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EDUCE

EUSE
ECYCLE
ESPOND
Everyday the amount of solid wastes in our city is
increasing. According to City Public Service Office (cited in UP
Planades, ZC Masterplan 1997-2012), Zamboanga City
disposes of 350 to 450 cu.m of solid wastes daily and only
about 70 to 72 % is collected.
We can do a lot to help solve this growing problem of
our city. This booklet describes how we can do our share in
helping our environment. We do not need special training or
education to contribute to the solutions of the increasing
problem of trash. Our government cannot solve this problem
alone. What we need is our earnest desire to save our
deteriorating environment. It needs our participation!

Whats in our trash?


Let us look at what made up our trash. The
study conducted by Consoer, Townsend &
Associates (cited in EMB, DENR, 1996)
shows the following composition of the solid
wastes in the Philippines:
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Table 1. Average Composition


Philippines
Component
Yard and Field Waste
Fines and Inert
Wood
Food Wastes
Paper and Cardboard
Plastics
and
Petroleum
Products
Textiles
Metals
Glass
Leather and Rubber
Total

of Solid Wastes in the


% by weight
33.5
12.9
11.5
11.0
10.2
9.8
4.1
3.3
1.9
1.8
100.0

The table indicates that some waste components


have the potential to be reduced, reused or recycled. For
example, yard and field waste which is the highest
component, can be recycled through the process of
composting. Paper can also be recycled. Hence, we can
really substantially reduce the amount of waste we dispose
of. Less waste means less of a waste problem to deal with.
Less waste will also improve the collection efficiency of our
solid waste collection system. Less waste will create a
domino effect in the other functional elements of the solid
waste management system.

The Functional Elements of


Solid Waste Management
Solid Waste Generation
Storage
Collection
Transfer & Transport

Processing & Recovery

Onsite Storage

This where the solid waste generated is placed before


collection. A good onsite storage system must meet the
following requirements:
it must isolate the wastes from the environment to
prevent health hazards,
it must be aesthetically acceptable, and
it must facilitate collection.

Disposal

Solid Waste Generation


This is defined as those activities in
which the materials are identified as no
longer being of value and either thrown
away or gathered for disposal

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Collection

Involves the gathering and hauling of solid wastes to


transfer stations, processing and recovery stations, or to
final disposal sites.

I
cost of collection is usually 40 to 80 % of the total SW
Mngt. cost.

Transfer and Transport

A transfer station is place where the wastes from


smaller collection vehicles are loaded into larger transport
vehicles. It is normally economical to put a transfer station
if the disposal site is quite far.

Processing and Recovery

This is a landmark legislation that seeks to address


the alarming problems we have over our solid wastes. By
instituting mechanisms of
WASTE MINIMIZATION,
RESOURCE RECOVERY, APPROPRIATE COLLECTION
AND TRANSPORT SERVICES, and ENVIRONMENTALLYSOUND TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL, this new law seeks
to address the major causes of the current solid waste crisis
in Metro Manila and to arrest similar problems throughout
the country.

HIGHLIGHTS FEATURES of RA
9003 (Arroyo, 2001)

Recovery of resources, conversion products, and


energy from solid wastes

Sanitary Landfill

An operation in which the wastes to be disposed of are


compacted and covered with a layer of soil at the end of
each days operation.

RA 9003 Ecological Solid


Waste Management Act
of 2000
Last January 26, 2001, President Gloria Macapagal
signed into law the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of
2000.
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Stresses the importance of environmentally sound


techniques of waste minimization, such as but not
limited to:
resource conservation
segregation at source
recycling
resource recovery
reuse, and
composting

It provides for the mandatory segregation of


waste at the household level with collection
vehicles to have appropriate compartments of
sorted wastes or separate collection schedules for
specific types of wastes.

It prohibits the open dumping of solid wastes and


the establishment of sanitary landfills for final
disposal.

It mandates the establishment of recycling centers at


every barangay nationwide.

It calls for the integration of solid waste management


concerns in the school curriculum, starting at the
elementary level, high school and up to the tertiary
level. CALLS FOR THE INTEGRATION OF SOLID
WASTE MANAGEMENT

It directs an inventory of existing markets for


recycled materials and compost.

It requires the preparation of ten-year solid


management plans by all local government units.
The law also empowers local government units to
effectively pursue their respective solid waste
management systems in their area of jurisdiction by
providing them the needed policy and technical
support.

Source Reduction:
Solution

Basic

As a nation, we are starting to realize that we cant


solve the solid waste dilemma just by finding new places to put
trash. Simply put, source reduction is waste prevention.
Source reduction is a basic solution to the garbage glut: LESS
WASTES MEANS LESS OF A WASTE PROBLEM. It actually
prevents the generation of waste in the first place. It includes
actions that reduce the overall amount or toxicity of waste
created.

Advantages of Source Reduction


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conserve resources
reduce pollution
help cut waste disposal and handling cost

TIPS FOR REDUCING


WASTE (USEPA, 1992)

SOLID

Reduce
1. Reduce the amount of unnecessary packaging.
Packaging materials serve
many purposes - protect and
contain a product, prevent
tampering, provide information,
and preserve hygienic integrity
and freshness. However, some
packaging is designed largely to
enhance
a
products
attractiveness or prominence on
the store shelf. Since packaging
materials account for a large volume of the trash we
generate, they provide a good opportunity for reducing
waste.

For example:
A peanut butter of the same quality, one is placed in a box the
other without packaging material.
Choose the one without the necessary packaging material.

2. Adopt practices that reduce waste toxicity

Use nonhazardous or less


hazardous
components
to
accomplish
the
task.
Learn
alternative to household items
containing hazardous substances.
If you do need to use products
with hazardous components, use
only the amount needed.
For products containing hazardous components, read and
follow all directions on product use.

Look for items that are available in refillable containers.


Take only what is needed.
Think about reusables to reduce solid
wastes

For example:
Use a pen with refillable ink. Not only that the it
reduces wastes, it is also cheaper to buy refill ink
than buying a new pen.

4. Maintain and repair durable products.


Although
durable
products
sometimes cost more
initially, their extended
life span may offset the
higher cost and even
save money over the
long
term
than
items/products that have
to be thrown out and
replaced frequently.

For example:
Use of battery with no mercury. Normally, the label will show whether
its mercury-laden or not.

5. Reuse bags, containers,


and other items.

Reuse
3. Consider reusable products.
Many products are designed to be
used more than once. Reusable products
and containers often result in less waste.

Many everyday items can have more than one use.


Before discarding bags, containers, and other items,
consider if it is hygienic and practical to use them. Reusing
products extends their lives, keeping them out of the solid
waste stream longer.
For example:

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The plastic bags used for wrapping goods when we buy from a
department store can be used again as containers when we go to
a wet market.

8. Choose recyclable products and containers and


recycle them.

6. Borrow, rent, or share items used infrequently.


Seldom-used items, like certain power tools and party
goods, often collect dust, rust, take up valuable storage space,
and ultimately end up in the trash. Consider renting or
borrowing these items the next time theyre needed.
Infrequently used items also might be shared among
neighbors, friends or family. Borrowing, renting, or sharing
items saves both money and natural resources.

7. Sell or donate goods instead of throwing them out.


One persons trash is another
persons
treasure.
Instead
of
discarding unwanted items try selling
or donating them. Reusing them will
keep them from being thrown away.

Cope
in can

Consider products made of


materials that are collected for recycling
locally (example aluminum, glass, steel,
etc.) Producing goods from recycled
materials typically consumes less
energy and conserves raw materials.

Recycling one aluminum can saves enough energy to keep a


100-watt bulb lightingfor almost four hours or provide power to
your television for three hours (ODNR, 2001).
Recycling one glass bottle saves enough energy to a light a 100watt bulb for four hours (ODNR, 2001).

9. Select products from recycled materials


For recycling to succeed,
recyclable materials must
be
processed into new products, and
those products must be purchased
and used.

For example:
Used clothing can be given, donated to a charity or sold to potential
buyers.

IBD

Recycle

10. Compost yard trimmings


and some food scraps.

Backyard composting of certain food scraps and yard


trimmings can significantly reduce the amount of waste that
needs to be managed by the local government or put into a
landfill. When properly composted, these wastes can be turned
into natural soil additives for use on lawn and gardens, and
used as potting soil for house plants. Finished compost can
improve soil texture, increase ability of the soil to absorb air
and water, suppress weed growth, decrease erosion, and
reduce the need to apply commercial soil additives.

There are many ways to reduce the amount and the


toxicity of solid waste. By thinking creatively, many new
uses for common items and new possibilities for reduction
and recycling can be discovered.

Respond

11. Educate others on source reduction and recycling


practices.
Make
your
preferences
known
to
manufacturers, merchants, and community leaders.
Share information about
source reduction, recycling, and
composting
with
others.
Encourage them to learn more
about solid waste issues and to
work toward implementing and
promoting source reduction,
recycling, and composting. We
all have the power to influence
others and help create the type
of world in which we want to live.

IBD

12. Be creative find ways to reduce waste quantity


and toxicity.

References
1. USEPA (1992). The Consumers Handbook for
Reducing Solid Waste.
2. Republic Act 9003 Ecological Solid Waste
Management Act of 2000.
3. UP Planades (1998). Zamboanga City Master
Development Plant, 1997-2012.
4. EMB, DENR (1996). Solid Waste Management for Local
Governments.
5. Arroyo, G.M. (2001). Speech delivered during the
signing of RA 9003 last January 26, 2001.