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fiziks

Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT-JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES

CLASSICAL MECHANICS SOLUTIONS


NET/JRF (JUNE-2011)
Q1.

A particle of unit mass moves in a potential V x ax 2

b
, where a and b are positive
x2

constants. The angular frequency of small oscillations about the minimum of the potential
is
(a)
Ans:

8b

8a

(b)

(c)

8a / b

(d)

8b / a

(b)
1

V
2b
b
b 4
Solution: V x ax 2 2
0 2ax 3 0 ax 4 b 0 x0 .
x
x
x
a

2V
k
Since
, m 1 and k 2
where xo is stable equilibrium point.
x x x
m
0
1

2V
6b
6b
b 4
Hence k 2 2a 4 2a
8a at x x0 .
b
x
x0
a
a

Thus 8a .

Q2.

The acceleration due to gravity (g) on the surface of Earth is approximately 2.6 times that
on the surface of Mars. Given that the radius of Mars is about one half the radius of
Earth, the ratio of the escape velocity on Earth to that on Mars is approximately
(a) 1.1

Ans:

(b) 1.3

(c) 2.3

(d) 5.2

(c)

Solution: Escape velocity = 2gR

ge R e
Escape velocity of Earth
R
g

2.3 where e 2 and e 2.6.


Rm
gm
Escape velocity of Mass
gm R m

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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT-JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES
Q3.

The

Hamiltonian

of

system

with

degrees

of

freedom

is

given

by H q1 ,..... q n ; p1 ,....... p n ; t , with an explicit dependence on the time t. Which of the


following is correct?
(a) Different phase trajectories cannot intersect each other.
(b) H always represents the total energy of the system and is a constant of the motion.
(c) The equations q i H / pi , p i H / qi are not valid since H has explicit time
dependence.
(d) Any initial volume element in phase space remains unchanged in magnitude under
time evolution.
Ans:

(a)

Q4.

The Lagrangian of a particle of charge e and mass m in applied electric and magnetic


1
fields is given by L mv 2 eA v e , where A and are the vector and scalar
2

potentials corresponding to the magnetic and electric fields, respectively. Which of the
following statements is correct?

(a) The canonically conjugate momentum of the particle is given by p mv

p2 e
A p e
(b) The Hamiltonian of the particle is given by H
2m m

(c) L remains unchanged under a gauge transformation of the potentials


(d) Under a gauge transformation of the potentials, L changes by the total time derivative
Ans:

(d)

Solution: 2 V
Q5.

t
0

Consider the decay process in the rest frame of the -. The masses of the

, and are M, M and zero respectively.


A. The energy of is
(a)

M 2 c 2
2M

(b)

M 2 c 2
2M

(c) M M c 2

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(d)

M M c 2

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Ans:

(b)

Solution:

From conservation of energy M c 2 E E .


E 2 p 2 c 2 M 2 c 4 and E 2 p 2 c 2 since momentum of and is same.
M c 2 E E , M 2 c 4 E 2 E 2 E E

M2c4
M c2

M 2 M 2 c2
M c2
2
.
and E E M c E
E E
2M
M
B. The velocity of is
(a)
Ans:

M 2 c
M 2 M 2
2

M 2 c
M 2 M 2

(b)

(c)

Mc
M

(d)

M c
M

(a)

Solution: Velocity of
E

M 2 c 2
2M

M c 2
1

v2
c2

v2
4M 2 M 2
1 2
2
c M 2 M 2

M 2 M 2
4 M 2 M 2
v2
v 2 M 4 M 4 2M 2 M 2 4M 2 M 2

c.

2
2
2
2
2
c2
M M
M 2 M 2 c
M 2 M 2

Q6.

The Hamiltonian of a particle of unit mass moving in the xy-plane is given to be:
H xp x yp y

1 2 1 2
x y in suitable units. The initial values are given to be
2
2

x0, y0 1,1

1 1
and p x 0, p y 0 , . During the motion, the curves traced out
2 2

by the particles in the xy-plane and the p x p y plane are


(a) both straight lines
(b) a straight line and a hyperbola respectively
(c) a hyperbola and an ellipse, respectively
(d) both hyperbolas
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Ans:

(d)

Solution: H xp x yp y

1 2 1 2
x y
2
2 .

Solving Hamiltonion equation of motion


H
H
p y p y y p y .
p x p x x p x and
y
x

H
H
x x x and
y y y .
p y
p x

After solving these four differential equation and eliminating time t and using boundary
condition one will get x

1 1
1
and p x
2 py
y

NET/JRF (DEC-2011)
Q7.

A double pendulum consists of two point masses m attached by strings of length l as


shown in the figure: The kinetic energy of the pendulum is

Ans:

(a)

1 2 2 2
ml 1 2
2

(b)

1 2 2 2
ml 21 2 212 cos1 2
2

(c)

1 2 2
ml 1 222 212 cos1 2
2

(d)

1 2 2 2
ml 21 2 212 cos1 2
2

(c)

Solution: Let co-ordinate x1 , y1 and x 2 , y 2 . K .E.


x1 l sin 1 , y1 l cos1

1
1
m x12 y12 m x 22 y 22
2
2

x1 l cos 11 , y1 l sin 11

x2 l sin 1 l sin 2 , y 2 l cos 1 l cos 2

x 2 l cos 11 l cos 2 2 , y 2 l sin 11 l sin 2 2

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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT-JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES
Put the value of x1 , y1 , x 2 , y 2 in K.E equation, one will get
T

Q8.

1 2 2
m 1 2 212 cos1 2 .
2

A constant force F is applied to a relativistic particle of rest mass m. If the particle starts
from rest at t = 0, its speed after a time t is

Ans:

(d)

Fct
F t m 2c 2
2 2

(d)

Solution:

dp
F p Ft c .
dt

At t=0, p=0 so c=0 p Ft

Q9.

(c) c1 e Ft / mc

Ft
(b) c tanh

mc

(a) Ft / m

mu
u2
1 2
c

Ft u

F
t
m
Ft
1

mc

The potential of a diatomic molecule as a function of the distance r between the atoms is
given by V r

a
b
12 . The value of the potential at equilibrium separation between
6
r
r

the atoms is:


(a) 4a 2 / b
Ans:

(b) 2a 2 / b

(c) a 2 / 2b

(d) a 2 / 4b

(d)

Solution: V r

1
12 b
V
a
b
a 12b
0 6 7 13 0 7 6a 6 0
12 , for equilibrium
6
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
1

12b
12 b 6
2b 6
6a 6 0 r
r
r
6a
a
1

6
a2 a2
a2
2b
a
b

.
V r

a
2b 4b
4b
2b 2b 2


a a

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Q10. Two particles of identical mass move in circular orbits under a central
potential V r

1 2
kr . Let l1 and l2 be the angular momenta and r1, r2 be the radii of the
2

orbits respectively. If l1/l2 = 2, the value of r1 / r2 is:


(a)
Ans:

(b) 1 / 2

(c) 2

(d) 1 / 2

(a)

Solution: Veff

J2
1
kr 2 where J is angular momentum.
2
2mr
2

Condition for circular orbit

J2
Veff
0 3 kr 0 J 2 r 4 J r 2 .
mr
r

J r
r
J
r
J
Thus 1 1 1 1 1 2 since 1 2 .
J2
J 2 r2
r2
J2
r2

Q11. A particle of mass m moves inside a bowl. If the surface of the bowl is given by the
equation z

Ans:

1
a x 2 y 2 , where a is a constant, the Lagrangian of the particle is
2

(a)

1
m r 2 r 2 2 gar 2
2

(c)

1
m r 2 r 2 2 r 2 sin 2 2 gar 2
2

(b)

1
m 1 a 2 r 2 r 2 r 2 2
2

(d)

1
m 1 a 2 r 2 r 2 r 2 2 gar 2
2

(d)

Solution: L

1
m x 2 y 2 z 2 mgz
2

where z

1
a x2 y2 .
2

1
It has cylindrical symmetry. Thus x r cos , y r sin , z a r 2 .
2

x r cos r sin , y r sin r cos and z a rr .


1
So L m 1 a 2 r 2 r 2 r 2 2 gar 2 .
2

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Q12.

A planet of mass m moves in the inverse square central force field of the Sun of mass

M . If the semi-major and semi-minor axes of the orbit are a and b , respectively, the
total energy of the planet is:

Ans:

(a)

GMm
ab

(c)

GMm 1 1

a b a

1 1
(b) GMm
a b
a b
(d) GMm
2
a b

(a)

Solution: Assume Sun is at the centre of elliptical orbit.


Conservation of energy

1 2 GMm 1 2 GMm
mv1
mv2
2
a
2
b

v2

Conservation of momentum L mv1a mv2b

b
s

a
v2 v1
b

v1

1 2 1 2 GMm GMm
1
a2
ba
m v12 v12 2 GMm
mv1 mv2

2
2
a
b
2
b
ab

1 2 b2 a 2
1
1
b a
b
mv1
GMm
mv12 GMm

ab
2
2
b

a b a
E

Q13.

1 2 GMm
b 1
GMm
mv1
GMm

2
a
a b a
a

GMm b b a
GMm b
GMm
1

a b a
a b a
b a

An annulus of mass M made of a material of uniform density has inner and outer radii a
and b respectively. Its principle moment of inertia along the axis of symmetry
perpendicular to the plane of the annulus is:

(b)

1
M b 2 a 2
2

(d)

1
M b2 a2
2

(a)

1
b4 a4
M 2
2
b a2

(c)

1
M b2 a2
2

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fiziks
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Ans:

(d)

Q14.

The trajectory on the zpz-plane (phase-space trajectory) of a ball bouncing perfectly


elastically off a hard surface at z = 0 is given by approximately by (neglect friction):
(a)

(b)

PZ

PZ

PZ
PZ
(c)

d)

z
z

Ans: (a)
Solution: H

P2
Pz2
mgz and E z mgz .
2m
2m

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NET/JRF (JUNE-2012)
Q15.

The bob of a simple pendulum, which undergoes small oscillations, is immersed in water.
Which of the following figures best represents the phase space diagram for the
pendulum?
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

x
.
Ans:

(d)

Solution: When simple pendulum oscillates in water it is damped oscillation so amplitude


continuously decrease and finally it stops.
Q16.

Two events separated by a (spatial) distance 9 109m, are simultaneous in one inertial
frame.The time interval between these two events in a frame moving with a constant
speed 0.8 c (where the speed of light c = 3 108 m/s) is
(a) 60 s

Ans:

(b) 40 s

(c) 20 s

(d) 0 s

(b)

Solution: x 2' x1' 9 10 9 m and t 2' t1' 0 . Then

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t ' v x' t1 v x'


t 2' t1'
v x 2' x1' v x 2' x1'
2 c2 2 1 c2 1
.

2
t 2 t1

2
1

2
2
2
2
2
c2
c
v
v
v
v
v
1
1

1 2
1 2
1 2

2
2
c
c
c
c
c

t 2 t1 40 sec

Put v 0.8c

Q17. If the Lagrangian of a particle moving in one dimensions is given by L

x 2
V x the
2x

Hamiltonian is
x 2
V x
(b)
2x

1
(a) xp 2 V x
2

Ans:

p2
V x
(d)
2x

1
(c) x 2 V x
2

(a)
L
x
p x p x x p x x .
x
x

Solution: Since H p x x L and

px x
p x2 x
x 2

H p x x
V x H px px x
V x .
Vx H
2x
2
2x
2

Q18.

A horizontal circular platform mutes with a constant angular velocity directed


vertically upwards. A person seated at the centre shoots a bullet of mass m horizontally
with speed v. The acceleration of the bullet, in the reference frame of the shooter, is

Ans:

(a) 2v to his right

(b) 2v to his left

(c) v to his right

(d) v to his left

(a)

Solution:

Velocity of

bullet

= vj ,

Angular

velocity= k .

There

will

be

coriolis

force F 2m v .

F 2mvi a 2vi .
Q19.

The Poisson bracket r , p has the value


(a) r p

Ans:

(b) r p

(c) 3

(d) 1

(b)

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1/ 2

Solution: r xi yj zk , r x 2 y 2 z 2 , p pxi p y j pz k ,
1/ 2

p px2 p y2 pz2

r p r p r p r p r p r p

r , p = x p p x y p p y z p p y
y
y
x
x
z
z



rp
x px y p y z pz

r p



r p
r p r p r p
Q20. Consider the motion of a classical particle in a one dimensional double-well
potential V x

2
1 2
x 2 . If the particle is displaced infinitesimally from the minimum
4

on the x-axis (and friction is neglected), then


(a) the particle will execute simple harmonic motion in the right well with an angular
frequency 2
(b) the particle will execute simple harmonic motion in the right well with an angular
frequency =2
(c) the particle will switch between the right and left wells
(d) the particle will approach the bottom of the right well and settle there
Ans:

(b)

Solution: V x

1 2
x 22 V 2 x 2 2 2 x 0 x 0 , x 2 .
4
x 4

2V
2V
2
.
At
,

3
x

2
0 so V is maximum. Thus it is unstable point
x

0
x 2
x 2

2V
x 2

4 and it is stable equilibrium point with


x 2

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2V
x 2

x x0

1.

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Q21.

What is proper time interval between the occurrence of two events if in one inertial frame
events are separated by 7.5 108m and occur 6.5 s a part?
(a) 6.50 s

Ans:

(b) 6.00 s

(c) 5.75 s

(d) 5.00 s

There is not possible to calculate proper time interval

Solution: x 2 x1 7.5 10 8 m and t 2 t1 6.5 s .

v
v
v
t2 2 x2 t1 2 x1 t t
x x1
2 2

c
c

2 1 c
t2' t1'
.

v2
v2
v2
v2
1 2
1 2
1 2 1 2
c
c
c
c

In this problem v is not given so its not possible to calculate proper time interval.
NET/JRF (DEC-2012)
Q22.

A solid cylinder of height H, radius R and density , floats vertically on the surface of a
liquid of density 0 . The cylinder will be set into oscillatory motion when a small
instantaneous downward force is applied. The frequency of oscillation is
(a)

Ans:

g
0H

(b)

g
H

(c)

(d)

0H

0 g
H

(d)

Solution: From Newtons law of motion ma mg 0 Agh where A is area of cross section,
m AH .
AHa AHg 0 Agh a 1

Q23.

0 gh
0 g

H
H

Three particles of equal mass (m) are connected by two identical massless springs of
stiffness constant (K) as shown in the figure

K
m

If x1, x2 and x3 denote the horizontal displacement of the masses from their respective
equilibrium positions the potential energy of the system is
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Ans:

1
K x12 x22 x32
2

(c)

1
K x12 2 x22 x32 2 x2 x1 x3
2

(b)

1
K x12 x22 x32 x2 x1 x3
2

(d)

1
K x12 2 x22 2 x2 x1 x3
2

(c)

Solution: V
V

Q24.

(a)

1
1
2
2
K x2 x1 K x3 x2 ,
2
2

1
1
1
K x22 x12 2 x2 x1 K x32 x22 2 x3 x2 V K x12 2 x22 x32 2 x2 x1 x3
2
2
2

A planet of mass m moves in the gravitational field of the Sun (mass M). If the semimajor and semi-minor axes of the orbit are a and b respectively, the angular momentum
of the planet is
(a)

Ans:

2GMm2 a b

(b) 2GMm2 a b

(c)

2GMm2 ab
a b

2GMm2 ab
ab

(d)

(d)

Solution: Assume Sun is at the centre of elliptical orbit.


Conservation of energy

1 2 GMm 1 2 GMm
mv1
mv2
2
a
2
b

v2

Conservation of momentum L mv1a mv2b

a
v2 v1
b

v1

1
a2
1 2 1 2 GMm GMm
b a
mv1 mv2

m v12 v12 2 GMm


ab
2
2
a
b
2
b
1
1
1 2 b2 a 2
b
b a
mv12 GMm
mv1
GMm

a b a
ab
2
2
b

1
b
v1 2GM
a b a
2GMab
2GMm2 ab
b 1
L mv1a m 2GM

a b a
ab
b a

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Q25.

The Hamiltonian of a simple pendulum consisting of a mass m attached to a massless


string of length l is H

p2
mgl 1 cos . If L denotes the Lagrangian, the value of
2ml 2

dL
is:
dt

(a)

(b)

g
p cos
l

(c)
Ans:

2g
p sin
l

g
p sin 2
l

(d) lp2 cos

(a)

Solution:

p2
dL
L
where H 2 mgl 1 cos .
L, H
2ml
dt
t

p
H
ml 2 2
2 , L
L pi q i H p H ,
mgl 1 cos .
p ml
2
i

Hence we have to calculate L, H which is only defined into phase space i.e. p and .
Then L

p2
mgl 1 cos
2ml 2

L, H L H

L H
2g
L
dL
2g

p sin and
0

p sin
p
l
t
dt
l

Q26. Two bodies of equal mass m are connected by a massless rigid rod of length l lying in the
xy-plane with the centre of the rod at the origin. If this system is rotating about the z-axis
with a frequency , its angular momentum is
(a) ml 2 / 4
Ans:

(b) ml 2 / 2

(c) ml 2

(d) 2ml 2

(b)

Solution: Since rod is massless i.e. M = 0.


Moment of inertia of the system m1 r12 m2 r22 , m1 m2 m and r1 r2

l
2

ml 2 ml 2
ml 2
ml 2

. Angular momentum, J I and J


.
4
4
2
2

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Q27.

Which of the following set of phase-space trajectories is not possible for a particle
obeying Hamiltons equations of motion?
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Ans:

(b)

Solution: Phase curve does not cut each other


Q28.

The muon has mass 105 MeV/c2 and mean life time 2.2 s in its rest frame. The mean
distance traversed by a muon of energy 315 MeV before decaying is approximately,
(a) 3 105 km

Ans:

(c) 6.6 m

(b) 2.2 cm

(d) 1.98 km

(d)

Solution: Since E 315MeV and m0 105


E mc 2 E

m0 c 2
2

315

v
1 2
c
Now, t

t0
v2
1 2
c

MeV
.
c2
m0 c 2
2

315

v
1 2
c

t 0 2.2s t

2.2 10 6
8
1
9

105
1

v 0.94c .

v
c2

t = 6.6 s

Now the distance traversed by muon is vt 0.94c 6.6 10 6 = 1.86 km .


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NET/JRF (JUNE-2013)
Q29.

The area of a disc in its rest frame S is equal to 1 (in some units). The disc will appear
distorted to an observer O moving with a speed u with respect to S along the plane of the
disc. The area of the disc measured in the rest frame of the observer O is ( c is the speed
of light in vacuum)
u2
(a) 1 2
c

Ans:

1/ 2

u2
(b) 1 2
c

1 / 2

u2
(c) 1 2
c

u2
(d) 1 2
c

(a)
i.e. a 2 1 or a a 1

Solution: Area of disc from S frame is 1

Area of disc from S frame is a b a a 1

u2
u2
u2

c2
c2
c2

u2
where b a 1 2 .
c
Q30.

A planet of mass m and an angular momentum L moves in a circular orbit in a potential,

V r k / r , where k is a constant. If it is slightly perturbed radially, the angular


frequency of radial oscillations is
(a) mk 2 / 2 L3
Ans:

(b) mk 2 / L3

(c)

2mk 2 / L3

3mk 2 / L3

(d)

(b)

Solution: Veff

Veff
L2
k
L2
k

2 0
.
For
circular
orbit
3
2
r
r
mr
r
2mr

L2
L2
k
r

.
Thus


0
mk
mr 3 r 2
2

d Veff
dr

2
r r0

3L
2k
3
4
mr
r

r r0

k
,
m
r
3m k
2m k
m k4
2k

=
3
L6
L6
L6
L2

mk
3

3L

L2
m
mk

Veff

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Q31.

d 2V
dr 2

r r0

mk 2
.
L3

The number of degrees of freedom of a rigid body in d space-dimensions is


(a) 2d

(c) d d 1 / 2

(b) 6

Ans:

(c)

Q32.

A system is governed by the Hamiltonian


H

(d) d !

1
p x ay 2 1 p x bx2
2
2

where a and b are constants and p x , p y are momenta conjugate to x and y respectively.
For what values of a and b will the quantities p x 3 y and p y 2 x be conserved?
(a) a 3, b 2

(b) a 3, b 2

(c) a 2, b 3

(d) a 2, b 3

Ans: (d)
Solution: Poisson bracket

px 3y, H 0 and

py 2 y, H 0

py (b 3) x(3b b2 ) 0 and px (a 2) y (2a a 2 ) 0

a 2, b 3
Q33. The Lagrangian of a particle of mass m moving in one dimension is given by
L

1 2
mx bx
2

where b is a positive constant. The coordinate of the particle x t at time t is given by: (in
following c1 and c 2 are constants)
(a)

b 2
t c1t c2
2m

(b) c1t c 2

bt
bt
(c) c1 cos c 2 sin
m
m

Ans:

bt
bt
(d) c1 cosh c 2 sinh
m
m

(a)

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Solution:

Equation

of

d L L
d
0 mx b 0 mx b 0

dt x x
dt

motion

mx b
b t2
d 2x
b
dx
b

c1t c2
t c1 x
m 2
m
dt
m
dt 2

NET/JRF (DEC-2013)
Q34.

Let A, B and C be functions of phase space variables (coordinates and momenta of a


mechanical

system).

If

represents

the

Poisson

bracket,

the

value

of

A, B, C A, B, C is given by
(a) 0
Ans:

(b) B, C , A

(c) A, C , B

(d) C , A, B

(d)

Solution: We know that Jacobi identity equation

A, B, C B, C, A C, A, B 0
Now A, B, C A, B, C B, C , A C, A, B

Q35. A particle moves in a potential V x 2 y 2

z2
. Which component(s) of the angular
2

momentum is/are constant(s) of motion?


(a) None

(b) L x , L y and L z

(c) only L x and L y

(d) only L z

Ans: (d)
Solution: A particle moves in a potential V x 2 y 2
V r , , r 2 sin 2 cos 2 r 2 sin 2 sin 2
V r , , r 2 sin 2

z2
2

r2
cos 2
2

r2
cos 2
2

Now is cyclic-co-ordinate p i.e Lz is constant of motion.


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Q36.

The Hamiltonian of a relativistic particle of rest mass m and momentum p is given


by H

p 2 m 2 V x , in units in which the speed of light c 1 . The corresponding

Lagrangian is

Ans:

(a) L m 1 x 2 V x

(b) L m 1 x 2 V x

(c) L 1 mx 2 V x

(d) L

1 2
mx V x
2

2p

x p 2 m 2

(b)

Solution: H

p 2 m 2 V x

H
1
x
p
2

1
2 2

1/ 2

xm
1 x 2

p 2 m2 V x
Now L xp H xp H xp
Put value p
Q37.

xm
1 x

L m 1 x 2 V x

A pendulum consists of a ring of mass M and radius R suspended by a massless rigid


rod of length l attached to its rim. When the pendulum oscillates in the plane of the ring,
the time period of oscillation is

Ans:

(a) 2

lR
g

(b)

(c) 2

2 R 2 2 Rl l 2
g R l

(d)

2
g
2
g

R2

2R

1/ 4

2Rl l 2

1/ 4

(c)

Solution: The moment of inertia about pivotal point is given by


I I c.m Md 2 MR 2 M (l R ) 2

If ring is displaced by angle then potential energy is Mg (l R) cos


The Lagrangian is given by
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L

1 2
1
I V ( ) = ( MR 2 M (l R)2 )2 Mg (l R) cos
2
2

d L L
2
2

0 ( MR M (l R) ) Mg (l R) sin 0
dt

For small oscillation sin ( MR 2 M (l R) 2 ) Mg (l R) 0

2 R 2 2 Rl l 2
Time period is given by 2
.
g R l
Q38.

Consider a particle of mass m attached to two identical

springs each of length l and spring constant k (see the


figure). The equilibrium configuration is the one where the o
springs are unstretched. There are no other external forces on
the system. If the particle is given a small displacement along
the x -axis, which of the following describes the equation of

motion for small oscillations?


(a) mx
Ans:

kx3
0
l2

(b) mx kx 0

(c) mx 2kx 0

(d) mx

kx2
0
l

(a)

Solution: The lagrangian of system is given by


L

1 2
mx V ( x)
2

The potential energy is given by


k
V ( x) x 2 l 2
2

V ( x) k x 2 l 2

1
2

1
2

k
l x2 l 2
2

1
2

For small oscillation one can approximate potential by Taylor expansion

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2

1
2

2 2
1 x 2 1 x 4

x
2

2
V ( x) kl 1 2 1 V ( x) kl 1 2 4 1

8 l
2 l
l

x2
V ( x) kl 2
l

x 4
V ( x) k 2 .
4l

x 4
1 2
So Lagrangian of system is given by L mx k 2
2
4l

The Lagranges equation of motion

kx3
d L L

m
x

0.

0

dt x x
l2

NET/JRF (JUNE-2014)
Q39.

The time period of a simple pendulum under the influence of the acceleration due to
gravity g is T . The bob is subjected to an additional acceleration of magnitude

3 g in

the horizontal direction. Assuming small oscillations, the mean position and time period
of oscillation, respectively, of the bob will be
(a) 0 o to the vertical and

3T

(c) 60 o to the vertical and T / 2


Ans:

(b) 30 o to the vertical and T / 2


(d) 0 o to the vertical and T / 3

(c)

Solution: T 2

l
g

3g 2 g 2

4g 2 2 g

l
T
l 1
T 2
T
T 2

2g
g 2
2

3g

T cos mg , T sin 3 mg tan 3 60o

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Q40.

A particle of mass m and coordinate q has the Lagrangian L

mq 2 qq 2
2
2

where is a constant. The Hamiltonian for the system is given by

Ans:

(a)

p 2 qp 2

2m 2m 2

(b)

p2
2m q

(c)

p2
qp 2

2m 2m q 2

(d)

pq
2

(b)

L where L
Solution: H qp

1
1
mq 2 qq 2
2
2

L
p
p mq qq p q m q q
q
m q

p2
p2
1

p2
L
H qp
m

m q 2 m q 2 2 m q 2

Q41.

L
H qp

p2
p2

m q
m q 2 m q 2

L
H qp

p2
p2

m q 2 m q

p2
2 m q

The coordinates and momenta xi , pi i 1, 2, 3 of a particle satisfy the canonical Poisson


bracket relations xi , p j ij . If C1 x2 p3 x3 p2 and C 2 x1 p 2 x2 p1 are constants of
motion, and if C 3 C1 , C 2 x1 p3 x3 p1 , then
(a) C 2 , C3 C1 and C3 , C1 C 2
(b) C 2 , C3 C1 and C3 , C1 C 2
(c) C 2 , C3 C1 and C3 , C1 C 2
(d) C 2 , C3 C1 and C3 , C1 C 2

Ans:

(d)

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Solution:

C1 x2 p3 x3 p2 , C2 x1 p2 x2 p1 , C3 x1 p3 x3 p1

C2 C3 C2 C3 C2 C3 C2 C3 C2 C3 C2 C3

x1 p1 p1 x1 x2 p2 p2 x2 x3 p3 p3 x3

C2 , C3

C2 , C3 p2 x3 x2 p3 0 x1 0 0 x1 0 x1 p2 x3 x2 p3 C1
C3 C1 C3 C1 C3 C1 C3 C1 C3 C1 C3 C1

x1 p1 p1 x1 x2 p2 p2 x2 x3 p3 p3 x3

C3 , C1

C3 , C1 p3 0 x3 0 0 x3 0 p3 p1x2 x1 p2 x1 p2 x2 p1 C2
Q42.

The recently-discovered Higgs boson at the LHC experiment has a decay mode into a
photon and a Z boson. If the rest masses of the Higgs and Z boson are 125 GeV/c

90 GeV/c

and

respectively, and the decaying Higgs particle is at rest, the energy of the

photon will approximately be


(a) 35 3 GeV
Ans:

(b) 35 GeV

(c) 30 GeV

(d) 15 GeV

(c)

H B PH Z B

Solution:

From conservation of momentum 0 P1 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2


Now EH B EPH EZ B EPH EZB M HB c2

EP2H P12 c 2 0 and EZ2B P22c 2 M Z2B c 4

EZ B EPH

EZ B EPH

ZB

EPH M Z2B c 4 P1 P2

M Z2B c 4
M HB c

2 EPH M H B c
2

M Z2B c 2
M HB

M z2B c 2
M HB

EPH

EZB EPH M HB c2

2
HB

M z2B c 2

M HB

4
125 125 90 90 c
EPH

4 30.1GeV
2 125

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Q43.

A canonical transformation relates the old coordinates q, p to the new ones Q, P by


the relations Q q 2 and P p / 2q . The corresponding time independent generating
function is
(a) P / q 2

Ans:

(b) q 2 P

(d) qP 2

(c) q 2 / P

(b)

2
Solution: Q q ;

P p / 2q

F2
F
p 2 P 2q F2 q 2 P f ( P)
q
q

F2
Q q 2 F2 q 2 P f (q )
P
comparing both side f (q) f ( P) 0 F2 q 2 P

NET/JRF (DEC-2014)
Q44.

The equation of motion of a system described by the time-dependent Lagrangian


1

L e t mx 2 V x is
2

Ans:

(a) mx mx

dV
0
dx

(b) mx mx

(c) mx mx

dV
0
dx

(d) mx

dV
0
dx

dV
0
dx

(a)

L
L
V t
1

Solution: L e t mx 2 V x
e t mx and

e
x
x
x
2

d L L
d t
V t
V t
t mx e t
0
e mx
e mxe
e 0

dt x x
dt
x
x

V t
V

0
mx m x
e 0 mx mx
x
x

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Q45.

1
1
A particle of mass m is moving in the potential V x ax 2 bx 4 where a, b are
2
4

positive constants. The frequency of small oscillations about a point of stable equilibrium
is
(a)
Ans:

a/m

2a / m

(b)

(c)

3a / m

(d)

6a / m

(b)

1
1
Solution: V x ax 2 bx 4
2
4
1

V
a 2
0 ax bx3 0 x a bx2 0 x , 0
x
b

2V
a 3bx 2
x 2

2V
x 2

a 3b

x
b

Q46.

1
a 2

At x 0,

2V
x 2
m

2V
a (Negative so it is unstable point)
x 2

a
2a (Positive so it is stable point)
b

2a
m

The radius of Earth is approximately 6400 km . The height h at which the acceleration
due to Earths gravity differs from g at the Earths surface by approximately 1% is
(a) 64 km

Ans:

(b) 48 km

(c) 32 km

(d) 16 km

(c)
g
2h
g
2h
g 2h
1
1

h 32 k .m.
g
R
g
R
g
R
According to the special theory of relativity, the speed v of a free particle of mass m and

Solution:
Q47.

total energy E is:


(a) v c 1

mc 2
E

mc 2

(c) v c 1
E

(b) v
2

2 E mc 2
1

m
E

mc 2
(d) v c1
E

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Ans:

(c)
2

mc 2
v 2 mc 2
v2
m2 c 4
Solution: E
1 2

c
1

c E
c2
E2
v2
E
1 2
c
mc 2

Q48.

The Hamiltonian of a classical particle moving in one dimension is H

p2
q 4 where
2m

is a positive constant and p and q are its momentum and position respectively. Given
that its total energy E E 0 the available volume of phase space depends on E 0 as

Ans:

(a) E 03 / 4

(b) E 0

(c)

(d) is independent of E 0

E0

(a)

Solution: H

V q

P2
q4
2m

E0

Phase area
p dq
1

E 4
A
p dq 2mE
AE

1/2
0

Q49.

1/4
0

2mE0
E0 /

AE

1/4

3/4
0

E0 / 1/4
2mE0

A mechanical system is described by the Hamiltonian H q, p


result of the canonical transformation generated by F q, Q

p2 1
m 2 q 2 . As a
2m 2

Q
, the Hamiltonian in
q

the new coordinate Q and momentum P becomes

Ans:

(a)

1 2 2 m 2 2
Q P
Q
2m
2

(b)

1 2 2 m 2 2
Q P
P
2m
2

(c)

1 2 m 2 2
P
Q
2m
2

(d)

1 2 4 m 2 2
Q P
P
2m
2

(d)

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Q
p2 1
m 2 q 2 , F F1 q, Q
q
2m 2
F
Q
1p 2 p
.(a)
q
q

Solution: H

F1
1
1
P P q
Q
q
P

From equation (a) and (b) p QP 2


H

Q50.

.(b)
q

1
P

p2 1
Q2 P4 1
1 1 2 4 1
m 2 q 2
m 2 2
Q P m 2 P 2
2m 2
2m
2
2
P 2m

The probe Mangalyaan was sent recently to explore the planet Mars. The inter-planetary
part of the trajectory is approximately a half-ellipse with the Earth (at the time of launch),
Sun and Mars (at the time the probe reaches the
destination) forming the major axis. Assuming that the
orbits of Earth and Mars are approximately circular with
radii RE and RM , respectively, the velocity (with respect

Sun
Earth

Mars

RE

RM

to the Sun) of the probe during its voyage when it is at a


distance r RE r RM from the Sun, neglecting the
effect of Earth and Mars, is

Ans:

(a)

2GM

(c)

2GM

R E RM

r R E RM r
RE
rRM

(b)

2GM

(d)

2GM
r

R E RM r
r R E RM

(b)

Solution: Total energy E K / 2a where 2a major axis and 2a RE RM .

R RM r
1 2 GMm
GMm
mv

v 2GM E
2
r
r RE RM
RE RM

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