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AIRCRAFT

SYSTEMS LAB
MANUAL

S.No
1
2
3
4
5

Name of the Experiment


AIRCRAFT JACKING UP PROCEDURE
AIRCRAFT LEVELING PROCEDURE
AIRCRAFT CONTROL SYSTEM RIGGING CHECK PROCEDURE
AIRCRAFT SYMMETRY CHECK PROCEDURE
PRESSURE TEST PROCEDURE ON FUEL SYSTEM

6
7

COMPONENTS
A STUDY OF PRESSURE TEST IN HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS
MAINTENANCE AND RECTIFICATION OF SNAGS IN FUEL

14
16

SYSTEM
MAINTENANCE AND RECTIFICATION OF SNAGS IN

19

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
STUDY OF FLOW TEST, ASSESS OF FILTER ELEMENT

22

10

CLOGGING
A STUDY ON BRAKE TORQUE LOAD TEST ON WHEEL BRAKE

25

UNIT

Page No
2
5
7
9
11

Experiment : 1

AIRCRAFT JACKING UP PROCEDURE

Introduction
Lifting of the aircraft above the ground with the help of JACKS is called as
JACKING. It can be for servicing, weighting, changing of wheels, leveling
rigging and retraction tests of aircraft landing gear.
Precaution before jacking
1.

Small aircraft always jacked up inside the hangar. Big aircraft can be
jacked up outside hanger sometimes and the aircraft should be positioned
nose against wind position.

2.

Ensure that the ground floor where jacking has to be done should be level
and lead.

3.

Check the serviceability and aircraft jacks and tail supports (trustees).

4.

Check the aircraft weight, fuel state and centre of gravity are within
limits as specified in the aircraft maintenance manual.

5.

Connect the earthen cables to be earthing points on the aircraft.

6.

Ensure the under carriage ground locks.

7.

Check the main wheels front and real and release the brake.

8.

Take proper clearance for the jacking aircraft with other aircraft and
ground equipment.

9.

Take clearance from the in charge of aircraft and hanger.

Jacking procedure
3

1.

It the jacking pads to the aircraft jacking points as required.

2.

Slowly the position of jacks at each jacking points and raise them until
the adaptors are located centrally in the jacking pads.

3.

Attain the tail support to the tail skid place approximately 250 pounds of
ballast on the base of the tail support to hold down the tail.

4.

Remove the wheel locks. The jacks should be operated simultaneously to


keep the aircraft as level of possible and to avoid over loading on any of
jacks or wing area.

5.

Jack up steadily until the under carriage legs are fully extended and the
wheels are a feel inches off the ground.

6.

As the safety measure, the locking nuts on the jacks ram should also be
tightened simultaneously.

7.

After completion of jacking, ensure all safety and security of jacking


points and jacks.

Lowering of aircraft
1.

After completion of required work, lowering of aircraft from jacks also


performed.

2.

Before lowering, all ground equipment, work stands, supports should be


moved clear of the aircraft.

3.

The wheels should be checked for its free location.

4.

Tail support should be simultaneously lowered with jacks.

5.

The jacks should be lowered slowly by opening their pressure release


value and to guard against failure of jack, the locking nuts on the jack
cams should be unscrewed.

6.

After lowering the aircraft resting on its wheels, chocks should be placed.

Use of bottle jack


4

1.

A bottle hack and on adapter are used to raise single under carriage for
the purpose of changing the wheel.

2.

The remaining side wheels are chocked in front and rear to present
aircraft movement. Sometimes tail supports also be utilized.

3.

The jack should be raised sufficient level for changing the wheel.

Result
Thus jacking up procedure of aircraft is fully understood.

Experiment : 2

AIRCRAFT LEVELING PROCEDURE

Aim
To know various precautionary measures and procedures to be followed
while leveling an aircraft both laterally and longitudinally to ensure, Rigging and
weighing operations are carried out affectively and efficiently.
Apparatus required

Spirit level

Plumb bob

Engineer transit method

Note
Aircraft is to be Jacked up be carrying out the leveling procedures.

Procedure
i. Spirit level
Many aircrafts are leveled by use of a spirit level which is placed at jigged
positions on the airframe structure for light aircraft. The longitudinal level position
is generally obtained by placing the spirit level on the two legs on the heads of two
partially with drawn screws on the sides of fuselage and adjusting the jack until the
spirit level is centered. The lateral level position is obtained by placing the spirit
level on the centre section space boom and again adjusting jacks or tyre pressures
until the level is centered, with some large aircraft a spirit level may be used in
conjunction with special fittings which are secured to locations in the centre
fuselage (or) is one of the wheel bays. These fittings must be removed before flight
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and should have warning streamers attached. If adjustments have been necessary to
level an aircraft laterally, the longitudinal level should be rechecked.

Note
In case where tyre pressures are adjusted to level the aircraft, care must be
taken not be over inflate or to completely deflate a tyre.
ii. Plumb bob
On many aircraft, plumb bob is used in conjunction with leveling plate. The
plumb bob is suspended from a fixed position in the cabin loof (or) upper part of a
wheel bay and hangs over a leveling plate which may be permanent of mixture or
a separate fitting accurately located on the cabin floor or a lower part of the wheel
bay.
The leveling plate is marked with a zero position and scales indicating the
adjustment required about lateral and longitudinal axes to centre the plumb bob.
iii. Engineer transit method
The most accurate means of leveling and aircraft is by the use of an
engineers transit (theodolite) in conjunction with a lange pole or scale located on
the aircraft in lateral and longitudinal axis. The transit is setup below the aircraft
centre line and between the lateral leveling points leveled comfortably. Range
poles or scales are then located at force marked leveling points on the lower
surface of the fuselage and wings. Sightings are then taken on the longitudinal
large poles or scales and the nose jack is adjusted until identical readings are again
obtained. The aircraft is then considered level and the transit can be removed.
Note
The transit method is also employed when checking alignment of the aircraft
structure graduation on the range poles being used to check diagonal and
incidence.
Result
Thus the leveling procedure of aircraft is fully understood.
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Experiment : 3

AIRCRAFT CONTROL SYSTEM RIGGING


CHECK PROCEDURE

Aim
To know the various methods and precautions to be allowed while rigging
on aircraft to ensure that the assembly checking and adjusting of an aircraft
components (includes control system) to their correct positions and angle as per the
aircrafts handbook and designers instructors.
Equipments required

Spirit level

Dihedral control board

Incidence board

Plumb bob

Steel rule

Fitter square

Straight edges

Tensiometer

Procedure
Aircraft rigging involves two principal types of operations.
1.

The aircraft structure must be rigged for correct alignment of all fixed
components. The fuselage is aligned at the time of manufacture in the
assembly jigs. All pacts are correctly positioned in the assembly jig.
Some types of fuselage require realignment at major overhaul periods or
after damage wings and other large structures are aligned and assembled
in jigs and fixtures to assure correct shape and positioning of attachment

fittings when the major components are assembled, they are aligned with
each other.
2.

The second type of rigging is the alignment of control surfaces and the
controls that move the surfaces. These operators require the adjustments
of cable length, cable tension, push pull parts. Angular deflection of
control surfaces must be measured with protractors or their measuring
devices to assure that the movements comply with the appropriate
specifications.

Note
The purpose of various rigging tools are given below
1.

To check and level straight parts (made word or metal).

2.

Used in conjunction with straight edges to ensure that surfaces are


cantonal.

3.

Used with an ordinary spirit level to check the dihedral angle of the part
is at correct angle which can be shown when level is zero.

4.

To measure angle of incidence of a plane.

5.

To measure the correct tension on cable.

6.

Plumb bob consist of weights suspended on a thin cold and one used for
giving a true vertical line or for checking the vertical members.

7.

Trammels consists to two adjustable points on a long beam and one used
for comparing distances that should be equal such as the diagonal of
braced frame. For measuring purposes, steel rule and Fitter Square are
used.

Result
The rigging procedure of on aircraft is fully understood.

10

Experiment : 4

AIRCRAFT SYMMETRY CHECK


PROCEDURE

Aim
To know the various methods and procedures to be followed during
symmetry check to ensure that a proper alignment of fully assembled new aircraft
or after repair/servicing/modification/heavy landing of an aircraft thereby the
airworthiness of an aircraft is ascertained.
Note
The precise figures tolerances and check points for a particulars aircraft will
be found in applicable service or maintenance manual.
Method - 1
On small aircraft, the measurements between points are usually taken using
a steel tape. When measuring long distance, it is suggested that a spring scale be
used with the tape to obtain equal tension. A five pound (lb) pull is usually
sufficient.
Method 2
Where large aircrafts concerned, their positions when dimensions are to be
taken are usually checked on the floor. This is done by suspending a plumb bob
from the checkpoints and making the floor immediately under the point of each
plumb bob. The measurements are then taken between the corner of each making.
Procedure

To check the symmetry of an a/c, proceed as follows.

Take diagonal measurement from the centre of the spiral or any


other point at the forward end of the fuselage specified in the
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relevant aircraft hand book to the outer tinge of each aileron.


These measurements should be equal or within the laid down
limits.

Take measurements from each aileron outer lunge point to the


cuddle top hinge. These measurements should be equal or within
laid down limits.

Take diagonal measurements form cuddle top to elevator outer


hinge. These measurements should be equal or within laid down
limits.

Take diagonal measurements from the main wheel axial tip to


outer hinge of each elevator. Then these measurements should be
equal or with laid down limits.

Check the track of the aircraft from trade centres of wheels. This
dimension should be as specified in the aircraft hand book.

Result
Symmetry check procedure of an aircraft is fully understood.

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Experiment : 5

PRESSURE TEST PROCEDURE ON FUEL


SYSTEM COMPONENTS

Aim
To know the various tests to be called out on the fuel system of an aircraft to
ascertain the air worthiness of all fuel system components.
Equipments required
Fuel test rig.
Procedure
1. Vent system pressure test
For this test, the vent system on each side of the aircraft should be tested
separately. All vent openings should be blank and it will often be necessary to
blank float operated valves or to replace them with dunning components.
Alternative means of venting the tanks during the test should be applied to the
system either through drain or through an adopted filled to one of the blanks. The
pressure share is slowly raised to the pressure quoted in the relevant maintenance
manual.
When the air pressure supply lock is turned off, any depression in pressure
with indicate leakage and the drop in pressure over a prescribed time should be
noted the source of any leakage in excess that permitted should be cracked and
rectification action should be taken.
2. Feed system pressure test
The feed system from a tank to its associated engine should be tested
indirectly cross fed and values should be closed and the low pressure clock should
be opened on some aircraft. The feed system are pressured by switching ON both
pumps in the tank concerned which on other, the boost pumps are replaced by
dummy component. The fuel pressure is applied by means of an external testing.
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In some systems, the bleed hole on the external / internal fuel leak, all pipe
connections and valves should be checked visually for signs of leakage under
pressure. No leakage is normally permitted.
3. Transfer system pressure test
The pipes and couplings in the fuel transfer system may be pressurized in a
simitar manner to the fuel system. Pipes should be disconnected and blocked at
the positions specified in relevant maintenance manual and fuel pressure should be
applied by means of transfer pumps or by use of an external test rig supplied
through driving pump. No leaks should be identified and no fuel flow should be
recorded on test rig flow meter.
Note
Pressure tests are normally required at the regular intervals after repair.
Maintenances and replacement of components and whenever leakage is found in
those vent system which utilizes part of the wing structures top and bottom section
to form the vent ductivlent pressure test may also be required after structural
repairs. The test required will be specified in the relevant maintenance and should
be carefully carried out. Test rigs capable of supplying fuel or air pressure are
required and should include an accurate pressure gauge, a relief valve and in the
case of fuel pump rig.
Flow meters
All the rigs should be clearly indicated (or) identified with the citification
date. In addition, special blank plugs cover plates and dummy components may be
required. The vent feed and transfer systems are usually tested repeatedly. Since
different test pressure are generally prescribed.
Result

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Various pressure tests are carried out on an aircrafts fuel system and if is
understood completely.

15

A STUDY OF PRESSURE TEST IN


HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS

Experiment : 6

Aim
To know the various check to be carried out to assume external / internal
leakage in hydraulic system of an aircraft.
Equipments required
External test rig or hydraulic serving trolley.
Procedure
1. Check for system deterioration
Sluggish (or) entire operation of hydraulics system may be caused by
external leakage from components of joints or by internal leakage resulting from
erosion or faulty loads. A small amount of external leakage may not seriously
affect system operation and some maintenance manuals specifically acceptable
limits, temperature indicator installed in some aircraft system will since flow
procedures heat, give some warning off incipient failures, but internal leakage tests
are generally conducted at specific intervals or when faulty system operation is
repeated. Depending on the type of system installed, either flow late or leak slate
check are carried out, an external hydraulic test rig usually being competed, the
aircraft and hydraulic system usually bring prepared for normal operation.
2. Flow rate check
This check is carried out with a flow indicator installed in the line with the
external test rig.

The hydraulic system being systematically operated in the

manner prescribed in the relevant maintenance manual and the flow rate being
recorded. Flow through a particular component may be checked by comparing the
flow reading at various actuator positions test some aircrafts are fitted with
maintenance hydraulic oil which uses separate pipeline and isolation posits of
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facilitate flow late checks components with internal leakage greater than the
maximum permitted should be removed for investigation.
3. Leak rate check
For this check, the system should be pressured to normal operation pressure,
when the test rig should be quickly turned off and the true taken for system
pressure to decay by prescribed amount should be recovered. If the leakage late is
excessively high part of system may be checked individually by blanking
appropriate connectors and recording the leakage late through particular
components (or) group components.
In some cases, leakage through components such as actuator may be
checked if disconnecting a pipeline. Applying system pressure to the opposite
connection and measuring the quantity of fluid discharge through open part over a
specified time. Components showing excessive leakage should be removed for
examinations and possible replacement of seals.
Result
Assessments of hydraulic leakage (internal or external) by pressure test is
being understood.

17

Experiment : 7

MAINTENANCE AND RECTIFICATION


OF SNAGS IN FUEL SYSTEM

Aim
To know about various troubles (snags) in an aircraft fuel system and their
respective remedy action.
Fuel system
Piper checker PA 28 140 fuel system consist of fuel tanks, selector
valves, filer screens and fuel pump.
This aircraft is equipped with aluminum fuel tanks are in each side inboard
leaching edge of wings. Each tank capacity is 25 gallons.
Fuel from the tank outlet through a strainer is routed to carburetor injector
inlet port by the selection of fuel selector valve.
While maintaining, servicing, repairing, the service manual instruction
should be followed.
Snags and their rectification of PA-28-140 aircraft fuel system are given
below
Sl.
No.
1

Trouble
Failure of
fuel of flow

Cause

Remedies

i. Blockage in fuel line


blockage in cap vent.

i.

Flash fuel system check


and clean vent hole in
cap.

ii. Failure to fuel selection


to be in proper position.

ii. Check position of


selector and adjust if
required.

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iii. Failure of mechanical or

iii. Check and replace if

electrical fuel pump.


iv. Damage of fuel selector
2

Fuel gauge
tail to
operate

value.
i. Broken wire and gauge

necessary.
iv. Replace fuel value.
i.

Check and repair,

inoperative.

replace.

ii. Float partially or

ii.

Replace float.

completely filled with


fuel.
iii. Circuit breaker open or

iii. Check and repair or

fuse blown.

replace.

iv. Incomplete ground.

iv. Check ground


connection at fuel
transmitted in wings.

v. Float and arms assembly


fuel transmitter in wing
3

v.

Check fuel transmitter


in wings and replace

Fuel gauge

sticking.
Complete ground on

or repair.
Check ground connections at

indicate full

transmitter wire.

fuel transmitting wings.

are not full.


No fuel

i. Fuel value stuck.

i. Check valve.

pressure

ii. No fuel in tanks.

ii. Check fuel level and fill

indication

iii. Defective fuel pump.

iii. Check pump for pressure

when tanks
4

iv. Air in intake lines.

build up check diaphragm


relief valves in engine
pump. Check for
obstruction in electric
pump. Check by-pass
valve air leak in intake
lines.

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iv. Check O rings for damage


and inlet fitting for proper
5

Pressure

i. Defective gauge.

installation.
i. Replace gauge.

low or

ii. Failure of fuel selection

ii.

pressure

to be in proper position

surges
Unidentified i. Obstruction in inlet side

leak
7

Fuel valve

Check position of
selector and adjust if

i.

of pump.

required.
Trace lines and locate
obstruction.

ii. Faulty by-pass valve.


i. Faulty diaphragm.

ii.
i.

leaks

Replace
Replace or rebuild
pump.

ii. Fuel line damaged or


improperly installed.
iii. Worn O rings.

ii.

Locate and repair or


tighter.

iii. Replace O rings or


valve.

Result
The various troubles in aircraft and respective remedial measures was
studied successfully.

20

Experiment : 8

MAINTENANCE AND RECTIFICATION


OF SNAGS IN HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Introduction
Hydraulic system in aircraft provides a mean for the operation of large
aircraft components. The uses of hydraulic system in aerospace vehicle systems
are the operation of landing gear and gear doors, flight controls, breaks, flaps,
steering system and wore.
Basically hydraulic system requires a source of hydraulic power (pump) a
valve mechanism to control the flow and direction of hydraulic fluid, a device for
converting fluid power to movement (actuating cylinder).
Troubleshooting of hydraulic system

Lack of pressure in a system can be caused by defective relief


valve, pressure regulators take up.

System fails to hold pressure cause is leaking relief valve and leak
in hydraulic pipe line.

Unusual noise in the hydraulic system may be caused by trapping


of air or contamination in the system and also be caused by lack of
proper accumulator action.

High pressure on the system may be caused due to improper


setting of pressure regulator.

Hydraulic system of PA-28R aircraft


PA-28R hydraulic system components are consisting of hydraulic system
having combination of hydraulic pump and reservoir, actuator assembly, gear back
up extender, actuating cylinder and hydraulic lines.

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Sl.
No.
1

Trouble
Landing gear

Cause

Remedies

i. Landing gear actuator

refraction

and selection circuit

system fails

breaker open.

to operate.

ii. Safety switches out of

i.

Reset circuit breakers.

ii.

Readjust safety switch.

adjustment.
iii. Hydraulic pump

iii. Replace or overhaul the

inoperative.

pump.

iv. Hydraulic fluid in

iv. Fill reservoir with

reservoir below

hydraulic fluid.

operating level.
v. Battery low or dead.
2

Landing gear i. Restriction in hydraulic


retraction

v.

Check condition of

i.

battery.
Isolate and check

lines.

hydraulic lines.

extremely

ii. Shuttle valve sticking in

ii.

Checkup shuttle valve.

slow.
Pump stops

pump base.
i.
Landing gear actuator i.

Reset circuit breakers.

during gear

and selector circuit

retraction

breakers open.

(or)

ii.

extension

Mechanical

ii.

Jack up the aircraft and

restriction in hydraulic

perform functional

systems to allow

check and find out the

pressure to build up

cause.

before gear has operated.


iii.

Shuttle value sticking


in pump base.

22

iii. Check the shuttle value.

Pump

i.

Internal leakage of

i.

Check auxiliary

running

system.

retraction unit valve for

intermittently ii.

Leakage of high

internal leakage.

after gear has

pressure check valve.

ii.

Remove pump and

retracted.
All gears fail

Back up extension unit

replace check value.


Check unit value and

to free fall

value fails to open.

replace.

Result
Thus various troubles in aircraft hydraulic system along with remedies were
studied.

23

Experiment : 9

STUDY OF FLOW TEST, ASSESS OF


FILTER ELEMENT CLOGGING

Introduction
If fitter is an important part in any type of aircraft systems. Filters may be
located within reservoir, in pressure line, in return line or in any other location
where the designers of system decide that they are needed to safeguarded system
against impurities.
Different types of fitters and fitter elements are porous metal, magnetic type,
meteoric and wove. The purposes of the fitters are to prevent dirt and other debris,
foreign particles and contaminating substances from entering into the system.
Maintenance of filter
It involves cleaning of the filter and its elements periodically. Some filters
are put on ON condition maintenance and inspections are done routinely. Many
different defects / malfunctions of systems can be occurred due to filters. For the
entire defect with filters, the main cause is the filters clogging.
Clogging filters affect the fluid pressures and flow rates.
Filter clogging
IF the filters are deposited with debris and impurities, the slowly the outlet
flow form the filters are restricted. This is called as filters clogging. Signs and
symptoms of filter clogging are
i.

Erratic system performance

ii.

No supply of oil/fuel/air.

iii.

Less or no pressure building up.

iv.

System collapse
24

Testing on filter clogging


There are different methods of checking the filter clogging in aircraft
systems.
1.

Visual inspection

2.

By mechanical indication

3.

Electrical indication

4.

Flow test

One type of the system has been equipped with an indicator pin that will
visually indicate a clogged element. When the spin protrudes from filter housing,
the filter elements should be removed or clean. In some systems like electronic
filters, electrical weaving indications will be ON with the help of filter clogging
sensors.
Flow test
Standard clogging indicators are replaced with differential pressure gauges
or transducers and provide continuous monitoring of filter element. In flow test,
build up upto the operating pressure of the system and measure the pressure at the
inlet and outlet of the filter.
Procedure

Connect the external power source to build up the pressure.

Connect the differential gauges (pressure) at inlet and outlet


attachment points of the filter pipeline.

Start the external power source and build up the system pressure.

After attaining the correct pressure, measure the different pressures


at inlet and outlet of filter.

Compare both pressures.

If the filter clogging is more than

permitted gauge, then variation between pressures will be more.


25

Accordingly assess the condition of filter and finalize the condition


of filter element clogging.

Remove the filter and clean, or replace the filter element if


clogging gauge is more than permitted.

Result
Thus the study of flow test to assess the clogging of filter element is
understood.

26

Experiment : 10

A STUDY ON BRAKE TORQUE LOAD


TEST ON WHEEL BRAKE UNIT

Introduction
Aircraft brake systems are very much important to bring aircraft speed under
control to permit taxiing.

In braking process, the aircraft kinetic energy is

converted to heat energy in the brakes.

So the applied brake torque is the

important factor to be considered while designing and in the application of brake


systems.
Brake torque
Brake torque is a function of brake pressure and aircraft velocity or wheel
speed.
With the increasing landing speed and existing runway lengths, the pilot
faces the problem of applying brakes. If the braking is a little in excess of the
requirements of wheels get located and result in overturning the aircraft or
clogging the wheels called skidding. Skidding of a tyre while landing causes tyre
burst.
To overcome the difficultly and to enable the pilot to operate the brakes
liberally, antiskid devices like maxact, ministop, good year skid and wooden
transducer system are applied.
Brake torque load testing
In multiple disc brake assembly and excessive brake torque can be
experienced during clay conditions. To limit the brake torque a force determined,
brake piston assemblies and modified to provide pressure repressive surface area.

27

When a predetermined amount of braking torque is experienced, strain


gauge sensors control a solenoid valve to vent pressurized brake fluid to the
opposing surface area thereby reducing the braking torque experienced by brake
assembly to certain amount. The brake pressure is not affected by this system.
One type of brake torque load testing are aircraft dynamometer. Aircraft
dynamometers simulate conventional and emergency braking conditions and
landings at predetermined speed.

This equipment is unique that it combines

mechanical and electrical energy to provide maximum testing capabilities and can
simulate aircraft weight, clag, thrust, wind age and thee dynamic characteristics.
A static torque system to simulate parking brake forces and high response
servo controlled hydraulic subsystems.
The dynamometer covers an area approx 50 feet by 50 feet and has a total
mass of 6,00,000 lbs.
The province software package integrator dynamic meter operations, date
acquisition, data analysis and reporting.

The system also provides fuel safe

protection of mechanical and electrical circuits by monitoring the conditions.


The use of smart castrators in a module braking system architectures, offers
the possibility of simplifying central braking control. This application is useful
with techniques or control of brake torque instead of brake pressure.
Result
Thus a study on brake torque load test6 on brake unit is completed
successfully.

28

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