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A.S.M.E. code (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) is one of the approaches followed in design of transmission shaft.
According to this code, the permissible shear stress for shaft without keyways is taken as 30% of the yield strength in tension
(S ), or 18% of the ultimate tensile strength of material (S ), whichever is lower. Therefore, the permissible shear stress ( ) is


If shafts have keyways ( shown in Fig. 8.8.1), these values have to be reduced by 25%.

Fig. 8.8.1 Shaft, key and pulley assembly

The Eq.(8.22) does not consider the effect of fatigue and shock loads. To account for these, A.S.M.E code incorporates
multiplication factors k and k for bending and torsional moments respectively. So the Eq. (8.22) is modified as

Where k = combined shock and fatigue factor applied to bending moment

k = combined shock and fatigue factor applied to torsional moment

The values of k and k for rotating shafts are given in the Table 8.8.1.

Table 8.8.1 Multiplication factors for bending and torsional moments

Load type




Minor shock



Heavy shock



Suddenly applied

A transmission shaft designed for heavy shock load would have larger diameter followed by shafts designed for minor shock
load and then gradually applied load. As heavy shocks are not involved in the case of drafting rollers, the load can be
considered as gradually applied.
The following example illustrates the design of shaft: A main shaft of machine receives power from an electric motor (not
shown in figure) through flat belt ( Fig. 8.8.2).

Fig. 8.8.2 Main shaft carrying a pulley and gear supported by two bearings

The rpm of the motor is 1435. The diameters of the motor and machine pulleys are 180 and 430 mm respectively. Motor is
placed below the machine shaft such that the axes of both pulleys are in a vertical plane. The main-shaft transmits power
through spur gear (in the plane D) to a drafting system through gear trains (not shown in figure). The driven spur gear is
placed above the gear D such that the axes of shaft, Gear D and driven gear are in the same vertical plane. The power
transmitted by the motor to the main shaft is 15kW. The pitch circle diameter and pressure angle of the gear are 300 mm and
20 respectively. The ratio of the tight- and slack- tensions on the belt is 3. Two bearings A and B support the shaft. The
properties of material of shaft are: S = 700 N/mm 2 and S = 460 N/mm2 and G =79300 N/mm2. Determine the shaft


diameter using A.S.M.E code. The pulley and gear are mounted on shaft using keyways.


The net vertical downward force acting on the shaft in the plane of the pulley is
(T +T ) = 2220.77N
Mt = Tangential force acting on the gear * radius of pitch circle of gear
238732.41 = Pt * 150
Pt =1591.55 N (acts horizonally in the plane of the gear)
Radial force acting on the gear is Pr = Pt * tan 200 = 579.28 N (acts vertically downwards in the plane of gear).
The reactions at the bearings are: P and Q in the vertical plane and R and S in the horizontal plane containing the shaft ( Fig.
8.8.2). Taking moments in the vertical plane about A,
(2200.77 * 900) + (579.28 * 300) = (Q * 600), we get Q = 3620.8 N.
Taking moments in the vertical plane about B,
(2200.77 * 300) = (P * 300) + (579.28 * 300), we get , P = 820.75 N
Similarly, the values and direction of R and S in the horizontal plane could be found out. The bending moment diagram is
constructed from left to right, at various planes considering the forces that are acting on the plane and those on the left side
of the plane. Counterclockwise- and clockwise moments are assigned positive and negative signs respectively.

The bending moments in the vertical plane

The bending moment diagrams are shown in Fig 8.8.3.

Fig. 8.8.3 Forces and bending moments at different planes of the shaft: Left- vertical plane; Righthorizontal plane
From the bending moment diagrams, the maximum bending moment is observed at the plane of bearing B. The resultant
bending moment at the plane B is
BMR at B = (BMH2) + BMY2)1/2 ...............................................................................................(8.30)
Where, BMH = Bending moment at B in the horizontal plane. BMV = Bending moment at B in the vertical plane.
Therefore, BMR at B = (6662312 + 02)1/2 = 666231 N-mm