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Development and laboratory testing of

improved Action and Matrix hydro


turbines designed by advanced analysis
and optimization tools
7th Framework Programme: ENERGY
ESHA Hydroaction Seminar, Brussels, April 13, 2011

Participants and Key topics


National Technical
University of Athens,
Greece (Coordinator)

 Development of innovative design methodology


Institut Polytechnique
de Grenoble, France

that can be easily customized at affordable


manufacturing costs for SME manufacturers

ANDRITZ Hydro
GmbH, Austria
ANDRITZ Hydro
GmbH, Switzerland

 Identify current needs of SHP manufactures


for the new design methodology

 Application in three different turbine types:


Pelton, Turgo and Matrix.

 Assessment of economic and environmental


impacts - Market penetration strategy
cole Centrale de
Lyon, France

 Training for engineers and workshops to inform


SMEs about possibilities of new design approach

Techniques Hydro
Electriques, France

WIP Renewable
Energies GmbH,
Germany

European Small
Hydropower
Association
(ESHA), Belgium

Research Platform

Pelton buckets
optimization

Turgo runner
design

 Advanced and new parameterization and

flow analysis methods (CFD Eulerian and


Lagrangian)
 Modern optimization framework (parallel,
multilevel evolutionary algorithms - EASY,
metamodels, artificial intelligence ).

 Exploitation of experience accumulated


during years of small hydraulic turbines
production.

 Manufacturing of prototype turbine models

and experimental analysis/verification of optimal


designs

Matrix
runner
design

Distribution
section and
injector
design

Mapping the small-hydro


sector in the EU
Main objectives

Mapping the small-hydro


sector in the EU

Parallel CFD & Optimization Unit, NTUA

The EASY Platform


EASY: Evolutionary Algorithms SYstem

Enriched & customized for the


needs of the Hydroaction Project

The EASY Platform


Grid Computing or Robots-based Optimization
Three-layer
middleware:
1. Local resource
management S/W:
CONDOR.
2. Grid deployment:
GLOBUS Toolkit 4.
Discovery and
monitoring of
resources: GANGLIA.
3. Exploitation of
resources: GRIDWAY.

Metamodel-assisted Eas
The Inexact Pre-Evaluation (IPE) Scheme

Multilevel optimization

EASY Applications
A. Hydraulic
turbomachinery

B.
Other
areas

Lab. of Hydraulic Turbomachines, NTUA


Water tank of 320 m3

Lab. of Hydraulic Turbomachines

Control board with real time


monitoring and analysis of
measurements (LabView)

LHT - Software
Fast Lagrangian Solver, FLS
FLS / Measurements

0.9

6 mm nozzle
12 mm
20 mm
32 mm
40 mm
6 mm nozzle
12 mm
20 mm
32 mm
40 mm

Turbine efficiency

0.8

0.7

Smoothed Particle
Hydrodynamics, SPH

0.6

0.5

0.4
0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

Flow rate parameter,

Artificial compressibility &


Free surface adaptation

Commercial Software (Fluent, CFX)

Open source software

Turgo turbine design

New methodology: Prototype model

New methodology: Parameterization

Parametric design
 Quadratic variation of the blade angle along meridian stream lines
 Use of Bezier polynomials and interpolation techniques.
 Introduction of 12 free variables for wide shape modifications
 Addition of hub and shroud axisymmetric surfaces .

New methodology: Flow simulation


and Design optimization

Jet
Jet--bucket interaction analysis: FLS model (left); SPH model (right)

Initial design

Optimum design

Design optimization (EASY) results

Validation comparison with


Eulerian model results (Fluent)

Jet-runner interaction analysis

Flow pictures obtained by the


SPH model

Piping and injectors system design

Piping and injectors system design

90 (reference)

70

90o Curve 3

Surface

Ptot (Pa)

Losses
(Pa)

pressure_outlet.18

1438.934

720.7506

pressure_outlet.19

1438.731

720.953

velocity_inlet.17

2159.684

pressure_outlet.18

1448.735

511.4458

pressure_outlet.19

1449.423

510.7574

velocity_inlet.17

1960.18

pressure_outlet.18

1441.313

379.2711

pressure_outlet.19

1438.368

382.2162

velocity_inlet.17

1820.584

Max
helicity

Area
(m2)

Welding
Length
(m)

126

3.719709

8.090476

72.85

4.296013

8.146408

79.35

3.725127

9.141367

Piping and injectors system design

Improved runner performance


Real turbine

Improved
designs
88

Efficiency (%)

84

80

76
'Conventional' design
Optimum design
Optimum - Turgo adjusted

72
84

68
0

0.4

80

1.2

1.6

60
76

72

Net head (m)

Efficiency (%)

0.8

Load (Q / Qdesign)

Lower injector
Upper injector
FLS results

68
0

0.4

0.8

1.2

1.6

Load (Q / Qdesign)

FLS results

83

55

83

50

84,2

45
82

40

80

35
30
20

40

60

81

78

74

80

74

100

Flow rate (lt/sec)

76

120

140

Model turbine construction drawings

Model turbine computer views

Design of the casing and of the injectors


of the model of Turgo turbine

Runner fabrication

Separate fabrication of runner parts (blades, hub and shroud)


 Hub and Shroud with precision machining.
 Proper slots for blades fitting.
 Prototype blade constructed by composites using 3D-printing
 Use of plastic prototype to produce aluminium prototype
 Blades fabrication by bronze casting
 Internal blade surface polishing
 Final blade assembly with bronze welding
 Runner balancing
Features
More complex but more accurate construction methodology
Enhanced axial symmetry of the runner
Capability for particular mechanical manufacturing of the hydrodynamic
profile of each separate blade if necessary

Test rig construction / adaptation

Closure

HYDROACTION develops a methodology for


optimizing the design of hydro turbines up to 5 MW,
with regard to productivity and cost.
The standardisation and application of the methodology
will contribute to the development of cost-efficient,
tailor-made turbines for small hydro plants with
optimum performance.

Thank you!
www.hydroaction.org