. Jack and Jill arent running downhill.
8. I am not going home now.
d) Write the questions. Use the present continuous
1. What /Jessica / do? What is Jessica doing?
2. Why / John and Patrick / laugh? Why are John and Patrick
laughing?
3. What book / you / read? What book are you reading?
4. What / we / watch? What are we watching?
5. Where / they / stay? Where are they staying?
6. Why / we / sit in the dark? Why are we sitting in the dark?
7. Where / they / wait? Where are they waiting?
8. What / you / sell? What are you selling?
e) Rewrite these sentences so that they have clear meaning. Use the
Simple Present or Present Continuous tenses
1. She usually works at the office, but this week she is working at
home.
2. You are not eating very much at the moment. Are you ill?
3. I am travelling to Chicago this year but every year I travel to
British Columbia.
4. Where do you work? I work in a big shop. (this sentence can
also be in continuous)

35

5. I usually work as a secretary but this summer I am studying


French at a language school

UNIT 3
INTRODUCTION
In this unit you will learn about computer, what it is and what it
does. You will also learn all its necessary parts and to describe them.
In addition, you will learn to describe finished actions by using the
simple past tense.

UNIT 3 OBJECTIVES
By the end of this unit you will be able to:
-

Describe a computer and all its parts


Describe past (finished) actions

describe a computer, its importance and how it works

describe the parts of a computer and their functions

Use the simple past conveniently

describe past actions and events

distinguish between present and past actions and occurrences


TIME LENGTH: 4 Hours

36

COMPUTER: WHAT IS IT?

a) Before you read the text about computer below, think and write
in the box below some importance and use of a computer you
know.

b) Now
text

__________________________________
_
__________________________________
_
__________________________________
_
__________________________________
_
__________________________________
_

read
the
below
carefully
and
answer the
questions that follow. After you have answered all the questions
from 1 to 6, you can compare your answers with the answers
given in the answer key a)
What is a computer?

A computer is an electronic device that manipulates information, or "data." It has


the ability to store, retrieve, and process data. You can use a computer to type
documents, send email, and browse the internet. You can also use it to handle
spreadsheets, accounting, database management, presentations, games, and more.
All types of computers consist of two basic parts: Hardware, which is any part of
your computer that has a physical structure, such as the computer monitor or
keyboard, and Software which is any set of instructions that tells the hardware
what to do. It is what guides the hardware and tells it how to accomplish each
task. Some examples of software are web browsers, games, and word processors
such as Microsoft Word.
There are many types of computer including desktop computers, laptops, servers,
table computers, mobile phones, game consoles and so on. The first electronic
computer was developed in 1946. It took up 167m and weighed over 27 tons.
37

In Wiki, 2011. Modified by David Lugundu

1. Read the first paragraph then write down what the paragraph says
we can do with a computer. Compare the uses and importance you
wrote in the box in a) to the ones you wrote from paragraph 1.
_____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
_____________________________________________
2. What you wrote in 1. Above is what you can do with a computer.
Read paragraph 1 again and find out what a computer is able to do
(there are 3 verbs) then write it here
A computer is able to: __________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
3. Use an English/ Portuguese dictionary to find the equivalents of the
verbs you found in 2 above and write them in Portuguese here
_____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
4. Read paragraph 2 of the text. How many basic parts does a
computer have? What are they? Give an example from the text for
each basic part
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
5. Read paragraph 3 of the text. Find all the types of computer and
write them here. Which of them do you know?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
6. When was the first electronic computer developed? How tall was it
and how much it weighed?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

C) Parts of a computer: look at the picture below. Study the


function of each part of a computer then answer the questions
38

that follow. The first question is already done as example.

1. What does the monitor do? It shows text and pictures.


It lets us see our work.
2. What is the keyboard used for? _______________________________
3. What does the mouse do? ___________________________________
4. What is the printer for? _____________________________________
5. What does the CD/DVD Drive do? ____________________________
6. What is the floppy drive used for? ____________________________
7. What does the hard drive do? ________________________________
8. What is the Unit system for? _________________________________
9. What are speakers used for? _________________________________
10. What is flash memory card reader for? _________________________

EXPRESSING FINISHED ACTIONS


a) Study the sentences below
1. Pedro watches television every evening
2. Leo watched television yesterday evening.
In sentence 1 Pedro Watches Television every evening. It
is his habit (remember the use of the simple present)

39

In sentence 2 Leo watched television only yesterday evening.


This is not a habit. It is an action that happened in the past
and ended. The use of the simple past tense Watched
implies that the action finished.

Study this example.


1. Clara cleans her teeth every morning. Today morning
Clara cleaned her teeth
In the sentence above there is one action that happens every
morning a habit (Clara cleans her teeth every day
morning), and there is one action that happened once, today
morning and finished (Clara cleaned her teeth today
morning only)
Note that in past sentences there is usually a past time
indicator for example: yesterday, this morning, before
yesterday, in 1992, last year, last week, last night, etc. for
example:
1. Michelle worked in a back from 1986 to 1997
2. We enjoyed the party last night
3. Before yesterday we visited the dam.
We use the past simple to show that the action started and
finished in the past. It didnt come to present.
Attention: we say:
i/ you/ he/ she/ It/ we/ they

lived

The past simple is often formed by adding ed after the


verb (regular verbs)
Example: work
worked, stay
stayed,
dance
danced, etc.
We danced a lot at the concert last
Saturday.

The rain started in the morning and

40

stopped at lunchtime
Some verbs are irregular (not regular). The past simple is
not ed. For example:
Begin
began, buy
bought, come
came,
go
went, eat
ate, get
got, etc. (for more
irregular verbs, see the complete list at the end of this
module.)
For example:

I usually get up at 6 oclock in the morning


but today I got up at 9h30.

Caroline went to the cinema three times


last week.

b) Study the sentences below


1. Nelson played tennis yesterday but I didnt play basket
ball
2. They went to the cinema but they didnt enjoy the film
3. Beatriz didnt go to the cinema
didnt play (basketball), didn't enjoy (the film) and
didnt go (to the cinema) are negatives. In sentence 1.
Nelson played tennis is positive. But he didnt play basket
is negative.
The past simple negative is didnt (or did not) + the
verb in infinitive. Study the examples below:
1. Marla watches TV every day. Marla didnt watch
television yesterday.
2. I played tennis last Sunday but I didnt win.

c) Consider the sentences bellow.


1. Did you see Naira yesterday?

Yes, I did

41

2. Did Marla go to school on Friday?

No, she didnt

The two sentences above are questions. Questions in the past


simple. Did you see an did Marla go are questions forms of
past simple
The past simple question is did + verb in infinitive. For
example:
1. You came yesterday. Did you come yesterday?
2. She bought a new TV set last month. Did she buy a new
TV set last month?

Compulsory Readings
Sween, S. et al (2004) Professional English - English
365,Cambrige. CUP.

Murphy, R. (1997) Essential Grammar in Use. A selfstudy reference and practice book for elementary students
of English, Cambridge. CUP.

Unit 3 Summary
In this unit we discussed the importance of a computer and all its
necessary parts. We saw that a computer is made up of two main
parts, hardware and software. We also described different types of
computer such as game consoles and servers.
Further in this unit, we learned how to describe past actions or
completed actions in the past. We normally express finished actions
by using the simple past. With regular verbs, the past simple is
42

formed by adding - ed at the end of the verb.


e.g. pass - passed

Unit 3 Tasks

43

Activity 1
This is a continuation of the exercises you have already
done above
1. A small object which you use to move the cursor around
the screen is a __________
2. The ___________ prints texts and pictures
3. The part that shows what you are doing on a computer is
a ____________________
4. The _____________ is the device you tap with text.
5. The small device that gives sound on your computer is
_______________________
6. A _________________ reads CD and DVDs when
inserted in it
7. A _________________ reads a floppy disc when inserted
in it.
8. It reads flash memory cars. It's a __________________

Activity 2
Read the text below carefully. While reading, underline
all the verbs that are in the simple past, then write their
infinitives below. Remember to check your answers in the
answer key.
FRELIMO was founded in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania on 25 June
1962. With the help of China, the URSS and some Scandinavian
countries, FRELIMO formed a very strong guerilla which fought
vigorously against the Portuguese regime. In 1975 Portugal and
FRELIMO negotiated Mozambique's independence, which came
into effect in June of that year. FRELIMO then established a oneparty state based on Marxist principles with Samora Machel as
President. The new government received diplomatic and some
military support from Cuba and the Soviet Union.
In Wiki 2010, modified by David Lugundu

_____________________

_____________________

______________________

___________________

_____________________

____________________

_____________________

_____________________

44

a) Find the past simple of the following verbs in the table


(vertically and horizontally)
Work _____________
come_____________
Walk _____________speak _____________
Talk ______________

see _______________

Clean _____________

do ________________

Live ______________

go ________________

Wash _____________

sing _______________

b) Complete these sentences. Use a suitable verb from the


list below in the past simple for each sentence
Clean die enjoy finish happen live open play rain smoke
start stay want watch
1. Yesterday evening I _________ television.
2. I _______my teeth three times yesterday.
3. The concert last night
__________at 10 oclock.

____________at

7h30

and

4. The accident _________________last Saturday.


5. When I was a child, I _________to be a doctor
6. Mozart _______________from 1756 to 1791
7. We ___________our holiday last year. We ___________at a
very good hotel.
8. Today the weather is nice, but yesterday it _____________.
c) Ask questions. The first is done as example
45

1. I watched TV last night. and you? Did you watch TV last


night?
2. I enjoyed the party. And you?_________ you __________?
3. I had a good holiday. And you? ______________________
________________________________________________?
4. I got up early this morning. Ad you? __________________
________________________________________________?
5. I slept well last night. And you? _____________________?
6. I went to bed very late yesterday. And you _____________
_______________________________________________?
d) Complete these sentences with the verb in the negative.
The first is already done as example
1. I saw john but I didnt see Mary
2. They worked on Monday but they ____________on
Tuesday.
3. We went to the shop but we _________ to the bank.
4. She had a pen but she _______________ any paper.
5. Jack did French at school but he _________ German.
6. You called the firemen but you __________call the police.

46

Unit 3 Answer Key

1. You can use a computer to:


type documents, send email, browse the internet, handle
spreadsheets, accounting, database management, presentations,
games and more
2. A computer is able to: store, retrieve and process data
3. To store: armazenar
To retrieve: buscar, extrair, recuperar
To process: processar
4. The basic parts of a computer are:
Hardware: for example: mouse and keyboard
Software: for example: games and word processors
5. The types of computer are:
desktops, laptops, servers, table computers, mobile phones,
game consoles, and so on
7. The first electronic computer was developed in 1946, it was
167m tall and it weighed over 27 tons
c) What is computer?
1. What does the monitor do? It shows text and pictures. It lets us see
our work.
2. What is the keyboard used for? It is used for typing instructions
into the computer
3. What does the mouse do? The mouse makes onscreen selections
4. What is the printer for? It prints copies of pictures and written
documents
5. What does the CD/DVD Drive do? The CD/DVD Drive reads CD/
DVD discs
6. What does a floppy drive do? it reads from and writes to floppy
disks
7. What is a hard drive used for? it is used to store programs and
data
47

8. What is the Unit system for? it contains the processor, memories,


drives, etc.
9. What are speakers used for? they are used to produce audio output
10. What is flash memory card reader for? it is used to read flash
memory cards

d) Parts of a computer
1. mouse
2. printer
3. screen/ monitor
4. keyboard
5. speaker
6. CD/ DVD Drive
7. Floppy Drive
8. Flash memory card reader

a) Read the text below carefully. While reading, underline all the
verbs that are in the simple past, the write their infinitives
below. Remember to check your answers in the answer key.
was found (passive) = to find
came = to come
formed = to form
established = to establish
fought = to fight
received = to receive
negotiated = to negotiate

b) Find the past simple of the following verbs in the table


(vertically and horizontally)

48

c) Complete these sentences. Use a suitable verb from the list


below in the past simple for each sentence
Clean die enjoy finish
start stay want watch
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

happen

live

open play

rain smoke

watched
cleaned
started, finished
happened
wanted
lived
enjoyed, stayed
rained

d) Ask questions. The first is done as example


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Did you watch TV last night?


Did you enjoy the party?
Did you have a good holiday?
Did you get up early this morning?
Did you sleep well last night?
Did you go to bed very late yesterday?

e) Complete these sentences with the verb in the negative. The


first is already done as example
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

I saw john but I didnt see Mary


They worked on Monday but they didnt work on Tuesday.
We went to the shop but we didnt go to the bank.
She had a pen but she didnt have any paper.
Jack did French at school but he didnt do German.
You called the firemen but you didnt call the police.

UNIT 4
49

INTRODUCTION
In this unit you will learn about dates and special occasions. You
will lean to describe different occasions. You will also learn how
people in other parts of the world celebrate some special occasions.
Still in this unit, you will learn to express opinion and give advice.

UNIT 4 OBJECTIVES
By the end of this Unit, you will be able to:
-

Talk about different dates and special occasions

Express opinion and give advice

Talk about different occasions and how they are celebrated

Describe special dates in Mozambique

Express opinion and give advice

Express necessity.
TIME LENGTH: 4 Hours

DATES AND SPECIAL OCCASIONS


a) Which of the following days do people celebrate in
Mozambique? Tick if celebrated in Mozambique.
1. Peace day _____

10. Workers day? ________

2. Ramadan ______

11. Christmas day __________

3. Queens day ______

12. Victory day __________

4. Independence Day _______

13. Woman day _________

5. New Years Day __________


__________

14. Family day

6. Armed forces day _______

15. Tree day

50

___________
7. Thanksgiving Day ________
_________

16. Heroes day

8. Mothers day ___________


day _____

17. St Valentines

9. Easter _________
_____

18. Chinese new year

Most of the days above are normally international


public holidays or national holidays. A public holiday is
generally established by law and is usually a nonworking day during the year. Public holidays vary by
country and may vary by year. China, Hong Kong and
Egypt have most days of holidays per year. The public
holidays are generally days of celebration, like the
anniversary of a significant historical event, or can be a
religious celebration like Christmas. Holidays can land
on a specific day of the year or be tied to a specific day
of the week such as Sunday. In most countries if a
public holiday date lands on Sunday, the public holiday
is normally extended to Monday.
Wiki, 2011 Modified by David Lugundu

19. What is a public holiday? __________________________________


______________________________________________________
20. Public holidays vary by country. Look again at the public holidays
above. Which of them do you think are international public
holidays? _____________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
21. Which of them are not non-working days in Mozambique? ______
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
22. On which date is each public holiday celebrated in Mozambique?
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
23. In 2011, which public holidays landed on Sunday and were
extended to Monday? __________________________________
____________________________________________________
51

b) Which of the following special occasions have you ever


celebrated or participated in? Tick if ever celebrated. Use an
English/ Portuguese dictionary to check the meaning of the
words when necessary
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Wedding __________
Olympics __________
African cup of nations _____
African games openings ______
Secondary school finalist party __
Graduation party _____

baptism party __
engagement party ___
birthday party _____
goodbye party ____
chrism party _____
golden wedding party __

Birthday traditions
In china, everyone celebrates their birthday on new years day. They
become one year older on that day. On a childs second birthday, family
members put a variety of objects on the floor around the child.
According to Chinese tradition, the first object that the child picks up
tells what profession he will choose later in life.
In Mozambique and most African counties however, the situation is
different. Everyone normally celebrates birthday on their specific
birthdays. Friends and relatives offer different presents and in some cases
birthday parties are held.
Cutting Edge, Modified by David Lugundu

Which presents do people normally offer on special occasion in


Mozambique? Tick if offered
Birthday cakes _________
Birthday cards _________
A party dress __________
A bunch of flowers ______
Candles __________

Perfumes ___________
Dolls _______________
Pair of shoes _________
Sweets ___________
Books ______________

c) How do people normally give wishes on special occasions?


Match the words at left with the one at right to form special
occasion wishes. Note that one word from left can serve for
more than one expression at right.
52

Best
Happy
Marry
Congratulations
Good
Good health
Thank you

for your wedding


Christmas
birthday
New Year
Easter
wishes
the same to you
for us all
anniversary
luck

EXPRESSING OPINION AND NECESSITY


I)

Study the following dialogue between Sandra and Patrick


Sandra: Carla wants to catch the earliest train tomorrow.
Patrick: I dont think that is a good idea. The earliest train
arrives at 4 AM. Thats too early. I think she should wait for the
second train at 6 oclock.
Sandra: you are right. I think she should get up early to
prepare herself but leave to the station at 5h30

To give an opinion is to say what you think is better (there is no


obligation) about something or for someone in a particular
situation. When we give opinion we normally say it is / it is not
a good idea to do something
In the dialogue above Sandra and Patrick are giving their
opinions on Carlas decision to catch the earliest train. When
Patrick says, for example:
I think she should wait for the second train at 6 oclock. He is
saying what he thinks is better for Carla instead of what she had
decided.
Study the other sentences below
1. You should clean your bedroom everyday to avoid illness.
OR, It is a good idea to clean your bedroom everyday
2. Gina should not (shouldnt) steal money from her mother.
53

OR, It is not a good Idea to steal money from her mother


3. We should study hard to be good students. OR, Its a good
idea to study hard
4. Children shouldnt cross the road alone. OR, It isnt a good
idea for children to cross the road alone.
In sentences 1 and 3, we give you our opinion that it's a good idea
for you to clean your bedroom everyday and its a good idea to
study hard to be good students.
In sentences 2 and 4, we give our opinion that it is not a good
idea Gina to steal money from her mother and its not a good idea
to let children cross the road alone.
You can see from the sentences that we use SHOULD to say
that its a good idea (positive opinion) and SHOULDNT to
say that its not a good idea (negative opinion). For example:
1. You should go now (its a good idea to go now).
2. We shouldnt call the police now (it isnt a good idea to
call the police now).
3. You shouldnt smoke so much (its not a good thing to do)
We can also use SHOULD to ask peoples opinion or advice.
For example:
1. David is no longer my friend. But he is very ill. What do
you think I should do? should I visit him? (is it a good
idea to visit him?)
2. Thats a beautiful girl!!!Should I talk to her? (is it a good
idea to talk to her?)
BUT
3. Thats a beautiful girl. Do you think I should talk to her?
Attention:
We use Should + infinitive without to = should go,
should eat, should visit (not should to go, should to eat,
should to visit, should goes, should visits)

54

a) Now study the sentences below


1. I have to take my medicine 4 times a day.
2. I have to see the doctor
3. Jill starts job at 7h, so she has to get up at 6h.
In the sentence 1 above the speaker says that it is necessary for
him to take medicine 4 times a day. In sentence 2 he says that it
is necessary for him to see the doctor, while in sentence 3 it is
necessary for Jull to work up at 6h.
Consider the sentences below
1. in Mozambique people have to study 4 years to get a
university degree
2. I am not working tomorrow, so I dont have to wake up
early.
3. Presidential candidates have to convince people to vote for
them
All the sentences in this section say that its necessary to do
something. We use HAVE TO/ DONT HAVE TO to say that it
is necessary/ it is not necessary to do something.
Have to is different from should in that when we use Have to,
it is not the opinion of the speaker or of the subject but it is a fact
or reality. For example:
1. In Mozambique people have to study 4 years to get a
university degree. (its not my opinion (me, the speaker) but
its the education system of the country. Its the norm of the
country)
2. I am not working tomorrow, so I dont have to wake up
early. (its not my opinion, its a fact (reality))
3. Presidential candidates have to convince people to vote for
them. (its not me who decided so, its reality)
DONT HAVE TO is negative form of HAVE TO. Example,
1. Rafael doesnt have to work hard. Hes got an easy job. (it is
not necessary to work hard because his job is easy)
2. Kiana will give me a lift to work tomorrow, so I dont have to
wake up early. (it is not necessary to wake up early as Kiana
will give me a lift to work)
55

Attention
Have to + infinitive = have to sleep, he has to do, he has to leave
(not he has to does, he has to leaves)
Compulsory Reading
Murphy, R. (1997) Essential Grammar in Use. A self-study
reference and practice book for elementary students of English,
Cambridge. CUP

Unit 4 Summary
Here we learnt about dates and special occasions. We discussed
different important dates and public holidays in Mozambique and
learnt how people celebrate special occasions in some parts of the
world including Mozambique.
Additionally, we leant how to express opinion and necessity by using
should and have to.

Unit 4 Tasks

d) Cross out the noun that does not go with the verb
1. Buy - a cake/ a card/ flowers/ relatives
2. Celebrate a birthday/ Christmas/ a meal/ an anniversary
3. Send a card/ a ceremony/ flowers/ a present
4. Visit a friend/ a relative/ your family/ birthday card
5. Invite fiends/ flowers/ parents/ relatives

Activity 1
a) Complete the sentences. Use should + one of these verbs
56

Clean, go, read, visit, watch, wear


1. When you play tennis, you _______________the ball.
2. You look tired. You __________________ to bed.
3. You _________________your teeth after every meal.
4. The city museum is very interesting. You _________ it.
5. When you are driving, you ______________ a seat-belt.
6. Its a good book. You ____________________ it.
b) Make sentences with shouldnt
1. You smoke too much. You ______________ so much.
2. Those kids play too bad. _________________ so bad.
3. You work too hard. _____________________ so hard.
4. She wakes up too early. _________________so early.
5. He watches TV too often. _______________so often.
c) You ask a friend for advice. Make question with do you
think I should? The first sentence is done as example
1. (buy this jacket) Do you think I should buy this jacket?
2. (get a new job) _____________________________?
3. (learn to drive) ___________________________?
4. (buy a new camera) ________________________?
5. (do an English course) ______________________?
6. (phone Paula now) __________________________?
Activity 2
a) Complete the sentences. Use have to + one of the verbs
below
do

read

speak

travel

wear

1. My eyes are not very good. I _______________________


glasses.
2. At the end of the course, all the students ________________a
test.
3. Mary is studying literature. She ________________a lot of
books.
4. He doesnt understand much English, so I _____________ very
57

slowly to him.
5. George is not very often at home. He ______________ a lot in
his job.
b) Write sentences with dont/ doesnt have to . the first is
done as example
1. Are you going home? You dont have to go home now.
2. Why is she waiting? She ______________________________.
3. Why do you get up so early? You _______________________.
4. is he paying today? He ________________________________.
5. Why do you want to decide now? you ____________________
___________________________________________________
.
6. Why does he work so hard? He _________________________.
c) Rewrite the sentences below. Use should/ shouldnt or have
to/ dont have to. The first has been done for you.
1. It is not necessary for you to see the doctor today. You don't
have to see the doctor today.
2. You want to open a bottle store in the countryside! I dont think
it is a good idea. ____________________________________
__________________________________________________
3. It is not necessary for you to pay me today. _______________
__________________________________________________
4. I think it is a good thing for you to speak English as much as
possible. __________________________________________
5. It is necessary for the teacher to keep his students files with
him. ______________________________________________
6. Do you want to study Italian at university? I think is a good
idea. _____________________________________________

Unit 4 Answer Key

a) Which of the following days do people celebrate in


Mozambique? Tick if celebrated in Mozambique.
58

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Peace day
Ramadan
Queens day ______
Independence Day
New Years Day
Armed forces day
Thanksgiving Day
Mothers day
Easter

6. Workers day?
7. Christmas day
8. Victory day
9. Woman day
10. Family day
1. Tree day
12. Heroes day
13. St Valentines day
14. Chinese new year ____

What is a public holiday? is usually a non-working day during the


year generally established by law
Ramadan, new years day, mothers day, Easter, workers day,
Christmas day, woman day, tree day, St valentines.
Ramadan, thanksgiving day, mothers day, tree day, St Valentines, etc.
Peace day: October 4th, independence day: June 25th, armed force
day: September 25th, New Years Day: January 1st, workers day: May
1st, Christmas day: December 25th, victory day: September 7th, woman
day: April 7th, family day: December 25th, heroes day: February 3rd,
St Valentines Day: February 14th
Armed forces day: September 25th and Workers day: May 1st.
b) Which of the following special occasions have you ever
celebrated or participated in? Tick if ever celebrated. Use
an English/ Portuguese dictionary to check the meaning of
the words when necessary
Possible answers:(answers, here, depend on you)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Wedding
baptism party
Olympics
engagement party
African cup of nations
birthday party
African games openings
goodbye party
Secondary school finalist party chrism party
Graduation party
golden wedding party

Which presents do people normally offer on special occasion in


Mozambique? Tick if offered
Possible answers:
Birthday cakes
Birthday cards
A party dress
A bunch of flowers
59

Candles
Sweets
Perfumes
Dolls
Pair of shoes
Books
c) How do people normally give wishes on special occasions?
Match the words at left with the one at right to form
special occasion wishes. Note that one word from left can
serve for more than one expression at right.
Best
Happy
Marry
Congratulations
Good
Good health
Thank you

for your wedding


Christmas
birthday
New Year
Easter
wishes
the same to you
for us all
anniversary
luck

and so on.
d) Cross out the noun that does not go with the verb
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Buy - a cake/ a card/ flowers/ relatives


Celebrate a birthday/ Christmas/ a meal/ an anniversary
Send a card/ a ceremony/ flowers/ a present
Visit a friend/ a relative/ your family/ birthday card
Invite fiends/ flowers/ parents/ relatives

Activity 1
a)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Complete the sentences. Use should + one of these verbs


Should watch
Should go
Should clean
Should visit
Should wear
Should read

b)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Make sentences with shouldnt


You shouldnt smoke so much.
Those kids shouldnt play so bad.
You shouldnt work so hard.
She shouldnt wake up so early.
He shouldnt watch TV so often.
60

b) You ask a friend for advice. Make question with do you


think I should? The first sentence is done as example
1. Do you think I should buy this jacket?
2. Do you think I should get a new job?
3. Do you think I should learn to drive?
4. Do you think I should by a new camera?
5. Do you think I should do an English course?
6. Do you think I should phone Paula now?
Activity two
a) Complete the sentences. Use have to + one of the verbs
below
1. have to wear
2. have to do
3. has to read
4. have to speak
5. has to travel
b) Write sentences with dont/ doesnt have to . The first is
done as example
1. You dont have to go home now.
2. She doesnt have to wait.
3. You dont have to get up so early.
4. He doesnt have to pay today.
5. You dont have to decide now.
6. He doesnt have to work so hard.
c) Rewrite the sentences below. Use should/ shouldnt or have
to/ dont have to. The first has been done for you.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

You don't have to see the doctor today.


You should open a bottle store in the countryside
You dont have to pay me today
I think you should speak English as much as possible
The teacher has to keep his students files with him.
I think you should study Italian at university

61

UNIT 5
INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 is all about Appearances. Appearances may refer to Visual
(what an object looks like) or Human Physical (peoples
descriptions).
Still in this Unit, you will deal with comparative and superlative of
adjectives whereby such adjectives will be set according to their
Degrees.

UNIT 5 OBJECTIVES
By the end of this Unit, you will be able to:
-

Describe peoples or objects appearances;

Compare things with the right degree of adjectives;

Distinguish by using adjectives.

Write a description of a suspect to the police;

Summarise a paragraph;

Identify synonyms of some adjectives;

TIME LENGTH: 4 Hours

APPEARANCES
Reading and Vocabulary
a) Read the following Headings carefully:
-

Pale is beautiful;
The importance of a long neck;
The perfect modern woman;
Showing your emotions;
The worlds most handsome men.
Ideas of beauty 200-300 years ago

Now, read the paragraphs below and match them to the correct
62

Heading above. Take nr 1 as an example.


1- ___The perfect modern woman______________
For many people, German-born supermodel Claudia Schiffer
is the perfect beauty: tall and slim, blue-eyed, tanned and
athletic-looking with long blond hair. No wonder people have
described her as The most beautiful woman in the world.
2- ______________________________________
In the eighteenth century, however, manliness was very
different from what it is today. As well as wearing wigs,
perfume and lots of make-up, a true gentleman showed his
feelings by crying frequently in public. According to one
story, when the British Prime Minister, Lord Spencer
Percival, came to give King George IV some bad news, both
men sat down and cried!
3- ______________________________________
But people have not always had the same ideas about beauty.
Until the 1920s, suntans were for poor people, ladies stayed
out of the sun to keep their faces as pale as possible. Five
hundred years ago, in the time of Queen Elizabeth I of
England, fashionable ladies even painted their faces with lead
to make them whiter a very dangerous habit as lead is
poisonous.
4- ______________________________________
And people in the eighteenth would certainly not have
thought much of Claudia Schiffers hair! Ladies in those days
never went out without their wigs, which were so enormous
and so dirty that it was quite common to find mice living in
them! As for the perfect beauties painted by Rubens in the
seventeenth century, if they wanted to be supermodels today,
they would have to spend months on a diet!
5- _____________________________________
Ideas of beauty can be very different according to where you
live, too. For the Paduang tribe in the South-East Asia,
traditionally the most important sign of beauty was a long
neck. So at the age of five or six, girls received their first
neck ring, and each year they added new rings. By the time
they were old enough to marry, their necks were about twenty
five centimetres long!
6- ______________________________________
And what about the ideal man? If you women today to name
an attractive man, most mention someone like Russell Crowe,
Mel Gibson or Denzel Washington: someone tall and strong,
brave and manly.
63

b) Are the following statements True or False. Whatever the


answer you give, you have to justify it. The first one has
been done for you.
1-Pale skin was more popular than tanned skin until the twentieth
century.
Answer: True. Until the 1920s, suntans were for poor people,
ladies stayed out of the sun to keep their faces as pale as
possible___________.
2-Elizabethan make-up was not safe.
Answer:________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________.
3-In the eighteenth century it was alright for men to cry.
Answer:________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________.
4-Women on Rubens time probably never went on diets.
Answer:________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________.

c) Find words in the text that mean:


For example- (for hair) light-colored or yellow __ blond.___
1. Pleasant to look at._____________________
2. Having skin made darker by the sun.___________________
3. Of more than average height._____________________
4. (For skin) light-colored.______________________
5. Looking physically strong and good at sport._____________
6. Having the good qualities of a man.________________
7. Thin in an attractive way._________________
8. Having a lot of courage._________________

Writing

64

Imagine you have eye-witnessed a robbery. The police needs your


help to get the criminal. Write a short paragraph, of about five
lines, describing the suspect.
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________

COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES


ADJECTIVES

What is an Adjective and what does it do?


An Adjective is a word that describes a person, a thing, etc which a
noun refers to. We use adjectives to say what a person or thing is like
or seems like. For example, adjectives can give us information about:
Quality: a beautiful dress; a nice day.
Size: a big car; a tall man.
Age: a new handbag; a young man.
Shape: a round table; a square box, and so forth

Gradable and Non-gradable adjectives


Adjectives can be divided into two classes: Gradable and Nongradable adjectives. An adjective is gradable when we can
imagine degrees in the quality referred to and so can use it
with words like very, too and enough; we can form a
comparative and superlative from it. An adjective is nongradable when we cannot modify it, i.e., we cannot use very,
too and enough; we cannot make comparative or superlative
from it. For example: daily, dead, medical, unique, etc.

The comparison of adjectives

65

Shorter adjectives: form of Regular comparison


Only gradable adjectives compare. Most common adjectives are
short words (usually of one syllable and not more than two
syllables). They form their comparatives and superlatives as
shown:
Adjective
1. Clean

Comparative

Superlative

Cleaner

Cleanest

2. Big

Bigger

Biggest

3. Nice

Nicer

Nicest

4. Tidy

Tidier

Tidiest

Spelling of comparative and superlative forms


1. Most one-syllable adjectives form their comparatives and
superlative like Clean: -er and -est are added to their basic
forms. Other examples like clean are: cold, cool, hard, low.
2. Many one-syllable adjectives, like Big, end with a single
consonant, g, after a single vowel-letter, i. The consonant
doubles in the comparative and superlative. Other examples:
fat, fatter, fattest; sad, sadder, saddest; thin, thinner, thinnest
3. Many one-adjectives end in e, like nice. These add -r and -est
to the basic form. Other examples: fine, large, late.
4. Some adjectives like Tidy, end in y with a consonant-letter
before it. These adjectives are usually two-syllable. In the
comparative and superlative y is replaced by i (tidy, tidier,
tidiest). Other examples like tidy are: busy, dirty, early.
Some Irregular comparative and superlative forms
Adjective

Comparative

Superlative

Good

better

best

Bad

worse

worst

Far

farther/further

farthest/furthest

Old

older/elder

oldest/eldest

Much

more

most

66

Many

more

most

Little

less

least

Longer adjectives: form of regular comparison


Most longer adjectives (i.e. of two or more syllables) combine
with the words more / less to form their comparatives and most /
least to form their superlatives. Less can be used with one-syllable
adjectives (less big) but more, most and least are not normally used
in this way.

Adjective

Comparative

Superlative

Careful

more careful

most careful

less careful

least careful

more expensive

most expensive

less expensive

least expensive

Expensive

The use of the comparative form of adjectives


We use the comparatives when we are comparing one person or
thing, etc with another. Comparison may be between:
Single items: Jane is taller than Alice.
Two groups: The girls in class 3 are taller than the ones in class 1.

The use of the superlative form of adjectives


We use the superlative when we are comparing one person or thing
with more than one other in the same group. The definite
article, the, is used before a superlative in a phrase or
sentence.
I.

Complete the sentences below with the correct form of


the adjective in brackets.

1. The dress makes her look _____________ (tall) than in the

67

other picture.
2. Id say she looks _______________ (good) in picture A.
3. This is definitely _______________ (sophisticated) of the
four pictures.
4. I think this is _______________ (good) picture, I really do.

Compulsory Reading
Sween, S. et al (2004) Professional English - English 365
,Cambrige. CUP.

Unit 5 Summary
Appearances
In writing your descriptions, in the following case about people, you
have to pay attention to points such as: figure, face and head,
forehead, nose, hair, eyes, skin, etc. Say whether the eyes are clear,
bright, large, small, blue or the hair is straight, wavy, curly,
plaited or the skin is pale, tanned, dusky, fair, etc.
When we compare two persons or things we use the Comparative
Degree and in comparing more than two persons or things we use the
Superlative Degree. You will notice that a simple way of comparing
adjectives is to:
Add er for the Comparative Degree, and
Add est for the Superlative Degree.
Adjectives of three syllables, and some of two syllables, have more
written before them for the Comparative Degree, and most for the
68

Superlative Degree.

Unit 5 Tasks
Vocabulary
I.
Find five pairs of opposites from the phrases or words
below.
Terrific; stay up late; excited; great; attractive; awful; fall asleep;
dangerous; angry; nickname; candles; wake up; brand new;
tanned; disappointed; ugly; slim; often; expensive; go to bed early;
cheap; relaxed; enormous; pale; in good mood.
For example: Cheap Expensive
Real life
II.
Think of an appropriate way of responding in the
following situations.
1. Your teacher asks you something, but you didnt hear the
question.
2. Your party guests are leaving.
3. You are in a restaurant and you would like to pay.
4. Your friend is going to take her driving test.
5. You want to know the price of something.

Unit 5 Answer Key

Reading and vocabulary


a) Read the following Headings
1- The perfect modern woman
2- Showing your emotions
3- Pale is beautiful
4- Ideas of beauty 200-300 years ago
5- The importance of a long neck
6- The worlds most handsome men

69

b) Are the following statements True or False...


1-

True. Until the 1920s, suntans were for poor people,


ladies stayed out of the sun to keep their faces as pale as
possible.

2- True. Lead is poisonous!


3- True. A true gentleman showed his feelings by crying
frequently in public.
4- True. They would have to spend months on a diet!
c) Find words in the text that mean:
12345678-

Attractive
Tanned
Tall
Pale
Athletic-looking
Manly
Slim
brave

Writing
Imagine you have eye-witnessed a robbery. The police needs
your help to get the criminal. Write a short paragraph, of about
five lines, describing the suspect.
It was a very tall man of about 30 years old. His face was thin and
had a long nose. His skin was tanned and had dreadlocks. He was
carrying a black suitcase and was dressed in blue jeans and a
black and white checked sleeveless shirt.

I.

Complete the sentences below with the correct form


of the adjective in brackets.

1. The dress makes her look ___taller___ (tall) than in the


other picture.
2. Id say she looks ___better_____ (good) in picture A.
3. This is definitely __the most sophisticated__ (sophisticated)
of the four pictures.

70

4. I think this is ___the best_____ (good) picture, I really do.

Tasks
Vocabulary
I.
Find five pairs of opposites from the phrases or
words below.
Terrific Awful
Stay up late Go to bed early
Excited Disappointed
Attractive Ugly
Fall asleep Wake up
Angry In a good mood
Tanned Pale

Real life
II.
Think of an appropriate way of responding in the
following situations.
1. Sorry, could you reap that, please?
2. Thanks for coming.
3. Can we have the bill, please?
4. Good luck!
5. How much does this cost?

UNIT 6
INTRODUCTION
Time off is the title of Unit 6. It means the time period when you are
officially allowed not to be at work or studying.
71

In this unit you will look at aspects like intentions and wishes as
well as predictions, i.e., ways of expressing future time in English
verb phrase.

UNIT 6 OBJECTIVES
By the end of this Unit, you will be able to:
-

Express your intentions ad wishes;

Plan your holidays.

Distinguish the phrases plan to, going to, would like to,
would rather;

TIME LENGTH: 4 Hours

INTENTIONS AND WISHES

Going to and plan to


When there is any suggestion of intentions and plans, we tend to use
the going to future.
I am going to practice the piano for two hours this evening.
The sentence above shows my intention: what I have planned /
arranged to do. However, we generally prefer will to going to when
we decide to do something at the moment of speaking.
We are really lost. I will stop and ask someone the way.
Intentions can be emphasized with adverbs like now and just which
are generally associated with present time.
Im now going to show you how to make a spaghetti sauce.
72

Im just going to change. Ill be back in five minutes.


The use of going to to refer to a remote future is less common and
generally requires a time reference.
If we want to be precise about intentions and plans, we use plan to
and some other verbs like intend to and propose to, rather than going
to:
They are going to build a new motorway to the west. (vague)
They planned to build a new motorway to the west. (more precise)

Would like to and would rather


As you might know, Would is a modal verb and generally modal
verbs are used extensively for speech acts or functions such as
offering, asking for things, expressing preferences. However, would
like and would rather are used differently.

Typical offers inviting YES / NO responses


Would you like some coffee?
Yes, Id like one, please.
Typical suggestions / invitations inviting YES / NO responses
Would you like to come for a walk with me?
Yes, Id like to. Or
No, Id prefer not to. Thank you.
Would rather
Would rather + bare infinitive ( the infinitive of a verb without to)
expresses our personal preferences or enables us to talk about
someone elses. This can refer to present time:
Id rather be an accountant than a bank clerk.
He would rather not go by car.
Or it can refer to past time:
73

If I had lived in 1400, Id rather have been a knight than a monk.

1. Choose the alternative which has the closest meaning to


the sentence.
a) Im going to buy a new computer.
-I hope I can buy a new computer
-I intend to buy a new computer.
-I want to buy a new computer.
b) Im planning to buy a new computer.
-I have thought carefully about buying a new computer.
-I would like to buy a new computer.
c) Id like to buy a new computer.
-I enjoy buying computers.
-I want to buy a new computer.
d) Id rather buy a new computer than a second-hand one.
-I like new computer more than second-hand ones.
-I want to buy a second-hand computer.
-I intend to buy a new computer.

2. Make these sentences into questions.


a) Youre going to see it.
_____________________________________________?
b) Youre planning to do it.
_____________________________________________?
c) Youd like to see it.
_____________________________________________?
d) Youd rather go home.

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_____________________________________________?

3. Complete the gaps correctly, with the phrases given below,


to tell the story of Mark and Rosas holiday.
May, sea, twelve, hurricane, delayed, $1000, beautiful,
The next morning, five-star, two
Mark and Rosa saved up for their dream holiday at a place called San
Antonio in the Caribbean but the dream was more like a nightmare!
The holiday cost over (a)_______________________ each, but they
decided to go for (b)_______________________ weeks in the month
of (c)_______________________ because they heard that the
weather was (d)______________________ there at that time.
The problem began when the flight was (e)_____________________
because of bad weather and they couldnt leave until
(f)_____________________. They finally got on the plane
(g)_____________________ hours late. Then, they couldnt fly to
San Antonio because there was a(h)_______________________ and
they had fly to the capital city instead, where they stayed in a
(i)_____________________ hotel next to the (j)________________.

PREDICTIONS WILL AND WONT


The simple future
Form of the simple future
The simple future is formed with will and the base form of a verb
Affirmative

Short form

I will stay

Ill stay

You will

Youll

He will

Hell

She will

Shell

It will

Itll

We will

Well

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They will stay

Theyll stay

Negative

Short form

I will not stay

I wont stay

You will not

You wont

He will not

He wont

She will not

She wont

It will not

It wont

We will not

We wont

They will not stay

They wont stay

Will for predictions briefly compared with other uses


When we use will for simple prediction, they combine with verbs to
form tenses in the ordinary way. Will can be used to predict events,
for example, to say what we think will happen:
Tottenham will win on Saturday.
It will rain tomorrow.
Will house prices rise again next year?
This is sometimes called the pure future, and it should be
distinguish from many other uses of will.
Ill buy you a bicycle for your birthday. promise
Will you hold the door open for me? request
Just wait. You will regret this! threat
Though all the above examples point to future time, they are not
predicting; they are colored by notions of willingness.

1. Complete the unfinished sentences a) to j) with the correct


phrases given below.
Will the journey take?; will I need?; crowded?; a seat?;
An appointment?; pay immediately?; to speak English?;
76

A tip?; to sleep?; it cost?


a) Will I have to make_________________________________
b) Will I have to give__________________________________
c) Will I have to______________________________________
d) Will I need to book__________________________________
e) Will it be very______________________________________
f) About how much will________________________________
g) Will the people be able_______________________________
h) How long_________________________________________
i) What documents____________________________________
j) Will there be anywhere_______________________________

2. What do you think the above questions are all about?


_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________

Compulsory Readings
Soars, L&J (1996) New Headway Intermediate students
book, Oxford.OUP.

Murphy, R. (1997) Essential Grammar in Use. A selfstudy reference and practice book for elementary students
of English, Cambridge. CUP.

Unit 6 Summary
The verbs intend, plan, aim (+ infinitive clause) express precise
intention. However, intention can also be expressed by be going to.
77

When expressing your own wishes or inviting the wishes of others,


you can make the wish more tentative and tactful by using would
like, as in the following example.
Would you like me to open these letters?
I would like to stay in an inexpensive hotel.
We have restricted the use of will to prediction. In spite of that, you
have to bear in mind that will can also be used for a variety of speech
acts, like promising, threatening, suggesting, requesting.
Unit 6 Tasks
Increasing your vocabulary
1. You probably know the word sun. But what do you call:
a) The adjective from sun?
___________________________________________________
b) The nouns for when the sun goes up and comes down?
___________________________________________________
c) A verb describing the activity of lying in the sun?
___________________________________________________
d) The word for glasses you wear in the sun?
___________________________________________________
e) An adjective describing skin which is brown from the sun?
___________________________________________________
2. Intentions and wishes: going to, planning to, would like,
would rather. Complete the gaps in the sentences below
with the correct italicized word.
a) I ________________ to visit India, one day.
b) Actually, we ____________________ take the early train.
c) Im __________________ to take a holiday this year.
d) Are you _____________________ to stay at home this
evening?
e) ________ you _________ go to a different restaurant?
f) We are ___________________ to invite at least 50 people to
the party.
g) Are you ________________ to come out with us this
evening?
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h) I ___________________ to say something, please.

Unit 6 Answer Key

1. Choose the alternative which has the closest meaning to


the sentence.
a) Im going to buy a new computer.
-I intend to buy a new computer.
b) Im planning to buy a new computer.
-I have thought carefully about buying a new computer.
c) Id like to buy a new computer.
-I want to buy a new computer.
d) Id rather buy a new computer than a second-hand one.
-I like new computers more than second-hand ones.
2. Make these sentences into questions.
a) Are you going to see it?
b) Are you planning to do it?
c) Would you like to see it?
d) Would you rather go home?
3. Complete the gaps correctly, with the phrases given
below, to tell the story of Mark and Rosas holiday.
a) $1000
b) Two
c) May
d) Beautiful
e) Delayed

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f) Next morning
g) Twelve
h) Hurricane
i) Five-star
j) Sea

1. Complete the unfinished sentences a) to j) with the correct


phrases given below.
a) An appointment?
b) A tip?
c) To pay immediately?
d) A seat?
e) Crowded?
f) It cost?
g) To speak English?
h) Will the journey take?
i) Will I need?
j) To sleep?
2. What do you think the above questions are all about?
Someone might be planning his or her holiday. So he / she looked
for the help of a travel agency.
Note: any other contextualized answer may be correct.

Tasks
Increasing your vocabulary
1. You probably know the word sun. But what do you call:
a) Sunny
b) Sunrise and sunset
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c) Sunbathe
d) Sunglasses
e) Suntanned
2. Intentions and wishes: going to, planning to, would like,
would rather. Complete the gaps in the sentences below
with the correct italicized word.
a) Would like
b) Would rather
c) Going to
d) Planning to
e) Would rather
f) Planning to
g) Going to
h) Would like

UNIT 7
INTRODUCTION
Ambitions and dreams is the theme of unit 7. Ambition can be
defined as the desire for professional achievement whereas Dreams
are successions of images, ideas, and sensations that occur
involuntarily.
In this unit, you will have the privilege of reading about some
actors ambitions and dreams as well as talk about yours. You will
81

recap and elaborate the notions you have of Simple Past and Present
Perfect tenses.

UNIT 7 OBJECTIVES
By the end of this Unit, you will be able to:
-

Talk about your ambitions and dreams;

Differentiate the regular from irregular verbs;

Distinguish the Simple Past from the Present Perfect actions;

Relate the above tenses.

Express your ambitions;

Refer to a certain action in a specific past time.

Describe actions from the past with a present continuity;

TIME LENGTH: 4 Hours

THE SIMPLE PAST


a) Match the italicized phrases to the numbered ones to make
expressions that have to do with ambitions.
Abroad, children, famous, a house or flat, how to drive,
married, 1 million USD, a novel, television, the world,
university, your own business.
1. Learn__________________________________________
2. Become________________________________________
3. Earn___________________________________________
4. Start___________________________________________
5. Go____________________________________________
6. Get____________________________________________
7. Buy____________________________________________
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8. Appear on______________________________________
9. Go to__________________________________________
10. Write__________________________________________
11. Go round_______________________________________
12. Have___________________________________________

The Simple Past Tense

Form of the simple past tense with regular verbs


The form is the same for all persons:
I played / arrived
You played / arrived
He played / arrived
She played /arrived
It played /arrived
We played /arrived
You played /arrived
They played /arrived

Spelling of the regular past


Verbs in the regular past always end with a d in their spelling: Verbs
ending in e, like arrive, add d, arrived;
Verbs not ending in e, like ask, add ed, asked;
Verbs spelt with a single vowel letter followed by a single consonant,
like stop, double the consonant, stopped;
In two-syllable verbs, the last consonant is doubled when the last
syllable contains s single vowel letter followed by a single consonant
83

letter. Prefer - Preferred.


When there is a consonant before y, like in cry, the y changes into i
before we add ed, cried.

Form of the simple past tense with irregular verbs


The form is the same for all persons:
I shut / sat
You shut / sat
He shut / sat
She shut / sat
It shut /sat
We shut / sat
You shut /sat
They shut / sat
Note: unlike regular verbs, irregular verbs do not have past forms
which can be predicted.
Uses of the simple past tense
1. Completed actions
We normally use the simple past tense to talk about events, action or
situations which occurred in the past and are now finished. They may
have happened recently:
-

Sam phoned a moment ago.

Or in the distant past:


-

The Goths invaded Rome in A.D 410.

A time reference must be given:


-

I had a word with Julian this morning.

Or it must be understood from the context:


-

I saw Fred in town. (i.e. when I was there this morning)

When we use the simple past tense, we are usually concerned with
84

when an action occurred, NOT with its duration.


2. Past habit
Like used to, the simple past tense can be used to describe past
habits:
-

I smoked forty cigarettes a day till the day I gave up.

3. The immediate past


We can sometimes use the simple past without a time reference to
describe something that happened a very short time ago:
-

Jimmy punched me in the stomach.

Who left the door open?

Questions and Negatives


The structure of a Question and Negative sentence in the Simple Past
Tense is written with the aid of the auxiliary verb do plus the main
verb in simple present, as shown in the following examples:
a) Sam phoned early in the morning.
Question: Did Sam phone early in the morning?
Negative: Sam did not phone early in the morning.

Use the phrases in activity a) numbers 1 to 6 above, to write


simple sentences about Sam in the simple past tense, question
and negative.
e.g.
1. Sam learnt how to drive.
Q: Did Sam learn how to drive?
N: Sam didnt learn how to drive.
2._____________________________________________________
Q:____________________________________________________?
N:_____________________________________________________
3._____________________________________________________

85

Q:____________________________________________________?
N:_____________________________________________________
4.______________________________________________________
Q:____________________________________________________?
N:_____________________________________________________
5.______________________________________________________
Q:____________________________________________________?
N:_____________________________________________________
6._____________________________________________________
Q:____________________________________________________?
N:____________________________________________________

THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE


Form of the simple present perfect tense
The present perfect is formed with the present of have plus the past
participle of a verb.
I have arrived / shut
You have arrived / shut
He has arrived / shut
She has arrived / shut
It has arrived / shut
We have arrived / shut
They have arrived / shut
Note: Ive arrived = I have arrived; Shes arrived = She has arrived
Present time and Past time
The present perfect always suggests a relationship between present
time and past time. So I have had lunch implies that I did so very
86

recently. However, if I say I had lunch, I also have to say or imply


when: e.g. I had lunch an hour ago. Similarly, Ive been here since
February shows a connection between past and present, whereas I
am here can only relate to the present and cannot be followed by a
phrase like since February.

Uses of the Simple present perfect tense


The present perfect is used in two ways:
1. To describe actions beginning in the past and continuing up to
the present moment ( and possibly into the future);
-

Ive planted fourteen rose-bushes so far this morning.

Shes never eaten a mango before.

2. To refer to actions occurring or not occurring at an


unspecified time in the past with some kind of connection to
the present.
-

Jason Villiers has been arrested.

Have you passed your driving test?

The present perfect + adverbials suggesting up to the present


We do not use the present perfect with adverbs relating to past time
(ago, yesterday, last week). Adverbial phrases like: before, now, so
far, so far this morning, up until now, up to the present, are used with
the present perfect because they clearly connect the past with the
present moment.
The present perfect with since and for
We often use since and for with the present perfect to refer to periods
of time up to the present:
-

Tom has lived here since 1980.

He has lived her for about 30 years.

The present perfect for recent actions


The following adverbs can refer to actions, etc, in recent time:

87

Just: Ive just tidied up the kitchen.

Recently: Hes recently arrived from New York.

Already ( in questions and affirmative statements):

Have you already typed my letter?

I.

Use the ideas below to make sentences in the present


perfect.

e.g. just / I be / the hairdressers / to


Ive just been to the hairdressers.
1. Not / I / yet / finish / school
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
2. Just / lunch / I / have
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
3. I / on holiday / already / go / this year
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
4. An arm / or a leg / never / I / break
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
5. I / go / yet / not to the dentist
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
6. I / do / anything exciting / not / this weekend
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

Compulsory Readings
88

Murphy, R. (1997) Essential Grammar in Use. A self-study


reference and practice book for elementary students of English,
Cambridge. CUP

Unit 7 Summary
You should never think that the simple past and the present perfect
tense can be used interchangeably, i.e. one in place of the other.
The present perfect, in its turn, is never used in past narrative (e.g.
stories told in the past, history books). Apart from its common use in
conversation, it is most often used in broadcast news, newspapers,
letters and any other kind of language-use which has connection with
the present.
Unit 7 Tasks
a) Robbie left school in 1995. He is remembering his old
school friends. Complete the sentences using the verbs
below. Make changes where necessary.
Decide; not enjoy; not go; have; like; spend; study; want;
To be; go.
Ameet was always interested in business he always
(1)__________________________ lots of brilliant ideas for making
money and his ambition (2)_________________________ to be a
millionaire by the age of twenty-five.
Lucy was a film addict she sometimes (3) ___________________
to the cinema four or five times a week. She (4)
_____________________ to become a famous film actress like her
heroine, Halle Berry.
Edward was always very quiet, and he (5) ___________________
out very much he (6) _______________________ most of his
time at home in his bedroom, playing games on his computer.
Kate (7) _________________________ for at least three hours
every evening when she was eighteen years old, she (8)
_________________________ to become an ecologist and help
save the planet.
89

Hannah (9) _________________________ school at all for some


reason, the only subject she (10) _______________________ was
Geography.

b) Simple past or Present perfect? Choose the correct


alternative
1. I have stayed / stayed with my grandparents a lot when I was
younger.
_______________________________
2. The couple next door have lived / lived there for twenty-five
years: Im sure they will never move.
_______________________________
3. Gordon has started / started his business in 2001.
_______________________________
4. So far this year, we have saved / saved over 500USD.
______________________________
5. Before becoming a banker, my brother has studied / studied
abroad for several years.
______________________________

Unit 7 Answer Key

a) Match the italicized phrases to the numbered ones to


make expressions that have to do with ambitions.
1. Learn how to drive
2. Become famous
3. Earn 1 million
4. Start your own business
5. Go abroad
6. Get married
7. Buy a house or flat
90

8. Appear on television
9. Go to university
10. Write a novel
11. Go round the world
12. Have children
Use the phrases in activity a) numbers 1 to 6 above, to write
simple sentences about Sam in the simple past tense, question
and negative.
e.g.
1. Sam learnt how to drive.
Q: Did Sam learn how to drive?
N: Sam didnt learn how to drive.
2. Sam became famous.
Q: Did Sam become famous?
N: Sam didnt become famous
3. Sam earned 1 million USD.
Q: Did Sam earn 1 million USD?
N: Sam didnt earn 1 million USD
4. Sam started his own business.
Q: Did Sam start his own business?
N: Sam didnt start his own business.
5. Sam went abroad.
Q: Did Sam go abroad?
N: Sam didnt go abroad.
6.Sam got married
Q: Did Sam get married?
N: Sam didnt get married.

91

I.

Use the ideas below to make sentences in the present


perfect.

e.g. just / I be / the hairdressers / to


Ive just been to the hairdressers.
1. Not / I / yet / finish / school
I have not finished school yet.
2. Just / lunch / I / have
I have just had lunch
3. I / on holiday / already / go / this year
I have already gone on holiday this year.
4. An arm / or a leg / never / I / break
I have never broken an arm or a leg.
5. I / go / yet / not to the dentist
I havent gone to the dentist yet
6. I / do / anything exciting / not / this weekend
I havent done anything exciting this weekend.
Tasks
a) Robbie left school in 1995. He is remembering his old
school friends. Complete the sentences using the verbs
below. Make changes where necessary.
1. Had
2. Was
3. Went
4. Wanted
5. Didnt go
6. Spent

92

7. Studied
8. Decided
9. Didnt enjoy
10. liked
b) Simple past or Present perfect? Choose the correct
alternative
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Stayed
Have lived
Started
Have saved
studied

UNIT 8
INTRODUCTION
Countries and Cultures is the headline of unit 8. It should naturally
be expected much of different countries culture. However, due to
time constraints, not much of that will be dealt with. Instead you will
superficially read some kind of geographical-cultural aspects that
will undoubtedly enhance your general knowledge information.
There will also be room for grammatical features, largely saying,
nouns and articles.

93

UNIT 8 OBJECTIVES
By the end of this Unit, you will be able to:
-

Read different pieces of information;

Relate the articles;

Interpret technical terminologies ;

Point out types of nouns.

Identify the countable and uncountable nouns;

Classify the types of nouns;

Distinguish Proper from Common noun

Read for a specific purpose;

Instil some geographical terminologies;

Distinguish the definite from indefinite article


TIME LENGTH: 4 Hours

COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS


Countable and Uncountable Nouns
Types of nouns
Noun
1. Proper
2. Common: countable or uncountable
All nouns fall into one of two classes. They may be either Proper
nouns or Common nouns.
1.Proper nouns
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A proper noun (sometimes called a proper name) is used for a


particular person, place, thing or idea which is, or is imagined to be
unique. It is always spelt with a first capital letter. Articles are not
generally used in front of proper nouns.
Personal names (with or without titles): Andrew, President Kennedy,
Mr. Smith.
Geographical names: Asia, Berkshire, India, Wisconsin.
Months, days of the week, festival and seasons: April, Monday,
Easter, Christmas.
Place names: Madison Avenue, Regent Street.

2.Common nouns
Any noun that is not the name of a particular person, place, thing or
idea is a common noun. We often use a, an, the or zero article in
front of common nouns.
How to identify countable and uncountable nouns
All common nouns fall into one of the two sub-classes: they may be
either countable nouns (sometimes known as unit or count nouns) or
uncountable nouns (also known as mass or non-count noun). The
distinction between countable and uncountable nouns is fundamental
in English, for only by distinguishing between the two can we
understand when to use singular or plural forms and when to use the
indefinite, definite and zero articles.
Note: many nouns which are normally uncountable can be used as
countable in certain contexts. This suggests that strict classification
of nouns as countable or uncountable are in many cases unreliable. It
would be better to think in terms of countable and uncountable uses
of nouns or for detailed information consult a good dictionary.
Countable nouns
If a noun is countable:
-

We can use a / an in front of it: a book, an envelope.

It has a plural and can be used in the question how many?:


how many stamps / envelopes?

We can use numbers: one stamp, two stamps


95

Uncountable nouns
Is a noun is uncountable:
-

We do not normally use a / an in front of it: Sugar is


expensive.

It does not normally have a plural and it can be used in the


question how much?: How much meat / oil?

We cannot normally use numbers (one, two) in front of it.

Concrete and Abstract Nouns


Many countable nouns are concrete (having an individual physical
existence), for example:
Persons, Animals, Plants: a girl, a horse, a geranium.
Objects: a bottle, a desk, a typewriter.
Concrete uncountable nouns sometimes having a physical but not
individual existence, include words like:
Materials, Gases, Liquids: cotton, air, milk
Grains and Powder: rice, flour, dust
A few countable nouns are abstract: a hope, an idea, a nuisance,
etc and many uncountable nouns are abstract: anger, equality,
honesty, etc.
Selected uncountable nouns and their countable equivalents
Some uncountable nouns cannot be used as countable to refer to a
single item or example. A quite different word must be used:
Uncountable

Equivalent countable

Bread

a loaf of bread

Clothing

a garment

Laughter

a laugh

Luggage

a case, a bag

Poetry

a poem

Money

a coin, a note

96

Work

a job

Nouns for animals are countable; nouns for meat are uncountable:
a cow / meat, a deer / venison, a pig / pork, a sheep / mutton

Choose the best quantifier to complete the sentence.


1. Be careful on the road. Theres many / much / a lot of traffic
at this time of the day.
____________________________________________________
2. My flats got a nice view, but there isnt enough / many / no
space.
____________________________________________________
3. There arent many / much / some young people in our
apartment block.
____________________________________________________
4. I cant go out tonight. I havent got any / no / many money.
____________________________________________________
5. The citys mainly modern, but there are any / much/ some old
buildings
____________________________________________________
6. There arent any / no /much shops around here.
____________________________________________________

COUNTRIES AND CULTURES


Reading
Read the geographical information paragraphs of different parts
of the world, below, and then answer the questions that follow:
The Yellow River is second longest river in China. It carries millions
of tons of yellow sand from the deserts of central China, which give
the river a yellowish color. The Black sea lies between six countries,
97

including Russia, Turkey and Ukraine but it certainly isnt black!


The name probably comes from the black clouds which can cause
storms in the area. And Greenland the worlds largest island apart
from Australia is more white than green (85% is permanently
covered in snow and ice). One idea is that the first people who
arrived there saw it in spring.

The Dead Sea is not really a sea, but a lake. Water comes into it from
the River Jordan, but because the Dead Sea is lower than the land
around it, it cannot flow out. The hot desert sun evaporates the water
as quickly as it flows in, leaving salt and other minerals. As a result,
the Dead Sea is seven times saltier than the sea, and people can easily
float on it.

Canada has the worlds longest coastline just over 240,000 km (this
is nearly five times longer than the next country, Indonesia). As a
single line, the coastline would go round the Earth six times!

Two of the hottest and coldest temperatures ever recorded were in the
same country Argentina. A temperature of 49oC was recorded in the
town of Rivadavia on 11th December 1905 and -33oC in Sarmiento
(only 115 km away) in June 1907 thats a difference of 82oC!

In South America, the Andes stretch more than 7,000 km from Lake
Maracaibo in the north to Tierra del Fuego in the south the whole
length of the continent and a distance greater than New York to
London. In the Andes you can also find the worlds highest volcano
(Nevado Onjos del Salado on the border between Chile and
Argentina) and the worlds highest lake (Lake Titicaca).

In the city of Venice in the north-east of Italy. No cars are allowed


into the historic city. The only way to get around is on foot, by boat
or water taxi. Its famous for its historic places, churches and art
galleries.

In the Atacama Desert in northern Chile, it rains regularly between


98

two and four times a century! In parts of the desert, it has never
rained as far as we know!

1. Where is the country with the most extreme climate?


____________________________________________________
2. What is the name of the lake that is 7 times saltier than the
sea?
____________________________________________________
3. Where can you find the worlds driest desert?
____________________________________________________
4. Why do the Yellow River, the Black Sea and Greenland have
such names?
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
5. Whats the country with the worlds longest coastline?
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
6. How long is its coastline?
____________________________________________________
Vocabulary
Find words in the paragraphs which mean the same as:
1. Water which is frozen (paragraph 1)
________________________________________
2. The dividing line between two countries (paragraph 5)
________________________________________
3. An area of water surrounded by land (paragraph 2)
________________________________________
4. A very dry place where there is little rain (paragraph 7)

99

________________________________________
5. Strong wind and rain (paragraph 1)
_______________________________________
6. An area of land surrounded by water (paragraph 1)
_______________________________________
7. A stretch of water which goes to the sea (paragraph 1)
_______________________________________

ARTICLES : zero, the, a and an


We use a number of words in front of common nouns (or
adjectives + common noun) which we call determiners because
the affect (or determine) the meaning of the noun.
Indefinite article: I bought a new shirt yesterday.
Definite article: The shirt I am wearing is new.
Moreover, we often use no article at all in English. The non-use of
the article is so important that we give it a name: The zero article.
Zero article: Chicago is a well-run city today.

Form and use of a, an and zero article


Singular

Plural

a book

books

an egg

eggs

a is used before consonant sounds (not just consonant letters).


an is used before vowel sounds (not just words beginning with vowel
letters). It can be clearly seen with the use of the alphabet below.
We say: a B, C, D, G, J, K, P, Q, T, U, V, W, Y, Z
an A, E, F, H, I, L, M, N, O, R, S, X
Compare:

100

a fire but an f
a man but an m
There is no difference in meaning between a and an. When using a /
an one must always bear in mind two basic things:
1. a / an has an indefinite meaning, i.e. the person, animal or
thing referred to may be not known to the listener or reader.
2. a / an can only combine with a singular countable noun.

Form of the
The never varies in form whether it refers to people or things,
singular or plural.
Singular

Plural

The book I was talking about.

The books I was talking about.

Basic uses of the


When using the, we must always bear in mind two basic facts:
1. the normally has a definite reference, i.e. the person or thing
referred to is assumed to be known to the speaker or reader.
2. the can combine with singular countable, plural countable and
uncountable nouns.
The use of the for specifying
When we use the, the listener or reader can already identify what we
are referring to, therefore the shows that the noun has been specified
by the context / situation.
e.g.
- Singleton is a quiet village near Chichester. The village has a
population of s few hundred people.
Other references with the
Examples of items with the:
With superlatives Its the worst play Ive ever seen.
With musical instruments Tom plays the piano / the flute.
101

Fixed expressions do the shopping; make the bed.


Fixed phrases the sooner the better

Compulsory Readings
Soars, L&J (1996) New Headway Intermediate students
book, Oxford.OUP.

Murphy, R. (1997) Essential Grammar in Use. A selfstudy reference and practice book for elementary students
of English, Cambridge. CUP.

Unit 8 Summary
When dealing with countable and uncountable nouns, make sure you
have the following in mind:

Unlike uncountable nouns, countable nouns have a plural


form;

Many is used with countable nouns and Much is used with


uncountable nouns;

Some and a few are used in positive sentences;

Any is used in negative sentences. It is also used in questions


where the answer could be yes/no;

A lot of is used in positive sentences; much/many is used in


negative sentences

There is a lot to say when it comes to talking about articles.


However, you should try and keep the most basic rules in mind.

102

Unit 8 Tasks
Nouns: countable and uncountable
Choose one of the words in the brackets following each sentence
to fill the blank in the sentence.
1. He gave me an ____________________ but I have forgotten
it. (information / instruction)
2. He went to buy a new __________________. (underwear /
shirt)
3. She spoke a ____________________ I could not understand.
(slang / dialect)
4. A beautiful __________________ met his eyes. (scene /
scenery)
5. I issued him with a _____________________. (permit /
permission)
6. He was carrying
(luggage / load)

heavy

____________________.

Indefinite articles
Use a or an to fill the blank where necessary.
1. I expect to encounter ________ considerable trouble.
2. He went to have _________ bath.
3. They carried out _______ investigation into the crime.
4. He gave me ________ cause to believe he was right.
5. I went for _______ treatment of my injury.
Definite article
Use the to fill the blank where necessary.
d) ________ slavery he found practised there appalled him.
e) He loved _________ company he had with him.
f) She practises _______ sculpture.
g) An optimist believes in ______ progress.
h) He was _______ shorter of the two.

Unit 8 Answer Key

103

Choose the best quantifier to complete the sentence.


1. Be careful on the road. Theres a lot of traffic at this time of
the day.
2. My flats got a nice view, but there isnt enough space.
3. There arent many young people in our apartment block.
4. I cant go out tonight. I havent got any money.
5. The citys mainly modern, but there are some old buildings
6. There arent any shops around here.

Reading
Read the geographical information paragraphs of different parts
of the world, below, and then answer the questions that follow:
1. Where is the country with the most extreme climate?
___Argentina__________________________________________
2. What is the name of the lake that is 7 times saltier than the
sea?
___Dead Sea__________________________________________
3. Where can you find the worlds driest desert?
___Northern Chile______________________________________
4. Why do the Yellow River, the Black Sea and Greenland
have such names?
___Yellow River because it carries millions of tons of yellow sand
from the deserts; Black Sea because of the black clouds and
Greenland because the people who named it saw it in
Spring_______________________________________________
_____
5. Whats the country with the worlds longest coastline?
___Canada___________________________________________
6. How long is its coastline?

104

____240,000 long______________________________________

Vocabulary
Find words in the paragraphs which mean the same as:
1. Water which is frozen (paragraph 1)
_Ice_______________________________________
2. The dividing line between two countries (paragraph 5)
_Border_______________________________________
3. An area of water surrounded by land (paragraph 2)
_Lake_______________________________________
4. A very dry place where there is little rain (paragraph 7)
_Desert_______________________________________
5. Strong wind and rain (paragraph 1)
_Storm______________________________________
6. An area of land surrounded by water (paragraph 1)
_Island______________________________________
7. A stretch of water which goes to the sea (paragraph
_River_______________________________________
Tasks
Nouns: countable and uncountable
Choose one of the words in the brackets following each sentence
to fill the blank in the sentence.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Instruction
Shirt
Dialect
Scene
Permit
Load

Indefinite articles
Use a or an to fill the blank where necessary.
1.
105

2.
3.
4.
5.

a
an

Definite article
Use the to fill the blank where necessary.
1. the
2. the
3.
4.
5. The

UNIT 9
INTRODUCTION
Throughout this Unit, you will come across with two fundamental
language skills: Reading and Grammar. This reading will
undoubtedly raise some awareness in you so as for you to think
about your own hobbies and interests in life.
You will also be confronted with explanations and activities on
Gerunds (-ing forms), which is a crucial aspect of grammar.

UNIT 9 OBJECTIVES
By the end of this Unit, you will be able to:
-

Use gerunds ( -ing forms) after verbs;

Use lots of vocabulary related with hobbies and interests


106

Organize a survey

Use (ing form) as the subject of the sentence; as the object


and after prepositions;

TIME LENGTH: 4 Hours

HOBBIES AND INTERESTS


Reading and Vocabulary

1.What

are the most popular hobbies and interests in your


country or community? Do you have any special hobbies
yourself?

2.

In the box bellow, find:


a) five things that people collect
b) two games people play
c) two things people might make
d) three things that people might go to see
coins
a musical
trading cards
a rock concert
stamps
backgammon
jewellery
models
dolls
chess
memorabilia
your favorite football team

3. Now, read the article When an interest becomes an Obsession.


Which hobbies/collections does the article talk about?
WHEN AN INTEREST BECOMES AN OBSESSION
Whether its collecting coins, supporting your favorite football team,
or just shopping, most people have some king of interest. But what
happen when that interest becomes the most important thing in your
life? When does an interest become an obsession?
Take Bob Martin, for example. In 1988, he went to see the musical
Cats at the New London Theatre. He enjoyed it so much he went to
see it again. And again. And again every week for fourteen years!
He travelled 52,000 miles and saw the show 795 times spending a
total of 20,000. I dont drink, smoke, or run a car, so I could just
107

about afford it, says the 71 year-old. But sadly Bob in now looking
for a new hobby. The show closed last year after a sixteen-year run in
London.
For some its musicals that keep them coming back for more. For
others, itsfast food. Peter Holden, from Washington DC, eats an
average of two McDonalds meals a day. He has eaten at more than
11.000 McDonalds ( there are 13,500 of them in the whole of the
USA) and says , Im a collector of the McDonalds dining
experience. He is 1.9 m tall and weighs 90 kg he says he doesnt
put on weight party because he is lucky and partly because he doesnt
eat the fries.
Most people collect something at some time in their life, whether its
dolls, trading cards or even stamps, but few take their collections as
far as Rodolfo Renato Vazquez, who has the worlds largest
collection of books, porters and even life-size models related to his
heroes, The Beatles. He divides his collection between his apartment
and the club he owns in Buenos Aires, where he now organizes a
regular Beatles event which attracts thousands of visitors from all
over the world.
But the 6,000 or so items in Rodolfos collection are nothing
compared to the 20,000 items belonging to Jason Joiner all related
to the Star Wars films. His collection includes an original Darth
Bader costume! But such obsessions can have unfortunate results.
John Weintraub became obsessed with collecting plastic figures of
US presidents given as free gifts in packets of breakfast cereal. After
two years, he had the whole set apart from Thomas Jefferson.
Weintraub was so desperate to get the last one he broke into a factory
and opened every box he could find. He was seen by a guard,
arrested and sent to prison. Its OK though, he said, because at my
first prison breakfast I opened the cereal packetand out come
Jefferson.
4. Now, who does each of these statements refer to? Explain the
choice.
a. He has the largest collection of memorabilia.
b. He now has to find something else to spend his money on.
c. Hes careful about what he eats.
d. His obsession make him into a criminal.
e. People come from other countries to see his collection.
f. He spent most of his money going to see a show.
5. Which of the obsessions do you find the strangest? Do you
know of any other people who have become obsessed in this way?
6. Use the clues below to check who is referred to: Then check
your answers on key correction ...........
108

Clues
a. Someone you really admire is your...
b. If you are so crazy about something you cant think of
anything else, you have an...
c. special clothes worn by an actor
d. a type of breakfast food
e. wanting or needing something very much
f. presents
g. If you get fatter, you put on ...
h. If something is too expensive for you to buy, you cant ... it.

LANGUAGE USE: Gerunds (-ing forms) after verbs of liking and disliking

1 Which of the things in the box do you like? Which do you dislike?
Mark each one like this:
5 = I love it/them! 3 = Its OK./ I dont mind it/them
1 = I hate it/them!
Babies buying presents chocolate Christmas
dancing

dogs

receiving flowers

hot baths
snow

ironing clothes
sports cars

computer games
long car journeys

sunbathing

tattoos

watching sport on TV travelling by train

109

Unit 9 Summary

1. A: Gerunds ( -ing forms) after verbs or liking and disliking


1. Gerunds (-ing forms) are like nouns or pronouns. We use
them:
a. as the subject of the sentence.
Spending time with my friends is very important to me.
b. As the object of the sentence.
I find washing up really relaxing.
c. After prepositions
Shes crazy about shopping.
2. Many phases expressing likes and dislikes are followed by a
gerund.
Hes crazy about playing chess.

I dont like buying clothes.

I really enjoy shopping.

They cant stand losing.

I love getting presents.

I hate getting up early.

Shes keen on travelling.


Notice that the answer is: Yes, please or Yes, Id love to.
( not yes. Id like or Id love)
3. Other verbs with gerunds/infinitives follow a similar
pattern.
a. Verbs which express general likes/dislikes take -ing form.
She loves horse-riding.
b. Verbs that express particular wishes for the future take the
infinitive form.
I d love to come with you.
She hopes to do a course in computer science.
Grammar
1. Underline the gerunds ( -ing forms) in the sentences below.
Which ing form:
Is the subject of the sentence?
Is the object of the sentence?
a. I hate buying presents
b. Sunbathing is one of my farourite hobbies!
c. Im very keen on reading.
110

Unit 9 Compulsory Readings


Murphy, R. (1997) Essential Grammar in Use. A self-study
reference and practice book for elementary students of English,
Cambridge. CUP.
New Cutting Edge Pre- Intermediate- Sarah Cunnigham and
Peter Moor: Longman.

Unit 9 Tasks
I. Practice
1. Complete the gaps with one word only.
a. Karen _______________chocolate. She is specially keen
_________white chocolate.
b. Dave doesnt ______________buying presents for his
family. In fact, he cant ___________________it.
c. Hazel is crazy ____________________watching Formula
One on TV, but she doesnt like football or tennis very
_________________.
d. Simon _______enjoys sunbathing because he ____lying
down and also because hes _________on reading.
2. Make these sentences true, using the ing form.
a. I find cooking very relaxing.
b. _______________ can be stressful.
c. Im(not) very interested in __________________.
d. I find ______________quite boring.
e. _________________ is good fun.
f. _________________ is bad for you.
g. _________________ is good for you.
h. My friend __________(name) is crazy about _________.
i. I think ___________________ is difficult.
j. _____________________ can be very dangerous.

II. Choose the correct form to complete the questions


1. Do/Would you like living/ to live abroad one day? In which
country?
2. Do/Would you like having /to have a pet? What kind?
3. Do/Would you like to learn/ learning any other languages apart
from English? Which one(s)?
111

4.
5.
6.
7.

Do/Would you like getting/ to get up early? Why(not)?


Which city do/would you most like to visit/visiting one day?
Do/Would you like listening/to listen to music? What kind?
Do/Would you like cooking/to cook? Do you have a specialty?

III. Which famous person do/would you most like meeting/to meet?
IV. Survey about the most important things in life
Preparation: Reading
Work individually. Look at the statements opposite that come
from a survey about attitudes to life. Tick( ) the appropriate
box to show how much you agree with each statement.
Check the meaning of any unknown words and phrases in a
dictionary.
Agree
Having enough money is very important to me.

Disagree

one day .

I like spending money mote than saving it.

I would like to be rich, famous or powerful

Having children is more important than a


Successful career.

than go out to a party.

Money cant buy happiness.

I would rather spend a quiet evening at home

Job satisfaction is more important


than a big salary.
Having good friends is more important than
Having a partner.

Id like to live or work abroad at some time


in my life.

Choose the eight things which are

friends

clothes

most important for you.

love

car

Put them in order 1 - 8

family

travel

money

religion

112

good health

sport

nice home

politics

school/studies marriage

career

other

Unit 9 Answer key

2. Collect: memorabilia
Play: football
Make: models, jewellery,
Go to see: a musical, a concert, your favorite football team.
3. Answers
Hobbies/Collections: supporting your favorite football team;
shopping, going to musicals (Cats), eating fast food; collecting
coins, dolls, trading cards, stamps, Beatles memorabilia(books,
posters and models), Star Wars memorabilia, free gifts with
breakfast cereals(plastic figures of US presidents)
4 . Answers
a. Jason Joiner: he has 20,000 items relating to Star Wars films
b. Bob Martin: he used to watch the musical Cats once a week,
but the show has now closed.
c. Peter Holden: although he eats two McDonalds meals a
day, he doesnt eat the French fries.
d. John Weintraub: he broke into a breakfast cereal factory
because he was desperate to get the final plastic model in a
series he was collecting.
e. Rodolfo Renato Vazquez; he organizes a Beatles event, and
people travel from all over the world to see his
memorabilia.
f. Bob Martin: he spent 20,000 on going to see the musical
Cats, but says that he could just about afford it because he
113

doesnt drink, smoke or have a car.


6. Answers
a. Hero b. Obsession c. Costume d. cereal e. gifts

f.

desperate g. weight h. afford

Answers
Grammar
a The ing form buying presents is the object of the sentence.
b The ing form Sunbathing is the subject of the sentence.
c The ing form from reading is the object of the sentence, It comes
after a preposition.
Practice

1:

a. loves/likes, on

b. like/enjoy, stand

c. about, much

d. really, likes, keen e travelling

2: Free answers
Key correction
1.Answers
1 c 2h 3e 4d 5f 6a 7b 8g
Grammar
1. Answers
Verbs followed by an ing form: likes (sentences 3), loves
( sentences 6 and 8)
Verbs followed by an infinitive: plans ( sentence 2), love
(Sentence 4) , like ( sentence 5), hopes ( sentence7)
2. Answers
a. She likes means she enjoys
b. Shed lime means she wants to.
3. Answers
We use like/love to talk about how we fell about something
generally.
114

We use would like/love to talk about something we want to


do in the future.

Practice
1. Would you like to live abroad one day? In which country?
2. Would you like to have a pet? What kind?
3. Would you like to learn any other languages apart from
English? Which one(s)?
4. Do you like getting up early? Why(not)?
5. Which city would you most like to visit one day?
6. Do you like listening to music? What kind?
7. Do you like cooking ? Do you have a specialty?
8. Which famous person would you most like to meet?

UNIT 10
INTRODUCTION
115

When it comes to talking about Voices in English language, we will


always mention the Active and the Passive voices. In the meantime,
we will have a close look at the Present Simple and Past Simple
Passive. There will also be some Reading Comprehension. For this
unit you will have to practice a little more on verb tenses so as to
master the tasks ahead.

UNIT 10 OBJECTIVES
By the end of this Unit, you will be able to:
-

Use the present simple passive

Use the past simple passive

Make suggestions

Talk about actions that are more important than the person
who did it.

Use formal speaking or written reports.


TIME LENGTH: 4 Hours

1 Make true sentences from the chart.


Champagne

Japan.

Whisky

France.

Rice

England.

Rolls Royce cars

Hawaii.

Nikon cameras

is

made in

Brazil.

Coffee

are

grown in

China.

Pineapples

Scotland.

116

2 Now, from the sentences above say what is made and grown in
your country.

Do you drink Coca-Cola? Do you think these facts about


coca-cola ate true (
) or false ( ) ?
1.
2.
3.
4.

1.6 billion gallons are sold every day.


Coca-cola is drunk in every country in the world.
It was invented in the USA.
It is nearly 100 years old.

Read the story of Coca-Cola and check your ideas.

Things go better with

Coca-Cola is enjoyed all over the world.


1.6 Billion gallons are sold every year. In over one hundred and sixty
countries. The drink was invented by Dr John Pemberton in Atlanta
as a health drink on 8 May 1886, but it was given the name of CocaCola by his partner, Frank Robinson, because it was originally made
from the coca plant.
The business was bought by a man called Asa Candler in 1888, and
the first factory was opened in Dallas, Texas, in 1895, but the recipe
is still kept secret!
Diet Coke has been made since 1982, and over the years many clever
advertisements have been used to sell many clever product. It is
certain that Coca-Cola will be drunk far into the twenty-first century.

1. Nearly all the verb forms in the text about Coca-Cola are in
the passive. The passive is formed with the verb to be and the
participle.
Champagne is made in France
Pineapples are grown in Hawaii
2. Read the text again and write the passive verb forms under
117

these headings.
Present simple

Past simple

Present Perfect

Future

is enjoyed

Was invented

have been produced

Will

3. What is the main interest of the text? Dr John Pemberton?


Frank Robinson? Coca-Cola?
When we are more interested in the object of the active sentence,
we use the passive.
Active: Dr John Pemberton invented Coca-cola
Passive: Coca-Cola was invented by Dr. John Pemberton
4. How do we form the Present Simple passive?

LANGUAGE USE: Present simple passive

We form the present simple passive with the subject +be +past
participle. Regular past participles end in ed. For a list of irregular
past participles, see page
Positive form

Negative form

Question form

I am made

Im not made

Am I/he/she/it made?

He/she/its made

He/she/it isnt made

118

You/we/they are
made

You/we/they arent
made

Are/you/we/they
made?

1. We use the passive when the person who does the action is:
a. Not important or unknown
The chocolate is made in Switzerland. (=Its not important
who makes it)
b. unknown.
Hundreds of cars are stolen every week. ( = we do not
known who steals them)
c. people in general
His face is recognized all over the world. (= people in
general recognize his face)
2. If we want to say who or what is the doer of the action, we
use by.
All my clothes are designed by Federico Pirani.
3. Active or passive? Compare the following examples:
a. Martine makes all her own bread at home.
b. The bread is made in a large bakery outside town.
Note:
In sentence a., we use the active because we are more interested in
who makes the bread, so Martine is the subject of the sentence.
In sentence b, we use the passive because we are more interested in
the bread, not in who makes the bread.

LANGUAGE USE: Past simple passive

Grammar
1. Underline the passive forms in the sentences below.
a. Chanel No 5 was introduced by the French fashion
designer Coco Chanel in the 1920s.
b. Because she considered the number five to be her lucky
number, the perfume was first presented on the 5th of May.
2. How do we form the Past simple passive/
We form the past simple passive with the subject +was/were +past
participle.
Positive form

Negative form

Question form

119

I/he/she/it was seen

I/he/she/it wasnt
seen

Was I/he/she/it seen?

You/we/they were
seen

You/we/they
werent seen

Were you/we/they
seen?

1. As with Present simple passive, we use the Past simple


passive when the action is more important than the person
who did it.
2. The past simple passive is common when we are speaking
formally, or in written reports.
We were told to report to the police station as soon as
possible.
More than third people were injured in the explosion.

Unit 10 Tasks

1 Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense, active or passive


The History of the Hamburger
The hamburger is the most eaten food in the whole world. The first
hamburgers (1)_______________(make) and sold in Connecticut in
1895 by an American chef Louis Lassen. Louis(2)____________(call)
them hamburgers because he(3)____________(give) the recipe by
sailors
from
Hamburg
in
Germany.
Hamburgers(4)_____________(become) a favourite in America in the
early part of the twentieth century. Their popularity
(5)__________(grow) even more after the Second World War, when
they (6)_________(buy) in large quantities by teenagers
who(7)_____________(prefer) fast food to family meals. In 1948 two
brothers, Dick and MacDonald(8)_________________(open) a drivein hamburger restaurants in San Bernardino, California. Since then
over 25,000 McDonalds restaurants (9)___________(open)
worldwide
and
now
35
million
McDonalds
hamburgers(10)_______________(eat) every day in 115 countries
from India to the Arctic Circle.

2 Match the question words and answers.


Louis Lassen
When?

In Connecticut

Where?

In 1895

Who?

In 1948
120

Why?

Because the recipe came from Hamburg

How many?

25,000
35 million

Complete the questions using the passive. Ask and answer


them with a partner ( if possible)
e.g.: Q: When was the first hamburger me?

A: In 1895.

4 Underline the correct word or words in each sentence.


1 Where was/were these shoes made?
2 I was given this watch by/from my aunt.
3 Someone has stolen/ has been stolen my bag!
4 The newsagent sells/ is sold stamps.
5 British policemen dont carry/ arent carried guns.
6 All the beer was drank/drunk by nine oclock.
7 have all the sandwiches eaten/been eaten?

Practice

1 Choose the best form (active or passive) to complete the sentences.


a. The disposable razor invented/was invented by King camp
Gillette about 100 years ago.
b. Hungarian journalist Laszlo Biro invented/was invented the
worlds first ballpoint pen in the 1930s
c. The worlds first robot dog, Sony Corporations ERS-110 went
on sale in 1999. 3,000 sold/were sold in the first twenty minutes.
d. Singer Alison Krauss was worn/wore a pair of $2 million shoes
at the 2001 Oscar ceremony. The shoes contain more than 500
diamonds and designed/were designed by US designer Stuart
Weitzman.
e. The DVD player is now the worlds number one entertainment
product. The first one manufactured/was manufactured in
1997.
f. In march 2004, 2.1 billion text messages sent/were sent in the
UK alone. Thats thirty-six text messages for each person!
g. In 2003, Google voted/was voted the worlds most popular
Internet search engine.
h. Ingvar Kamrad started/was started the Swedish furniture
company IKEA more than fifty years ago. He named/was named
the company after his own initials(IK) his parents home
121

(Elmtaryd =E) and his home village (Agunnaryd = A).

Complete the sentence with the correct active or passive form of


the verbs in brackets.
Take a look around the room. How many people are wearing Nike?
Millions of items of Nike sportswear (1)__________________(sell)
every year, and the company is now the worlds biggest sportswear
manufacturer.
The
company

whose
name
(2)_______________(pronounced) Nyeekee has come a long way from
its small origins in the US state of Oregon. The
company(3)_______________(name) after the Greek goddess of victory,
and (4)_______________(make) its first shoes back in 1970s. Nowadays,
Nike (5)__________________(know) for its clever advertising
campaigns, using the worlds best-known sportsmen and women. In the
eighties and nineties, basketball legend Michael Jordan(6)
_________________(make) a series of adverts for the company and in
1997, golf star Tiger Woods (7) ____________(pay) $40 million to star
in another series of adverts. A sign of the companys fame is that the
word (8)______________(no/appear) on the companys products. The
famous Nike tick (9)______________________(recognise) all over the
world. It (10)__________________(created) by a designer who
(11)____________________(receive)just $35 for the idea!

Unit 10 Answer key


Answers
1.
Champagne is made is France.

Nikon cameras are made is Japan.

Whisky is made is Scotland.

Coffee is grown in Brazil.

Rice is grown in Japan and China . Pineapples are grown in Hawaii.


Rolls Royce cars are made in England.

2 . Free answers
3

Answers
1. False. 1.6 billion gallons are sold every year.
2. False. But it is drunk in over 160 countries
3. True
4. False. It is over 100 years old.

Grammar Answers
122

2.
Present Simple

Past Simple

is enjoyed

was invented

are sold

was given

is (still) made

was (originally) made

is (still) kept

were sold
was bought
was opened

Present Perfect

Will Future

have been produced

will be drunk

has been made


have been used

Coca-cola is the main interest of the text. Therefore it is the subject


of many of the sentences in the text. Dr. John Pemberton and Frank
Robison are only interested because of their relation to the central
theme of Coca-cola. We use the passive because we are interested
in Coco-cola, the object of the active sentence.

Correction
1.The History of the Hamburger
1 were made
2 called
3 was given
4 became
5 grew

6 were bought
7 preferred
8 opened
9 have opened/have been opened
10 are eaten

2.Questions and answers


When?
Where?
Who?
Why?
How many?

In 1895/In 1948.
In Connecticut
Louis Lassen
Because the recipe came from Hamburg
25,000/35 million

3. Complete the questions


1 When was the first hamburger made?
In 1895.
2 When was the first McDonalds opened?
In 1948.
123

3 Where were the first hamburger made?


In Connecticut.
4 Who were they made by
Louis Lassen.
5 Why were they called hamburgers?
Because the recipe came from Hamburg.
6 How many McDonalds restaurants have been opened since
1948?
25,000.
7 How many hamburgers are eaten every day?
35 million.
4. Correct word
1 were
2 by
3 has stolen
4 sells

5 dont carry
6 drunk
7 been eaten

Grammar Answers
1. Passive forms Underlined
a. Chanel No 5 was introduced by the French fashion
designer Coco Chanel in the 1920s.
b. Because she considered the number five to be her
lucky number, the perfume was first presented on
the 5th of May.
2. We form the Past simple passive with the subject + be
(was/were) + past participle.
3. Coco Chanel introduced Chanel No.5.
In sentence a, the subject is Chanel No 5; sentence b, the
subject is the perfume.
Practice

1 Answers
a was invented
b invented
c was manufactured
were designed e were sold f were sent g was voted

d wore;

h started, named

2. sentences with the correct active or passive form of the


verbs in brackets.
1. Are sold

5 in kwon

2. Is pronounced

6 made

9 is recognised
10 was created
124

3. Was named

7 was paid

11 received

4. Made

8 does not appear

UNIT 11
INTRODUCTION
Throughout Unit 11 three important parts of speech, that is, Verbs,
Nouns and Adjectives will be analyzed. The Present Perfect
Continuous used with time reference words such as since, for and
how long will be thoroughly looked at.

UNIT 11 OBJECTIVES
By the end of this Unit, you will be able to:
-

Distinguish, verbs, nouns and adjective from the same root


word

Talk about personal characteristics

Talk about actions that started in the past and continue to the
present

Use for to talk about periods of time.

Use since to talk about points of time.

TIME LENGTH: 4 Hours

125

1 Vocabulary and Speaking


1. What do the people in the photos do? Would you like to do
any of these jobs? Why?

2 Read the texts below. Check the meaning of the words and
phrases in bold in your dictionary. Which jobs in exercise 1 are
the people talking about? ( There is one extra definition.)
1. People come to you with all kinds of problems not just
medical ones so of course you have to be sympathetic and
good listener. And of course, you need to keep up with all the
latest treatments.
2. Its not enough to be naturally talented. You need to be totally
committed to being the best: nothing else will do. If you are
lazy, then youll never reach the top.
3. You need to be experienced in the game: its your job to make
sure that players are motivated and to do that you have to be
126

honest with them.


4. Obviously, you need to be imaginative, but its not just that.
You need to be very well-organized with your time, and have
a lot of self-discipline. Sometimes its hard to think of
ideas but you have to keep thinking until something comes
to you!

3 Use your dictionary to complete the table below


Verb

Noun

Adjective

imagine

imaginative

organize

organized
discipline
talented
committed
lazy
experience
honest
motivated
sympathetic

4 a. Which three of the qualities in exercise 2 are most important


for a good:

Parent?
Restaurant manager?
Teacher?
Musician?
Lawyer
Doctor?
Friend?
Language learner?

b Make sentences like this: A good parent has to be a good listener


because

127

LANGUAGE USE: Present perfect continuous with how long, for and since

1 Read the texts below of four people who are looking for work with
Vacation Express. What kind of work each of them like to do?
Sandra,24
I think Im very good with children. When I was younger, I used to
look after my too little brothers when my parents went out. Then,
when I was at university, I earned extra money in the evenings by
babysitting so Ive been looking after children since I was about
fourteen. Im twenty-four now, and Id really like to travel before I
settle down.
Marc, 21
I got interested in sailing when I was about eleven. My father used
to take me sailing most weekends, and thats how I learned the
basics and from then, I just carried on. So, Ive been sailing for
about ten years nowI just love it. Its more than a hobby to me
now.
Yolanda, 21
Chinese culture fascinates me. I think learning the language in really
the best way to find out about a culture, so I started studying Chinese
two years ago. Its not an easy language at first, but I think I can
make myself understood now. Id like to know the people, and
learning more about the place.
Sanjiv, 28
I left my job in January last year because I want to be comedian. Ive
been trying to get work for about year now. I can sing as well, and
play a bit of piano, but its not easy to find work. Basically, I need to
get experience in front of a live audience.

1 Look at the examples of the present perfect continuous below.


How do we form present perfect continuous?
a. Ive been looking after children since I was about fourteen.
b. Ive been trying to get work for about a year now.
2 In sentences a, does she look after children now?
128

When did she start doing this? In sentence b, is he trying to get work
now? When did he start doing this?
3 Which of the phrases in the box below go with for? Which go with
since?
forty years

1965

last year

five hours

six oclock

2004

six months

Tuesday

October

Positive form

Negative form

I/you/we/theyve
been working

I/you/we/they
(How long)
havent
been I/you/we/they
working
working?

He/she/its
working

Question form
have
been

been He/she/it
hasnt (How long)He/she/
been working
its been working?

1 We use present perfect continuous to talk about actions that started


in the past and continue to the present.
Shes been working as a doctor for forty years.
2 We use for and since to talk about periods of time from the past to
the present.
a. We use for to talk about periods of time. It answers questions with
how long.
Hes been teaching for ten years.
e.g.: for forty years for five hours
minute for 500 years.

for six months for a

b. We use since to talk about points of time. It answers questions


with how long.
Hes been working since 1996.
since 1965 since last year since 2004 since Tuesday since six
oclock since October
Remember!
We do not use a present tense to talk about actions that started in the
past and continue into present.
I am learning English since last year.
3 the following phrases often occur with Present perfect continuous
but not need for or since
All day all my life all morning all month all week all year

LANGUAGE USE: Present perfect continuous and present perfect simple


129

read the text below about the auditions for a TV talent


competition. Do you know of similar TV programmes in your
country?

Hopeful pop stars brave the rain

Hundreds of wannabe pop stars waited patiently in the rain


outside Londons Wembley Conference Centre yesterday.
They were all hoping for the chance to star in a TV talent
competition which will see five youngsters chosen to create a
new pop group.
First in the queue was 20 year-old Catherine Hill from Hayes
in Kent.
Ive been here since midnight, she said as the doors opened.
Ive got thirty seconds to show what I can do. I know its
going to be worth it.
Ive wanted to be a pop star ever since I was little, said 18year-old Anton Yardley from Northampton. Ive been taking
singing and dancing lessons for over a year... this is my big
chance!
But judge Davina McAndrew was less optimistic when we
spoke to her at the end of the day. Occasionally, you see
someone who you know is going to be a star. But, to be
honest, I havent seen anything that really excites me today.

2 Mark the following statements, True, false or not sure


a The people waiting outside the Wembley Conference Centre would
like to become pop stars.
b People had to wait for hours in hot, sunny weather.
c They had less than a minute to show what they could do.
d Anton Yardley began taking singing and dancing lessons when he
was a small child.
e Davina McAndrew felt she had seen a lot of exciting talented
young people.

Compulsory Readings
Murphy, R. (1997) Essential Grammar in Use. A self-study
reference and practice book for elementary students of English,
Cambridge. CUP
130

New Cutting Edge Pre- Intermediate- Sarah Cunnigham and


Peter Moor: Longman.

Unit 11 Summary

1. Look at the sentences below and answer the questions.


a. Ive been taking singing and dancing lessons for over a
year.
b. Ive taken singing and dancing lessons for over a year.
c. Ive liked pop music ever since I was little.
d. Ive been liking pop music ever since I as little.
2. What is the form of the verb in sentence a?
What is the form of the verb in sentence b?
3. Which of the four sentences is incorrect?
Present perfect continuous and Present perfect simple

1 In many cases, we use the Present perfect simple and present


perfect continuous with for and since with no real difference in
meaning.
Ive been living in this house for over a year.
Ive lived in this house for over a year.

Unit 11 Tasks

1 Answer the questions about the people above, using the word in
brackets
a. How long has Sandra been looking after your children?(since)
_________________________________________________
She was about fourteen
_________________________________________________
b. How long has Yolanda been studying Chinese? ( for)
_________________________________________________
c. How long has Sanjiv been looking for work? ( since)
_________________________________________________
(for)
___________________________________________________
131

d. How
long
has
Marc
been
sailing?(since)
___________________________________________________

2 a. Complete the gaps in the sentences below with information


about yourself (you can invent information if you want).
1 I came to live in ___________________(place) almost _______ ago.
2 ____________ years later I ____________________.
3 I began ____________ing __________about __________ago.
4 Ive been playing ________________for.
5 Ive been studying ____________since ____________.
6 Ive been working as a _______________for __________.
7
8

I joined ___________________ years ago.


Ive been driving since___________________.
b. Ask and answer questions about your partners information
( if possible)

e.g.: How long have you been living in...?


Do you enjoy ...ing?

Practice

1 Look at the questions below. Write a new question for each one to
ask one person.
a. e.g.: 1. How nay people are learning (French/Spanish/another
language)?
Are you learning French?
2.Who has been learning French/Spanish etc... the longest?
How long have you been learning French?
b. 1 How many people own a car?
2 Who has owned a car the longest?
c. 1 How many people ride a scooter/motorbike?
2 Who has been riding a scooter/motorbike the longest
d. 1 How many people wear glasses/contact lenses?
2 Who has been wearing glasses/contact lenses the longest?
WORDSPOT

2 a. Complete the questions with how and a word from the box
about are do(x2) far fast high long much tail
1. A: How ___far___ is your house from the city centre?
132

B: About 3 km
2. A: How ___________coming to my house for lunch on
Saturday?
B: Sorry, Im away this weekend.
3. A: How ___________did those earrings cost?
B: I dont know. I didnt pay for them.
4. A: How _____________ you spell your family name?
B: Its H-E-R-N-A-N-D-E-Z.
5. A: How ______________has Stephanie been working here?
B: Just over a month.
6. A: How __________ was he driving when he crashed his car?
B: Only about fifty kilometers an hour.
7. A: How ___________you feeling now?
B: Much better, thanks.
8. A: How ___________ are you?
B: Im about 1m80.
9. A: Thomas, Id like you to meet my father.
B: How _________ you do, Mr. Harvey. Its nice to meet you.
10. A: How ________ is this building?
B: Over 100m.

3 Writing Completing an application form


Ela is a student from Poland. She wrote an e-mail to Vocation Express.
They sent her an application form to complete. Read the article and
complete the form below.
From: ela@home.pl
To: vocationexpress@quickmail.uk
My name is Ela Kwasniak. I heard about your organization from a
friend and I am looking for work this summer in any English-speaking
country. I am particularly interested in working as a sports coach or
possibly restaurant/bar work. I was born 12.7.83 in Lublin, Poland and
speak English, German and little Russian. I have had a full driving
license for two years. I am very good at working with people and have
been working as a tennis coach with young children for three years. I
will be available for work from 10th July. My contact details are:
Address: ul. Rachawickie 13, Lublin 20038 Poland
Tel: 0048 81 724104
Mobile phone; 07256 87228
I look forward to hearing from you.
Ela Kwasniak
Vocation Express Application form
133

Please complete the entire application. Remember to tick the job you
are applying for.
Mail this application to Vocation express, PO Box 99, Lichton, L12
8FH UK
NAME: ( First) __________________________________________
(Last)__________________________________________________
SEX: MALE/FEMALE
DATE OF BIRTH: ________________________(Month/Day/Year)
ADDRESS: ____________________________________________
Post Code: ________________________City:_________________
TELEPHONE: (please include country/city code)
Home_____________________ Work _______________________
Mobile ________________________
E-MAIL_______________________________________________
DO YOU HAVE A VALID DRIVING LICENCE? YES/NO
LANGUAGES SPOKEN: __________________________________
PRESENT
OCCUPATION/STUDIES__________________________________
________________________________________________________
WHICH OF THESE WORK AREA MOST INTEREST YOU?
Hotel/restaurant
Activity leader

Child care

DESCRIBE ANY SPECIAL


EXPERIENCE YOU HAVE.

Tour Guide Sports instructor


QUALIFICATION

OR

WORK

_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
HOW DID YOU HEAR ABOUT VOCATION EXPRESS?
Newspaper

Website

personal Recommendation Other

I certify that the statements on this application are true and complete to
the best of any knowledge.
SIGNATURE OF APPLICATION:_________________________
DATE:______________________________________
B Now work in pares( if possible) and role play an interview
134

for a job with Vocation Express. Take turns to be the


interviewer and the applicant.

Unit 11 Answer key


Answers
1. Jobs
Football coach , carpenter, doctor, Olympic athlete, writer
2. Jobs in exercise one that people are talking about
Doctor Olympic athlete football coach writer
3.Table completion
Verb

Noun

Adjective

imagine

imagination

imaginative

organize

organization

organized

discipline

disciplined
talented
committed
lazy

experience

experience

experienced
honest

motivate

motivation

motivated

sympathize

sympathy

sympathetic

Answers

1
a. True ( they wanted to be in a TV talent competition to create
a new pop group)
b. False ( they waited in the rain)
c. Not sure ( one of the competitors mentions thirty seconds,
but the text doesnt actually say how long they had)
d. False ( he began taking lessons a year ago, when he as
seventeen)
135

e. False ( she said she hadnt seen anything exciting)


Grammar Answers
1.
We form the Present Perfect continuous with the subject = have/has
+ been + past participle
2.
In sentence a, she looks after children now. She started doing this
when she was fourteen
In sentence b, he is trying to get work now. He started doing this
about a year ago.
3.
For
Forty years
Five hours
Six months

Since
1965
Last year
2004
Tuesday
Six oclock
October

2 In sentence a, the form of the verb is the Present perfect


continuous.
In sentence b, the form of the verb is the Present perfect simple
3 Sentence d is incorrect, as like is a state verb and cannot be used
in the continuous form.
Practice

1.
b

1. Do you own a car?


2. How long have you owned a car?
c 1. Do you ride a scooter/motorbike?
2.How long have you been riding a scooter?
d 1. Do you hear glasses/ contact lenses?
2.How long have you been wearing glasses/contact lenses?
e. 1.Do you own a pet?
2.How long have you had your pet?
f. 1.Do you play football/tennis/another sport?
2.How long have you been playing football/tennis, etc?
g. 1. Do you play the guitar/ the piano/ another musical instrument?
2. How long have you been playing the guitar/piano, etc.?
h 1. Do you like football?
3. How long have you liked football?
WORDSPOT
2 about 3 much

4 do 5 long 6 fast 7 are 8 tall 9 do 10 high


136

UNIT 12
INTRODUCTION
This is the last unit of the module, where you will be presented with
two reading comprehension texts of different sorts. On the one hand
you will read some facts about money and on the other you will
have a not-less important reading about jokes. There are also some
consolidation activities basically on verb tenses.

UNIT OBJECTIVES

137

By the end of this Unit, you will be able to:


-

Show that one action happed before another in the past

Explain a past situation

Show that two actions happened at the same time

TIME LENGTH: 4 Hours

MONEY FACTS READING


Reading

read the text below and complete the gaps with a number
from the box
2

17th

25

34

100

150

1,000

1929

2002

100,000,000,000,000,000,000

Money Facts
More than (1) 25___countries use dollars as their currency including Canada, New Zealand and Australia.
If you toss a coin, there are (2) ____________possible
results: heads or tails. This is because the picture of the
head weights more, so it ends up on the bottom.
There are about 450 dollar billionaires in the world. About
(3) _____________ of them live in the United States.
The worlds highest denomination note was the (4)
_______________Pengo note, issued in Hungary in 1946. It
was worth about $0.20.
In (5) _________ century Sweden, the ten-daler coin
weighted 19.71 kg.
On 1 January (6)______________, 15 billion euro banknotes
and 50 billion euro coins came into circulation. Put end to
end, the notes would reach to the moon and back two and a
half times.
The worlds smallest bank note come from Romania. The
ten-bani note was (7)_______________mm x 45 mm the
same size as a postage stamp.
The heads on US dollar bills have not changed since (8)
______________.
138

In Australia, the $5, $10, $20, $50 and (9) $______________


notes are all made of polymer a type of plastic.

1 Read the first part of three jokes. Which joke goes with the
picture?

1 The boss of a company called one of his employees into


his office. The young man-who had only worked for the
company for a few weeks sat down nervously. When you
started working here a month ago, your salary was $50,000,
said the boss. Two weeks later, I doubled your salary to
$100,000. Now Im going to pay you $250,000 a year. What
do you say to that?
____________________________ said the young man.
2 The American comedian Jack Benny was famous for being
mean. One day he had been to the bank and he was on his
way home, when a robber appeared and pointed a gun at
him. Your money or your life, hissed the robber. There was
a long silence. What;s the matter with you? Said the robber.
I said your money or your lefe.
________________________________, said the man.
3 Someone asked a millionaire how he had become so rich.
As a young man, I was very poor.he said, I spent my last
$100 on an old second-hand car. I spent the next week
cleaning and repaiting it. Then I sold the car for $200. With
the $200, I bought two second-hand cars, I spent the next
two weeks cleaning and repaiting them. Them I sold them
for $400. What then?
My wifes father ________________________, he replied.
b Now choose one of the last line of each jock to complete it.

139

Compulsory Readings
New Cutting Edge Pre- Intermediate- Sarah Cunnigham and Peter
Moor: Longman.

Murphy, R. (1997) Essential Grammar in Use. A self-study


reference and practice book for elementary students of English,
Cambridge. CUP.

Unit 12 Summary
Grammar
1 look at the sentence below. Which verb is in the Past simple?
Which is in the Past perfect?
He had been to the bank and he was on his way home.
2 Which action happened first: going to the bank or going home?
3 Look again at the jokes in exercise 1. How many other examples
of the past perfect can you find?
Past perfect
We form the past perfect with had + past participle. Regular past
participles end in ed. Many verbs have an irregular past participle
(see list on page ...............)

Positive form

Negative form

Question form

I/you/he/she/it/

I/you/he/she/it/

Had I/you/he/ she

we/theyd (= had) we/they


hadnt it/we/they finished?
finished
(= had not) finished
1

We use the Past perfect to show that one action happened


before another in the past, and that the first action finished
before the second action started.
He had been to the bank and he was on his way home.

140

had been to the bank

on his way home


past

2
3

now

We often use Past participle with because to explain a past


situation.
Patrick felt ill because hed eaten so much.
To show that two actions happened at the same time, we use
the past simple.
He woke up when the telephone rang.
If the sequence of actions in clear from the context, it is not
necessary to use the Past perfect
A robber appeared and pointed a gun at him.

Unit 12 Tasks

1 Match the beginnings of the sentences in A with the endings in


B. Put the verbs into the Past perfect
A
a She couldnt afford the shoes because
b By the time George retired,
c Hilda and Jerry bought a new car
d Michael was in a panic because
e When Grandma died, nobody knew that
B
1 with the money the (win) in a competition.
2 he (lost) his wallet.
3 she ( spend) all her money on presents for her family.
4 she (save up) thousands of pounds in a box.
5 he (earn) enough money to buy a holiday home.
141

2 a. Complete the gaps with verb from the box.


Died discovered had had arrested had arrived had bought
had made has sold sent thought tried was

When , in 1926, a US court (1) sent a man called Arthur Ferguson


to prison for five years, it (2) ____________the end of an amazing
criminal career. The police(3) ______________him several months
earlier as he (4) _________________to sell the Statue of Liberty to
an

Australian

tourist.

After

the

arrest,

the

police

soon(5)______________that Ferguson (7) _______________in the


United States from Scotland the previous year. Soon after arrival,
he sold a luxurious house in Washington to a rich texas farmer. But
for

the

farmer,

this

wasnt

an

ordinary

house:

he

(8)_____________that he (9) ________________ the White House


the home of US president for 150 years! Before coming to
America, Ferguson (10) ________________ Buckingham Palace,
home of the English royal family, for 2,000, Big Ben for 1,000
and Nelsons Column for 6,000 all to rich Americans who
perhaps

(11)_____________more

money

than

intelligence.

Ferguson (12) __________________in 1938.

Unit 12 Answer key


1.

25

2.

3.

150

4.

100,000,000,000,000,000,000

5.

17th

6.

2002

7.

34

8.

1929
142

9.

100

1 joke 2 goes with the picture.


Grammar Answer
1. The verb was is in the past simple; the verb had been is in
the past perfect
2. The action of going to the bank happened first
3. Other examples of the past perfect include: the young man
who had only worked for...(joke 1); how he had become so
rich (joke 2); but I had made a profit (joke 3)
Practice

1 Match the beginnings of the sentences in A with the endings


a She couldnt afford the shoes because , she had spent all her
money on presents for her family.
b By the time George retired, he had earned enough money to buy
a holiday home.
c Hilda and Jerry bought a new car, with the money they had won
in a competition.
d Michael was in a panic because, he had lost his wallet.
e When Grandma died, nobody knew that, she had saved
thousands of pounds in a box.

143

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