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# UBEQ1013 Quantitative Techniques I

## What is a "significant figure"?

The number of significant figures in a result is simply the number of figures that are known
with some degree of reliability. The number 13.2 is said to have 3 significant figures. The
number 13.20 is said to have 4 significant figures.
Rules for deciding the number of significant figures in a measured quantity:
(1) All nonzero digits are significant:
1.234 g has 4 significant figures,
1.2 g has 2 significant figures.
With zeroes, the situation is more complicated:
(2) Zeroes between nonzero digits are significant:
1002 kg has 4 significant figures,
3.07 mL has 3 significant figures.
(3) Leading zeros to the left of the first nonzero digits are not significant; such zeroes merely
indicate the position of the decimal point:
0.001 oC has only 1 significant figure,
0.012 g has 2 significant figures.
(4) Trailing zeroes that are also to the right of a decimal point in a number are significant:
0.0230 mL has 3 significant figures,
0.20 g has 2 significant figures.
(5) When a number ends in zeroes that are not to the right of a decimal point, the zeroes are
not necessarily significant:
190 miles may be 2 or 3 significant figures,
50,600 calories may be 3, 4, or 5 significant figures.
The potential ambiguity in the last rule can be avoided by the use of standard exponential, or
"scientific," notation. For example, depending on whether the number of significant figures
is 3, 4, or 5, we would write 50,600 calories as:
5.06 104 calories (3 significant figures)
5.060 104 calories (4 significant figures), or
5.0600 104 calories (5 significant figures).
By writing a number in scientific notation, the number of significant figures is clearly
indicated by the number of numerical figures in the 'digit' term as shown by these examples.
This approach is a reasonable convention to follow.

## UBEQ 1013 Quantitative Techniques I

UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN
TUTORIAL 1 (Questions)
1.

(a)
1 decimal place
(b)
2 decimal places
(c)
3 decimal places

2.

## Express 365.295 to:

(a) 4 significant figures
(b) 3 significant figures
(c) 2 significant figures
(d) 1 significant figure

3.

## Express 0.0205 to:

(a)
4 significant figures
(b)
3 significant figures
(c)
2 significant figures
(d)
1 significant figure

4.

(a) 10 2 3

1
1
(d) 2
1
2
2

1 1
(c) 1 1
3 6
5.

(a) 4x2 16z2

## (b) p2q2 225

6.

PB books shop sells books at 35% discount from the retail price. If it sells a book for
RM19.50. Find
(a) The retail price.
(b) The customer only pays for RM15.00 for the second book. What was the further
discount in percentage?
(c) The overall percentage discount obtained by buying the two books form the shop
in the sale compared with the manufacturers retail price.

7.

## Find the value of x in each of the following proportions:

(a) x : 3 9 : 15
(b) 5 : x 30 : 50

8.

## UBEQ 1013 Quantitative Techniques I

9.

Simplify:
(a) 2e x 3 3e x 1
1
1

(c) x y x
y
2 6y 5

(e)
5 x 15 xy

(b)
(d)

9 x 2 3 2 x 1
27 x

3
3

2x 1 2x 1

## UBEQ 1013 Quantitative Techniques I

UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN
TUTORIAL 2 (Questions)
Discussion Questions
1. Solve for x :
(a) 4(3 x ) 8
(b) e 2 x 4
2. Use the rules of logs to simplify
(a) log a ( xy ) log a 3 x 2 log a x
(b) 9 log b x 4 log b y
3. The number, N, of live bacteria in most food after t minutes is modeled by the
function
N 5000e 0.4t

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

## Find the initial number of bacteria present in the food.

Find the time taken to kill all the bacteria.
Calculate the number of bacteria that are still alive after 15 minutes.
Find the percentage of bacteria that is still alive after 15 minutes.

4. A team of financial advisers guiding the launch of a national newspaper has modeled
the future circulation of the newspaper by the equation N = c(1 e-kt), where N is the
daily circulation after t days of publication, and c and k are positive constants.
When the paper is launched audits show that c = 800,000 and k
(a) Transpose this formula to show that t

1
In3.
20

1
c
In

k cN

## (a) Calculate the daily circulation after 20 days of publication.

(c) After how many days will the daily circulation first reach 525,000?
(d) What advice can you give the newspaper proprietor if it is know that the paper will
break
even only if the daily circulation exceeds 750,000?

## 5. The temperature of mercury in C , t minutes later is given by 100

. Find the

minimum number of minutes required for the temperature of the liquid to drop below
60 0 C . Round up to the nearest whole number.

## Self Test Exercise Questions

1. Solve the following inequalities:
(a) 8 x 6 > 7 x 13

(b)

2 x 3 8x 3

8
2

(c) 7 x 2 15 x 32
(b) x -0.5

## Answer: (a) x > 19

2. Multiply out the brackets:
(a) 5(3x + 2y) 6(12y 35x)
+ 2x)

(c) x 4.25

## (c) (6x 5)(9

Answer: (a) 225x + 62y (b) -12 x 3 +6x2 27y z2+4z (c) 12 x 2 +44x-45
3. Evaluate the following without using a calculator.
4 30
8 5 x 38
(a)
7 5
2
(d) 1 1
6
15

(b)

12
19

3 1
80
x

5 24 100

3
5

9
1
3 (c) 8
2 2
10
2
5
26
29
(c) 9
(d) 2
35
30

(e) 4

(b)

1
32

(e) 5

4. Find expressions for the following algebraic functions; simplify the answers as far as
possible.
2 x 3 6 x 2 2( x 2) 2
1 x2 2

(a)
(b)

x
x
x2
x2
2
x 1
5
2
3
2
2
x 1
x ( x 1) x

(c) 2( x 1)

(d)

(b)

1
2
x 2

## 5. Solve the following equations:

(a) 5 x 125
(b) 5 2 x 6 x 811

(c)

2 x ( x 2)
x 1

(c) 5 x 2 25

(b) x = 1.34

(d)

3x 2 2 x 3
x 2 ( x 1)

(d) 5 3 1010
(c) x = 4

(d) x = 2.42

(a) y e t 4

(c) y e3.61092

(b) y e 3 t

(d)

112 e 4.71850

1
t
3

5

## UBEQ 1013 Quantitative Techniques I

(a) ln Pe 2
ce 2
d

ln

(b) ln ce 2t

a
4
e

(c) ln

4
ln a ln e

(d) ln

e3
e6

(e)

(b) ln c 2t

(c) ln a 4

(d) 3
(e)
ln c ln d 2

8. A firms annual sales fall from RM50,000 to RM45,000 from one year to the next.
Express the fall as a percentage of the original. Answer: -10%
9. The government imposes a 5% service tax on the prices of goods. How much does the
consumer pay for Nasi Lemak priced by a shop at RM5.50 ?
10. The GDP of a country has increased by 6.2% in year 2003 with the value RM135
billion. What was the GDP for year 2002 ?
11. The price of a monitor is RM 297.50 after a 20% reduction is taken. What was the
price of the monitor before the reduction?

## UBEQ 1013 Quantitative Techniques I

UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN
TUTORIAL 3 (Questions)
Discussion Questions
1. Solve the following systems of equations:
(a)
(b)
2.

x y 18
3 x 4 y 2
y 21 2 x

y x 2 3x 1

Sketch the graph and find its maximum or minimum value of the following
(i) f ( x) x 2 4 x 3
(ii) f ( x) 2 8 x x 2

3. Differentiate:
(a) y x 3 ( x 2 5)3
(b) y

2 x2
x 1

4. The supply and demand equations of a pair of safety shoes are given by QS = P 8 &
QD

80 P
where P, QS and QD denote price, quantity supplied and quantity
3

demanded respectively.
(i) Find the equilibrium price and quantity.
(ii) If the government imposes a fixed tax of RM36.00 on each pair of shoes, find the
equilibrium price and quantity.
5. A computer firm launches a new monitor on 1 st June 2002. During the following
period a rough estimate of the number of orders, N received t days after the launch is
given by N 3t 2 0.08t 3 . What is the maximum number of orders received on any
one day of the year?
Self-Practice Questions
12. Find the slope of the straight line passing through
(a) (2,6) and (3,9)
(b) (2,-1) and (6,-5)

(b) -1

## UBEQ 1013 Quantitative Techniques I

13. Find the equilibrium price (P) and quantity (Q) for the following markets:
(a)

Q S 20 3P
Q D 220 5 P

(b)

QS 45 8 P
Q D 125 2 P

(c)

QS 32 7 P 0

(d)

Q D 128 9 P 0

13P Q S 27
Q D 4 P 24 0

## Answer: (a) P = 30, Q = 70 (b) P = 17, Q = 91 (c) P = 10, Q = 38

= 12

(d) P = 3, Q

14. Supply and demand conditions can also be expressed in quadratic form. Find the
equilibrium price (P) and quantity (Q), given the demand function
P Q 2 3Q 20 0 and the supply function P 3Q 2 10Q 5 .
Answer: P = 2, Q = 3
15. Differentiate:
(a) y 4 x 3 12 x 2 3 x 12
(b) y ( x 4 3x 2 5) 3
2
7
3
(c) y 4 x 2 3
x
x
2
Answer: (a) 12 x 24 x 3
1
2

6x

(b) 3( x 4 3 x 2 5) 2 (4 x 3 6 x)

4 21

x3 x 4

16. Evaluate f (x) for each of the following functions at the given point.
2
2
(a) f ( x) 8 x 4 at x = 1
(b) f ( x) x 2
x
x
17. Find the expressions for
(a)
(b)

(c)

d2y
in the case when
dx 2

y 12 10 x 6 x 2 2 x 3
xy 3 x 4 4 x 2

8

at x = 2

## UBEQ 1013 Quantitative Techniques I

TUTORIAL 4 (Questions)
Discussion Questions
1. (i) Given that

dy
6 x 4 when x = 0 and y = 5. Find the function of y.
dx

## (ii) Based on 1 (i), sketch the function of y.

(iii) Prove that this function has a maximum point.
2. The XYZ firms total cost function is TC= 5Q2 +20Q + 100. If the firms product
could sell in a competitive market at a price of RM 120 per unit, how many units
would you sell in order to maximize total profits? What is the maximum profits?
3. Find the marginal revenue the case when the demand equation is given by
Q

100 P 2
2
dTC

2
4. Given MC dQ 32 18Q 12Q , FC 45 , find:
(a) total cost function,
(b) average cost function,
(c) variable cost function.

5. A business analyst from Factory A which is located at Bayan Lepas, Penang, estimated
that the demand function facing the factory for Optical Transceivers is Q D

620 P
12

.
He further reported that if Q Optical Transceivers are demanded in a particular day,
the total fixed cost is RM200 while the variable cost is RM ( 200 2Q) per unit.
(a) Find the expressions for total revenue and total cost.
(b) Find the expression for profit function.
(c) Calculate and verify the profit maximizing level of output. What is the maximum
profit for producing this level of output?
(d) Determine the break-even output levels.
(e) Using the answer obtained from (c) and (d), sketch the curve for profit function.
Clearly show the profit maximizing level of output and corresponding profit level.
Self-Practice Questions
1. Integrate:
(a) f (x) = 5x3

9

(c) f (x) =

3
x2

## UBEQ 1013 Quantitative Techniques I

5 4
x C
4
(d) 4 x 3 5 x 1

(b)

2. Demand function is Q

4 3
x 3x 2 5 x C
3

(c)

3
C
x

100 P
20

## Fixed Cost = RM150

Variable Costs are 4

Q
per unit
50

## Find expressions for

(i)
TR and MR in terms of Q
Answer: (i) TR = 100Q 20Q

Q2
(ii) TC = 150 + 4Q +
50

MR = 100 40Q
MC = 4 +

1
Q
25

## 3. A manufacturer knows that if x (hundred) products are demanded in a particular

week:
(i)
the total cost (TC) function (RM000) is 14 3 x
(ii)
the total revenue (TR) function (RM000) is 19 x 2 x 2
Find: (a) Derive the (total) profit function.
(b) The profit break-even points (BEP).
(c) Calculate the level of demand that maximizes profit, (the maximum
profit point) and the amount of profit obtained.

(b) x = 1 or 7

## (c) x = 4, maximum profit = RM18

000
40 P
(hundreds). The fixed costs
8

(RM) of production are 12, and the variable costs (RM) are (9 Q) per units.
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

Write down the expressions for total revenue (TR) and total costs (TC). Hence
obtain the expression for the profit function, .
Find the price and quantity at which is maximum.
Find the price and quantity when the product is break even.

= -7Q2 + 31Q 12
Answer: (i) TR = 40Q 8Q2 TC = 12 + 9Q Q2
(ii) P = 22.29, Q = 31/14 (iii) P = RM8 or RM 36.57, Q = 4 or
3/7
5. If the demand equation of goods is Q

25 P
, find the level of output which
5

10

## UBEQ 1013 Quantitative Techniques I

6. Determine the following integrals
a)

d)

g)

5x

dx

b)

x dx

e)

7.

dx

dx
4

c)

4x

f)

2x

dx

3 x 4 dx

2 x 2 3 x dx

(e)

1
5

1 3
x c
3

4
3
1 6
5
2
x c (b) x 5 c
(c) x 4 c
(d) x 2 c
6
4
3
2
3
5
2
3
(f) x 7 x 5 c
(g) x 4 x 3 x 2 c
7
5
4
3
2

x 2 3x

1
2

dx ,

0.
3

8.

2 x 5 3x

1
4

dx

2 2
x 6x 2
3

= 0.
3

9.
(a)
(b)
(c)

## Find expressions for

dQ
for the supply function, Q P 3 2 P 2 P 1
dP
30
d ( AC )
for the average cost function, AC Q 2 10
dQ
dQ
for the production function Q 10 L3
dL

Answer: (a) 3P 2 4 P 1

(b)

60
Q3

(c) 15 L

11

1 6
x 4x 4 6
3