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ICS77.140.10;77.140.

50
H 46

National
china

standard

of

the

Peoples

Republic

of

GB/T 15912008

Supersedes GB/T 1591-199

High Strength Low Alloy Structural


Steels

Issue date: 2008-12-06

Implementation date: 2009-1001

I s s u e d b y G e n e r a l Ad m i n i s t ra t i o n o f Q u a l it y S u p e r v i s i o n ,
I n s p e c t i o n a n d Q u a ra n t i n e o f t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b li c o f C h i n a

GB/T 15912008

II

GB/T 15912008

Foreword
This standard has been prepared by revising GB/T 1591-1994 High strength low alloy
structuaral steels and referring to EN10025:2004 Hot rolled products of structural
steels.
This standard supersedes GB/T 1591-1994 High strength low alloy structuaral steels .
Compared with the previous version, changes are made as follows:
Expanded applicable scope;
Added strength grade Q500, Q620, Q690 and cancelled strength grade Q295;
Modified the requirements for chemical composition of steel products, requiring some
serious control to some harmful elements such as P and S.
Added the requirements for CEV and Pcm and their corresponding calculation formulas
of CEV and Pcm.
Modified the delivery condition of steel products and cancelled the requirements for
quenched and tempered steel products.
Modified the requirements for the values of mechanical properties and thickness
range, making clear that the yield strength in text refer to the lower yield strength.
Increased the specified impact absorbed energy value.
Added the requirements for through-thickness characteristics of steel products.
This standard was proposed by China Iron and Steel Association.
This standard is under the jurisdiction of National Standardization Technical Committee
of Steel.
This standard was drafted by Angang Steel Co., Ltd, China Metallurgical Information and
Standardization Institute, Jigang Group Co., Ltd, Shougang Group, Shagang Group
Co.,Ltd, Hualing Lianyuan Iron and Steel CO.,Ltd.
The main drafters of this standard: Liu Xuyuan, Piao Zhimin, Wang Xiaohu, Gao Ling, Wang
Liping, Huang Zhengyu, Zhou Jian, Ma Yupu, Chen Shouqing.
The superseded editions of this standard are as follows:
GB 1591-1979, GB 1591-1988, GB/T 1591-1994.

GB/T 15912008

High Strength Low Alloy Structural Steels


1.1 Scope
This standard specifies the designation, dimensions, tolerances on dimensions and
shape, mass, technical requirements, test methods, inspection, packaging, marking and
certification of high strength low alloy steels.
This standard applies to the steel sheet, steel strip, sections and bars of high
strength low alloy steels for general structure and engineering services.
1.2 Normative references
The following standards contain provisions which, through reference in this text,
constitute provisions of this standard. At the time of publication, the editions
indicated were valid. All standards are subject to revision, and parties to agreements
based on this national standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility of
applying the most recent editions of the standard indicated below. For undated
references, the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies.
GB/T 222 Permissible tolerances for chemical composition of steel products
GB/T 223.5 Steel and iron - Determination of acid-soluble silicon and total silicon
content-Reduced molybdosilicate spectrophotometric method
GB/T 223.9 Iron, steel and alloy-Determination of aluminium content - Chrome azurol S
photometric method
GB/T 223.12 Methods for chemical analysis of iron, steel and alloy - The sodium
carbonate separation-diphenyl carbazide photometric method for the determination of
chromium content
GB/T 223.14 Methods for chemical analysis of iron, steel and alloy - The N-benzoy-Nphenylhydroxylamine extraction photometric method for the determination of vanadium
content
GB/T 223.16 Methods for chemical analysis of iron, steel and alloy - The chromotropic
acid photometric method for the determination of titanium content
GB/T 223.19 Methods for chemical analysis of iron, steel and alloy - The neocuproinechloroform extraction photometric method for the determination of copper content
GB/T 223.23 Iron, steel and alloy - Determination of nickel content The
dimethylglyoxime spectrophotometric method
GB/T 223.26 Iron, steel and alloy - Determination of molybdenum content The
thiocyanate spectrophotometric method
GB/T 223.37 Methods for chemical analysis of iron, steel and alloy The indophenol
blue photometric method for the determination of nitrogen content after distillation
separation
1

GB/T 15912008
GB/T 223.40 Iron, steel and alloy - Determination of niobium content - The
sulphochlorophenol S spectrophotometric method
GB/T 223.62 Methods for chemical analysis of iron, steel and alloy - The butyl acetate
extraction photometric method for the determination of phosphorus content
GB/T 223.63 Methods for chemical analysis of iron, steel and alloy - The sodium
(potassium) periodate photometric method for the determination of manganese content
GB/T 223.67 Iron, steel and alloy Determination of sulfur content Methylene blue
spectrophotometric metrod
GB/T 223.69 Iron, steel and alloy - Determination of carbon contents - Gas-volumetric
method after combustion in the pipe furnace
GB/T 223.78 Methods for chemical analysis of iron, steel and alloy - Curcumin
spectrophotometric method for the determination of boron content
GB/T 228 Metallic materials - Tensile testing at ambient temperature(GB/T 2282002eqv ISO 6892:1998)
GB/T 229 Metallic materials - Charpy pendulum impact test method GB/T 229-2007, ISO
148-1:2006, MOD
GB/T 232 Metallic materials - Bend test GB/T 232-1999, eqv ISO 7438:1985
GB/T 247 General rule of package, mark and certification for steel plates(sheets) and
strips
GB/T 2101 General requirement of acceptance, packaging, marking, and certification for
section steel
GB/T 2975 Steel and steel products - Location and preparation of test pieces for
mechanical testingGB/T 2975-1998, eqv ISO 377:1997
GB/T 4336 Standard test method for spark discharge atomic emission - Spectrometric
analysis of carbon and low alloy steel (routine method )
GB/T 5313 Steel plate with through-thickness characteristics
GB/T 17505 Steel and steel products - General technical delivery requirements GB/T
17505-1998, eqv ISO 404:1992
GB/T 20066 Steel and iron - Sampling and preparation of samples for the determination
of chemical composition GB/T 20066-2006 ISO 14284 1996,IDT
GB/T 20125 Low-alloy steel - Determination of multi-element contents Inductively
coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometric method
YB/T 081 Rule for rounding off of numberical values and judgement of testing values
for technical standards of metallurgy
1.3 Terms and definitions
1.3.1
thermomechanical rolling
rolling process in which the final deformation is carried out in a certain temperature
range leading to a material condition with certain properties which cannot be achieved
or repeated by heat treatment alone

GB/T 15912008
NOTE1 Subsequent heating above 580 C may lower the strength values. If temperatures above 580 C
are needed reference should be made to the supplier.
NOTE2 Thermomechanical rolling can include processes with an increasing cooling rate with or
without tempering including self-tempering but excluding direct quenching and quenching and
tempering.

normalizing rolling
rolling process in which the final deformation is carried out in a certain temperature
range leading to a material condition equivalent to that obtained after normalizing so
that the specified values of the mechanical properties are retained even after
normalizing.
1.4 Designation
The designation shall consist of bopomofo for yield strength, value of yield strength
and symbol for quality grade, such as Q345D. Thereinto:
Q first bopomofo for chinese for yield strength;
345 value of yield strength,MPa;
D quality grade D.
If the purchaser requires through-thickness characteristics of a steel product, the
additional symbol Z for the suitability for through-thickness characteristics shall be
added, such as Q345DZ15.
1.5 Dimensions, tolerances on dimensions and shape, mass
Dimensions, tolerances on dimensions and shape, mass shall be in accordance with the
requirements of relevant documents.
1.6 Technical requirements
1.6.1 Steel designation and chemical composition
The steel designation and chemical composition determined by ladle analysis shall
comply with the specified values of Table 1.
If the grain-refining elements are required, the steels contain at least one of these
elements such as Al, Nb, V and Ti. If the grain-refining elements are added, they shall
be reported in the inspection document.
If the total content of Al is determined, the Al total (Alt) shall be not less than
0.020%.
The nitrogen content of steels shall comply with the specified values of Table 1. If
the manufacturer can make sure that the nitrogen content is suitable, the nitrogen
content may no longer be determined. The maximum value for nitrogen does not apply if
the N binding elements including Al, Nb, V or Ti are added. In this case the N binding
elements shall be reported in the inspection document.
3

GB/T 15912008
If Cr, Ni or Cu in steel is added as the remaining elements, the content of each
element shall be no more than 0.30%. If the manufacturer can make sure that content of
each of these elements is suitable, each content may no longer be determined. If Cr, Ni
or Cu is added intentionally, each element shall comply with the specified values of
Table 1 or agreement between the purchaser and manufacturer.
In order to improve the property of steel, rare earth elements may be added, with
0.02% 0.20% of the steel mass.
If the mechanical properties of steel products can be in accordance with the
requirements of this document, the content of C, Si and Mn of quality grade A of all
steels may be not required.
Table1 Chemical composition of the ladle analysis
Design

Qual

-ation

ity

Si

Mn

Nb

Ti

Cr

Ni

Cu

Mo

Als

grad

ma

ma

ma

max

max.

max.

max

max

max

max

max

max.

max.

max

min.

x.

x.

x.

0.

0.

1.

0.0

0.03

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.5

0.3

0.01

20

50

70

35

0.0

0.03

35

0.0

0.03

0.01

30

0.

0.0

0.02

18

30

0.0

0.02

25

Q345

Chemical composition

B
C
D
E
Q390

B
C
D
4

0.3

0.5

0.3

0.01

20

50

70

35

0.0

0.03

35

0.0

0.03

0.01

30

0.0

0.02

30

0.0

0.02

25

0
0.2

0.2

0.3

0.8

0.3

0.01

0.10

0.20

0.03

0.07

0.2

0.0

0.2

0.10

1.

0.

0.07

( mass fraction)/%

0.

Q420

0.07

a, b

0.

0.

1.

0.0

0.03

20

50

70

35

0.0

0.03

35

0.0

0.03

0.01

30

0.0

0.02

GB/T 15912008
E
Q460

20

60

80

30

0.0

0.02

30

0.0

0.02

25

0.

0.

1.

0.0

0.03

18

60

80

30

0.0

0.02

30

0.0

0.02

25

0.

0.

2.

0.0

0.03

18

60

00

30

0.0

0.02

30

0.0

0.02

25

E
C

0.

0.

2.

0.0

0.03

18

60

00

30

0.0

0.02

30

0.0

0.02

25

D
E
Q690

C
D
E

0
0.03

Q620

25
0.0

E
C

0.02

1.

Q550

0.0
0.

E
C

0.

Q500

30

0.

0.

2.

0.0

0.03

18

60

00

30

0.0

0.02

30

0.0

0.02

25

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.2

0.2

0.3

0.8

0.5

0.01

0.1

0.2

0.6

0.8

0.5

0.01

0.1

0.2

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.01

0.1

0.2

1.0

0.8

0.8

0.01

0.1

0.2

1.0

0.8

0.8

0.01

0.20

0.20

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.0

0.01

04

0.0

0.01

04

0.0

0.01

04

0.0

0.01

04

0.0

0.01

04

For sections and bars, the P and S content can be 0.005% higher. For quality grade A of steels, the maximum S
and P content can be 0.045%.

If the grain-refining elements such as Nb, V, Ti are used in combination: the sum of

Nb, V and Ti

concentrations shall be no more than 0.22%, the sum of Mo and Cr concentrations shall be no more than 0.30%.

The maximum carbon equivalent values of the steels other than quality grade A shall
comply with the specified values of table 2 for as-rolled or controlled rolling
delivery condition; for normalizing, normalizing rolling or normalizing plus tempering
delivery condition, shall comply with the specified values of table 3; for
thermomechanical rolling (TMCP) or thermomechanical rolling plus tempering delivery
condition, shall comply with the specified values of table 4. For determining the
5

GB/T 15912008
carbon equivalent (CEV) based on the ladle analysis, the following formula (1) shall be
used.
CEV C

Mn (Cr Mo v ) ( Ni Cu )

...................... (1 )
6
5
15

Table2 Maximum CEV for as-rolled or controlled rolled steel


Designation

Maximum CEV in % for nominal product thickness in mm


63

63 250

250

Q345

0.44

0.47

0.47

Q390

0.45

0.48

0.48

Q420

0.45

0.48

0.48

Q460

0.46

0.49

Table3 Maximum CEV for normalized normalized rolled or normalized rolled


tempered steel
Designation

Maximum CEV in % for nominal product thickness in mm


63

63 120

120 250

Q345

0.45

0.48

0.48

Q390

0.46

0.48

0.49

Q420

0.48

0.50

0.52

Q460

0.53

0.54

0.55

Table4 Maximum CEV for thermomechanical rolled or thermomechanical rolled


tempered steel
Designation

Maximum CEV in % for nominal product thickness in mm


63

63 120

120 150

Q345

0.44

0.45

0.45

Q390

0.46

0.47

0.47

Q420

0.46

0.47

0.47

Q460

0.47

0.48

0.48

Q500

0.47

0.48

0.48

Q550

0.47

0.48

0.48

Q620

0.48

0.49

0.49

Q690

0.49

0.49

0.49

For the thermomechanical rolling or thermomechanical rolling plus tempering delivery


condition, the carbon equivalent, CEV of steels with a ladle analysis carbon mass
fraction equal to or less than 0.12% can be superseded by welding crack susceptibility
index, Pcm. The Pcm shall comply with the specified values of table 5. For determining
the Pcm based on the ladle analysis, the following formula (2) shall be used.
6

GB/T 15912008
Si Mn Cu Ni Cr Mo V
Pcm C

5B
30 20
20 60 20 15 10

.................. (2 )

It shall be as agreed that whether CEV or Pcm is used .If unspecified at the time of
the order, it is left to the discretion of the manufacturer to use whether CEV or Pcm.
Table5 Maximum Pcm for thermomechanical rolled or thermomechanical rolled
tempered steel
Designation

Pcm/%

Q345

0.20

Q390

0.20

Q420

0.20

Q460

0.20

Q500

0.25

Q550

0.25

Q620

0.25

Q690

0.25

The permissible tolerances for the product analysis shall comply with the
specifications given in GB/T 222.
If the purchaser requires the steel products with through-thickness characteristics,
the chemical composition of these steel products shall comply with the specified values
given in GB/T 5313.
1.6.2 Steel making process
The steel shall be manufactured using the electric process or an oxygen process. If
necessary, the secondary refining shall be used.
1.6.3 Delivery condition
The delivery condition can be as-rolled, controlled rolling, normalizing, normalizing
rolling, normalizing plus tempering, thermomechanical rolling or thermomechanical
rolling plus tempering.
1.6.4 Mechanical properties
1.6.4.1 Tensile test
The tensile properties of steels shall comply with the specified values of table 6.
Table6 Mechanical properties of steels
Design

-ation

Tensile test
Minimum yield strength Rel/MPa

a, b, c

Tensile strength Rm/MPa

Minimum percentage

elongation after

fracture/%

Nominal thickness/mm

Nominal thickness/mm

Nominal thickness/mm

GB/T 15912008
t

40

63

10

150

40

40

80

100

250

63

10

15

25

0 0

63

80

200

63

10

150

400

10

15

15

25

40

e
Q345

32

31

28

275

47

47

35

33

31

0 9

600

63

63

63

450

1 0

17

600

0
2

0 9

5
3

450

47

Q390

49

49

49

470

620

65

65

65

5
0
Q420

38

36

34

52

52

52

500

650

68

68

68

9 8

7 6

7 7

8
0
Q460

42

40

38

55

55

55

530

700

72

72

72

2
0
Q500

47

45

61

60

54

77

76

73

5
0
8

GB/T 15912008
Q550

52

50

67

62

59

83

81

78

6 6

5 5

4 4

9
0
Q620

59

57

71

69

88

88

6
0
Q690

66

64

77

75

94

92

0
0
a

If a definite yield phenomenon is not present, the lower yield strength can be measured by 0.2% offset Rp0.2.

For flat steel products with their widths not less than 600mm, the tensile test pieces shall be in the

transverse direction. For sections, bars and flat steel products with their widths less than 600mm, the tensile
test pieces shall be in the longitudinal direction, and the minimum percentage elongation after fracture shall be
increased accordingly 1% (absolute value).
c

The value for steels with thickness 250mm 400mm applies to flat steel products.

1.6.4.2 Charpy V-notch impact test


The test temperature and absorbed energy values of Charpy V-notch impact test of steels
shall comply with the specified values of table 7.
The steel products with nominal thickness not less than 6mm or diameter not less than
12mm shall carry out the impact test. The standard 10mm10mm55mm test pieces shall
be used. If the standard test pieces can not be obtained, the subsize test piece
10mm7.5mm55mm or 10mm5mm55mm shall be used. If so, their minimum absorbed energy
values shall comply respectively with 75% or 50% of the specified values of table 7.
The bigger subsize test piece shall prevail.
The average value of the three test results shall meet the specified requirement. One
individual value may be below the minimum average value specified, provided that it is
not less than 70 % of that value. Otherwise three additional test pieces shall be taken
from the same sample and tested. The average value of the six tests shall be not less
than the minimum average value specified. Not more than two of the individual values

GB/T 15912008
may be lower than the minimum average value specified and not more than one may be
lower than 70 % of this value.
The percentage reduction of area of steels with through-thickness characteristics shall
comply with the specified values given in GB/T 5313.
Table7 Test temperature and absorbed energy for impact test (V-notch)
Designation

Quality

Test temperature/

grade

Q345

20

-20

-40

20

-20

-40

20

-20

-40

-20

-40

Q500 Q550

Q620 Q69
0

Q420

Q460

KV2 /J

Nominal thickness( diameter, border)/mm

Q390

Minimum absorbed energy

12 150

150 250

250 400

34

27

27

34

34

34

55

-20

47

-40

31

The impact test pieces shall be in the longitudinal direction.

If specified at the time of the order the bend test shall be carried out. The bend
properties of steels shall comply with the specified values of table 8. If the
manufacturer can make sure that the bend properties of steel products is suitable, the
bend test may be cancelled.
Table8 Bend test
Designation

Piece direction

180bend test
[d=bend diameter, a piece thickness
(diameter)]
Nominal thickness( diameter border)/ mm
16

10

16 100

GB/T 15912008
Q345

For flat steel products with their

Q390

widths not less than 600mm, the bend

Q420

test pieces shall be in the

Q460

transverse direction. For sections,

2a

3a

bars and flat steel products with


their widths less than 600mm, the
bend test pieces shall be in the
longitudinal direction

Surface properties
The surface condition of steel products shall be in accordance with the requirements
specified in relevant documents.
1.6.5 Specific requirement
1.6.5.1 According to the agreement between the purchaser and the manufacturer,
the non-destructive testing may be carried out. The acceptance criteria and level shall
be specified in the order or agreement.
1.6.5.2 According to the agreement between the purchaser and the manufacturer,
the purchaser may require the steel products with through-thickness characteristics
according to this document.
1.6.5.3 According to the agreement between the purchaser and the manufacturer,
other tests may be carried out.
1.7 Test methods
The test item,test piece number,method for preparing test piece and test methods of
steel products shall comply with the specified requirement of table 9.

Table9 Test item, sampling number and preparing method of test piece and test
method
NO.

Test item

Test piece number

Preparing methods

Test methods

Chemical composition

1/furnace

GB/T 20066

GB/T 223 GB/T


4336 GB/T 20125

( ladle analysis )
2

Tensile test

1/lot

GB/T 2975

GB/T 228

Bend test

1/lot

GB/T 2975

GB/T 232

Impact test

3/lot

GB/T 2975

GB/T 229

through-thickness percentage

3/lot

GB/T 5313

GB/T 5313

Each sheet or

Relevant document for

By agreement

piece

non-destructive

reduction of area
6

Non-destructive testing

testing
11

GB/T 15912008
7

Surface condition

Each sheet or

piece

By visual
inspection or
measuring
equipment

Dimensions, shape

Each sheet or
piece

By applicable
measuring
equipment

1.8 Inspection
1.8.1 Inspection and acceptance
The manufacturer shall be in charge of inspection and acceptance for steel products.The
purchaser has the right to carry out inspection and acceptance tests specified in this
document or the order.
1.8.2 Test units
The steel products shall be inspected and accepted by lot. Each lot shall contain
products of the same designation,quality grade,furnace number,dimension,rolling
condition or heat treatment condition. The mass of each lot of the steel product shall
be not more than 60t.The mass of each lot of the steel strip shall be in accordance
with specifications given in relenant document.
Each lot of steel products with quality grade A or B may contain steels of the same
designation, quality grade, steelmaking process, cast method and different heat number,
provided that different heats are not more than 6 and the difference of C and Mn
content among the 6 heats shall be respectively not more than 0.22% and 0.15%.
For steels with through-thickness characteristics, each lot shall be in accordance with
GB/T 5313.
1.8.3 Retest and acceptance criteria
1.8.3.1 Mechanical properties
If a set of charpy test pieces fail to meet the acceptance criteria specified in
6.4.2.3, the manufacturer may take respectively three additional test pieces from two
more products from the same lot. If both of the new tests meet the acceptance criteria,
then all products in that lot, with the exception of the original selected products,
shall be considered to meet the requirement. Otherwise the steel products in that lot
shall be rejected.
The retest and acceptance criteria for the tensile test of steel products shall be in
accordance with GB/T 17505.
1.8.3.2 Retest and acceptance criteria for other test

12

_________________________________
GB/T 15912008
The retest and acceptance criteria for other test of steel products shall be in
accordance with GB/T 17505.
1.8.4 Rounding for test results of chemical composition and mechanical properties
Unless otherwise specified at the time of order or by agreement, to determine
conformance with the specified requirements, observed or calculated values shall be
rounded to the same number of digits as the specified value. The rules of rounding off
for values shall be in accordance with YB/T 081. For the carbon equivalent, its vlaue
shall be calculated acorrding to relevant formula and then shall be rounded off.
1.9 Packaging, marking, certification
The packaging,marking and certification for steel procucts ahall be in accordance with
GB/T 247 or GB/T 2101.

13