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GOETZE (INDIA) LIMITED

INTRODUCTION TO GOETZE INDIA LIMITED


PATIALA
Bahadurgarh! The ancient fort with a history of 500 years now over looks one of the
most modern industries in the country manufacturing highly sophisticated automobile
components viz piston rings, cylinders, liners ,pistons, gudgeons pins situated app. 9
K.M. from the city of Patiala.
Escort was incorporated as a private limited company in Oct.'1944 at Lahore under the
name of Escorts (Agents) Pvt. Ltd. And the later converted into a public limited
company in Dec.'1959.The name was changed to Escorts in Jan'1960.H.P.Nanda founded
the company; the current C.M.D is Anil Nanda. An escort has spent the last few years
cleaning up its corporate structure, a process, which is now more or less complete. HP
Nanda of the Escort group in technical and financial collaboration with GOETZE
WORKE FRIEDRICH GOETZE AG, GERMANY promoted GIL in 1954, for making
piston rings and cylinder liners. In the 90's the company diversified into supermarkets,
oilseeds processing and leather garments for exports. GIL commands over half of the
market for piston rings and cylinder liners and has strong presence in the replacement
segment ,which constitutes two thirds of the total market for piston rings .With technical
inputs from its German partner ,GIL has started making high value rings, which fetch
higher margins. GIL also supplies rings to stationary Diesel engines and air/gas
compressor manufacturers. At one point, it had two separate company making tractors,
apart from myriad joint venture, which were making everything from auto components to
motorcycles to construction equipments. The motorcycle business has also been
rationalized and recast into separate profit centers. The pay-off should come through in
the coming years. The company will benefit from the extensive restructuring it has
carried out liberalized. Escorts, the company is presently into farm equipment
automobile components, railway ancillaries, etc. As a part of restructuring business
1994-1995, the company hived off certain divisions into separate entities-Escorts
communications and Escorts construction equipment, whereby; Escorts communications
and the manufacture of construction equipment by Escorts construction Equipment are

carrying on manufacture of EPABX systems. They are wholly owned subsidiaries of the
company. Other subsidiaries are Escorts JCB, escorts class, Escorts Automotive and
Escotel Mobile Communication. Most if its subsidiaries have foreign collaborations.
Escorts Tractors, a group of company, was merged with the company in 1995-1996.
A 50:50 joint venture-Escorts Yamaha Motor, with Yamaha Motor Company (Japan), has
been formed, for carrying on the two-wheeler business, which was being carried on by
Escorts prior to restructuring. During the year 1996-1997, Escorts hived off its piston
business to Escorts Mahle Ltd, A joint venture with its erstwhile technical collaborator
Mahle Group. The supermarket business was transferred to a new JV, Escorts Mahle Ltd.
The Delhi based tractor and motorcycle manufacturer, seems to have suffered a decline
in its sales and net profit in its last fiscal largely because of 70 day strike at its factory.
Given that this way was a one time incident, the company can be expected to show a sign
of revival after a year of stagnation in fiscal 1998-99.The companys overseas investment
plan is in view to explore the possibility of establishing manufacturing, trading, joint
ventures and other operation overseas. It has signed a MoU in February this year with
long manufacturing (NC) Inc., North Carolina, and USA for a joint venture company,
Long Agribusiness LLC, for manufacture assembly and sale of tractors.
An Escort is a creation of Nanda brothers with construction vision committed and
determined. The Escorts group under the dynamic leadership of Mr.Anil Nanda
(Chairman and MD) is a professionally managed multi product organization.
The Escorts was founded at Lahore in Pakistan on October 1944 as an Agency house
Escorts. The Escorts Agents Lodi came into being with a vision that was nurtured by
Mr.Hari Nanda, Mr.Yudi Nanda, Mr.C.K.Hazari and Mr.Ranjit Singh. In its infancy it
suffered severe blow because of partition of India in 1947.However,the founder members
with firm determination shifted their operations to New Delhi, the capital of our country
and in the short span steered the concern to a place of recognition, which is crystal clear
performance.
After partition in 1947, Nanda bros. continued the agency for electric products for
wasting house and in the mean time undertaking another agency for heavy machinery. In
1949, following the devaluation of a rupee the company found that their agency is not

working up to the mark. They found that their major irrigation and industrial projects
after independence.
Grabbing the opportunity-Escorts took an agency for heavy machinery from various
countries like USA, UK, Germany, Yugoslavia, Japan, and Poland. During this time
Escorts (agents) Ltd and Escorts (agriculture and machines Ltd) were formed.
Yudi Nanda looked after the second company, which imported and sold "Massey
Ferguson" tractors in India. With a fraternity of 22,000 employees, 20 manufacturing
plants and a turn over exceeding Rs.3, 000 crores , the Escorts group today runs among
the top industrial giants. In the country there was a persistent annual growth rate of 27%
of the past decade. It is the fifth largest engineering company among both public and
private sectors.
According to economic times Escorts is ranked among seventh in sales and fifth in profit
while amongst engineering companies. It is ranked fourth in sales and second in profits.
For four decades Mahle pistons and Goetze Rings are remained undisputed leaders in
OEM and after merit segments. The demand for tractors was fast increasing and the
company decided to set up tractors manufacturing plant at Faridabad. Next to follow
were motorcycles leading birth to Rajdoot. Both were runaway successes for two
reasons:
1. The company has adapted the technology to suit Indian conditions.
2. It has an efficient and well spread distribution system included service support
and availability of spares.
From then on all though the 1960's and 1970's, Escorts continue to diversify into core
sectors collaborating with global leaders and bringing into India the most sophisticated
and relevant technology.
GOETZE (I) LTD Patiala was incorporated in 1955 through collaboration with GOETZE
WORKS AG Germany. Manufacturing plant for piston ring was set up at Bahadurgarh,
Patiala, which delivered the Indian automobile industry its piston in 1957.It was started
in 1955 when Chief Minister of erstwhile Pepsu State Hon'ble Shri Brish Bhan laid its
foundation stone.
Licensed to manufacture three million piston rings with collaborations of M\s Goetze
Weite West Germany, one of the leading manufacturers of piston rings in the world, the

unit took rapid strides under capable leadership and achieved the capacity in short span
of three years after the machines were installed and commissioned.
The Escorts Mahle Ltd. Bahadurgarh is a joint venture of Escorts Ltd and Mahle,
KNORR BRERNSE Germany since 1-10-96.As a corollary, the management brought in
the manufacture of pistons progressively to enable the engine builders in the country to
get the latest advancement made in Europe as far as pistons were concerned. Over the
years Escorts has collaborated with many leading enterprises and engineering groups like
Goetze, Mahle, Suko etc. Piston assemblies engineered in this progressive unit in Punjab
became the first choice boomed. The demand for outstripped the production expansion
inevitable. By the year, the expansion scheme doubling the capacity of pistons and rings
were a complete shape, the employment potential too increased.
The Escorts limited has been generous unit to its employees by providing then with
financial incentives along with good pay scales. It has adopted various labour welfare
and social security measures for the betterment of working and living conditions of its
workers.
The Personal Department of this unit has left no stone unturned to take such steps with a
view to establish harmony between workers and management. The policies followed by
this unit are truly in line with the general policy of the Government of India followed in
public sector enterprises. The Escorts limited Bahadurgarh unit is paying full attention to
providing good working conditions to its employees for getting the best out for them in
the matter of production. The employees are allowed Dust allowance, washing
allowance, house rent allowance, conveyance allowance, local traveling expenses,
transport subsidy as per rules. A very interesting feature of this unit is that there are
various gift schemes for meeting and breaking the target/records of production.
Considering the needs of complete PISTON assembly ESCORTS LIMITED ventured
into manufacturing of pistons. In 1958 with the collaboration of M/S MAHLE Group,
GERMANY, which delivered the Indian automobile industry its PISTON in 1960.
ESCORTS entered in collaboration with M/S SUKO Group, GERMANY for piston pins
in1967 and manufacturing started in 1968.
To meet the increasing demand of market, in 1977 a parallel unit for manufacturing
pistons and piston pins was set up in BANGLORE.

Technological leadership unmatched with innovative thinking has made Escorts and
Goetze products to enjoy a high degree of customer confidence and is the first choice for
applications ranging from Bi wheeler to Battle Tanks.
From 1st October 1996, ESCORTS LIMITED entered into joint venture with M/S
MAHLE Group, GERMANY with the formation of a new company, ESCORTS MAHLE
LIMITED.
In 1998, GOETZE also became the part of Federal Mogul, a well known group of USA.
In June 2000, both ESCORTS MAHLE LIMITED and GOETZE have become QS 9000
certified companies.
In the year 1978,a parallel unit for manufacturing the piston rings was established in
BANGLORE.
In 1994, M/S GAG became a member of M/S T and N group of U.K, which has now
been acquired by M/S Federal Mogul global manufacturer of broad range of automobile
parts.
In 1996, M/S GIL has upgraded IS certificate from IS 9002 to 9001.In 2000, M/S GIL
achieved a prestigious QS 9000 Certification.
By virtue of streamlining quality system, developed of quality culture, adaptation of
latest technology and equipment and with continuous endeavor towards improvement,
Goetze products enjoy a high degree of customer confidence and are the first choice of
discerning for application ranging from BI-WHEELER to BATTLE TANKS.
Production boomed the demand for outstripped the production expansion became
inevitable. By the year 1966, the expansion scheme doubting the capacity of pistons and
rings was given a complete shape. The year 1968 saw the commencement of Gudgeon
pins.
Employing about 3500 people this progressive unit has an annual turn about Rs.80
Crores and is biggest of its kind in Punjab adding lusture of the emerging industrial
horizon of the country.
From then on all through the 1960s and 1970s Escorts continue to diversify into the
core sectors collaborating with global leaders and bringing into India first the most
sophisticated and relevant technology. Among the companys international collaboration

are Goetze, Mahle, Knoor, Bemse, Faun and class of Germany, Ford and Hughes
network system of USA, JCB of the UK,Yamaha of Japan and Dynapac of Sweden.
The variety of products being produced by Escorts includes tractors, motorcycles, cranes,
loaders, excavators, auto ancillaries (pistons, piston rings, piston pins, automotive shock
absorbers, telescopic front forks,Mc Pherson struts and carburetors, railway ancillaries
(double action hydraulic shock absorbers, center buffer coupler and brakes),harvest
combines, EPABX, key telephone system and road computers.
The Escorts rural development program under which has adopted over 60 villages
Escorts center at Faridabad and Escorts Heart Institute and Research center are crowning
examples of the company's belief that the welfare of business is intermixed with the
welfare of society.

PRODUCT RANGE
Piston rings
Cylinder liner
Light alloy products
Cylinder block
Outer tubes
Upper brackets
Cylinder heads

GIL was affected by the sluggish nature demand in the automotive sector through much
of financial year 99.Although sales turnover fell by a modest 0.2%, this was largely due

to increased turnover in the trading operations of the company's leather garment


business. The solvent oil extraction plant remained shut throughout the year due to
unavailability of operations on account of liberal imports. However the company did
well on the export front. They showed a sharp increase of 65% mainly due to leather
garment business.
Today GOETZE INDIA LIMITED is one of the greatest manufacturers of world class
piston, piston rings, sintered parts and cylinder liners for cars, jeeps, trucks, Bi-wheelers,
air compressors, LCV, HCV and locomotive engines etc.
QS 9000 certifies the production plants in Bangalore and Patiala and Bhiwadi plant is
certified by TS 1649 and are equipped with the most modern production facilities, the
plant is connected by rail and road routes.
GOETZE and ESCORTS Pistons are the most preferred brands of piston rings and
pistons of most engine manufacturers as well as after market.

INTRODUCTION TO ISO ASSURANCE SYSTEM


Primary objectives of any company is to produce a quality product or service which
should meet the well defined needs, satisfy customer expectations, conforms to
applicable standards, available at competitive prices and provides good profit to the
company. These can be achieved through an effective quality management (QMS)
A quality management system organizes overall activities of the company in such a way
that the technical, administrative and human efforts affecting the quality of its product or
services are under control. All such controls are oriented towards the reduction,
elimination and most importantly, prevention of quality deficiencies.
The quality management system has interrelated needs of the company as well as the
costumers .the Company needs to maintain desired quality of minimum by efficient
utilization of its technological, human and material resources. The customers needs to
have confidence in the capability of the company to deliver the desired quality product or
services at competitive cost and maintaining consistently.

The quality management system puts into practice the cost effectiveness of getting it
right the first and every time. The quality management starts with the identification of
customer needs and quality requirement it ends when the products have been placed in
the hands of the customers who remains satisfied.
The quality management system guides the coordinated actions of the people and
machines to achieve the quality objectives. The quality management system embraces all
activities all Activities of the organization, marketing, design and Engg. Purchasing,
production quality control, finance personnel, sales and after sales service.

BENEFITS OF QMS
As a result of well planned and installed QMS, following benefits accrue:1. Satisfied and loyal customers goods supplied to them and the services rendered
are always in accordance with their requirements.
2.

Reduction in operating or manufacturing costs, as wastage due to errors and non


conformity costs are reduced and efficiency increased.

3. Improved competitiveness and profitability of an organization.


4. Improved morale of employee, as they understand the business better, work
efficiently and are involved in their work environment by themselves.

WHAT IS ISO
ISO stands for international Organization for standardization is a world wide federation
of national standardization, having its head quarters at GENEVA in SWITZERLAND.
India is one of the founding members participating activities of ISO through Bureau of
Indian Standards, our national standard body.

OBJECTIVES OF ISO
The objectives of ISO are to promote development of quality standards and related
activities.

To facilitate international exchange goods and services.

To develop cooperation in the sphere of intellectual and economic activities.

STRUCTURE OF ISO 9000 SERIES


Based on the experience of quality experts of several organizations belonging to various
countries of the world a Quality Management System was evolved at the international
organization, which was finally accepted as an international standard ISO 9000 in the
year 1987.
The ISO standards comprises of six components as shown in figure 1, ISO 8402 covers
definitions of various concepts connected with quality system, such as quality, quality
policy and quality assurance etc.
BENEFITS OF ISO

Customer Satisfaction

Marketing Advantage

Confidence Creation

Production Improvement

ELEMENTS OF QS
a)

Management Responsibility

b)

Design Control

c)

Process Control

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d)

Inspection

e)

Handling Storage and Packaging

f)

Quality Recording Training

g)

Statistical Techniques

QUALITY ASSURANCE SYSTEM (ISO 9000) FOR GOETZE (INDIA)


LTD. BAHADURGARH PATIALA
Goetze INDIA Ltd. are two companies having a plant each situated within the
same premises of Bahadurgarh Patiala. They have a combined work force of
3100 employees and have been established here since 1954. The companies had
excellent track record with well-established products name MAHLE Pistons
and GOETZE Pistons Rings and Liners and SUKO Piston Pins. But the
recent policy of Government of India in liberalizing and rationalizing imports
with the flood-in of foreign Capital know how and technology has exposed many
Indian industries to a kind of international competition, which we have never
experienced before.
It is going to be buyers market through and through. The main problems Indian
Industries face in International competition is the QUALITY and RELIABILITY
of their products.
The response of this situation is by ESCORTS & GOETZE Patiala was to adopt
the International Quality Assurance System (ISO 9002) and obtain the certification as
basic building block for enhancing quality culture of company. To achieve this, training
for selected employees on the required documentation are procedures as under were
developed.

Quality Policy Formulation

11

Quality Manual Preparation

Procedures Manuals Preparation

Work Instruction Writing

The whole exercise was carried out in an organized manner. All activities related to
adopting the system were planned and carried out through various terms and advised by
our consultations and shown below.
1.

Management Review Committee

2.

Management Representatives

3.

Steering Committee

4.

Task Forces

5.

Training and Awareness Team

6.

Implementation Team

7.

Internal Audit Team

QS-9000
WHAT IS QS-9002
QS-9002 system is applicable for industries supplying parts to Automobile
Manufacturers. It defines the fundamentals of the big three Automobiles makes; General
Motors, Ford Motors, and Chrysler. The requirement applied to all internal and external
supplies of raw materials. Components, Subassemblies, Service Parts.
Above mentioned big three had started this system in 1984. These companies stated the
requirements, which vendors supplying parts to them were to comply with before they

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were authorized to execute the supplies. These systems became so popular other
Automobile Manufacturers also adopted them.

ADDITIONAL FEATURES / REQUIREMENTS OF QS-9000


(PART 1)
1)

APQP (ADVANCED PRODUCT QUALITY PLANNING):

This is the document, which is to be made in case of development of new


parts. This is ensured through multi disciplinary approach that the new
products are developed in minimum meeting all customer requirements.
It consists of 5 phases as below:
1. Plan and define
2. Product design and development
3. Process design and development
4. Product and process validation
5. Feed back assessment and corrective action
2) CONTROL PLAN
This document is called the mother document. Control plans are made for these
stages:
1)

PROTOTYPE CONTROL PLAN

2)

PRE LAUNCH

3)

PRODUCTION

PURPOSE OF CONTROL PLAN


To define characteristics of process/product
To define the control methods for process /product parameter.
To define the reaction plan during the problem.

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3) BUSINESS PLAN
This is an additional requirement of QS-9000. It is a controlled document. The contents
of the business plans are not subject to audit by the third party.
The goals and plans should be based on the analysis of competitive product and on bench
marking inside and outside the automotive industry and suppliers commodity. Business
plans are of two types:
1 short-term business plan (one to two years)
2 long-term business plan (three or more years)

4) CONTINOUS IMPROVEMENT
A continuous improvement philosophy should be fully deployed through the suppliers
organizations. Continuous improvement is an exercise to improve continuously after
achieving a set target. Some of the areas where continuous improvement may be
employed are:
*Unscheduled machine down time
*Waste of labour and materials
*Excessive variation
*Cost of poor quality
For variable data continuous improvement must lead to reduction of variation around the
target values for all the characteristics .for attribute data it means continuous perfection
of the process to make the product. Control charts, ppm-analysis, bench marking and
mistake proofing are some of the technique used for continuous improvement.

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5-S ACTIVITY NORMS


5-S Mission Statement:
To maintain house keeping of the highest standards through training, development &
involving all personnel working in the plant.

LOGIC BEHIND 5-S PRACTISE:


An organized workplace which is maintained neat &clean is done as per standardized
work practices & procedures in the disciplined manner, is considered a basic requirement
for producing high quality products & services. 5-S is also considered as an essential first
step in employee involvement & improvement TQM in an organization.

5-S
1) SIERI: - It means Sorting and lays emphasis on the removal of

the unnecessary

items for the workshop.


2) SETION: - It means Systematic Arrangement and lays emphasis on putting of all
necessary items in the proper place.
3) SEISO: - It means Complete Cleaning and lays emphasis on cleaning of every
part/area of the workshop.
4) SEIKETSU: - It means High Standard of house keeping and work place at all times
and lay emphasis on the maintenance and cleanliness and orderliness at the workplace.
5) SHITSUKE: - It means self discipline attitude for good housekeeping and lays
emphasis on the maintenance of high standard of housekeeping through self discipline.

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HISTORY / MILESTONE
Incorporated as a JV with GOETZE WERKE, Patiala

1954

Ring & Liner production

1957

Piston production (MAHLE)

1958

Cast Iron / Forged Piston production started

1960

Pins / Ring Carrier production started

1968

Piston / Ring production started

1977

Steel Rings / Large Bore Locomotive Piston

1982

Light Alloy products

1985

Auto thermic Pistons production

1989

Moly Coated / Ika / Chrome Oil Rings

1990

Large Bore Rings / Pistons for Battle Tanks

1992

Composite Pistons / New Ring Foundry

1994

ISO-9001 Certification

1994

Joint venture with M/S Mahle Germany

1996

GOETZE TP (INDIA) Ltd set up for manufacturing of steel rings

1997

QS-9000 Certification

1999

QS-9000 Certification

2000

Merger of FederalMogul Sintered products Ltd. for manufacture


Of Sintered Parts

2000

Merger of ESCORTS Piston Ltd with GOETZE (INDIA) Ltd.

2003

Certification for QS-14001 and TS 16949 (Target)

2004

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Organization Chart

C h a irm a n
E x ec u tiv e
D ire c to r
M a rk e tin g

P la n t
S erv ic es

C y lin d e r
L in e r
F o u n d ry

C y lin d er
L in er
M a c h in e
Shop

R in g
F o u n d ry
&
G IL L a b

R in g
M a c h in e
Shop

H .O .
M a teria ls
F in a n c e
&
S to re s

P la n t
C h ief

M a n u fa c tu rin g

L ig h t In sp ec tio n
A llo y
R in g s
F o u n d ry
&
C y l. L in e rs

17

H .O .
F in a n c e
I.Q .C ,
LAF &
T ool
R oom
Q .C
&
I.E .

P e rs o n n el
&
T ra in in g

F in is h
A rtic les
S to re s

P u rc h a s e
P a tia la
P la n t

In c o m in g
In s p e c tio n

P P C T ec h a n ic a l
D ep a rt. D ep a rt.

ORGANISATIONAL OBJECTIVES
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES
The company has laid down for itself goal of improving the value to the customers
through maintaining the leadership in following categories: Market share: to maintain its status as brand leaders in the company for pistons and
piston rings.
Product development: to develop pistons, piston rings and piston pins for all new
applications as identified.
Customer satisfaction: it shall strive to achieve customer satisfaction rating more than
90%.
Technical requirements: products are manufactured as per specification based on
DIN/JIS.IS.MAHLE NORMS/SUKO NORMS as also against
customer specific requirements.
Quality: to improve quality consistently through quality assurance and process control.
Protection and enhancement of physical resources of society:
Delivery to strive to achieve 100% on time.
a) To create and distribute the products.
b) To satisfy personal objectives of the members of the organization as

Profit owners.

Salaries and other compensation for other objectives.

Wages and other compensation for the employees.

Physical income for all the including :

Pride in work

Security

Recognition

Acceptance

c) To meet community and social obligations.

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SECONDARY OBJECTIVES

To create and distribute products.

To earn profit.

Protection and security to its workers.

Safety for its workers.

To meet social obligations.

Economy of operations by lowering cost.

Ensure a good quality system.

Training and development of existing workforce.

To satisfy customers.

Better management.

Better human relations.

Economy of operation in meeting the primary objectives.

Effectiveness of operation in meeting the primary objectives.

INTRODUCTION TO VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS


SECURITY WING:
To keep safe the property of the company from thefts and fire and also check the entry of
the unauthorized persons to avoid any miss-happening in factory premises.

PERSONAL DEPARTMENT:
This department is to maintain personal files of all workmen up to personal engineer
level, about their interest in work, behavior and obedience. This department also deals
with labour court cases. The personal department is divided into following sections:

Time Office

Training and Development

Administrative

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LOCAL PURCHASE CELL:


This department is to purchase item from the local market against purchase requisition to
meet day to day requirement of most urgently needed items of all the departments. In
case of any emergency during machinery breakdown, this department is to act swiftly to
minimize breakdown.

IN COMING INSEPCTION:
Any thing purchased from market or directly received from supplier is subjected to 100%
inspection as per the prescribed norms. Defective material is sent back to supplier.

MATERIAL STORE:
This is the place where all the consumables items purchased or directly supplied by the
suppliers are stored in a systematic way on the racks. All racks are properly categorized.
This department receives purchase requisition from the department and pass on to the
purchase cell for action.

FINANCE DEPARTMENT:
This department is to maintain all types of account books concerning with finance and to
disburse salary to the workmen, junior staff and to release payments to the outside
parties. There is another cell with in this department, which works out the costing data of
the product that o he piston pins, rings and informs the marketing department for the
finalization of the products price with the customers.

TIME OFFICE:
To record the entry and departure of the workers and other junior staff members by
punching their attendance cards also maintain their leave records.

ADMINISTRATION:
The employees and manager including the supervisors are well at Goetze India Limited
The employees are given an employees identification no (EIC) on the basis of which
they are issued identity cards. This follows the cards punching system for timing and
attendance recording. All employees right from the workers to the chief general manager

20

have to get their cards punched in on arrival out on departure. Time office maintains all
attendance records with the help of electronic data processing unit.

FINANCIAL STATUS
Total turnover of the company is 90 crores per annum. Cost of production is 65-70 crores
The net profit 2-3 crores which is further invested. The company also gives credit sales.
All weekly requirements are requested to the head office at Faridabad and the payment
sought. The company also relies on loans from State Bank of Patiala.

MAJOR CUSTOMERS OF GOETZE


PASSENGER CARS AND JEEPS:
Hindustan Motors
Mahindra and Mahindra
Fiat India Limited
Monto Motors

BI WHEELERS:
Escorts Yahama Motor Ltd
Escorts Automobiles Ltd
Bajaj Auto Ltd
Kinetic Engg. Ltd
TVS Suzuki Ltd
Majestic Auto Ltd
Scooters India Ltd
Idea Java (I) Ltd
Royal Enfield
LML Ltd

21

TRACTORS:
Mahindra and Mahindra Ltd
Eicher Tractor Ltd
Escorts Ltd
Escorts Ltd (Farmtrack division)
HMT Ltd
Swaraj Engines Ltd
International Tractors Ltd
Standard Tractors Ltd
New Holand Ltd
VST Tillers Ltd
Harayana tractors

COMMERCIAL VEHICLES:
Telco
Swaraj Majda Ltd
San Engg. and Locomotives
Tata Cummins

STATIONARY ENGINES:
Kirloskar Engines Ltd
Ruston Oil engines Ltd
Greaves Lombardine Ltd
Indian Railways
Southern Agro Engines Pvt. Ltd
P M Diesels
Patel Field Marshal
L & T Komatsu Ltd

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MAIN COMPETITORS

India piston

Usha piston

Menon piston

Sriram pistons

Pargeet Circle

The company considers its competitors as friends, which are motivating factors for their
continuous improvement .

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
Goetze is genuinely concerned about clean environment proudly shares its responsibility
towards its employees, the society and the country on the whole. In order to provide the
healthy and the pollution free environment it has taken the following measures:

Smoke precipitators

Effluent Treatment Plants

Plantation Programs etc.

The group takes interest in rural development and maintaining and providing the
facilities for good health especially for its workers.
The group has set up Goetze Medical Center as well as Goetze health institute and the
Research Center at Delhi to provide the treatment on re-imbursement and direct billing
basis.

EMPLOYEES BACKGROUND
Most of the employees belong to the neighboring villages and cities of Patiala. The
company-spoken language is Punjabi. The educational qualification ranges from
illiterates to graduates from industrial training institutes and engineers. The plant has no
female employee on its payroll. Most of the employee who joins the company stay with
them full life the reason being the Escorts is among the leading paymasters in terms of
pay prerequisite and welfare measures.

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SOCIAL ACTIVITIES
Besides, being engaged in industrial activities the group is fully aware of its
environmental and social responsibilities. To keep the environment healthy, several
measures like precipitators, effluent treatment plant and plantation program etc. have
been adopted.
All along the course of its growth, Escorts has remained conscious of its commitment
towards the welfare of the society in general and the community and the environment in
which it operates in particular.
It is the people, rather than the machines that make an organization successful. Escorts
acknowledge to its people is reflected in the care it takes to nurture their skills and
talents, offering them growing and prospectus careers, not mere jobs. Escorts
commitment to its people goes beyond and individual and extends to their families and
their communities well being it strives to meet its social obligations by setting up:

The Escorts institute of farm mechanization.

Rs.1.5 crore medical center, which provides the most advanced diagnostic
medicine in South East Asia.

The rural development program, wherein over 60 villages are being helped to
achieve complete self-sufficiency.

The Rs.1.5 crore Escorts heart institute and research center the largest of its kind
India are growing examples of the companys belief that the welfare of business
is intertwined with the welfare of society.

RECENT ACHIEVEMENTS
Escorts group participated in the 13th Indian Engineering Trade Fair, which was
inaugurated on February 11, 1999 by Mr.Krishan Kant, Vice President of India.
The chairman Mr.Rajan Nanda, presented service awards to 16 senior executives of the
group on March 29, 1999.
A 5 year agreement was signed between Escorts limited (International Business Division
IBD) and china national coal lining engineering equipment import/export co. Ltd.

24

At state level function, Goetze India Limited, Patiala given the first prize for the lowest
frequency rate of accidents.

MOMENTS OF PRIDE

1965-Indo Pak war 2000 families rehabilitated.

1984- Delhi Riots Escorts Relief and rehabilitation trusts set up and Rs.20 lac
were donated.90 Gurudwaras and 8 schools were renovated.

1984-Militancy era management stood by Punjabis at no stage through to shift


Plant outside Punjab.

1994-Achieved ISO 9002 certification.

1996-Upgraded to ISO 9001.

1999-startring of exercise of QS 9000 certification.

2000-got QS-9000 certification.

25

TRAINING REPORT

GOETZE PIN PLANT

26

INTRODUCTION TO PIN PLANT


Pin plant was setup with German collaboration in 1967 and began its production in 1968.
It is a separate unit that manufactures gudgeon pins of various sizes for different makes
of piston being produced in Mahle plant. A gudgeon pin is in shape of a small cylindrical
bar. It is an important part of piston assembly as it is linked to the connecting rod which
is further connected to connected shaft and helps transferring piston motion to crank
shaft.
The plant produced more than two and half lakh pins per month. The pins being
produced in this plant are highly accurate in terms of dimensional tolerance and possess
high finish as they are made on very accurate machines. Gudgeon pins manufactured by
escorts are in accordance with DIN 73126 both for dimensional as well as heat treatment
Indian standard IS: 6740-1025 for gudgeon pins has been recently introduced.

DESIGN OF PISTON PIN


As a result of oscillation movements of the piston, pin is subjected to high loads, the
effect of gas and inertia forces leads to pressure loads on pin surface due to which the pin
is subjected to bending, ovalisation and shear stress. For this, the main requirement is
that piston should be and as light as possible. To control ovalisation, increasing the wall
thickness, which however will increase the gudgeon pin weight, can increase rigidity.
The surface hardness of pin should not fall below 56 HRC in order to obtain the good
surface and wear properties.
On the other hand, excessive hardness can results in lack of stability of its volume.
Hardening cracks both on outside & inside and also coarse grain formation resulting

27

from improper heat treatment reduces the fatigue strength. To ensure high accuracy
quality and geometric accuracy, the roughness must be controlled.

IMPORTANT FEATURES OF GUDGEON PIN

Low weight, in order to limit the inertia forces.

The greatest possible rigidity must be adopted, so that overstressing can be


avoided.

Sufficient strength and toughness so that high loads can be tolerated without
damage.

High surface quality and geometrical accuracy for optimal fit.


Various types of pins produced for different makes of piston are:

1. AMBASSADOR
2. BAJAJ-100 CC
3. BAJAJ-150 CC
4. EICHER
5. ESCORTS
6. FORD
7. HERO PUCH
8. MARUTI-800
9. PEUGEOT
10. PARTAP-284
11. RAJDOOT
12. SUNNY
13. TATA-90 DIA, 92 DIA, 97 DIA
14. VESPA-150 NV
15. YAMAHA RX-100

The various sections of pin plant are:


1. Raw material store
2. Machine shop
3. Heat treatment

28

4. Final inspection
5. Fine measurement room

Description of various sections of Pin Plant


RAW MATERIAL STORE
It contains the raw material in the form of rods and pipes with finished bor. Pipes
material is being imported from Japan in the form of long pipes with finished bore of
required dimensions. All the rods and pipes are arranged on long stands according to
their diameters. The different sets are color coded for easy identification.

COMPOSITION OF RAW MATERIAL


For manufacturing of piston pins specially alloy steels are being used possessing high
purity with fine grain structure. Fine grain structures of alloy steel contribute to higher
impact resistance, more strength and longer service life. Alloys steel namely 15 Cr3 &
15 Cr Ni6 are being used as raw material. 15 Cr Ni6 are harder than 15 Cr3as
formal contains 1.4%-1.7% Nickel while later has no Nickel. The other alloying
elements namely carbon, silicon, manganese, phosphorous, sulphur are similar in
chemical composition. 15 Cr3 is known as L material and it is water quenched where
as 15 Cr Ni6 is known as Y material and it is oil quenched. But presently new
material is 17 Cr3 is used and known as A material. It is also water-quenching
material.

MACHINE SHOP
It is the main section in which the machining of pins is done in two stages i.e. first
series of operations mainly the rough ones are carried out before heat treatment.
Accordingly the shop has been divided into two lines:

Rough line

29

Finish line

1. ROUGH LINE
In rough line the following operations are carried out:
a) Sawing
b) Pre rough grinding
c) Drilling
d) Boring
e) Facing & chamfering
f) Stamping
g) Intermediate inspection

a) SAWING:
Raw material in three forms of pipes and rods is brought to sawing machine. These long
rods and pipes are cut to small pieces according to the size of pin. There are two kinds of
sawing machines in the shop are:

Heller Sawing machine (German make)

Amada Sawing Machine (Japanese make)

The difference between the two machines is that on Amada a number of rods can be
cut together depending upon the diameter. Have the rod or pipes to be cut while Heller
only one or two rods can be cut together. The difference between the two is due to the
design of the two machines; the cutting forces involved on the Amada are less than on
the Heller.
b) PRE ROUGH GRINDING:
Pre rough grinding of pins is done on centreless grinder to remove the burr that
remains on the face edges after sawing. A cut of 0.1 mm is applied on the pin pre
rough grinding and it accounts for any variations in the diameter of rods.

30

The grinder consists of two rollers, one of which is coated with grinding material and
other one has normal surface and act as supporting surface. The pins are fed between
rollers and feed adjusted, a constant supply of cutting oil is there throughout machining
process.

c) DRILLING:
Before drilling operation, centering of rod pieces is done on lathe after centering pins are
carried to vertical machine. Pins are clamped in pneumatic chucks and the taper shank
drill is moved over it to the required length. A drilling is done in two steps. Firstly, one
end of the pin is drill to half of the length of pin, after that the pin is inverted and other
end is drilled to second half of the length. This is done to avoid occurrence of any taper
in the hole drilled.
GUN DRILLING:

Gun barrel drilling machine is hydraulically operated and runs two or more spindles with
motor. The machine can drill a precise hole of 2 mm diameter upto 1mm lengths. Collet
chucks are provided for clamping pins in correct position. The working principle of
barrel is that the tool rotating at high speed with great flow of lubrication oil does the
necessary operations.
There are two gun barrel machines in pin plant, one is producing two pins at one time
and other is producing four pins at a time. In barrel the pins are clamped with collet
chucks, a tungsten carbide tip tool is used for drilling. The tool is imported from
Germany. The tool is having two holes that are provided for passage of lubricating oil.
This oil transport chips away at the high rate along with the V-shaped flute.
Rotating speed of tool is 2400 rpm having material removing rate 180mm/min. the flow
of lubricating oil is 200 litres/min. lubricating oil is special oil named oil cut of castrol.
d) ROUGH & FINISH BORING:
Boring of pins is done in two steps, first rough boring and then finish boring for better
finish. The tool holder contains the boring tool and the small hole through which
compressed air is passed to push out the chips from the bore. The cut employed is larger

31

in case of rough boring around 1.8 mm & smaller in case of finish boring i.e. 0.2 mm.
The Bore is checked using plug gauge.

e) FACING AND CHAMFERING:


Facing and chamfering of pins is done on short lathes mounted with specially designed
fixtures. Both facing and chamfering tools can be loaded. The chamfering tool is placed
at some angle to the facing tool and move in inwards direction; the adjustment of
chamfering is done by limit. The facing tool moves in downward direction arising
handle.
f) STAMPING:
After facing and chamfering, stamping is done on all pins before passing them to next
stage. The stamping is done for easy identification of the material of the pins. The pins
made of 15 Cr 3 are marked as L and the pins made 15 Cr Ni 6 are marked as Y.
This is done because while tempering Y pins are oil quenched and L pins are water
quenched. Besides this the company logo, month, year of manufacturing is also stamped
on all the pins i.e. if pin is stamped as EPL then E stands for Escorts, P stands for
Patiala, L stands for 15Cr 3material.
g) INTERMEDIATE INSPECTION:
This is the last stage of soft line. The purpose of intermediate inspection is to inspect the
pins before sending them to heat treatment shop. The main parameters that are checked
in this stage are:
Bore size checking
Total length checking
Checking of bore finish, chamfering, stamping.
Bore size checked using a plug gauge depending up on the tolerance of bore size of that
particular makes. The tight pins are reworked and lose pins are scraped. The length of the

32

pin is checked on dial gauge and should fall within the required range. The bore should
be free from straight-line vibration, roughness and spiral etc.

2. FINISH LINE:
After heat treatment of pins, pins are brought in finish line for finishing operation. In this
line, the finish operations are done to a very accuracy and the tolerance ranges usually +2
microns to -2 microns. The sequence of operations being done in finish line is:
BHT Grinding
Hardness testing
Length grinding
Centreless grinding
Rounding
Super finishing
BHT GRINDING:
Pins received from heat treatment shop have got a layer of oil on the outer surface.
Grinding of pins is done to remove that layer before hardness testing, otherwise this layer
may effect the hardness checking due to presence of impurity in it in form of dust
particle or oil etc. These impurities may damage the diamond tool and force extra load.
The cut employed on BHT Grinder is 0.1 mm.
HARDNESS TESTING:
Hardness testing of pins is done to check if hardness of pins confirms to required
specification. Hardness testing of pins done in M/C shop is 100% on Rockwell hardness
testing machine. The hardness range of pins is from 58 65 HRC for bigger diameter
and for small pins like Maruti and Moped etc. the hardness range is 80 83 HRC. The
non-conforming pins are sent to heat treatment shop again.
LENGTH GRINDING:

33

Length grinding of pins is done after hardness testing of pins. Length grinding is done to
make the length of pins to its final finish length size. After this operation pin acquires its
total length and hence it is a critical operation. The operation is done on longitudinal
grinder.
CENTRELESS GRINDING:
Centreless grinding done in pin plant is through feed type. In this grinding pin is made
to pass through two rollers; one is grinding wheel and other supporting wheel. A work
rest is provided between the rollers; which supports the pin. The two rollers are inclined
at an angle to each other so as to provide necessary force that makes the pins to pass
through the two.
Centreless grinding done in pin plant is done in three stages at different grinders to
produce accurate and high quality finished product. Firstly grinding is done before
rounding where 200 microns oversize is left to be removing after rounding operation.
After rounding pins are brought at KOYO centreless grinding machine where a cut of
150 170 microns is applied but finish is still quite high. After this pins are brought at
cenreless grinder where final finish grinding is done before super finishing. The grinder
is so accurate that an increase or decrease of cut even by half a micron can be done. The
pins machined are checked on the dial gauges to see whether the outer diameter
dimension falls within the required tolerance limit.
ROUNDING:
In rounding both the face edges of pins are rounded using rounding tool. Rounding is
done for easy transportation of pins and to ensure that edges are not damaged while the
pin is fitted inside the piston bore. Rounding is done on short lathe. Clamping
mechanism used is the lever operated mechanism. When lever is moved from initial
position on starting the machine pin get clamped in chuck due to powerful spring action.
SUPER FINISHING:
Super finishing of the pins is the final finishing operations done for better surface finish
of gudgeon pins. Super finishing done so that pins are free from any roughness, grinding
marks and the surface acquires a smooth and shining texture.
The machine being used for this purpose is super finishing machine calls supfina and
nozzle super finishing machines. These machines make use of 6-8 honing stones fitted in

34

the series on each machine, the grade of fitness goes increasing from first to last stone.
The pins are put in the carrier and there is continuous feed of pins between the two
rollers rotating in opposite direction under continuous supply of oil. The honing tools are
hydraulically operated with compressed air.

INPECTION:
In inspection section, the quality of pins is checked whether they are accepted or
rejected. In the inspection not only the dimensional inspection is done but before the
magnetic particle testing is also done to check crack if any produced during operation.
The good, scrap, rework able pins are sort out. Scrap pins are sent to foundry for casting
purposes.
MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING:
This test is done to check whether any cracks on the surface of pins. Firstly to check the
cracks the pins are magnetized so as local magnetic poles are created wherever crack is
present. Now kerosene oil mixed with fluorescent powder (magna flux) is sprayed over
the pins, the Ferro magnetic particle stick to the crack portion. Now these can be
visualized under ultra violet rays. The crack appears to be yellow in ultra violet rays.
But due to magnetizing of pins internal stresses will be produced. To relieve stresses the
pins are to be demagnetized.
VISUAL INSPECTION OF FACE AND BORE:
Visual inspection of face and bore is done by naked eye under bright light. Defects like
porosity, grinding marks, slag of line etc. are checked. Pins are checked properly for
facing, chamfering, outside rounding and stamping.
OUTSIDE DIAMETER CHECKING:
The outside diameter is checked using mechanical comparator having least count of 0.2
mm; this is very precise and sensitive instrument.
AIR GAUGE CHECKING:

35

This method is used for checking outside diameter of small pins. It makes used of
compressed air for its working. In air gauge instrument different fixtures are used for
different diameters of pin. Air gauge consist of square which can be adjusted both for
positive and negative tolerance to an accuracy of 1 micron. Compressed air is passed
through the mixture ring having three holes at 120 angle and pin is pushed inside the
ring. As the air comes in contact with the pin, the needle moves on the square and shows
the exact reading.

FINE MEASUREMENT ROOM:


This is the last stage of manufacturing of pin. It is also comes under the inspection and
quality control department. It is equipped with sophisticated surface roughness
measuring instrument called Pertho meter. This room is also called calibration room as
in this room all the instrument like vernier caliper; dial gauges etc. are being used. This
section has great importance as it helps maintaining the proper quality control with
regular and accurate calibration of the entire instrument under use by production and
quality control department.
HEAT TREATMENT:
Heat treatment department is one of the most important department of pin plant.
Heat treatment is an operation or combination of operations involving the heat and
cooling of metal or alloy when in solid form to obtain certain desirable properties.
The function of heat treatment shop is to heat the pins to get the required hardness
level as per the specification. Better heat treatments of pin not only ensure good
carburising and proper outside hardness for wear resistance but strict control on core
hardness i.e. hardness in the inner zone and good structure is also achieved. Higher
core hardness makes the pin brittle liable to break in the engine, while lesser hardness
in core causes tendency for bending or becoming oval in shape. During heat
treatment it is ensured that certain undesirable metallurgical structures such as ferrite,
carbide are not present in the core and the case. Heat treatment of pins consists of
four basic processes.

36

Each of these processes improves the properties of pin separately.


The above-mentioned processes are described in details as below:
CARBURISING:
Carburising is a process of introduction carbon into a solid ferrous alloy or metal by
heating the metal or an alloy below its melting point in contact with carbonaceous
solids, liquids or gases. It is done to have a certain depth of carbon deposit on inside
and outside of the pins. This is the most widely used process for surface hardening of
steels. It is carried on low carbon steels, which contain 0.10% to 0.25% carbon and
are known as carburising steels. The depth of carbon layers differs from pin to pin
depending upon the makes and specifications provided. The process of carburising is
conducted by heating the pins in a medium of organic gases i.e. hydrocarbon gases in
a special furnace called the Retort. The Retort is electrically heated with the help of
high resistance elements to which thermocouple are attached for proper maintenance
of the required temperature. Carbon is deposited on inside and outside of the pins by
burning of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and methane. Methane and other
hydrocarbons are fed into the furnace in liquid form, which vaporize under high
temperature to form the gases, which is then carburised, the charge. The principal
reaction provided for the carburising of pins in dissociation of carbon monoxide and
methane.
2CO

CO2 + C

CH4

2H2 + C

Once the charge is fed into the furnace and furnace is switched on and half hour
waiting time is given so that the required temperature approx. 700C is reached. After
which carburising fluid is fed at the rate of 0.21/ hr. for 4 to 5 hours. After
carburising time is over, the charge is taken out with the help of electric crane and
placed in the cooling retort.
The layer of carbon is checked by the destructive test in which one pin is picked up
from the charge and broken with the hydraulic hammer. Then one of the pieces of the
broken pin is picked and carbon layer is checked visually with the help of an

37

eyepiece. The eyepiece is a magnifying lens of magnification 10x with the scale
attached to it. Some pins make require carbon on outside surface while some other
requires both on inside and outside surfaces. Cross pins are used so that the pin could
have inside depth. Incase no inside depth is required the cones are put at the bottom
of the bar and at the top of the bar. Carburising of a pin depends upon the following
factors:

Carburising

Temperature of furnace

Heating time

CARBURISING FURNACE:
The process of carburising is being done using pit type furnace to which carburising fluid
CH4 and other hydrocarbons are fed. The pit type carburising furnace consists of two
halves. The upper half is called lid and the lower half is called retort. The lid consists
of a motor to which a bar is put containing the pin of make that is being carburised for
checking depth during production.
The retort consists of a guide drum the six corners of the span on which match with the
six corners of the span on which large is loaded. The top of the retort and there is no
leakage. The carburising furnace has got 18 elements. Heating section-1 indicates the
temperature of 9 elements and heating section-2 indicates the temperature of other 9
elements. The temperature of heating section-2 is always kept less than hating section-1
so that the carburising depth from top to bottom is same and there is little variation in
depth. The carburising fluid is fed to the furnace trough an inlet liquid pipe at the top of
the lid. Water is circulated so as to cool down the bearings of the shafts and the excess
water flows out from the outlet liquid pipe.
HARDENING:
Hardening is a process of increasing the hardness of a metal or an alloy by suitable
treatment usually heating above the critical temperature range and cooling by quenching.

38

It is done to in crease the hardness of the pins. The hardness process consist of heating of
the pins to a temperature of about 800C- 880C and then quenching is at a rate greater
than critical cooling rate such that the austenite structure presents at 800C - 880C
converts at martensite microstructure upon quenching.
Hardening of pins is being done by heating the pins in a salt bath containing regenerator,
hardening salts and graphite. The pins to be hardened are put in hangers after wiring
them depending upon their material are quenched in salt water. Salt water contains 10% 15% NaCl as this reduces the tendency of the formation of soft spots on the material.
Quenching oils are used for providing slower cooling rate. Sodium cyanide is used to
prevent decarburising. Graphite is spread on to the salt bath so that evaporation of
cyanide does not take place. After hardening operation a sample is picked up from a lot
and its outside hardness and core strength are checked in the HT lab. The microstructure
is also checked under microscope to check whether the martensite structure has been
achieved or not.
TEMPERING:
After the hardening operation the pins are first cleaned with caustic soda before starting
the tempering operation. Only those pins that are oil quenched are cleaned caustic soda.
The pins are dipped in the caustic soda for half an hour and then washed under running
water. After this the tempering of pins is done.
Tempering of pins, in which the pins arte heated to about 180C - 200C, follows
hardening. The purpose of tempering is;

To remove the internal stresses and strain developed during quenching.

To improve ductility and toughness.

To convert the martensite structure into tempered martensite.

The pins are being tempered using the tempering furnace. Tempering is done at 180C 200C and heating time is maintained for 1.5 2 hours. Tempering is the final stage of
heat treatment process of the pins. After tempering, the pins are cleaned before
machining.
CLEANING:

39

Cleaning of pins is necessary to remove all the impurities from the outer space and bore
of the pin. Cleaning of pins is done to improve their quality by carrying out the following
steps:

Acid cleaning

Cleaning in flowing water

Cleaning in cutting oil

The pins firstly cleaned in the acid. The acid used for this purpose is HCL having
percentage of about 10% - 15% by weight. The purpose of acid cleaning is to remove the
cyanide deposited on the pins in the hardening operation. In case the pins quenched in oil
and undergone caustic soda cleaning, the oily layer deposited on the pin also gets
removed. Two separate tanks are used for pins quenched in oil and in water, but the
concentration of the acid in both the tanks is nearly same. The pins quenched in water are
cleaned in acid for 15 minutes and those in oil for 20 minutes.
After cleaning in HCL, the pins are cleaned in flowing water by using two flowing water
tanks. The pins cleaned in flowing water after having done their acid cleaning are prone
to rusting; dipping the pins in cutting oil tank prevents this. The pins are then stacked in
trolley and sent for further processing.

40

41

14

15

13

12

10

11

SP C

16

SP C

17

18

20

19

FAS

SP C

STORAGE

INSP ECTION

TRANSP ORTATION

OP ERATION

BLANK STORAGE

CARBURISING

15

KOYO ROUGH
GRINDING

AMANDA SAWING

HARDENING ON
SALT BATHS

16

KOYO P RE-FINISH
GRINDING

17

ROUNDING

18

4B FINISH GRINDING

19

SUP ER FINISHING

4A BHT GRINDING
MACHINE

20

FINAL INSP ECTION

INSP ECTION

SP C

STATISTICAL P ROCESS
CONTROL

LENGTH GRINDING
ON LG

FAS

FINISH ARTICLES STORE

4A P RE-ROUGH
GRINDING

10

GUN DRILL
11

FACING &
CHAMFERING
SHORT LATHES
12

ACID CLEANING
& CUTTING OIL
DIP P ING

HYDRAULIC
STAMP ING
13

TEMP ERING &


LAB CHECKING

INTERMEDIATE
INSP ECTION
14

42HARDNESS TESTING

12

11

10

SP C

13

SP C

14

15

16

17

SP C

STORAGE

INSP ECTION

TRANSP ORTATION

BLANK STORAGE

OUTSOURCING

OP ERATION

ACID CLEANING &


CUTTING OIL DIP P ING

15

4 B FINISH
GRINDING

4 A BHT GRINDING
MACHINE

16

SUP ER
FINISHING

17

FINAL
INSP ECTION

SP C

STATISTICAL P ROCESS
CONTROL

FAS

FINISH ARTICLES STORE

HYDRAULIC
STAMP ING
10

INSP ECTION
HARDNESS TESTING

11

LENGTH GRINDING
ON LG / S.G

INTERMEDIATE
INSP ECTION

CARBURISING
12

FAS

HARDENING IN
SALT BATHS

13

TEMP ERING & LAB


CHECKING

14

KOYO ROUGH
GRINDING

KOYO P RE-FINISH
GRINDING

43

ROUNDING

PROCESS FLOW CHART FOR THE PISTON PIN MADE FROM SOLID BAR-OUTSOURCING

SP C

13

12

11

10

SP C

14

15

16

18

17

SP C

STORAGE

INSP ECTION

TRANSP ORTATION

TEMPERING & LAB


CHECKING

15

ROUNDING & CHAMFERING


OF CORNERS

CLEANING IN
CAUSTIC SODA

16

4 B FINISH
GRINDING

10

BB-10 BHT
GRINDING

17

SUP ER
FINISHING

FACING &
CHAMFERING
SHORT LATHES

11

INSP ECTION
HARDNESS TESTING

18

FINAL INSPECTION

HYDRAULIC
STAMP ING

12

LENGTH GRINDING
ON LG / S.G

SP C

STATISTICAL P ROCESS
CONTROL

P IN CLEANING &
STACKING

13

HMT ROUGH
GRINDING

FAS

FINISH ARTICLES STORE

BLANK STORAGE

AMANDA SAWING

OP ERATION

FAS

BB-10 P RE-ROUGH
GRINDING

CARBURISING &
HARDENING ON
S.Q.F.

14

44

HMT P RE-FINISH
GRINDING

PROJECT - 1
PROJECT: Scrap reduction in various operations performed on
gudgeon pin (piston pin) during its machining.

PROJECT OBJECTIVE: To find factors which increases scrap and to


reduce them.
PROJECT AREA: GOETZE PIN PLANT

PROJECT COMMENCED ON: 27-8-2005

PROJECT COMPLETED ON: 30-10-2005

PROJECT DONE UNDER KIND CONTROL OF:

45

Sh. S. S. SHARMA
PRODUCTION MANAGER
GOETZE PIN PLANT

STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL


Definition:
Statistical process control is methodology using control charts for assisting operators,
supervisors, and managers to monitor the output from a process to identify and to
eliminate the special cause of variations. SPC is a proven technique for reducing scrap
and rework, thus increasing productivity. It also provides the basis for determining the
process capability and predicting the yield from a process. In many industries, suppliers
are required to provide evidence of statistical process control to their customers.
Survivors in highly competitive markets will be those firms that can demonstrate their
quality capability.

The need for SPC:


There are two basic reasons for using SPC: First SPC allows us to determine when to
take action to adjust a process that has fallen out of control. Second, SPC tells us when to
leave the process alone. Knowing when to take action on a process is an important step
in defect prevention and eliminates inspection and sorting of product after a large batch
has been made. Knowing when to leave a process alone is equally important in keeping
variation at minimum.

46

PROCESS CAPABILITY
All quality philosophies stress continuous improvement. Too many people believe that
concept only refers to products, having the best design product in the world cannot
enable a business to success if the process that produces that product is not capable of
meeting the product specifications. The philosophy of continuous improvement must be
focused on process improvement. Process improvement reduces waste and thus reduces
costs and improves productivity.
Process capability is the range over which the natural variation of the process occurs as
determined by the system of common causes. It is the ability of the combination of
people, machine, methods, material and measurement to produce a product that will
consistently meet design specifications. The proportion of output that can be produced
within design specifications measures process capability; in other words it is measure of
uniformity of process. Process capability can be measured if all special causes have been
eliminated and the process is in the state of statistical control. Process capability is
important to both product designer and manufacturing engineer. A process capability
study allows one to predict, quantitatively, how well a process will meet designed to
yield specific information about the performance of the process under specified operating
conditions.
Typical questions that are answered by statistical process capability study are:

Where the process centered?

How much variability exists in the process?

Is the performance acceptable?

Is the process stable?

What factors contribute to variability?

47

Many reasons exist for conducting the process capability study. Manufacturing may wish
to determine a performance base line for a process, to prioritize projects for quality
improvements, or to provide statistical evidence of quality for customer. Purchasing may
conduct a study at a supplier plant to evaluate a new piece of equipment or to compare
different suppliers.
The six steps involved in the process capability study are: 1. Choose the representative machine or segment of the process.
2. Define the process conditions.
3. Select a representative operation.
4. Provide materials that are of standard grade with sufficient amount for
uninterrupted study.
5. Specify the gauging or measurement method to be used.
6. Provide a method of recording measurements and conditions, in order, on the unit
procedure.
Two statistical techniques are used to establish process capability. One is the frequency
distribution histogram. The other is the control chart.

Process capability index:


The importance of process capability is in assessing the relationship between the natural
variation of the process and the design specifications. This is often quantified by a
measure known as the Process capability index. The process capability index Cp is
defined as the ratio of specification in a single quantitative measure.

48

UTL LTL
Cp =

____________
6

UTL = Upper tolerance limit


LTL = Lower tolerance limit

= Standard deviation of process

Two important facts about the Cp index should be pointed out. One relates to the process
conditions and others relates to the interpretation of the values that have been calculated.
First, the calculation of Cp has no meaning if the process is not under statistical control.
The natural spread 6 sigma should be calculated using a sufficient large sample to get a
meaningful estimate of the population standard deviation sigma. Second, a Cp of 1.00
would require that the process be perfectly centered on the mean of the tolerance spread
to prevent some units from being produced outside the limits with a Cp of 1.33, and still
easier with a Cp of 2.00. Clearly, the value of Cp does not depend upon the mean of the
process. To include the information on the process centering, one-sided indexes are often
used. One-sided process capability indexes are as follows: UTL X BAR
Cpu =

________________
3
X BAR LTL

Cpl =

________________
3

Cpk = min (Cpu; Cpl)

49

For example, consider a process having a lower tolerance limit of 5.0, and upper
tolerance limit of 9.0, and standard deviation of 0.33. the process capability index,
9.0 5.0
Cp = ________________ = 2.0
6 * 0.33
If the process mean is 7.0, both the lower and upper one-sided capability indexes are
2.0, indicating that the process is centered with respect to the specifications. If however,
the process mean shifts up to 8.0, then
9.0 8.0
Cpu = _______________ = 1.0
3 * 0.33

8.0 5.0
Cpl = _________________ = 3.0
3 * 0.33

Cpk = min (Cpu; Cpl) = 1.0


These indexes indicates that the process would have difficult meeting its upper tolerance
limit but that it would easily meet the lower tolerance limit. Cpk summarizes the upper
and lower capability indexes into a single number reflecting the worst case; it is often
used in specifying quality requirements in purchasing contracts.

50

THEORY OF CONTROL CHARTS


Control chart is a graphic aid to detect quality variation in output from a production
process. As opposed to the aim of acceptance sampling (to accept or reject products
already produced), control chart help produce a better product. The charts have three
main applications: (1) to determine the actual capability of production process (2) to
guide modifications for improving the output quality of process, and (3) to monitor the
output. The monitoring function shows the current status of output quality and provides
an early warning of deviation from quality goals.

Variations:
Almost every production process is subjected to some degree of natural variability.
Innumerable small causes contribute to overall chances of variation in the quality of
output. The individual causes are so slight that no major portion of the variation can be
traced to as single cause. These deviations are a function of the accuracy if the process,
should be expected, and largely determine whether a process can deliver the precision
stated for output specifications.
Another type of process variation is produced by assignable causes. As opposed to
natural variations, these causes produce a relatively large variation traceable to a specific
reason. Most commonly, these causes are owed to differences in materials, and
differences causes by the interaction of workers, materials and machines.
A process is called under control when deviation in output is the result of chance
variations. When the pattern of output does not follow the distribution expected from

51

chance causes, the process is considered out of control and the cause is probably
assignable.

Control limits:
Variations produced by chance follow statistical laws. From experience with the past
process variations, the distributions of future variations can be anticipated. After the
distribution has been identified by the mean and variance, the dispersion of samples from
the described process indicates the state of process. For an instance, a sample reading far
from the mean reading is a clue that the distribution may no longer be descriptive of the
process that the process is out of control. The risk associated with a mistaken out of
control assumption determines the control limits.
When limits are set three standard deviations away from the mean, a sample from a
normally distributed population has only about three chances in a thousand of appearing
outside the limits when the process is under control.
The mean for the process may not be the specified mean. We have to work according to
the process mean. Control limits should be calculated only if the process capability is
greater than or equal to 1.33.

Control charts:
Control charts have two principle divisions: attributes and variables. Attribute control
can be further divided into charts for percentage defectives and chart for the number of
defects per unit. The main interest in the variables is control over changes in the average
and the range of measurements. Control chart for all these considerations follows the
same basic format of mean value bounded by upper and lower control limits. It is the
calculation of the control limits that distinguishes the type of chart.

Control charts Purposes and Advantages


1. A control chart indicates whether the process is in control or out of control.

52

2. It determines process variability and detects unusual variations taking place in the
process.
3. It ensures product quality level.
4. It warns in time, and if the process is rectified at that time, scrap or percentage
rejection can be reduced.
5. It provides information about the selection of process and setting of tolerance
limits.
6. Control charts build up the reputation of the organization through customers
satisfaction.

Applications of control charts:


Control charts find applications in controlling the quality characteristics of the
following: 1. Final assemblies.
2. Manufactured components (shafts, spindles, balls, pins, holes, slots, etc.).
3. Bullets and shells.
4. Soldered joints.
5. Castings and cloth lengths.
6. Defects in components made of glass.
7. For studying tool wear.
8. Punch press works, forming, spot welding, etc.
9. Incoming material.
10. Large and complex products like bomber engines, turbines, etc.

Control chart for variables:


There are two main types of control chart for variable data this data is in the form of
variables such as length, weight, diameter etc.

X Bar R Chart (Mean and range chart)

53

The chart most commonly used for variable data are the X bar chart, and the R chart
(range chart). The X bar charts are used to monitor the centering of process, and the R
chart is used to monitor the variation in process. These charts are used together for the
analysis of variable data. The range is used as a measure of variation simply for
convenience, particularly when the workers on the factory floor perform control chart
calculations by hand. If the data is large and computer programs analyze the data, it is
better to use the standard deviation as a measure of variability.
Values of constants:

= R bar/d2

UCL XBAR = XD bar + E2 * R bar


LCL XBAR = XD bar + E2 * R bar
UCL r = D2 * R bar
LCL r = D3 * R bar

= estimated standard deviation

R bar

= Mean of ranges

XD bar

= Mean of means of individuals

UCL XBAR

= Upper control limit for means

LCL XBAR

= Lower control limit for means

UCL r

= Upper control limit for ranges

LCL r

= Lower control limit for ranges

Values of constants:
Sub group size

D2

D3

E2

d2

3.27

2.66

1.13

2.57

1.17

1.69

2.28

1.46

2.06

2.11

1.29

2.33

54

X MR chart (individual and moving range chart)


These types of charts are based on individual readings. These are used to find out the
capability of the process and the control limits. For variable data the chart combined with
it is the moving range that is based on the difference between two consecutive
measurements. The readings are taken at regular interval for individual data.

= MR bar/d2

UCL x = XD bar + E2 * R bar


UCL x = XD bar E2 * R bar
UCL MR = D2 * MR bar
LCL MR = D3 * MR bar

= estimated standard deviation

MR bar

= Mean of moving ranges

X bar

= Mean of individuals

UCL x

= Upper control limit for individuals

LCL x

= Lower control limit for individuals

UCL MR

= Upper control limit for ranges

LCL MR

= Lower control limit for ranges

Values of constants:
Sub group size

D2

D3

E2

d2

3.27

2.66

1.13

2.57

1.17

1.69

2.28

1.46

2.06

2.11

1.29

2.33

55

W O R K I N S T R U C T I O N S F O R S UP E R F I N I S H I N G

OB J E C T I V E : To d e f i n e w o r k i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r s u p e r f i n i s h i n g .
Work Instructions:
1. Clean the magnetic filter at the start of the shift before starting to super finish a
batch of pins of particular make, check size of 5 6 pins taken from different
places. This will give you ideas of size kept at finish grinding and amount of
stock to be removed. If the size is found to be out of limits mentioned inform
supervisor/shift incharge.
2. Adjust the distance between the rollers as per the control plan of respective
application.
3. Adjust the in go and out go chutes so that there is smooth movement of pins.
4. Adjust the sequence of stones as per control plan for respective application.
5. Set the pneumatic pressure as per control plan.
6. Ensure that difference in diameter of any pi checked at different places i.e. taper
should be as per the control plan.
7. Adjust the distance between the stones if required.

56

8. Check the diameter, surface finish, ovality and taper should be as per control
plan.
9. For ensuring the setup approved and last piece plot the measurement of outer
diameter on the run chart and it should lie in between one third of central position
of 3 limit and for ensuring the setup approval and last piece of surface
roughness. Plot the measurement of surface roughness on control chart. It should
lie in between the one-third central position of control limit.

WORK INSTRUCTIONS FOR PLOTTING CONTROL


C H A RT/ R U N C H A RT
OBJECTIVE: To define the work instruction for plotting control charts/run charts.
Step I: work instructions for control chart (X Bar R charts)
1. Take samples as per plan for taking samples for process capability study.
2. Write the measurement in the columns provided in the X R chart.
3. Calculate the value of X by taking the mean of reading in each column.
4. Write the difference in the minimum and maximum measured reading of samples
in the column meant for R (range).
5. Plot these readings in the graph meant for X & R.
6. Take actions on special causes as mentioned in the control charts. Interpret the
chart as per interpretation of X chart and reaction plan and interpretation of R
chart and reaction plan and take appropriate action. Record the action taken in the
process log sheet, which is at the back of the control chart.
7. If any observation goes out of control limits then stop the machine and take the
necessary corrective action.

X- MR chart
1. Take samples as per plan for taking samples for process capability study.
2. Write the measurement in the space provided in the control chart.
3. Take the difference of pair of two consecutive readings and plot on the MR chart.
4. Plot the values of measurement on the mean chart.

57

5. Compare the observation with the plan for interpretation makes the necessary
adjustments accordingly to the trend of the observation and control chart.
6. If any observation goes out of control limits then stop the machine and take the
necessary corrective action.
Step II: Work instructions for run chart.

OBJECTIVE: Define the work instructions for plotting run chart


1. Take samples as per plan for taking samples for process capability study.
2. Write the measurement in the space provided in the run chart.
3. Plot the points on graph meant for the observation.
4. If the observation goes out of control limits of 3, stop the machine and take
corrective actions.

Work instructions for carrying out machine/process capability studies

OBJECTIVE: Work instructions for carrying out machine/process capability studies.


Step I: Machine Capability Study.
1. Set the machine as precisely as possible on the specification center when the
machine is not in running condition.
2. Put serial no. slips (1 50) on pins.
3. Manufacture 50 pins without interruption or adjustment.
4. Measure the values of the pins and record in the data sheet.
5. Check the data for normal distribution from the histogram.
6. Calculate Cm and Cmk as follows: Cm = (OSL LSL)/ 6 and
Cmk = (OSL X)/ 6 or
Cmk = (X LSL)/ 6
Smaller value is valid
Where = [(X1 X) 2] / n 1
7. Retain the pin for analysis.
8. A machine is capable if Cm and Cmk 1.66

58

Step II: Process Capability Study for control chart.


Bar R chart

1. Take samples as per plan for taking samples for process capability study.
2. Record measurements along with date, time and process changes occurred
during the study in the format for data collection.
3. Calculate the sum of each sub group and then average (X Bar) of each sub
group.
X = (X1 + X2+ X3 + X4 + X5)/5
4. Calculate the range (R) of each sub group, where
R = X (highest) X (lowest)
5. Calculate the average range (R)
R = (R1 + R2 + R3 + ---------------R25) /25
6. Calculate the control limit for range chart i.e. UCLr (Upper Control Limit)
and LCLr (Lower Control Limit) to show the extent by which the sub
group ranges would vary.
UCLr = D4 * R

LCLr = D3 * R

Value of D4 and D3
For n = 5

For n = 3

D4 = 2.11

D4 = 2.51

D3 = 0

D3 = 0

7. Draw the average (R), UCLr and LCLr as solid line on the control chart
on range chart. Compare all the sub groups against the UCLr and LCLr.
8. If no sub groups go out of control accept ranges forming a homogeneous
group.
9. If any sub group goes out of control limits, then it is sign of presence of
special causes.
10. Initially for establishing the control limits and carrying out capability
study, calculate the control limits to exclude the effect of out control
periods. Exclude all sub groups affected by the special cause, examine the
remaining sub group for homogeneity by repeating steps 6- 11 till range
chart shows control, but there should not be too many exclusions.

59

11. Complete the control limits for X as below:


X = (X1 + X2+ X3 + -------- X25)/25
12. Calculate the control limit for X Bar chart i.e. UCLx and LCLx as given
below:
UCLx = X + A2 * R
LCLx = X A2 * R
Where A2 = 0.58 for n = 5
A2 = 1.02 for n = 3
13. Draw the average (X), UCLx and LCLx as solid lines on the control
chart. Compare all the sub group averages (X Bar) against the UCLx and
LCLx.
14. Check the data for stability.
15. Initially for establishing the control limits, exclude the sub groups, which
are effected by the special cause. Recalculate and plot the process average
and control limit and repeat steps 12 14. Also calculate new average
range and range limits. There should not be too much exclusion.
16. Estimate the process standard deviation () by the following method
= R/d2
where d2 = 2.33 for n = 5
where R is the average of sub group ranges.
17. Calculate the process capability as given below:
Cp = (USL LSL)/ 6

= tolerance / 6

Cpk = Minimum of (X LSL)/ 6, (USL X)/3


For the process in control satisfactorily
Cp and Cpk 1.33

(B) X MR Chart:
1. Take samples as per plan for taking samples for process capability study.
2. Record measurement along with date, time and processes changes occurred
during the study in the format for data collection.
3. Calculate the moving range between each successive pair of readings.
4. MRn = Xn (Xn 1)

60

Calculate the average range


MR = MR1 + MR2 + ------------- /N
5. Calculate the control limit for range chart.
UCL MR = D4 MR
D4 = 3.27 for n = 2
D4 = 2.11 for n = 5
D4 = 1.78 for n = 10
6. LCL MR = D3 MR
D3 = 0 for n = 2
D3 = 0 for n = 5
D3 = 0.22 for n = 10
7. Calculate X as below
X = (X1 + X2 + X3+ -----)/N
8. Calculate control limit
UCLx = X + E2 MR
LCLx = X E2 MR
Where E2 = 2.66 for n = 2
E2 = 0.98 for n = 10
E2 = 1.29 for n = 5
9. Draw solid lines for average, UCL and LCL on X - MR chart.
10. Check the data for stability and the distribution is normal from histogram.
11. Repeat step no. 15 of X Bar R chart.
12. Estimate the process standard deviation by following methods:
= R/D2
where D2 = 1.33 for n = 2
D2 = 2.33 for n = 5
D 2 = 3.08 for n = 10
13. Calculate Cp and Cpk in step 17 of X bar R chart.

61

PROCEDURE:

For finding out the process capability and control limits regarding the super finishing
process on NAGEL SUPERFINISHING MACHINE. I had to take the following steps:
1. Noted down the 25 readings for OD (outer diameter) size of pins for one lot
per day of any make.
2. After readings I had to make X MR charts using those readings.
3. Lastly I calculated the CP and Cpk values to find out the capability of machine.
The various charts for different readings are as follows:

62

CONCLUSION:
1. From earlier mentioned control charts and calculations corresponding to those
charts I found that for most of the cases the process of super finishing was within
the control limits i.e. within the Upper Control Limit (UCL) and Lower Control
Limit (LCL).
2. It was found that in some cases the process goes beyond the control limits.
3. For all the calculations the Cp and Cpk values were found to be above 1.33. This
shows that the process was capable.

RESULT:
Process of super finishing on NAGEL SUPERFINISHING MACHINE is found to
be capable.

SUGGESTIONS:
The value of Cp and Cpk are very well more than 1.33, so there is no need to
modify the process. But in some cases the process goes out of control limits to overcome
this the following suggestions are given:

63

1. The stones should be checked for cracks after suitable interval of time depending
upon the lot size
2. The machine should automatically shut down if the pressure on stones goes
beyond the specified limits.

PROJECT - 3
PROJECT: Scrap reduction in various operations performed on
gudgeon pin (piston pin) during its machining.

PROJECT OBJECTIVE: To find factors which increases scrap and to


reduce them.
PROJECT AREA: GOETZE PIN PLANT

PROJECT COMMENCED ON: 2-10-2005

PROJECT COMPLETED ON: 30-10-2005

PROJECT DONE UNDER KIND CONTROL OF:

64

Sh. S. S. CHEEMA
CHIEF MANAGER PRODUCTION
GOETZE PIN PLANT

SCRAP REDUCTION
To study the various parameters which increases scrap percentage in pin plant and give
remedial measures to reduce the percentage of scrap.

STEPS AND PROCEDURE OF STUDY


1. Study and list the main processes, which contribute to the scrap percentage.
2. List out the main operations performed on a pin in a process.
3. List out the main actions, which takes place in the different operations.
4. Find out the major parameters, which contribute towards increase in scrap
percentage.
5. Carry out the test, which is suitable to measure that scrap contributing parameter.
6. List out the various reasons for the presence of that parameter.
7. Suggest the remedial action to remove those reasons or as to reduce the scrap.

# (1)

DRILLING AND BORING

MAIN OPERATIONS INVOLVED ARE AS FOLLOWS


FIRST OPERATION: - DRILLING

65

Place fit alignment of pin fixture mechanical clamping from handle.

Movement of the drill from the top on the upper surface of the pin.

SECOND OPERATION: - DRILLING (SEMI ROUGH OPERATION)

Placing of the job in automatic hydraulic clamping by mechanical handle.

Movement of drill horizontally having pneumatic air passing through drill into
the revolving pin for rough boring.

THIRD OPERATION: - FINISH BORE OPERATION ON GUN DRILLING


MACHINE

Placing of the pin in automatic moving train.

Automatically the pin is clamped by the hydraulic system.

Movement of drill having special oil passage through it in the revolving pin.

SCRAP: BORE ROUGH


TEST: VISUAL INNER BORE CHECKING BY THE HELP OF GAUGES.
REASONS:
1. Improper clamping of pin in the fixture.
2. Improper selection of drill.
3. Improper making of angles of drill of gun drilling machine.
4. Improper selection of gauge for checking bore.
5. Play in the resolution of the pin in drilling machine.
6. More or less hardness of the pin.

REMEDIAL SUGGESTIONS:
1. Tool i.e. drill should be properly clamped.
2. Proper making of angles should be there as given by engineering specification.
3. Before doing the operation, check hardness of the pin.

66

4. Proper selection of gauge.


5. Proper checking of oil level in gun drilling machine.
6. Bore should be made on both sides of the pin at the same time.

# (2)

DIAMETER GRINDING

OUTER DIAMETER ROUGH GRINDING IS DONE

PROCESS INVOLVED:
1. Setting of machine and movement of grinding wheel near to the pin.
2. Touching the grinding wheel to the pin and making adjustment of cut according
to outer diameter of pin required in process.
3. Movement of pin through machine.

SCRAP (i): FACE SCRAP ON OUTER DIAMETER


TEST: MICROMETER
REASONS:
1. Improper dressing of the grinding wheel.
2. Improper selection of speed of grinding wheel.
3. The hardness of pin is more.
4. Play in grinding and regulating wheel.

67

5. Less area of grinding wheel on work i.e. ongoing or outgoing diameter is more.
6. Different rough operations before finishing are not done properly according to
engineering specifications.

REMEDIAL SUGGESTIONS:
1. Proper setting of machine before running the operation.
2. Height of the machine should be proper to increase the work area of the grinding
wheel and reducing ingoing and outgoing area.
3. Frequent checking of pins by the operator of the machine according to frequency
given by the specifications.
4. Proper dressing time should be given to the grinding wheel.
5. If the diameter is more, two operations should be done on the pins to give betterfinished surface.
6. Proper selection of grinding wheel speed should be done depending upon the
outer diameter of pin.

SCRAP (ii): SHADOW


TEST: VISUAL CHECKING
REASONS:
1. This defect mostly occurs in the final finishing operation on 4-B machine.
2. The backpressure is less from the control panel.
3. Not changing of coolant after the life of coolant has over.
4. Interior cracks in the material.
5. Magnetic nature of pin material is there.
6. Disturbed settings.

REMEDIAL SUGGESTIONS:
1. Finished part should be checked frequently.

68

2. Checking of part should be done in ultra-violet light rather than in ordinary light.
3. Backpressure should be checked properly.
4. Grinding wheel should be checked properly.

SCRAP (iii): SUPER FINISHING LINES


TEST: VISUAL CHECKING.
REASONS:
1. Improper selection of honing stone of the machine.
2. The pressure for variation on the pin is more.
3. Less amount of oil movement to reduce friction with the work piece.
4. Improper placement of different finished honing stones one by one on the
machine.

REMEDIAL SUGGESTIONS:
1. Proper selection of honing stones.
2. Proper placement of honing stones in the machine.
3. Frequent checking of finished parts.
4. Two operations should be done on bigger outer diameter pins.
5. Setting, once marked should be tightened properly.
6. Pressure should be distributed according to the distribution of pins in a given lot.

SCRAP (iv): GRINDING MARKS


TEST: ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT IN FINAL INSPECTION
REASONS:

69

1. The ovality of the pin is more when input to the machine is given. This input is
the output of the other machine placed back to this machine. So error moves
along with the material movement.
2. Less dressing time given to grinding and regulating wheel.
3. Improper selection of the pin revolving speed of the grinding wheel.

REMEDIAL SUGGESTIONS:
1. Two operations should be done.
2. Dressing should be done properly.
3. Proper cut adjustment is to be there.
4. Outer diameter of the pin is too checked before feeding to machine.
5. Proper running of the coolant should be there.

SCRAP (v): DIAMETER LESS


TEST: MICROMETER
REASONS:
1. More cut adjustment on the work piece.
2. Improper cut adjustment after sometime when grinding wheel move some
distance apart.

REMEDIAL SUGGESTIONS:
1. Proper setting.
2. Proper and frequent checking and proper setting of micrometer according to the
masterpiece.
3. Proper adjustment after giving frequent checking.

# (3)

LENGTH GRINDING

70

PROCESS INVOLVED:
1. Setting of machine and cut adjustment.
2. Selection of proper guide drum according to the outer diameter of the pin.
3. Movement of the pin on guide drum and length grinding from both sides.

SCRAP: LENGTH LESS


TEST: MICROMETER CALIBRATED WITH MASTER PIECE
REASONS:
1. Improper selection of step speed according to outer diameter of the pin.
2. Improper dressing of wheel.
3. Improper cut adjustment or disturbed settings.
4. More pressure applied.
5. Improper setting or checking of micrometer.

REMEDIAL SUGGESTIONS:
1. Run a full lot on one step.
2. Immediately stop the machine if power cut occurs.
3. Proper dressing time should be given to grinding wheel.
4. Frequent checking of pins.

# (4)

OUTER ROUNDING

ROUNDING IS DONE ON THE OUTER EDGE OF THE OUTER DIAMETER.

PROCESS INVOLVED:
Clamping of pin manually by hydraulic system in the automatic centered expanding
chuck.

71

SCRAP: OVER ROUNDING


TEST INVOLVED: VISUAL CHECKING
REASONS:
1. The play in the clamping shaft.
2. More wear out of the tool.
3. Job revolves like gyroscope, as some angle with respect to axis of mandrel tilts
axis of job.
4. Chips removal is not from the right direction.
5. Hardness of the pin is less so that more force applied on the work piece results in
more cut application.

REMEDIAL SUGGESTIONS:
1. Before clamping the pin, pin-clamping area is to be cleaned.
2. The tool used for rounding should be changed if more burnt has occurred.
3. Tool should be clamped securely and tightly.
4. Speed of revolving shaft should be proper.

# (5)

OUTER CHAMFERING

PROCESS INVOLVED:
1. Clamping of the pin in the automatic centered chuck.
2. Movement of the tool in the forward direction operated by mechanical system.
3. Operation is equivalent to self-centered lathe machine.

72

SCRAP: OVER CHAMFERING


TEST: VISUAL CHECKING
REASONS:
1. The play in the clamping shaft.
2. More wear out of tool.
3. Job revolves like gyroscope, as some angle with respect to axis of mandrel tilts
axis of job.
4. Chips removal is not from the right direction.

REMEDIAL SUGGESTIONS:
1. Before clamping the pin, pin-clamping area is to be cleaned.
2. The tool used for rounding should be changed if more burnt has occurred.
3. Tool should be clamped securely and tightly.
4. Speed of revolving shaft should be proper.

73