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TFG Vctor Tizn Otero

My final project is about increase the performance of a Rotax 1503-4TEC Supercharged Intercooled engine to race in IJSBA Championships. I use the software SOLIDWORKS
and the AVL BOOST.
The title of my project is: Preparation of an engine to race in IJSBA (International Jet Sport Boating Association) championships in the Runabout Superstock 1600 class.
Simulation of the increase in the performance.
Firstly I dismounted the entire engine to take measurements and to build it up in Solidworks.
In the photos below are shown the steps that were followed to build up the entire engine in Solidworks:

Intake Manifold:

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero

Exhaust Manifold:

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero

Piston and Rod:

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero

Butterfly Valve:

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero

Head:

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero

Rockers, springs, plugs, camshaft, etc.:

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero

Camshaft and Intercooler:

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero

Crankshaft:

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero

Compressor:

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero

Block, sump and balancer shaft:

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero

Entire Engine:

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero

Then, I built up the engine in AVL Boost to simulate it and to compare the data that AVL Boost will give with the data that the builder (BRP) gives.

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero


First, I build up the engine scheme:

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero


Then, I introduce the primary measurements of the engine into AVL:

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero


I have also to introduce the measurements of the pipes. This measurements are: Length, diameter, hydraulic area, bending radius, friction coefficients, heat transfer
coefficients, etc.:

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero


With the measurements that I cannot measure easily, I use the SolidWorks to help myself. With the measure tool and other operations I can measure difficult geometries
and areas, for example I can measure the heat exchange area of the cylinder head or the heat exchange area of an exhaust resonator:

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero


Then, I introduce the data of the compressor. I introduce the compressor map and I rescale it to fit with my engine:

Compressor Map
2.6

0.6
0.5

Pressure Ratio (-)

0.3

60000
0.5

0.4

0.3

50000

0.3

0.6

0.7
0.6
45000
0.7
0.6
0.5
42000
0.4 42000
0.7
37000
0.6
0.5
0.4 37000
0.7
32000
32000
25000
25000
0.5 0.6 17000
17000
25000
0.7
0.7
10000
0.6
0.05
0.10.20.30.4 0.5 0.6 5000 0.5
0.50.5
0.5
0.6 0.7
1
0.4

1.8

0.05

0.1

45000

0.1
0.3
0.2
0.4
0.3
0.4
0.6
0.5
50000
0.7
0.6
0.7
0.7

Efficiency (-)

0.9

0.05
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6

0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4

42000
0.8

0.2

37000

32000

0.15

0.3

0.7

0.7

0.1

0.7

0
0.2

Mass Flow (kg/s) (-)

0.25

0.3

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero


Before run the simulation, it has to be a control of the simulation, where I indicate the fuel the engine runs (gasoline), I initialize the pipes and set the Case set, that are the
points where the engine will be studied:

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero


And the software will give this results:

The power is the same that the power that the builder published.
(215 Cv @ 8.000 rpm)

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero


In more detail, we could see that flow in exhaust valves in cylinders 2 and 3 have reflow, so in next steps we work to avoid that behaviour to increase the performance.

To race in the Runabout Superstock 1600 class, I have to see what changes are allowed by the rulebook. Once seen, I determine that the changes that I go to do in the
engine are the following:
To change the compressor, the camshaft, to adjust the fired and the injectors, to change the pipes and manifolds of intake and exhaust, and to change the pistons, rods,
valves and springs. Optionally I can rebore the cylinder, increase the compression ratio and increase the boost of the compressor if the engine runs on E85 fuel. E85 fuel is
allowed, but if the stewarts analyse my fuel and it isnt gasoline, I have to demonstrate that that fuel is E85 and not another different fuel, if I cannot demonstrate that my
engine is run on E85 fuel they will ban me. The rulebook also mark a limit for the noise up to 86 db. I set myself an upper limit of boost of 2.2 absolute bar to avoid
knocking.

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero


The first component I will change is the compressor, so I introduce another compressor map with more boost to have more power:

Compressor Map
Pressure Ratio (-)

2.80.4
0.4

0.5
0.5

0.4
0.4
1.9

Efficiency (-)

0.7
0.6
55000
0.6
0.6
50000

0.7
0.7

0.9

0.7

0.8

0.7

0.7

0.7
50000

0.7

0.7

0.6

0.7
45000

0.5
45000

42000
0.7 42000
0.5
42000
37000
37000
0.7
0.4
37000
32000
25000 32000
25000
32000
0.4 0.50.6
17000
17000
25000
0.7
0.7
0.05
0.1
0.2
0.7
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.7
0.7
0.6 0.5 0.6 10000
0.6
5000
0.6
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.5 0.4 0.5
0.4
0.40.3
0.30.2 0.10.4
0.3
0.2
0.6
0.05
0.3
0.4
0
0.05 0.10.20.2 0.1
0.050.2
0.3 0.4 0.5
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2 0.7 0.5
0.2
1
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3

0.5

0.6

0.4
0.3
0.7

0.8

0.2

0.7

0.8
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.2 0.6
0.7
0 0.8 0.4
0.35

0.4

0.1
0

0.45

Mass Flow (kg/s) (-)


The results are the following: The power increases, but as we can se the inverse exhaust flow doesnt dissapear. Furthemore a reduction in the intake flow of the cylinder 3
apear.

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero


Next change I will do is the change of the exhaust manifold:

As it can be seen, the reflow in the exhaust has decreased, and also the reduction of flow in intake.

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero


Next step is to change the camshaft:
RESULTS

Intake

Exhaust

Open

Length

Open

Length

Series

350

255

130

230

Modificated

325

280

120

270

Intake

Exhaust

Overlap

Firing

AAA

RCA

AAE

RCE

Overlap

AE

Series

10

65

50

10

Modificated

35

65

60

30

65

10

Acronym are in Spanish: AAA = IO


PMS = TDC

PMI = BDC

RCA = IC

AAE = EO

RCE = EC

AE = TA

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero


Then I will change the pipes and intake manifold:

Manifold
Series

Ducts

10

11

21

22

23

250

250

250

66.55

66.55

66.55

60-50

60-50

60-50

50

50

50

Modificated

16

17

18

Length (mm)

250

250

250

66.55

66.55

66.55

Diameter (mm)

50

50

50

55

55

55

Length (mm)
Diameter (mm)

Intake Pipes
Series

27

Length (mm)

90

150

250

170

188

272

350

60

100

Diameter (mm)

80

80

80

80

80-72

72-70

50-60

60

60

Modificated

22

Length (mm)

90

100

150

60

100

Diameter (mm)

150

90

90

90

90

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero


Also we change the exhaust pipes, I have made a completely redesign of the pipes, so the noise doesnt exceed 86 db and the engine gains power:

PIPES
Series

16

17

18

19

20

515.74

181.2

676.59

150

1923.28

Diameter (mm)

65

60

65

65

70

Modificated

11

22

23

12

13

21

Length (mm)

300

250

100

250

300

250

Diameter (mm)

85

45

85

45

85

45

Length (mm)

PLENUMS
Series

PL2

PL3

PL4

PL5

1.806

1.18

1.806

0.2

Modificated

PL5

PL3

PL2

PL4

Volume (l)

1.5

1.5

2.354

Volume (l)

I finally got to eliminate the reflow in exhaust.

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero


With a superficial treatment I can reduce the friction in the cylinder, and changing the lambda coefficient to inject more caudal of fuel the engine gains power:

Rpm

Series Engine Friction


(bar)

Modificated Engine
Friction (bar)

1000

0.6

0.4

3000

0.9

4500

1.5

1.4

6000

2.3

7500

3.3

2.65

9000

4.5

3.5

10500

5.9

4.5

Lambda changes from 14.7 to 12.5

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero


Finally, I will do the optional changes, but only to show the increase of power that allow the E85 fuel, because Ill stay with the engine of 500 PS to be safe that I cannot be
disqualified if I cannot prove that I run on E85 fuel.
Optional changes are:

Compression ratio from 8.4 to 9.5


Rebored to 100.5mm
More boost, up to 2.5 absolute bar @9.000 rpm
Run on E85 fuel to avoid knocking

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero


Once we have all the changes made, results can be compared:

Par = Torque
Rgimen de giro = rpm

Potencia = Power

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero


Presin absoluta = Absolute boost presure
Consumo especfico = Specific consumption

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero

Rendimiento Volumtrico = Volumetric Efficient

Presin = Cylinder Pressure

As it can be seen, the pressure rises from 110 bar to 208 bar in the modified version, so components will be subjected to greater efforts. To watch it easily, I will do a FEM
Analysis to watch the increase of efforts.

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero

SF 3.5

Piston

Al 7075

The piston goes from a security factor of 3.5 to another of only 2

SF 2

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero

Connecting Rod
Steel 4340

The rod goes from SF 4.24 to 3, but if we change the rod by another made of
Titanium, the FS rises to 5.

Series Engine

SF 4.24

Modificated Engine

SF 3

Ti Rod

SF 5

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero

Valves

The same effects are seen in the valves, both intake and exhaust see how the
security factor decreases with the loads of the modified engine.

Exhaust

Steel 18NiCr5-4

Intake

SF 3.86

SF 3.8

SF 2.20

SF 2.14

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero

Crankshaft
In the crankshaft the security factor decreases but is not critical.

Cast Carbon Steel

SF 5.36

SF 3

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero

CONCLUSSIONS

As it can be seen, I increase the power from 215 PS to 500 PS run


on 95 RON gasoline and only with a boost pressure of 2.15 absolute
bar.
Even I could increase the power till and outstanding 600 PS of
power running on E85 fuel with a boost pressure of 2.5 absolute bar
and a compression ratio of 9.5 instead of 8.4.
The specific fuel consumption was also decreased at high revs.
All this with a noise lower than 86 db (A).
Always with low boost pressure, so there isnt risk of knocking.
The build-up in SolidWorks was so accurate that I equalled the
power that the builder published.
The difficulty was maximum because all this Ive made it without
expensive or advanced machinery, I did it in my home with in house
tools.

TFG Vctor Tizn Otero

THANK YOU FOR YOUR


TIME AND ATTENTION
VCTOR TIZN OTERO, MECHANICAL ENGINEER SPECIALIZED IN
TRANSPORT AND ENGINES.
victortizon_7@hotmail.com