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PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

(University of the City of Manila)


Intramuros, Manila

College of Engineering and Technology


Computer Studies Department

Data Communications and Networking


SY 2015-2016

Networking Medias:
Primary Cable Types
Structured Cabling
Wireless Networking
July 4, 2015

Clarete, Jhon Rommel


Cleofas, John Mark
Sta Rorsa, Mico
Valderrama, Joshua Philip
BSCS-IT 4-1

Professor Ariel

Chapter 3 Networking Medias

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Chapter 3 : Networking Medias

Network media is the actual path over which an electrical signal travels as it moves from one
component to another. This chapter describes the common types of network media, including
twisted-pair cable, coaxial cable, ber-optic cable, and wireless.

I.

Primary Cable Types

What is a cable media?

Cables are commonly used to carry communication signals within Local Area Networks
(LAN).

Network Media is the actual path over which an electrical signal travels as it moves from one
component to another. This chapter describes the common types of network media, including
twisted-pair cable, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, and wireless.

There are three common types of cable media that can be used to connect devices to a network:

Coaxial Cable
Twisted-pair Cable
Fiber-optic Cable

While wireless may be the wave of the future, most computer networks today still utilize cables
to transfer signals from one point to another. www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Networking_cables

Chapter Description:
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Cleofas, John Mark
Sta Rosa, Mico
Valderrama, Joshua Philp

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Chapter 3 : Networking Medias

In this chapter, we are going to familiarize ourselves with the primary network cables and
take a closer look at common types of network media, including twisted-pair cable, coaxial
cable, fiber-optic cable, and wireless.
COAXIAL CABLES

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Coaxial Cable:

Commonly used on Cable TVs and that is also common for data communications.
Coaxial cable supports 10 to 100 Mbps and is relatively inexpensive.

Coaxial cable consists of a hollow outer cylindrical conductor that surrounds a single
inner wire made of two conducting elements. One of these elements, located in the center of the
cable, is a copper conductor. Surrounding the copper conductor is a layer of flexible insulation.
Over this insulating material is a woven copper braid or metallic foil that acts both as the second
wire in the circuit and as a shield for the inner conductor. This second layer, or shield, can help
reduce the amount of outside interference. Covering this shield is the cable jacket.

Two types of Coaxial Cable:

Coaxial Cable Thinnet: 1/4 inch thick. Used for short distances.
Coaxial Cable Thicknet: 1/2 inch thick. Can support longer distances of data transfer.

Summary Features of Coaxial Cables


The following summarizes the features of coax cables:

Speed and throughput10 to 100 Mbps


Average cost per nodeInexpensive
Media and connector sizeMedium
Maximum cable length500 m (medium)

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Sta Rosa, Mico
Valderrama, Joshua Philp

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TWISTED-PAIR CABLES

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Twisted-pair Cables

Used for telephone communications and of most modern Ethernet networks.


A pair of wires forms a circuit that can transmit data.

Two Basic Types of Twisted-pair Cables:

Unshielded Twisted-pair (UTP): Four pairs of copper wires covered by an insulating


material, twisted together. Are of small diameter and doesnt need grounding.
Shielded Twisted-pair (STP)

Features of UTP Cables:

Speed and throughput10 to 1000 Mbps


Average cost per nodeleast expensive
Media and connector sizeSmall
Maximum cable length100 m (short)

Registered jack (rj45) connector

The connector used on an Unshielded Twisted-pair cable.

Types of UTP Cabling:

Category 1Used for telephone communications. Not suitable for transmitting data.
Category 2Capable of transmitting data at speeds up to 4 megabits per second (Mbps).
Category 3Used in 10BASE-T networks. Can transmit data at speeds up to 10 Mbps.
Category 4Used in Token Ring networks. Can transmit data at speeds up to 16 Mbps.
Category 5Can transmit data at speeds up to 100 Mbps.
Category 5e Used in networks running at speeds up to 1000 Mbps (1 gigabit per
second [Gbps]).
Category 6Typically, Category 6 cable consists of four pairs of 24 American Wire
Gauge (AWG) copper wires. Category 6 cables are currently the fastest standard for UTP.

Shielded Twisted-pair (STP)

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Combines the techniques of shielding, cancellation, and wire twisting to reduce


electrical noise within and outside the cable wire.
The four pairs of wires are covered in a metallic foil.

Features of STP Cable:

Speed and throughput10 to 100 Mbps


Average cost per nodeModerately expensive
Media and connector sizeMedium to large
Maximum cable length100 m (short)

Twisted-Pair - Color Scheme

OPTICAL FIBER CABLES

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Optical Fiber Cable

Use optical fibers that carry digital data signals in the form of the modulated pulses of
light.

Two Types of Fiber Optic Cabling:

Single Mode Fibre (SMF): uses a single ray of light to carry transmission over long

distances.
Multiple Mode Fibre (MMF): uses multiple rays of light simultaneously with each ray of
light running at a different reflection angle to carry the transmission over short distances.

Features of optical fiber cable:

Broad bandwidth a single fiber can carry 3,000,000 full duplex voice calls or 90,000

TV channels
Immunity to electromagnetic interference
Low attenuation loss over long distances
Electrical insulator prevents problems with ground loops and lightning conduction.
Material cost and theft prevention.
Single multiple mode fiber

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II.

Structured Cabling

What is structured cabling?


A structured cabling system is the wiring network that carries all your data throughout your
building or campus. It includes everything from the data center to the desktop, including cabling,
connecting hardware, equipment, telecommunications rooms, cable pathways, work areas, and
even the jacks on the wallplate in your office.
The importance of structured cabling.
A structured cabling system is as important to the success of your organization as the people who
work in it. A well-planned structured cabling system facilitates the continuous flow of
information, enables the sharing of resources, promotes smooth operations, accommodates everchanging technology, offers plenty of room for growth, and evolves with your organization. Plus,
it will be around far longer than your current PC, server, and network switches.
In essence, a structured cabling system is the lifeblood of your organization. If done right, it will
serve you well for years. If not, your organizations growth and bottom line can suffer.
Standard
The importance of standards in todays structured cabling systems cant be underestimated. A
standards-based system provides a generic base for building a communications infrastructure
without compatibility worries.
Standards establish technical criteria and ensure uniform performance among network
systems and components. They enable you to build modular networks that can easily
accommodate new technologies, equipment, and users.
The U.S. cabling industry accepts the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), in
conjunction with TIA/EIA, as the responsible organization for providing and maintaining
standards and practices within the profession.
TIA/EIA-568 is a set of telecommunications standards from the Telecommunications Industry
Association (TIA), an offshoot of the Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA). The standards
address commercial building cabling for telecommunications products and services.
The TIA/EIA structured cabling standards define how to design, build, and manage a cabling
system that is structured, meaning that the system is designed in blocks that have very specific
performance characteristics.
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The Structured cabling system


A structured cabling system, as defined by the TIA/EIA, consists of six subsections:
Horizontal Cabling
Backbone cabling
Telecommunications room (TR)
Work area (WA)
Equipment Room (ER)
Entrance Facility (EF)
Horizontal cabling.
The horizontal cabling system encompasses everything between the telecommunications room
cross-connects to the telecommunications outlets in the work area. Its called horizontal because
the cable typically runs horizontally above the ceiling or below the floor from the
telecommunications room, which is usually on the same floor
Backbone cabling.
The backbone system encompasses all the cabling between telecommunications rooms,
equipment rooms, entrance facilities, and between buildings
Backbone cabling provides the main information conduit connecting all your horizontal cabling
within a building and between buildings. Its the interconnection between telecommunication
rooms, equipment rooms, and entrance facilities
Telecommunications room
. The telecommunications room holds the termination equipment needed to connect the
horizontal wiring to the backbone wiring. A building must contain at least one
telecommunications room, and it should be on the floor it serves.

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Formerly known as the telecommunications closet, the telecommunications room (TR) houses all
the equipment associated with connecting the backbone wiring to the horizontal wiring. It
includes:
The telecommunications room can also house auxiliary equipment such as a PBX, security
equipment, etc.

Equipment room.
The equipment room (ER) houses telecommunications systems, such as PBXs, servers, routers,
switches, and other core electronic components as well as the mechanical terminations. Its
different than the telecommunications room because of the complexity of the components. An
equipment room may take the place of a telecommunications room or it may be separate. It can
also function as the entrance facility
Difference between telecommunications room and equipment room
An equipment room is an environmentally controlled centralized space for telecommunications
equipment that usually houses a main or intermediate cross-connect. Equipment rooms differ
from telecommunications rooms in that equipment rooms are generally considered to serve a
building, a campus, a tenant or an SP, whereas Telecommunications rooms server a floor area of
a building.
The TDMM is copyrighted so I dont want to cite from it beyond fair use. Generally speaking
equipment rooms are much larger than telecommunications rooms. Although they can also serve
as telecommunications rooms. Here is an example of an equipment room.
Work area.
The work area consists of all the components between the telecommunications outlet and the
users workstation equipment.
The work area should be well managed even though it is designed for frequent changes
Entrance facility
The entrance facility (EF) is the point where the outdoor plant cable connects with the buildings
backbone cabling. This is usually the demarcation point between the service provider and the
customer owned systems
Pathways
Simply put, a pathway is the space in which cable runs from one area to another.
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Vertical backbone pathways. When designing a building, stack the telecommunications rooms
vertically above one another on each floor. This provides for the easiest and most efficient
backbone runs.
Horizontal backbone pathways. If the TRs are not stacked vertically, use 4-inch conduit to
connect them horizontally
Horizontal pathways. As the name suggests, these pathways run horizontally between the
telecommunications room and the work area

III. Wireless Networking


What is wireless networking?
-

The term wireless networking refers to technology that enables two or more computers to
communicate using standard network protocols, but without network cabling. Strictly
speaking, any technology that does this could be called wireless networking. The current
buzzword however generally refers to wireless LANs. This technology, fuelled by the
emergence of cross-vendor industry standards such as IEEE 802.11, has produced a number
of affordable wireless solutions that are growing in popularity with business and schools as
well as sophisticated applications where network wiring is impossible, such as in
warehousing or point-of-sale handheld equipment.

Types of Wireless Network


A) An ad-hoc, or peer-to-peer wireless network consists of a number of computers each

equipped with a wireless networking interface card. Each computer can communicate
directly with all of the other wireless enabled computers. They can share files and printers
this way, but may not be able to access wired LAN resources, unless one of the
computers acts as a bridge to the wired LAN using special software. (This is called
"bridging").

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B) A wireless network can also use an access point, or base station. In this type of network

the access point acts like a hub, providing connectivity for the wireless computers. It can
connect (or "bridge") the wireless LAN to a wired LAN, allowing wireless computer
access to LAN resources, such as file servers or existing Internet Connectivity.

What is IEEE 802.11?


-

Wireless networking hardware requires the use of underlying technology that deals with
radio frequencies as well as data transmission. The most widely used standard is 802.11
produced by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). This is a standard
defining all aspects of Radio Frequency Wireless networking.

Wireless IEEE Standard Comparisons

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Four methods of wireless network security


-

Data Encryption

WEP and WPA (along with WPA2) are names for different encryption tools used to secure your
wireless connection. Encryption scrambles the network connection so that no one can "listen in"
to it and look at which web pages you are viewing, for example. WEP stands for Wired
Equivalent Privacy, and WPA stands for Wireless Protected Access. WPA2 is the second version
of the WPA standard.
Using some encryption is always better than using none, but WEP is the least secure of these
standards, and you should not use it if you can avoid it. WPA2 is the most secure of the three. If
your wireless card and router support WPA2, that is what you should use when setting up your
wireless network.

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Port Based Access control (802.1x)

Uses EAP hardware used such as supplicant, authenticator, and authenticating server must be
802.1x enabled to use the network
-

SSID (service set identifier)

SSID is a case sensitive, 32 alphanumeric character unique identifier attached to


the header of packets sent over a wireless local-area network (WLAN) that acts as a password
when a mobile device tries to connect to the basic service set (BSS) -- a component of the IEEE
802.11 WLAN architecture.
The SSID differentiates one WLAN from another, so all access points and all devices attempting
to connect to a specific WLAN must use the same SSID to enable effective roaming. As part of
the association process, a wireless network interface card (NIC) must have the same SSID as the
access point or it will not be permitted to join the BSS.

Mac Address Filtering

In computer networking, MAC Filtering (or GUI filtering, or layer 2 address filtering) refers to
a security access control method whereby the 48-bit address assigned to eachnetwork card is
used to determine access to the network.
MAC addresses are uniquely assigned to each card, so using MAC filtering on a network permits
and denies network access to specific devices through the use of blacklists andwhitelists. While
the restriction of network access through the use of lists is straightforward, an individual person
is not identified by a MAC address, rather a device only, so an authorized person will need to
have a whitelist entry for each device that he or she would use to access the network.

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Components Requirements
-

Medium

Transmission of waves take place in the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum. The carrier frequency
of the data is expressed in cycles per second called hertz(Hz). Low frequency signals can travel
for long distances through many obstacles but cannot carry a high bandwidth of date while high
frequency signals can travel for shorter distances through few obstacles and carry a narrow
bandwidth. Also the noise effect on the signal is inversely proportional to the power of the radio
transmitter. The three broad categories of wireless media are:
1. Radio - 10 Khz to 1 Ghz. It is broken into many bands including AM, FM, and VHF
bands. The Federal communications Commission (FCC) regulates the assignment of
these frequencies. Frequencies for unregulated use are:
o 902-928Mhz - Cordless phones, remote controls.
o 2.4 Ghz
o 5.72-5.85 Ghz
2. Microwave
o Terrestrial - Used to link networks over long distances but the two microwave
towers must have a line of sight between them. The frequency is usually 4-6GHz
or 21-23GHz. Speed is often 1-10Mbps. The signal is normally encrypted for
privacy. Two nodes may exist.
o Satellite - A satellite orbits at 22,300 miles above the earth which is an altitude
that will cause it to stay in a fixed position relative to the rotation of the earth.
This is called a geosynchronous orbit. A station on the ground will send and
receive signals from the satellite. The signal can have propagation delays between
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0.5 to 5 seconds due to the distances involved. The transmission frequency is


normally 11-14GHz with a transmission speed in the range of 1-10Mbps.
3. Infared - Infared is just below the visible range of light between 100Ghz and 1000Thz. A
light emitting diode (LED) or laser is used to transmit the signal. The signal cannot travel
through objects. Light may interfere with the signal. The types of infared are
o Point to point - Transmission frequencies are 100GHz-1,000THz . Transmission is
between two points and is limited to line of sight range. It is difficult to eavesdrop
on the transmission. The speed is 100Kbps to 16Mbps
o broadcast - The signal is dispersed so several units may receive the signal. The
unit used to disperse the signal may be reflective material or a transmitter that
amplifies and retransmits the signal. Normally the speed is limited to 1Mbps. The
transmission frequency is normally 100GHz-1,000THz with transmission distance
in 10's of meters. Installation is easy and cost is relatively inexpensive for
wireless.
-

Access Point and Extension Point

There are two types of access points:


i.

Dedicated hardware access points (HAP) such as Lucent's WaveLAN, Apple's


Airport Base Station or WebGear's AviatorPRO. Hardware access points offer
comprehensive support of most wireless features, but check your requirements
carefully.

ii.

Software Access Points which run on a computer equipped with a wireless


network interface card as used in an ad-hoc or peer-to-peer wireless network. The
Vicomsoft InterGate suites are software routers that can be used as a basic
Software Access Point, and include features not commonly found in hardware
solutions, such as Direct PPPoE support and extensive configuration flexibility,

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but may not offer the full range of wireless features defined in the 802.11
standard.
With appropriate networking software support, users on the wireless LAN can share files and
printers located on the wired LAN and vice versa. Vicomsoft's solutions support file sharing
using TCP/IP.
Hardware Access Point
Wireless connected computers using a Hardware Access Point.

Software Access Point


Wireless connected computers using a Software Access Point.

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Extension Point
If a single area is too large to be covered by a single access point, then multiple access points or
extension points can be used. -- Note that an "extension point" is not defined in the wireless
standard, but have been developed by some manufacturers. When using multiple access points,
each access point wireless area should overlap its neighbors.
Wireless connected computers using an Access Point with an Extension Point.

Wireless and Power-line bridges


Wireless bridge
-

Used to connect two or more wireless networks

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Power-line bridge
-

Used to penetrate a wireless network that is otherwise difficult t o penetrate

Antennas and Adapters


Antennas are used to increase the range of wireless network
Antennas should be compatible with the router, AP or the adapter i.e. installed in the
network
Types of antennas used:

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Omnidirectional antennas - Used indoors and small in size

Directional antennas - High gain and used for long range outdoor use

Wireless adapters help to connect computer or PDA to a network


Wireless adapters are available as PC cards, PCI and mini PCI, USB, and CompactFlash.
-

Wireless Station and Server


Wireless Local Area Network - consists of wireless station and wireless server
Wireless station - Connects wireless network into a wireless medium
Wireless server - The main server connected to the wired network which controls all
devices within the wireless network

Wireless Stations

Wireless Clients
-

Software

Wireless network adapter requires two types of software so as to function properly:


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Driver

Configuration Utility

Application
Common applications of wireless technologies:
Wireless LAN
A wireless local area network (WLAN) links two or more devices over a short distance using a
wireless distribution method, usually providing a connection through an access point for Internet
access. The use of spread-spectrum or OFDM technologies may allow users to move around
within a local coverage area, and still remain connected to the network.
Products using the IEEE 802.11 WLAN standards are marketed under the Wi-Fi brand
name. Fixed wireless technology implementspoint-to-point links between computers or networks
at two distant locations, often using dedicated microwave or modulated laser lightbeams
over line of sight paths. It is often used in cities to connect networks in two or more buildings
without installing a wired link.

Wireless WAN
Wireless wide area networks are wireless networks that typically cover large areas, such as
between neighboring towns and cities, or city and suburb. These networks can be used to connect
branch offices of business or as a public internet access system. The wireless connections
between access points are usually point to point microwave linksusing parabolic dishes on the
2.4 GHz band, rather than omnidirectional antennas used with smaller networks. A typical
system contains base station gateways, access points and wireless bridging relays. Other
configurations are mesh systems where each access point acts as a relay also. When combined
with renewable energy systems such as photo-voltaic solar panels or wind systems they can be
stand alone systems.
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Wireless PAN
Wireless personal area networks (WPANs) interconnect devices within a relatively small area
that is generally within a person's reach. For example, both Bluetooth radio and
invisible infrared light provides a WPAN for interconnecting a headset to a laptop. ZigBee also
supports WPAN applications. Wi-Fi PANs are becoming commonplace (2010) as equipment
designers start to integrate Wi-Fi into a variety of consumer electronic devices. Intel "My WiFi"
and Windows 7 "virtual Wi-Fi" capabilities have made Wi-Fi PANs simpler and easier to set up
and configure.

Wireless MAN
Wireless metropolitan area networks are a type of wireless network that connects several
wireless LANs.

WiMAX is a type of Wireless MAN and is described by the IEEE 802.16 standard.

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Mobile or Cellular network

Example of frequency reuse factor or pattern 1/4


A cellular network or mobile network is a radio network distributed over land areas called
cells, each served by at least one fixed-location transceiver, known as a cell site or base station.
In a cellular network, each cell characteristically uses a different set of radio frequencies from all
their immediate neighbouring cells to avoid any interference.
When joined together these cells provide radio coverage over a wide geographic area. This
enables a large number of portable transceivers (e.g., mobile phones, pagers, etc.) to
communicate with each other and with fixed transceivers and telephones anywhere in the
network, via base stations, even if some of the transceivers are moving through more than one
cell during transmission.
Although originally intended for cell phones, with the development of smartphones, cellular
telephone networks routinely carry data in addition to telephone conversations:

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Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM): The GSM network is divided into
three major systems: the switching system, the base station system, and the operation and
support system. The cell phone connects to the base system station which then connects to
the operation and support station; it then connects to the switching station where the call is
transferred to where it needs to go. GSM is the most common standard and is used for a
majority of cell phones.

Personal Communications Service (PCS): PCS is a radio band that can be used by mobile
phones in North America and South Asia. Sprint happened to be the first service to set up a
PCS.

D-AMPS: Digital Advanced Mobile Phone Service, an upgraded version of AMPS, is


being phased out due to advancement in technology. The newer GSM networks are replacing
the older system.

What is Roaming?
A wireless computer can "roam" from one access point to another, with the software and
hardware maintaining a steady network connection by monitoring the signal strength from inrange access points and locking on to the one with the best quality. Usually this is completely
transparent to the user; they are not aware that a different access point is being used from area to
area. Some access point configurations require security authentication when swapping access
points, usually in the form of a password dialog box.
Access points are required to have overlapping wireless areas to achieve this as can be seen in
the following diagram:
Roaming.
A user can move from Area 1 to Area 2 transparently. The Wireless networking hardware
automatically swaps to the Access Point with the best signal.
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Not all access points are capable of being configured to support roaming. Also of note is that any
access points for a single vendor should be used when implementing roaming, as there is no
official standard for this feature.

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References
http://www.slideshare.net/Eacademy4u/wireless-networking-12064402?related=3
http://www.vicomsoft.com/learning-center/wireless-networking/#1
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless_network
http://www.blackbox.com/resource/Genpdf/BuyersGuides/Black_Box_Cabling_Guide.pdf
http://greenwirecommunications.com/structured-cabling/whats-the-differencebetween-an-equipment-room-er-and-a-telecommunications-room-tr/

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