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Performing the Basic Four

Fundamental Operations in

Bernardo Lirio Memorial National

High School

Abaricio & Sarah Rose M.

Gonzaga IV-A (Pythagoras)

Chapter 1

Introduction

Knowing the significance of the most important thing of Mathematics-fundamental operations is one of our equipment to survive in our daily living

nowadays. We use addition to figure out total amounts of something else. We

use subtraction to make comparisons between what we have and what we

need and to calculate remaining items as they are used. We use

multiplication to figure out larger totals and to transform units from one

measure into another. We use division to determine equal portions of items

and also, to figure out average of large numbers. Being incapable of these

four fundamental operations is also being illiterate of utilizing money as we

look further in our real world.

and division. They also need to know, with speed and accuracy, these four

fundamental operations with positive and negative integers. Students who

failed to improve their skills on these four fundamental operations struggle

each year as we move onto other topics. Their inability to add, subtract,

multiply and divide impedes on their ability to solve higher-order thinking

problems. It gets to the point where they are consistently getting problems

wrong, not because they do not know to do a problem but because of their

computation skills.

performance in four fundamental operations:

homework has been cut in half from 24-30 problems, to 12-15. This

has come about from parents complaining about too much homework

over the years. Unfortunately, the current lighter homework often does

not give sufficient practice in a certain type of problem for the students

to be able to understand or master that type of problem. One or two

examples of a certain type of problem are just not sufficient. Due to

lack of drill practice at home, many children are just never mastering

even the basic addition facts, let alone multiplication facts. Sometimes,

parents who cannot afford tutors or cannot understand math often

have children who completely fail math. It is also a case that parents

who spend most of their time on their job cannot associate with their

participate well in class.

The common reason of some parents is teachers are obliged to

teach their child properly and as a parent, they are responsible to pay

for their school expenses which are not an acceptable reason. In the

early age, children should interpret numbers 1-10 through the

supervision of their parents because parents are their first and most

important teachers.

is considered old-fashioned. Never mind that the teacher can make

drill practice into a fun lesson, just like any other type of lesson can be

made fun by a dedicated teacher to make learning fun and exciting.

There are also several cases in primary schools that students are using

calculators to add 5+3, 9+6, 8+7. What to pay close attention, their

teachers allow them! Calculators should just be thrown out until about

Grade 9, or whenever math involving higher functions on calculators is

started. Prior to that time, they shouldnt be allowed in school at all.

Assignments were usually accomplished at home where students ask

for parents help. Students are not motivated enough to try what they

have learned from school. Hence, worksheets are just papers and not a

tool to practice students learning.

same difficulties in training students to master a unit. For them, it

doesnt matter if children dont master a unit. Just move through all

the units and the same units will be covered next year in a little more

detail. If they still dont get it, the same thing will happen the following

year, and hopefully they will get it then. This idea has a name, which

is called something like spiraling. Sometimes, teachers always rush

all the topics and give backbreaking tests to students where they dont

know anything about. Lessons are usually not taking up successfully.

Lecture methods are commonly found in school which is ineffective in

that it turns the learners into passive participants in the learning

process.

school usually starts with a good relationship between students and

teachers. But how if Math teachers force their students to learn

Mathematics even they are not capable of doing basic math facts?

Aside from this, teachers are quite strict when it comes in solving on

about, their aggressiveness affects students cognitive process and

motivation to learn further resulting to a huge numbers of students

who are afraid to attend school. Several students dont have tolerance

for bad teachers which become a difficult situation to bring them in a

higher level. In addition, students rely on their own capabilities and

begin to hate their Math subject and also their Math teachers which are

not good for their academic progress. Students learn by means of fear.

Its often the case that high school students who have a harder

time learning mathematical concepts utilize their fingers. According to

Mathematical Development Research, children generally move from

the less-efficient strategies using their fingers to the more efficient

strategies without finger use. Many things in life must memorize in the

future and finger counting closes students mind to this essential skill.

According to Mental Math Research, when Chinese children could not

retrieve an addition fact directly from memory, they tended to count

verbally, whereas the American children tended to count on their

fingers or guess. The Chinese children scored better in addition facts

tests. Rather than noticing this as a problem, it should be seen as an

outcome of difficulty with Mathematics.

It is not good to see students who always tend to use finger counting

in the secondary level which lead to a poor progress on their basic

math mastery. They are already done in their primary level and facing

the secondary level, they must be prepared for any changes.

mathematical concepts since they have learned from their previous

level but most freshmen students have subtle changes on their

improvement and must be immediately resolve before it gets too late.

It is good to see how accurate and fast our next sophomore students

solve problems and perform advanced operations for the next year

class. It will only be possible through formal assessment, hands-on

practice and evaluation consisting of a test or observation.

Research Questions:

1. What are the effective methods that can help students to attain

proficiency level in these four fundamental operations?

2. Among the four fundamental operations, which operation do

students find more difficult?

3. Will there be a significant improvement for those students who will

be benefited of this research?

Research Objectives:

basic math facts mastery and to help them move to another

level of mathematical concept.

freshmen students of Bernardo Lirio Memorial National High

School.

students who struggle most of the time during Math class hours.

The cover of this research is the poor performance of freshmen

students in performing four fundamental operations that inhibits their

computation skills in a certain unit in Mathematics as they go further in more

complex lessons. In addition, how they can solve complicated problem

solving accurately and analyze application and generalization quickly if the

real problem is their inability of mastering Addition, Subtraction,

Multiplication and Division.

full mastery of those four fundamental operations and keeping basic math

facts on their minds and not to burden with their hands. Before leaving the

introductory part of Mathematics in secondary level, students must precisely

memorize those basic math facts and they can easily cope up and survive in

the following year level as Mathematics becomes a challenge for everyone.

In fact, there will be a difficult either confusing topic in the branch of

Mathematics unless students can perform well in the field of four

fundamental operations.

The scope of this research is only exclusive for freshmen students who

need to undergo observation and enhancement of their mastery on the four

fundamental operations. Any other issues about the complex content of

Mathematics and how students describe it as Mental Abuse To Human is

not beyond of this research. This research will also serve as an analysis to

figure out the level of mastery of freshmen students. We can consider them

as beginners, average and proficient in performing four fundamental

operations.

Definition of Terms:

a real and an imaginary part.

or specification conforms to the

correct value or a standard.

skill, habit, or quality.

practice of deceiving someone by

concealing or misrepresenting the

truth.

of something.

the same materials repeatedly until

mastery is achieved.

worked for.

B

Backbreaking- physically

demanding especially of manual labor.

Enhancement- an increase or

improvement in students ability, skills

and performance.

students performance.

C

F

Functions- a relationship or

variables.

active response or resistance.

Fundamental operations-

Multiplication and Division.

H

Hands-on- involving or offering

active participation rather than theory.

R

Retrieve- get or bring something

back or regain possession of.

exhaustive, or accurate.

an action or process.

school year.

perceive.

Students

Freshmen students who would reap benefits from this research can see

themselves gaining control in Mathematics as various topics introduce in

every quarter. Everyone desires to master those four fundamental operations

which help us not in school but also ensuring that everything takes place in a

fair situation. Moreover, we are distant from deceitful practices when it

comes to financial matters. It would be great to see how students get rid of

using finger counting during tests and activities.

Teachers

Mathematics teachers in secondary level cannot accommodate huge

numbers of students who still have problem in the four fundamental

operations because they expect that it should be taught already in their

primary level and any adjustments for computations complications were not

tolerated. How will a typical teacher proceeds his topics in the area of

Mathematics if students are required to begin again in the basic math facts?

If this research becomes an ideal breakthrough to achieve mastery of

students in those four fundamental operations then, Mathematics teachers

would probably reduce hard times in teaching advanced Mathematics.

Researcher

As a young researcher, it is an honor to take part in such a step up

action to constitute a remarkable change that would help a lot of students in

transforming themselves into well-experienced learners. In fact, while

conducting this research as our project, it becomes a bridge for senior

graduates to combat poor performance in four fundamental operations of his

fellow students. And also, coming into contact with research papers that we

can possibly encounter in our tertiary level: a beneficial practice for us that

deserves more than gratitude.

Chapter 2

Related Literature and Study

Foreign Literature

http://s22318.tsbvi.edu/mathproject/ch2.asp

Petreshene, S. S. (1985). Mind joggers! 5 to 15 minute activities

that make kids think. West Nyack, NY: The Center for Applied

Research in Education, Inc.

https://www.msu.edu/~trentac1/mathfactslessonplan.pdf -

by Mariah Trentacosti

Facts Part I (of 2)

http://www.mathsinsider.com/no-no-no-no-dont-let-yourchild-finger-count/

No! No! No! No! Dont Let your Child Finger Count! By Caroline

Mukisa in Mental Maths

http://www.sheknows.com/parenting/articles/945893/shoul

d-my-kids-be-counting-on-their-fingers

Should my kids be counting on their fingers? By Tiernan McKay

http://www.aijcrnet.com/journals/Vol_2_No_6_June_2012/11

.pdf

Factors Contributing To Students Poor Performance in

Mathematics at Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education in

Kenya: A Case of Baringo County, Kenya.

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