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Dr.N.G.P.

Institute of Technology Department of Civil Engineering

UNIT I: INTRODUCTION
1. Mention the advantages and disadvantages of steel structures.
Advantages:

Ability to resist high loads

Due to its high density, steel is completely non-porous

Durability

Easy to disassembling or replacing some steel members of a structure

Disadvantages:

Corrosion

At high temperature steel loses most of its strength, leading to deformation or failure

2. List out the uses of Bolted connection. (April/May 2011)

Bolts can be used for making end connections in tension and compression members

Bolts can also be used to hold down column bases in position.

They can be used as separators for purlins and beams in foundations, etc.,

3. Define Pitch of the Rivet. (May/June 2012)


Pitch is the distance between the centre of two
consecutive rivets measured along a row of rivets.
4. Define Efficiency of the joint. (May/June 2014)
It is the ratio of the strength of the joint to the strength of the main member expressed
as a percentage. The effectiveness of a particular riveted joint is measured by the efficiency.
5. What is Riveting? (May/June 2013)
A metal pin for passing through holes in two or more plates or pieces to hold them
together, usually made with a head at one end, the other end being hammered into a head after
insertion
6. Define the limit states. (April/May 2010)
Limit state design method is technologically sound method which results in significant
economy in design of structures. The design of a structure to satisfy all appropriate
requirements derived from probability considerations is referred to as a limit state design.
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7. What do you mean by staggered pitch? (April/May 2011)
This is also known as alternate or reeled pitch. It is the distance measured along one
rivet line, from the centre of a rivet on it to the centre of the adjoining rivet on a lower and
parallel rivet line.
8. Define High Tension Bolts. (Nov/Dec 2012)
The high tension bolts are also made from high strength steel rods. These bolts are tightened to
a proof load using calibrated wrenches. Hence they grip the members tightly.
9. Name the different types of connections.

Riveted connections

Welded connections

Bolted connections

Pinned connections

10. Name the types of riveted connections.


Lap Joint - single riveted and double riveted
Butt joint single cover and double cover
11. What is meant by rivet value?
The least of the strengths in shearing and bearing is the rivet value
12. What is meant by gauge distance?
The perpendicular distance between two gauge lines, is called gauge distance
13. Mention the types of failure of a riveted joint. (May/June 2014)

Tearing failure of the plate

Shear failure of the plate

Shear failure of the rivet

Bearing failure of the rivet

Splitting failure of plate

14. As per the American practice where the neutral axis lie in the rivet group?
It is assumed that the line of rotation lies at a distance of 1/7 th of the effective
bracket depth from the bottom of the bracket
15. What are the factors that govern will govern the structural design?

Foundation movements

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Elastic axial shortening

Soil and fluid pressures

Vibration

Fatigue

Impact (dynamic effects)

Erection loads

16. What are the load combinations for the design purposes?

Dead load + Imposed Load (Live load)

Dead Load + Imposed Load + Wind Load or earthquake load

Dead Load + Wind Load or Earthquake load

17. What are the steps involved in structural design?

Forces or loads

Structural arrangement and material selection

Analyzing internal stresses

Proportioning of members

18. Which type of steel is most commonly used in general construction? Why?
Mild Steel is most commonly used in general construction because of its durability
and malleability.
19. What are Black bots? Where are they used?
Black bolts made from M.S shank left unfinished remain loose in holes resulting
in large deflections. It is used during erection and for temporary structures.
20. How the rolled steel beams are classified?

Indian Standard junior beams (ISLB)

Indian Standard light beams (ISLB)

Indian Standard medium weight beams (ISMB)

Indian Standard wide flange beams (ISWB)

21. Define permissible stresses and Working stresses.


Permissible Stress =
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Working stresses: The stresses used in practical design are working stresses and they
should never exceed the permissible stresses specified by codes.
22. Explain ISLB 200?
ISLB 200 means Indian Standard light gauge beams of depth 200mm
23. Name the types of beam connections.
Framed connections
Seated connections Stiffened connections and Unstiffened connections
24. What is meant by framed connections?
A framed connection is the one when a beam is connected to girder or a stanchion by means
of two angles placed on the two sides of the web of the beam.
25. When the seated beam connections are preferred and name the types.
When a beam is connected to the flange (or the web) of a steel stanchion, the width of the
flange (or the depth of the web) may be insufficient to accommodate the connecting angles,
in such cases framed connection is not suitable and seated connection is preferred.
26. What is unstiffened seat connection?
The seated connection is a horizontal angle with its horizontal leg at its top is used to receive
the beam on it, in such a case it is called unstiffened seat connection
27. What is stiffened seat connection?
In addition to the seat angle, a web cleat is provided when the beam is connected to a beam
and a flange cleat is used when the beam is connected to a stanchion. The angle cleats are
essential because they keep the beam stable in a vertical position and prevent it from lateral
buckling
28. What is meant by throat thickness?

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It is the perpendicular distance from the root to the hypotenuse of the largest isosceles
right- angled triangle that can be inscribed within the weld cross-section.
Throat thickness = 0.7 x size of the weld
29. List out the different types of bolts. (May/June 2012)
Ordinary unfinished or black bolts
Turned and fitted bolts
High strength bolts
30. List the four types of weld. (Nov/Dec 2012)
Four types of weld are

Butt Weld

Fillet Weld

Slot Weld

Plug Weld

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UNIT II: TENSION MEMBERS


1. Explain Tie member.
Tie member or a tension member is a structural element carrying an axial tensile force. For the
tensile force to be axial it is necessary that the load be applied through centroid of the section
of the member. But under axial tension the member gets straightened and eccentricity of the
force decreases. The member is almost straight at the yield point and the distribution of the
stress over the section becomes uniform.
2. List out different types of tension steel members. (May/June 2013)
It is classified according to its shape and size and it depends upon the type of
structures. Wires and cables Used in hoists, derricks, suspenders in suspension
bridges
Rods and bars Used in radio tower, small spanned roof trusses with different crosssections such as round, rectangular or square
3. What is meant by single section member?
Structural sections such as I-section, T-section, angle, and channel are used as tension
members. As the structural shapes provide more rigidity than cables or rods, their buckling
tendency under compression load is reduced and so can be used where reversal of stress takes
place.
4. Under what circumstances you would go for Built-up members?
When single structural sections fail to provide required strength and stiffness to carry tension
as well as compression in case of reversal of stresses, built-up members are used.
5. How the tension members are selected?
It depends upon the various factors such as type of fabrication, type of structure, type of
loading, i.e. whether the member undergoes reversal of stresses, and the maximum tension to
be carried by the member.
6. Sketch the different forms a single section member.
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7. Sketch the different forms Built-up members.


Built up members

8. How is net effective area of single angle used as tension member calculated?
Net effective area = A1 + A2K
A1- Net area of connected leg, A2- area of outstanding leg
9. What is net sectional area of a tension member? How it is calculated in chain riveting?
The gross sectional area of the tension member minus the sectional area of the maximum
number of rivet/bolt holes is known as net sectional area.
In case of chain riveting,
anet= (b nd) t
10. What is Lug angle? (April/May 2010) (May/June 2014)
A larger length of the tension member and the gusset plate may be required sometimes to
accommodate the required number of connection rivets. But this may not be feasible
and economical. To overcome this difficulty lug angles are used in conjunction with main
tension members at the ends. It provides extra gauge lines for accommodating the rivets and
thus enables to reduce the length of the connection. They are generally used when the
members are of single angle, double angle or channel sections.
11. What are the main objectives of the lug angles?
They produce eccentric connections, due to rivets placed along lug angle. The centroid of the
rivet system of the connection shifts, causing eccentric connection and bending moments.
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Stress distribution in the rivets connecting lug angles is not uniform. It is preferred to put a
lug angle at the beginning of the connection where they are more effective and not at the
middle or at the end of the connection.
Rivets on the lug angles are not as efficient as those on the main member. The out-standing
leg of the lug angle usually gets deformed and so the load shared by the rivets on the lug
angles is proportionately less.
12. Define Tension splice. (May / June 2014)
Splicing of tension members is necessary when the required length of the member is more
than the length available or when the member has different cross-sections for different parts of
its length. If actual member is to be of greater length, two or more lengths shall have to be
spliced at the joints.
13. What is the net effective area of a pair of angles placed back to back connected by
one leg of each angle subjected to tension?
Anet = A1 + A2

A1 - effective cross section area of connected legs


A2 Gross area of outstanding legs
14. What is the permissible stress in axial tension?
As per IS: 800 1984, the permissible stress in axial tension sat = 0.6 fy N/mm
2

fy = minimum yield stress in steel in N /mm

15. How will you join the member of different thickness in a tension member?
When tension member of different thickness are to be jointed, filler plates may be used
to bring the member in level.
16. What happens when a single angle with one leg is connected to a gusset plate, which
is subjected to an eccentric load?
The rivets connecting the angle to the gusset plate does not lie on the line of action of
load. This gives rise to an eccentric connection due to which the stress distribution becomes
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non-uniform. The net cross-sectional area of such a section is reduced to account for this nonuniform stress distribution resulting from eccentricity.
17. What is the allowable stress in axial tension for channel section?
The allowable stress in axial tension for channel section is depends upon the
diameter of the section
Diameter

sat = 0.6 fy N/mm

Upto 20mm

150

20mm to 40 mm 144
Over 40 mm

138

18. What are tacking rivets? Why are they essential in compression members?
Rivets used to connect long length of members to reduce the effective length of
individual part
19.Write down the Steinmans formula.

Anert =
Where n = no. of rivets in the section considered m= no. of zig zags or inclined lines.
20. What will be the maximum pitch when the angles are placed back to
back?
The maximum pitch when the angles are placed back to back is 1mm.
21. What is shear lag effect? (April/May 2010)
The non-uniform stress distribution that occurs in a tension member adjacent to a
connection, in which all elements of the cross section are not directly connected, is commonly
referred to as the shear lag effect. This effect reduces the design strength of the member
because the entire cross section is not fully effective at the critical section location.
22. Where do you use lug angles? (May/June 2014)
Lug angles are not very common because of the following reasons: 1) they produce
eccentric connection because of the rivets placed along the lug angle ii) stress distribution in
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the rivets of lug angle is noy uniform and iii) rivets on the lug angle are not as efficient as
other rivets.
23. What is net sectional area? (Nov / Dec 2007)
The net sectional area of a tension member is the gross-sectional area of the member
less the maximum deduction for holes.
Anet = Agross sectional areas of holes
24. What is Block Shear Failure? (Nov/Dec 2013)
Block Shear failure mechanism combines a tensile failure on one plane and a
shear failure on a perpendicular plane. When a tension load applied to a particular connection
is increased, the fracture strength of the weaker plane approaches. The plane does not fail
instantly, because it is restrained by the stronger plane. The load can be increased until
the fracture strength of the stronger plane is reached and during this time, the weaker plane
yields. The total strength of the connection equals the fracture strength of the stronger
plane plus the yield strength of the weaker plane.
25. What do you understand by Gross area? (Nov/Dec 2007)
Total area of cross section which can be taken as equal weight of the member per unit length
divided by density of the material is called Gross area. The sectional area given by the
manufacturer is taken as the gross area.
26. What is meant by built-up members? (May/June 2007)
Two or more than two members are used to form built-up members. The built-up sections
may be made more rigid and stiffer than the single structural shapes. A built-up section may
be made of two channels placed back to back with a gusset plate in between them.
27. Define Slenderness Ratio. (May/June 2012) (May/June 2014) (April/May 2010)
The slenderness ratio of a tension member is the ratio of its unsupported length (l) to its least
radius of gyration (r)
28. Give the sketches of steel sections?

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29. How to calculate net area in (a) chain bolting (b) zigzag bolting?
a) Chain bolting Net area, An = (b n dh) t
2

b) ZigZag bolting, An = [b - ndh + E Psi / (4gi)] t


30. Write any two specifications for designing of lug angle.
In the case of angle members, the lug angles and their connections to the gusset or
other supporting member shall be capable of developing a strength not less than 20 percent in
excess of the force in the outstanding leg of the member, and the attachment of the lug angle to
the main angle shall be capable of developing a strength not less than 40 percent in excess of
the force in the outstanding leg of the angle.

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Unit III:COMPRESSION MEMBERS


1. What do you mean by compression members?
Compression members are the most common structural elements and it is termed as
columns, struts, posts or stanchions. They are designed to resist axial compression.
2. Name the modes of failures in a column.
Failure of the cross-section due to crushing or yielding
Failure by buckling, due to elastic instability
Mixed mode of failure due to crushing and buckling
3. Define slenderness ratio. (April/May 2010) (May/June 2013) (Nov/Dec 2012)
It is defined as the ratio of effective length l of the column to the least radius of gyration
r of the column section.
4. Classify the columns according to the slenderness ratios.
Short columns - l/r <60
Medium columns - 60< l/r <100
Long columns - l/r >100
5. Distinguish column and strut.
Columns are the vertical members which carry the loads to the beams, slabs etc,
generally they are used in ordinary buildings.
Struts are commonly used for compression members in a roof truss; it may either be in
vertical position or in an inclined position.
6. What is meant by stanchions?
These are the steel columns made of steel sections, commonly used in
buildings.
7. What is Post?
It is loosely used for a column, but in truss bridge girders, end compression members are
called end posts.
8. What is a boom?
It is the principal compression member in a crane.
9. State the assumptions that made in Eulers theory.
The axis of the column is perfectly straight when unloaded.
The line of thrust coincides exactly with the unstrained axis of the strut. The flexural rigidity
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EI is uniform
The material is isotropic.
10. Why the lateral systems are provided in compound columns?
If the plates are not connected throughout their length of the Built up sections, lateral
systems may be provided, which act as a composite section. In such cases the load carrying
elements of the built-up compression member in the relative position, without sharing any
axial load. However when the column deflects, the lateral system carries the transverse shear
force.
11. Name the lateral systems that are used in compound columns and which is the
mostly used one?
Lacing or latticing, Battening or batten plates, perforated cover
plates.
Lacing or latticing is the most common used lateral system and the sections are flats, angles
and channels.
12. What will be the thickness for the single and double lacing bars?
The thickness of flat lacing bars shall not be less than one-fortieth of the length
between the inner end rivets or welds for single lacing, and one-sixtieth of the length for double
lacing.
13. What is the purpose of providing battens in compound steel columns?
Batten plates consist of flats or plates, connecting the components of the built-up
columns in two parallel planes. These are used only for axial loading. Battening of the
composite column should not be done if it is subjected to eccentric loading or a applied
moment in the plane of battens.
14. What is the thickness of a batten plate?
The thickness of batten plate shall not be less than one fiftieth of the distance between
the inner most connecting lines of rivets or welds. This requirement eliminates lateral buckling
of the batten.
15. Where the perforated cover plates are used and mention its advantages?
They are mostly used in the box sections, which consist of four angle sections so that the
interior of column remains accessible for painting and inspection.
Advantages:
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They add to the sectional area of column and the portions beyond the perforation
share axial load to the extent of their effective area.
There is economy and fabrication and maintenance
Perforations conveniently allow the riveting and painting work on the inside portion.
16. Name the types of column base.
Types of Column base are
Slab Base, which is a pinned base.
Gusseted base, which is a rigid base.
17. State the purpose of column base. (May/June 2014)
The base of the column is designed in such a way to distribute the concentrated column load
over a definite area and to ensure connection of the lower column end to the foundation. It
should be in adequate strength, stiffness and area to spread the load upon the concrete or other
foundations without exceeding the allowable stress.
18. Give the difference between slab base and gusseted base for steel columns.
(May/June 2007)
Slab base is a thick steel base plate placed over the concrete base and connected to it
through anchor bolts. The steel base plate may either be shop-welded to the stanchion, or else
can be connected at the site to the column through cleat angles. The column is faced for
bearing over the whole area.
In a gusseted base, part of the load is transmitted from the stanchion through the
gusseted base plate. The gussets and stiffeners support the base slab against bending and
hence a thinner base plate can be used. The gussets serve for more or less uniform transmission
of the force field from the column to the base plate. The gussets itself resists the bending as
double cantilever beam supported on flanges of the column.
19. What is slab base and for what purpose is it provided?
The base plate connected to the bottom of the column to transfer over wider area is
known as slab base. Column end is machined to transfer the load by direct bearing. No gusset
materials are required.
20. When the slenderness ratio of compression member increases, the permissible stress
decreases. Why?
The section must be so proportioned that it has largest possible moment of inertia for the same
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cross-sectional area. Also the section has approximately the same radius of gyration about
both the principal axes.
21. What do you mean by latticed columns? (May/June 2012)
In built up columns when rolled steel sections are not connected by plates suitable lateral
system is needed to connect different load carrying elements of column. The object of
providing lateral system is to carry the transverse shear force which occurs when the column
deflects.
22. Define effective length. (May/June 2013)
The effective length of a compression member is the distance between the points of
contra flexures of a buckled column. It depends on the actual length and the end conditions in
regards to restraint against rotation and transverse displacement.
23.Draw a neat sketch of a slab base and name the parts.slab (Nov/Dec 2011)

24. What is the purpose of lacing in a built up laced column? (Nov/dec 2011)
Lacing consists of flats or plates, connecting the components of the built-up columns in
two parallel planes. These are used only for axial loading. Lacing of the composite column
should not be done if it is subjected to eccentric loading or a applied moment in the plane of
battens.
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25. How do classify the columns as per end conditions? (Nov/Dec 2012)

Short columns:-When the ratio of effective length of column to the least lateral dimension is
less than equal to 12 is known as short column. The failure of such type of columns purely
due to direct crushing. The load capacity of the column is equal to the safe compressive stress
and x- sectional area of column
Long Columns: When the ratio of effective length of column to the least lateral dimension is
greater than 12 is known as long column. The failure of such type of columns is mainly due
to buckling or bending. The column fails in bending before the compressive stress reaches the
crushing value. Direct stress has little importance in its failure.
26. In a gusseted base how is the total force of the gusset plate transferred to the cleat?
(May/June 2010)
No fasting is required to transmit load from the column to the slab base, nominal cleat angles
or welds are provided to secure the column in place during fabrication.
27. What is the significance of column buckling curves? (Nov/Dec 2013)
It is graphical representation of buckling. Buckling is a large deformation produced
under compressive load in a direction or plane normal to the direction of application of the
load. Buckling is a form of instability, it occurs suddenly with large changes in deformation
but little change in loading. For this reason it is a dangerous phenomenon that must be
avoided in structural design.
28. What is meant by column splice? (May/June 2007)
A joint in the length of a column provided, when necessary, is known as column splice.
It is also described as column joint.
29. What is meant by slab base?
The slab base as shown in Figure consists of cleat angles and base plate. The column end is
faced for bearing over the whole area. The gussets (gusset plates and gusset angles) are not
provided with the column with the slab bases. The sufficient fastenings are used to
retain the parts securely in plate and to resist all moments and forces, other than the direct
compression. The forces and moments arising during transit, unloading and erection are also
considered.
30. What are the three classifications for determination of size of plate?
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Class I- will pertain to all base plates the moment on which is so small in proportion to the
direct load that there is compression over the entire area between the bottom of the base and
its foundation
Class II- will pertain a comparatively small range of base plates which have tension over a
small portion - one - third or loss of the area
Class III- will include those which are exposed to a comparatively large moment and which
therefore have tension over a large portion - more than one -third of the area between the
bottom of the base plate and its concrete footing.

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UNIT IV: BEAMS


1. What is a beam?
A beam is a structural member, which carries a load normal to the axis. The load produces
bending moment and shear force in the beam.
2. What is meant by castellated beam? (May/June 2012)
A rolled beam with increased depth is to be castellated. To obtain such sections, a zigzag line
is cut along the beam by an automatic flame-cutting machine. The two halves thus produced
are rearranged so that the teeth match up and the teeth are then welded together.
3. How the beams are failed?

Bending failure

Shear failure

Deflection failure

The designs are based on these three failures which are to be


determined.
4. What do you mean by bending failure?
Bending failure may be due to crushing of compression flange or fracture of the tension
flange of the beam. Instead of failure due to crushing, the compression flange may fail by a
column like action with side ways or lateral buckling. Collapse would follow the lateral
buckling.
5. What is the maximum deflection that to be allowed in steel beams?
The deflection of a member, shall not be such as to impair the strength or efficiency of the
structure and lead to finishing. The deflection is generally should not exceed 1/325 of the span.
6. What is web buckling? (Nov/Dec 2013) (May/June 2012)
Web buckling occurs when the intensity of compressive stress near the centre of the
section exceeds the critical buckling stress of web acting as a strut. This type of failure is
more in the case of built up sections having greater ratio of depth to thickness of the web.
7. What are laterally supported beams? (May/June 2007)
The beams which are provided with the lateral supports either by embedding the
compression flange in the concrete slab or by providing effective intermediate (support)
restraints at a number of points to restrain the lateral buckling is called laterally supported
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beams.
8. Mention the advantages of using rolled steel wide flange section as beams

More section modulus

Lesser area

Economical

9. Why does buckling of web occur in beams?

Diagonal compression due to shear

Longitudinal compression due to bending

Vertical compression due to concentrated loads

10. What are the permissible stresses used in the beams?


The permissible stresses, which are used in the beams are bending and shear stress.
Bending Stress
For laterally supported beams,

For laterally unsupported beams,


, Where n is assumed to be 1.4
Shear Stress

11. Under what situations the plated beams are used?


When a bending moment is large this cannot be resisted by the largest available rolled beam
section. The depth of the beam is restricted due to headroom requirements.
12. Why intermediate stiffeners are required for plate girders?
The web of the plate girder relatively being tall and thin it is subjected to buckling. Hence it is
stiffened both vertically and horizontally using intermediate stiffeners.
13. What do you mean by curtailment of flanges?
The section of a plate girder is to be designed first at mid span. The bending moment will
goes on decreasing towards the supports. Hence the flange plates, provided at the maximum
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section can be curtailed.
14. Enlist the purpose of providing the bearing stiffener. (May/June 2013)

It prevents the web from crushing and buckling sideways, under the action
of concentrated loads

It relieves the rivets connecting the flange angles and web, from vertical shear.

15. Name the components of a plate girder.


The components of a plate girder are

Web plate

Flange plate

Flange angles

Web splice plates

Flange splice plates

Vertical or transverse stiffeners

Bearing stiffeners

Longitudinal or horizontal stiffeners

End bearings or end connections

16. List the factors governing flange curtailment in plate girder (Nov/Dec 2013)
The factors governing flange curtailment in plate girder are

The web plate resists the shear force.

The shear stress is uniformly distributed over whole cross sectional area of web.

The flanges resist the bending moment

17. Where the plate girders are used? (May/June 2007)


The plate girders are used in the buildings where the span is more and heavy loads are
expected and in the bridges. Most commonly they are used in the bridges.
18. What are the methods that are adopted to determine the flange design? (Nov/Dec
2011)

Methods adopted to determine the flange design are

Flange area method

Moment of inertia method


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The former method is an approximate method, which is used for determining the trial section.
In this method, it is assumed that the stress distribution in the tension and compression flanges
is uniform, whereas in the latter case it is the exact method and is recommended by the IS
code. Generally, the section designed by the flange area method is checked by this method.
19. What is the economical depth of a plate girder?
The economical depth of a plate girder is

, where

= permissible bending stress in compression in N/mm .

= thickness of the web plate.


20. The pitch of the rivets connecting cover plates with flanges of rolled steel beam
is designed for what force?
These rivets are designed for horizontal shear between the flange plate and flange angles.
Since the vertical load is transferred by the flange plates to the flange angles by direct
bearing, there will be no vertical shear due to the vertical load. Here the rivets will be in single
shear.
21. What do you mean by castellated beam? (May/June 2012)
Castellated beam is a rolled metal beam the web of which is first divided by a length wise
zigzag cut, then welded together sa as to join the peaks of both halves, hus increasing its depth
and strength.
22. Write down the simple bending equation. (April/may 2010)
Simple Bending Equation is

23. Explain the behavior of steel beams?


Laterally stable steel beams can fail only by (a) Flexure (b) Shear or (c) Bearing,
Assuming the local buckling of slender components does not occur. These three conditions are
the criteria for limit state design of steel beams. Steel beams would also become unserviceable
due to excessive deflection and this is classified as a limit state of serviceability.
24. List the various factors affecting the lateral-torsional buckling strength.
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Various factors affecting the lateral torsional buckling strength are


Distance between lateral supports to the compression flange.
Restraints at the ends and at intermediate support locations (boundary Conditions).
Type and position of the loads.
Moment gradient along the length.
Type of cross-section
25. How do you improve the shear resistance in plate girder?
To improve the shear resistance in plate girder
i. Increasing in buckling resistance due to reduced c/d ratio;
ii. The web develops tension field action and this resists considerably larger Stress
than the elastic critical strength of web in shear.
26. What is meant by laterally supported beam?
The laterally supported beams are also called laterally restrained beams. When lateral
deflection of the compression flange of a beam is prevented by providing effective lateral
support, (restraint) the beam is said to be laterally supported. The effective lateral restraint is
the restraint which produces sufficient resistance in a plane perpendicular to the plane of
bending to restrian the compression flange of a beam from lateral buckling to either side at
the point of application of the restraint.
27. Write a note on built up beams.
The built-up beams are also termed as compound beams or compound girders. The
built-up beams are used when the span, load and corresponding bending moment are of
such magnitudes that rolled steel beam section become inadequate to provide required section
modulus. The built-up beams are also used when rolled steel beams are inadequate for
limited depth.
28. Under what circumstances web plates are stiffened and unstiffened?
A web plate is kept unstiffened when the ratio of clear depth to thickness of web is less
than. It does not require stiffeners. A web plate is called stiffened, when the ratio of clear depth
to thickness of web is greater than 85 and stiffeners are provided to contribute additional
strength to web.
29. What is meant by lateral buckling of beam?
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A long beam with laterally unrestrained compression flange when incrementally loaded,
first deflects downwards and when load exceeds a particular value; it tilts sideways due
to instability of compression flange, and rotates about longitudinal axis. This phenomenon is
known as laterally buckling or torsional buckling of beam.
30. Under what circumstances load bearing stiffereners are used in plate girder?
(May/June 2010)
The load carrying stiffeners are attached with the web plate of the plate girder to avoid
local bending failure of flanges, crushing of web and buckling of web plate. They are
provided under the heavy concentrated loads and the reactions at supports.

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UNIT V: ROOF TRUSSES AND INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS


1. Name the types of roofing systems.
Types of roofing systems are

Flat roofing consists of either RCC construction or RSJ slab construction

Sloping roofing

2. Where the steel roof trusses are used?


Industrial buildings, workshop buildings, storage godowns, warehouse and even for residential
buildings, school buildings, offices where the construction work is to be completed in a short
duration of time.
3. Give the role of end bearing in roof trusses. (Nov/Dec 2012)
A bearing construction for the end of a flat truss having top and bottom chord members
and inclined metallic intervening tension web members terminating in apertured load transfer
flanges secured to at least one side of the chord members by connector plates overlying the
flanges with the teeth intermeshing the apertures and embedded in the chord members. A
stress transferring channel overlies the end of the top chord and the channel web has teeth
embedded into the top of the chord. The legs of the channel about the sides of the chord under
the flanges and connector plates and are apertured to intermesh with connector plate teeth
extending through the load transfer flanges into the sides of the chord
4. Mention the advantages of a roof truss. (May/June 2009)
Advantages of Roof truss are

Its mid-span depth is the greatest specially where bending moment in the span is
the maximum

Great economy.

Sloping faces of trusses facilitate in easy drainage of rainwater.

5. What is the factor that is considered in the roof truss and why?
The factor, which is considered in the roof truss, is pitch, it is defined as the ratio of the span
length to the depth of the truss, is governed by the roofing material and other requirements
such as ventilation and light.
6. How the trusses are classified according to the pitch?
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Small pitch - span depth ratio is more than 12 m
Medium pitch - span depth ratio is between 5m to 12
m Large pitch - span depth ratio is 5 or less.
7. Sketch the various types of roof truss.

8. What are the different components of a roof truss? (May/June 2013)


Different components of a roof truss are

Principal rafter or top chord

Bottom chord or main tie

Ties

Struts

Sag tie

Purlins

Rafters

Ridge line

Eaves

Panel points

Roof coverings

Shoe angle

Base plate, anchor plate and anchor bolts.

9. Define Gantry Girder. (Nov/Dec 2012)


Gantry girders are laterally unsupported beams to carry heavy loads from place to place at
the construction sites, mostly these are of steel material A gantry girder, having no lateral
support in its length, has to withstand vertical loads from the weight of the crane, hook load and
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impact and horizontal loads from crane surge

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.
10. What is meant by purlins?
Purlins are structural members which are supported on the principal rafter, and which run
transverse to the trusses. The span of the purlins is equal to the center-to-center spacing of the
trusses. The purlins support the roof covering either directly or through common rafters.
They are usually made of either an angle section or a channel section and are therefore
subjected to unsymmetrical bending.
11. Draw a neat sketch of a roof truss and name the parts. (Nov/Dec 2011)

12. Name the most common roof covering materials.


Common Roof Covering materials are

Slates

Tiles

Lead sheets

Zinc sheets

Glass

Corrugated aluminium sheets

Galvanized corrugated iron sheets (G.I. sheets)

Asbestos cement sheets (A.C. sheets)

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13. Write the equation to calculate the design wind pressure.


Design Pressure,
Vb = Basic wind speed in m/s at 10 m height
k 1 = Probability factor (or risk coefficient)
k 2 = Terrain, height and structure size factor
k 3 =Topography factor
14. Mention some of the requirements of a good joint.
The line of thrust should pass through the C.G of the rivet group and the rivets
should be symmetrically arranged about this line.
For a tension member, the rivets should be so arranged that the area of the member
joined is not reduced more than necessary.
The number and the diameter of rivets should be sufficient to develop the maximum stresses
induced in all the members at the connection. Members should be straight and bolts used to
draw them together before the rivets are driven.
15. What are the conditions that to be satisfied for the end supports?
The size of base plate should be sufficient so that the bearing pressure does not exceed
the permissible value.
Anchor bolts should be provided at one end to accommodate the thermal expansion of the
truss. The lines of forces in rafter, bottom tie and vertical end reaction meet at a point.
16. Where the gantry girders are used?
Gantry girders or crane girders carry hand operated or electric over head cranes in industrial
buildings such as factories, workshops, steel works etc., to lift heavy materials, equipment
etc., to carry them from one location to the other, within the building.
17. Sketch the various forms of gantry girders.
Various Forms of gantry girders

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18. What is drag force?


This is caused due to the starting and stopping of the crane bridge moving over the crane rails
as the crane m0oves longitudinally, i.e. in the direction of gantry girders.
19. What is the permissible deflection where the electrically overhead cranes operated
over 500kN?
The maximum vertical deflection for crane girder, under dead and imposed loads shall
not exceed L/1000, where L is the span of the crane runway girder.
20. Define shoe angle.
It is a supporting angle provided at the junction of the top and bottom chords of a truss. The
reaction of the truss is transferred to the supports through the shoe angle. It is supported on the
base plate.
21. What is panel point?
These are the prominent points along the principal rafter, at which various members (i.e. ties
and struts) meet. The distance of the principal rafter between any two panel point is termed as
panel.
22. How is the selection of section made for roof truss element?

The members of the truss are made of either rolled steel sections or built-up
sections depending upon the span length and intensity of loading.

Rolled steel single or double angles, T-section, hollow circular, square or


rectangular sections are used in the roof trusses of industrial buildings.

In long span roof trusses and short span bridges, heavier rolled steel sections,
such as channels and I sections are used.

Built-up I-sections, channels, angles and plates are used in the case of long
span bridge trusses.

23. Write about Principles of plastic analysis.


(i) Mechanism condition: The ultimate or collapse load is reached when a mechanism is
formed. The number of plastic hinges developed should be just sufficient to form a
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mechanism.
(ii) Equilibrium condition: Fx = 0, Fy = 0, Mxy = 0
(iii) Plastic moment condition: The bending moment at any section of the structure should
not be more than the fully plastic moment of the section.
24. Write about basics of plastic analysis?
In plastic analysis and design of a structure, the ultimate load of the structure as a whole
is regarded as the design criterion. The term plastic has occurred due to the fact that the
ultimate load is found from the strength of steel in the plastic range.
This method is rapid and provides a rational approach for the analysis of the structure. It
also provides striking economy as regards the weight of steel since the sections required by
this method are smaller in size than those required by the method of elastic analysis.
25. List the various types of roof sheetings commonly used.
Various types of roof sheetings commonly used

Asbestos cement sheets

Tiles

Galvanized corrugated iron sheets

Aluminium sheets

Slate roofing

26. What is the use of sag rod? (May/June 2012)


o Sag rods are used to transmit the gravity load of girts to a supporting member.
o It is used to control the deflection of and stiffen girts and purlins.
27. What is the necessasity of curtailment of flange plate in plate girder? (May/June
2012)
When the plate girder is simply supported at the ends, and subjected to the
uniformly distributed load, then, maximum bending moment occurs at the centre. Since
the values of bending moment decreases towards the end, the flange area designed to
resist the maximum bending moment is not required at other sections. Therefore the
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flange plates may be curtailed at a distance from the centre of span greater than the
distance where the plate is no longer required as the bending moment decreases towards
the ends.
28. Define pitch of a roof. (April/May 2010)
The roof's pitch is its vertical rise divided by its horizontal span (or "run"), what is called
"slope" in geometry and stair construction, or the tangent function in trigonometry. In
imperial measurement systems it is typically expressed with the rise first and run second,
with the run denominated by the number 12, giving a ratio of how many inches of incline
there is to each foot of run.
29. What are the loads acting on the roof truss and for what load combinations should it
be designed? (May/June 2014)
Dead load, Load from coverings, purlins, self weight of trusses and bracing.
Live load
Wind load
Load combination:
1. 1.4(D + F)
2. 1.2(D + F + T ) + 1.6(L + H) + 0.5(Lr or S or R)
3. 1.2D + 1.6(Lr or S or R) + (L or 0.8W)
4. 1.2D + 1.6W + L + 0.5(Lr or S or R)
5. 1.2D + 1.0E + L + 0.2S
6. 0.9D + 1.6W + 1.6H
7. 0.9D + 1.0E + 1.6H
30. List the different types of roof trusses.(May/June 2014)
Different types of roof trusses are

King Post Truss

Queen Post Truss

Howe Truss

Pratt Truss

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Fan Truss

North Light Roof Truss

Quadrangular Roof Truss

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