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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/compstruc

Thuc Phuong Vo, Jaehong Lee *

Department of Architectural Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Kunja Dong, Kwangjin Ku, Seoul 143-747, Republic of Korea

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 7 April 2009

Accepted 19 November 2009

Available online 6 January 2010

Keywords:

Thin-walled composite beams

Classical lamination theory

Flexuraltorsional response

Nonlinear theory

a b s t r a c t

A geometrically nonlinear model for general thin-walled open-section composite beams with arbitrary

lay-ups under various types of loadings based on the classical lamination theory is presented. It accounts

for all structural coupling coming from the material anisotropy and geometric nonlinearity. Nonlinear

governing equations are derived and solved by means of an incremental NewtonRaphson method.

The nite element model that accounts for the geometric nonlinearity in the von Krmn sense is developed to solve the problem. Numerical results are obtained for thin-walled composite Z-beam and I-beam

to investigate effects of geometric nonlinearity, ber orientation and warping restraint on the exural

torsional response.

2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Fiber-reinforced composite materials have been used over the

past few decades in a variety of structures. Composites have many

desirable characteristics, such as high ratio of stiffness and

strength to weight, corrosion resistance and magnetic transparency. Thin-walled composite structures are often very thin and

have complicated material anisotropy. A large number of practical

problems of thin-walled composite structures require a geometrically nonlinear formulation, such as the post-buckling behavior,

load carrying capacity of structures used in aeronautical, aerospace

as well as in mechanical and civil engineering. However, their

structural behavior is very complex due to coupling effects as well

as warping torsion and therefore, the accurate prediction of geometrically nonlinear response is one of the fundamental importance in the design of composite structures.

The theory of thin-walled open-section members made of isotropic materials was rst developed by Vlasov [1] and Gjelsvik

[2]. In the development of a geometrically nonlinear beam element, basically an updated Lagrangian or a total Lagrangian formulation can be employed. These formulations must be implemented

using appropriate displacement interpolation functions. Bathe and

Bolourchi [3] presented two consistent large rotation nonlinear

three-dimensional beam formulations: an updated Lagrangian

and a total Lagrangian formulation for a 2-node Hermitian interpolation beam. Although a large number of studies have been

performed on the geometrically nonlinear analysis of isotropic

thin-walled structures, it should be noted that only a few deal with

nonlinear exuraltorsional behavior of thin-walled composite

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +82 2 3408 3287; fax: +82 2 3408 3331.

E-mail address: jhlee@sejong.ac.kr (J. Lee).

0045-7949/$ - see front matter 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.compstruc.2009.11.007

shows that there appears some works reported on geometrically

nonlinear theory for thin-walled composite beams. The studies of

this theory for these members carried out so far may broadly be divided into two groups. The rst and most common approach is

based on an analytical technique, while the other approach requires a two-dimensional nite element analysis to obtain the

cross-section stiffness matrix. Atilgan and Hodges et al. [49] pioneered the second approach, which was referred to as the so-called

Variational Asymptotic Beam Section Analysis. Hodges and coworkers (e.g., Cesnik and Hodges [5], Volovoi et al. [6] and Yu

et al. [79]) further applied the concept introduced by variational

asymptotic method to two-dimensional cross-sectional problem

and derived closed-form expressions for the cross-sectional stiffness coefcients of thin-walled beams. In the present investigation,

an analytical approach is adopted for the derivation of the crosssectional stiffness matrix considering different effects and their

coupling to yield a general formulation. Bauld and Tzeng [10] presented nonlinear model for thin-walled composite beams by

extending Gjelsviks formulation to the balanced symmetric laminated composite materials. However, the formulation was somewhat not consistent in the sense that it used coordinate mapping

when developing nonlinear stresses instead of variational formulation. Gupta and Rao [11,12] developed nite element analysis to

study instability of thin-walled open-section laminated composite

beams. The nonlinear expressions for the strains occurring in thinwalled open-section beams under axial, exural and torsional

loads, were incorporated in a general instability analysis. Bhaskar

and Librescu [13,14] developed nonlinear theory of thin-walled

composite beams, which were employed in a broad eld of engineering problems. In these models, the transverse shear deformation was taken into account but the warping torsion component

348

was neglected. By extending model of Bauld and Tzeng [10], Omidvar and Ghorbanpoor [15] derived a nonlinear nite element analysis for thin-walled open-section composite beams with

symmetric stacking sequence based on the updated Lagrangian

formulation. Fraternali and Feo [16] formulated a small strain

and moderate rotation theory of laminated composite thin-walled

beams by generalizing the classical Vlasov theory. This beam model accounted for axial, bending, torsion and warping deformations

and allowed one to predict critical loads and initial post-buckling

behavior. Rajasekaran and Nalinaa [17] presented a detailed treatment of the formulation of static, bucking and vibration analysis of

non-prismatic thin-walled composite spatial members of generic

section. The theory was limited to small strains, moderate deections and small rotations. Special attention deserved the works of

Machado, Cortinez and Piovan [1820] who introduced a geometrically nonlinear theory for thin-walled composite beams for both

open and closed cross-sections and taking into account shear exibility (bending and warping shear). This nonlinear formulation

was developed by using a nonlinear displacement eld, whose

rotations were based on the rule of semi-tangential transformation. It was used for analyzing the stability of thin-walled composite beam with general cross-section. However, it was strictly valid

for symmetric balanced laminates and especially orthotropic laminates. Cardoso et al. [21] developed a nite element model for

structural analysis of composite laminated thin-walled beam

structures, with geometrically nonlinear behavior, including postcritical behavior and warping deformation.

In this paper, the analytical model developed by the authors [22]

is extended to the geometric nonlinearity. Based on the variational

formulation, a geometrically nonlinear model for general thinwalled open-section composite beams with arbitrary lay-ups under

various types of loads is given. This model is based on the classical

lamination theory, and accounts for all the axialexuraltorsional

coupling coming from the material anisotropy and geometric nonlinearity. The nonlinear governing equations are derived and solved

by means of an incremental NewtonRaphson method. A displacement-based one-dimensional nite element model that accounts

for the geometric nonlinearity in the von Krmn sense is developed to solve the problem. Numerical results are obtained for

thin-walled composite Z-beam and I-beam under vertical load to

investigate the effects of ber orientation, warping restraint and

load parameter on the nonlinear exuraltorsional response.

2. Kinematics

The theoretical developments presented in this paper require

two sets of coordinate systems which are mutually interrelated.

The rst coordinate system is the orthogonal Cartesian coordinate

system x; y; z, for which the x and y axes lie in the plane of the

cross-section and the z axis parallel to the longitudinal axis of

the beam. The second coordinate system is the local plate coordinate n; s; z as shown in Fig. 1, wherein the n axis is normal to

the middle surface of a plate element, the s axis is tangent to the

middle surface and is directed along the contour line of the

cross-section. The n; s; z and x; y; z coordinate systems are related through an angle of orientation h. As dened in Fig. 1 a point

P, called the pole, is placed at an arbitrary point xp ; yp . A line

through P parallel to the z axis is called the pole axis.

To derive the analytical model for a thin-walled composite

beam, the following assumptions are made:

1. The contour of the thin wall does not deform in its own

plane.

sz of the middle surface is zero in

2. The linear shear strain c

each element.

open-sections.

remains valid for laminated composite thin-walled beams.

According to assumption 1, the midsurface displacement com; v

at a point A in the contour coordinate system can

ponents u

be expressed in terms of a displacements U; V of the pole P in

the x; y directions, respectively, and the rotation angle U about

the pole axis,

u

v s; z Uz cos hs Vz sin hs Uzrs

1a

1b

can now be found from the assumption 2. For each

displacement w

element of middle surface, the shear strain become

csz

@ v @ w

0

@s

@z

After substituting for v

geometric relations,

dx ds cos h

3a

dy ds sin h

3b

Eq. (2) can be integrated with respect to s from the origin to an arbitrary point on the contour,

ws;

where differentiation with respect to the axial coordinate z is denoted by primes (0 ); W represents the average axial displacement

of the beam in the z direction; x and y are the coordinates of the

contour in the x; y; z coordinate system; and x is the so-called sectorial coordinate or warping function given by

xs

rs ds

5a

s

deformation of any generic point on the prole section are given

by the

; v

; w

with respect to the midsurface displacements u

assumption 3:

s; z

us; z; n u

s; z

@u

v s; z; n v s; z n

@s

s; z

@u

z n

ws; z; n ws;

@z

6a

6b

6c

and their derivatives are retained and all other nonlinear terms are

neglected, are considered and given by

z

"

2 #

2

@w 1 @u

@v

@z 2

@z

@z

csz

@ v @w

@z @s

into Eq. (14)

dU

7a

7b

x nqdjx 2rn n2 dvz rsz ndjsz dv

Z l

0

z z nj z n2 v z

csz csz nj sz

15

8a

8b

where

z

1

@w

@z 2

"

2 #

2

@u

@ v

@z

@z

@2u

@ v

@2u

j z 2

@z

@s@z @z

@2u

j sz 2

@s@z

!2

2

@ u

v z

@s@z

9a

z

My

Mx

9d

10a

10c

in the x and y direction, warping curvature with respect to the shear

center, twisting and high order curvature in the beam, respectively,

dened as

jy U V U

jx U00

jsz 2U0

vz

1

U02

2

rz x n sin h ds dn

16b

rz y n cos h ds dn

16c

rz x nq ds dn

16d

Mx

Mt

Rz

rsz n ds dn

16e

rz 2rn n2 ds dn

16f

The variation of the strain energy can be obtained by substituting Eqs. (11) and (12) into Eq. (15)

dU

Nz dW 0 My dU 00 Mx dV 00 M x dU00 2M t dU0

Nz U 0 dU 0 V 0 dV 0 M y xp Nz V 0 dU0 U0 dV 0

i

Mx yp Nz U 0 dU0 U0 dU 0 r 2p Nz Rz U0 dU0 dz

17

11a

can be written as

11b

dV

11c

Z

v

pz dw pn du ps dv dv

18

11e

expression can be written with respect to the shell forces and displacements by using Eq. (6)

11f

dV

11d

The resulting strains can be obtained from Eqs. (8) and (10) as

x nqjx 2rn n2 vz

csz njsz

16a

10d

9c

j sz jsz

v z vz

00

rz ds dn

9b

10b

1

W U 02 V 02 r2 q2 U02 xp V 0 U0 yp U 0 U0

2

jx V 00 U 0 U0

Z

A

j z jy sin h jx cos h jx q vz r

the x and y directions, warping moment (bimoment), torsional moment and high order stress resultant with respect to the centroid,

respectively, dened by integrating over the cross-sectional area A

as

Nz

sz and v

In Eq. (9), z ; j

vature and high order curvature of the shell, respectively. The above

shell strains can be converted to beam strain components by substituting Eqs. (1), (4) and (6) into Eq. (9) as

z

349

12a

12b

3. Variational formulation

Z

@du

@du

p

n dn

p

s dv m

z

s

z dw

m

ds dz

p

@z

@s

s

19

z ; p

s ; m

z; m

s; p

n are shell forces dened by

where p

z ; m

z

p

s ; m

s

p

n

p

pz 1; n dn

20a

ps 1; n dn

20b

pn dn

20c

strain energy and work done by external forces

PU V

13

1

U

rz z rsz csz dv

2 v

After substituting Eqs. (1) and (4) into Eq. (19), the variation of

the work done by the external forces can be written with respect to

the bar forces

dV

14

P z dW V x dU My dU 0 V y dV Mx dV 0 T dU

Mx dU0 dz

21

350

Pz

Zs

Vy

22a

s sin h p

n cos h ds

p

22b

s cos h p

n sin h ds

p

22c

Other values of Eij can be found in Ref. [22]. The explicit forms of

the laminate stiffnesses Eij for general I-section are given in the

Appendix A.

s r p

n q m

s ds

p

Z

z sin h p

z x ds

My m

Zs

z cos h p

z y ds

Mx m

Zs

zq p

z x ds

Mx m

Q ij 1; n; n2 ; n3 ; n4 dn

27

Vx

z ds

p

where Aij ; Bij ; Dij matrices are extensional, coupling, bending stiffness and F ij ; Hij matrices are higher order stiffnesses, respectively,

dened by

22d

22e

22f

22g

Using the principle that the variation of the total potential energy is zero, the weak form of the present theory for thin-walled

composite beams are obtained

5. Governing equations

The nonlinear equilibrium equations of the present study can be

obtained by integrating the derivatives of the varied quantities by

parts and collecting the coefcients of dW; dU; dV and dU

N0z P z 0

28a

M00y Nz U 0 yp U0 0 M x U0 0 V x M0y 0

28b

M00x Nz V 0 xp U0 0 M y U0 0 V y M0x 0

h

i0

M00x 2M0t Nz r2p U0 yp U 0 xp V 0

28c

My V 0 0 M x U 0 0 Rz U0 0 T M0x 0

0

0

V dV My xp Nz V dU U dV M x yp N z U dU

U0 dU 0 r2p Nz Rz U0 dU0 P z dW V x dU My dU 0

23

V y dV Mx dV 0 T dU Mx dU0 dz

4. Constitutive equations

The constitutive equations of a kth orthotropic lamina in the

laminate coordinate system are given by

rz

rsz

"

Q 11

Q 16

Q 16

Q 66

#k

z

24

csz

where Q ij are transformed reduced stiffnesses. The transformed reduced stiffnesses can be calculated from the transformed stiffnesses

based on the plane stress rs 0 and plane strain s 0 assumption. More detailed explanation can be found in Ref. [23].

The constitutive equations for bar forces and bar strains are obtained by using Eqs. (12), (16) and (24)

9 2

8

E11 E12

Nz >

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

6

>

>

M

E22

y >

>

> 6

>

>

= 6

<M >

6

x

6

6

>

>

M

x

>

>

6

>

>

>

>

6

>

>

> 4

> Mt >

>

>

>

;

:

Rz

sym:

E13

E14

E15

E23

E24

E25

E33

E34

E35

E44

E45

9

38

E16 > z >

>

>

>

>

> jy >

>

E26 7

>

>

7>

>

>

>

7>

=

<

7

j

E36

x

7

7

> jx >

E46 7>

>

>

>

>

7>

>

> jsz >

E56 5>

>

>

>

>

;

:

vz

E66

25

E26

E36

E46

E56

dU :

dU 0 :

My

dV :

M 0x

E66

Nz U yp U Mx U

29b

29c

Nz V xp U M y U

29d

Mx

dV :

dU :

M x 2M t

dU0 :

Mx

29e

Nz r 2p

U yp U xp V My V Mx U Rz U0

29f

29g

When the warping of the cross-section is restrained, U0 0 and

when the warping is not restrained (free warping), Mx 0.

By substituting Eqs. (11) and (25) into Eq. (28), the explicit form

of the governing equations can be expressed with respect to the

laminate stiffnesses Eij . Eq. (28) is most general form for axialexuraltorsional behavior of thin-walled composite beams, and the

dependent variables W; U; V and U are fully coupled.

6. Finite element formulation

2

X

wj Wj

30a

j1

26c

26d

V

2D16 r F 16 ds

26e

26f

4

X

uj wj

30b

v j wj

30c

/j wj

30d

j1

4

X

j1

26b

29a

M 0y

Nz

26a

dW :

2B11 r D11 ds

in the previous section was implemented via a displacement-based

nite element method. The generalized displacements are

expressed over each element as a combination of the one-dimensional linear Lagrange interpolation function Wj and Hermite-cubic

interpolation function wj associated with node j and the nodal

values

E55

and can be dened by

E16

28d

4

X

j1

351

32

TfDgr1

@fRg

@fDg

r1

33

34

Fig. 2. A cantilever composite Z-beam under an eccentric transverse load and three

stacking sequences.

35

Substituting these expressions into the weak statement in Eq. (23),

the nite element model of a typical element can be expressed as

KfDgfDg ff g

31

The nonlinear algebraic equations of present theory can be linearized using NewtonRaphson iterative method. Solution of Eq. (31)

by the NewtonRaphson iteration method results in the following

linearized equations for the incremental solution at the rth iteration

[24]

f Dg f W

U gT

36

7. Numerical examples

Throughout numerical examples, a tolerance of 103 and

maximum allowable iterations of 20 (per load step) are used to

check for convergence of nodal displacements in the Newton

Raphson iteration scheme. The initial solution vector is chosen to

Table 1

The tip rotations and deections of a cantilever Z-beam under an eccentric transverse load P = 4.45 N.

Lay-ups

Formulation

W (mm)

U (mm)

V (mm)

V0 (105 rad)

U (105 rad)

[0]

Ref. [12]

Ref. [17]

Ref. [25]

Present

0.0000

0.0003

0.0002

0.0000

0.0215

0.0230

0.0216

0.0230

0.0144

0.0147

0.0156

0.0154

4.260

4.350

4.540

4.547

56.600

56.900

56.700

57.653

[45/45]

Ref. [12]

Ref. [17]

Ref. [25]

Present

0.0000

0.0005

0.0004

0.0001

0.0209

0.0214

0.0236

0.0235

0.0312

0.0303

0.0341

0.0351

6.190

6.320

8.120

6.950

56.400

54.800

58.200

60.166

[0/45/0]

Ref. [12]

Ref. [17]

Ref. [25]

Present

0.0000

0.0004

0.0002

0.0000

0.0161

0.0164

0.0177

0.0174

0.0239

0.0227

0.0247

0.0260

4.750

4.850

5.440

5.136

58.400

58.800

57.790

59.833

Table 2

The tip rotations and deections of a cantilever [0/45/0] Z-beam under an eccentric transverse load P = 445 N.

Rotations/deections

Restrained warping

Present

W (mm)

U (mm)

U0 (103 rad)

V (mm)

V0 (103 rad)

U (rad)

Free warping

Ref. [26]

Present

Linear

Nonlinear

LinearNonlinear

Linear

Nonlinear

Ref. [26]

Linear

Nonlinear

0.0000

2.5952

7.6626

1.7378

5.1312

0.0308

0.0129

2.6690

7.8039

1.8141

5.4078

0.0324

0.0000

2.6380

7.7910

1.7590

5.1940

0.0309

0.0000

2.5950

7.6606

1.7377

5.1305

0.0598

0.0152

2.7162

7.8403

1.8654

5.6945

0.0631

0.0000

2.6380

7.7910

1.7590

5.1940

0.2796

0.0530

2.6380

7.7910

1.7590

5.1940

0.3166

Table 3

The tip rotations and deections of a cantilever [45/45] Z-beam under an eccentric transverse load P=445N.

Rotations/deections

Restrained warping

Free warping

Present

W (mm)

U (mm)

U0 (103 rad)

V (mm)

V0 (103 rad)

U (rad)

Ref. [26]

Present

Ref. [26]

Linear

Nonlinear

LinearNonlinear

Linear

Nonlinear

Linear

Nonlinear

0.0078

3.5173

10.3860

2.3540

6.9508

0.0352

0.0127

3.3467

9.7883

2.3392

6.9795

0.0348

0.0000

3.5580

10.5100

2.3720

7.0030

0.0349

0.0133

3.5173

10.3860

2.3540

6.9508

0.0602

0.0069

3.1442

8.9969

2.2718

6.8550

0.0580

0.0922

3.5580

10.5100

2.3720

7.0030

0.4183

0.0178

3.5580

10.5100

2.3720

7.0030

0.4861

352

Table 4

The tip axial and vertical displacements of a cantilever composite I-beam with

symmetric angle-ply laminates h4s in the anges and web under a vertical load

P = 250 N at free end.

Lay-ups

Formulation

W (cm)

V (cm)

016

ABAQUS

Present

0.6124

0.6075

15.9760

15.9113

15=154s

ABAQUS

Present

0.7474

0.7432

17.6434

17.6002

30=304s

ABAQUS

Present

1.3416

1.3404

23.6133

23.6384

45=454s

ABAQUS

Present

2.7501

2.7600

33.7463

33.9294

60=604s

ABAQUS

Present

4.3164

4.3443

42.2037

42.5798

75=754s

ABAQUS

Present

5.0482

5.0838

45.6077

46.0678

90=904s

ABAQUS

Present

5.1983

5.2341

46.2755

46.7453

0=904s

ABAQUS

Present

1.3488

1.3569

23.6829

23.7830

Fig. 3. Load versus the lateral displacement at mid-span of a simply supported

composite mono-symmetric I-beam under different values of initial loading

imperfections with the ber angle 30 and 60 in the anges and web.

to the linear solution. Plane stress assumption rs 0 is used in

the numerical computation. The results of the present analysis

are given for both the linear and nonlinear case.

For verication purpose, a cantilever thin-walled composite

Z-beam with geometry and three lay-ups under an eccentric

transverse load of P = 4.54 N at free end is performed (Fig. 2). All

computations are carried out with the following material properties: E1 206:8 GPa; E2 103:4 GPa; G12 51:7 GPa; m12 0:30.

The tip rotations and deections of present model are given in Table 1, along with the analytical results of Gupta and Rao [12] and

Rajasekaran and Nalinaa [17] and FEAST-C [25]. The proposed

model agrees well with previously available results and can capture exactly all the geometrical nonlinear response of composite

beam. In order to investigate the inuence of warping restraint effect on the nonlinear response, Harursampath [26] further analyzed this example by considering an eccentric transverse load of

P = 454 N. By using two different boundary conditions at free

end: restrained warping and free warping, the study is made with

the symmetric [0/45/0] and anti-symmetric [45/45] lay-ups.

Tables 2 and 3 show a good agreement between the results of the

approach proposed herein and previous results. It should be noted

that there is no difference results between free and restrained

warping models, except for the axial and torsional displacements

in Ref. [26]. For restrained warping model, it seems that the nonlinear results in Ref. [26] were calculated by assuming that the beam

is restrained both warping and axially at the free end. Whereas, for

free warping model, this beam is probably supposed free warping

at both free ends. As expected, with two lay-ups considered, for linear analysis, the warping restraint has a stiffening effect. That is,

the inuence of the warping restraint becomes immaterial for all

displacements, except for the angle of twist. However, it becomes

signicant and depends on types of lay-ups for nonlinear analysis.

When comparing with free warping model, all the nonlinear

displacements decrease for the symmetric lay-up, whereas they increase for anti-symmetric one.

Next, a cantilever symmetrically laminated symmetric I-beam

with length l 2:5 m under a tip vertical load 250 N at the free

end is investigated. Following dimensions for I-beam are used:

both of anges width and web height are 50 mm. The anges

and web are made of 16 layers with each layer 0.13 mm in

thickness. All computations are carried out for the glassepoxy

materials with the following material properties: E1 53:78 GPa;

E2 17:93 GPa; G12 8:96 GPa; m12 0:25. For comparison, the

axial and vertical displacements at the free end by this study and

the results by 600 nine-noded ABAQUSs shell elements (S9R5)

[27] are presented. The accuracy of the predictions from present

model with the ABAQUSs solutions can be seen in Table 4 for all

lamination schemes considered.

In order to demonstrate the accuracy, generality and robustness of this study further, the buckling behavior of simply supported and cantilever composite mono-symmetric I-beam with

length l 4:0 m under axial force at the centroid is performed.

Lay-ups and material properties are the same with previous

Table 5

Critical bucking loads (N) of a simply supported and cantilever composite mono-symmetric I-beam with symmetric angle-ply laminates h4s in the anges and web.

Lay-ups

Lee and Kim [28]

016

15=154s

30=304s

45=454s

60=604s

75=754s

90=904s

0=904s

842.28

768.03

577.11

401.65

318.08

292.77

288.15

568.95

Cantilever beam

Kim et al. [29]

ABAQUS

Theory

837.40

766.80

577.30

402.40

318.80

293.10

842.30

768.30

577.80

402.50

318.80

293.10

571.10

571.90

Present

Present

841.00

767.00

576.00

401.00

318.00

292.00

288.00

568.00

216.76

196.25

146.15

101.31

80.18

73.85

72.72

144.99

216.50

196.00

146.00

101.25

80.00

73.75

72.50

144.75

Fig. 4. Load versus the lateral displacement at free end of a cantilever composite

mono-symmetric I-beam under different values of initial loading imperfections

with the ber angle 30 and 60 in the anges and web.

composite I-beam under an eccentric uniform load with the ber angle 30 and 90

in the bottom ange.

u

v

q

ange widths are 30 and 50 mm, and web height are 50 mm,

respectively. The critical buckling loads obtained from present

model are compared with those of Lee and Kim [28] and Kim

et al. [29], which are based on the linear bifurcation buckling theory and ABAQUS solution. The results of the different methods are

found again to be in a good agreement in Table 5. Load versus the

lateral displacement of ber angle h 30 and 60 in the anges

and web with different values of initial loading imperfections in

x-direction (V x 0:01; 0:05 and 0.10 N) are plotted in Figs. 3

and 4. The load versus lateral displacement curve monotonically

increases and approaches a linear bifurcation buckling load value,

which is characteristic of an incipient limit-point response of the

beam. This response is also justied by the fact that the value of

the limit-point load decreases with increasing imperfection

amplitude.

A pinned-hinged composite I-beam of length L 8 m under an

eccentric uniform load q acting at the left of the top ange is considered in order to investigate the effects of the load parameter and

ber orientation on the nonlinear exuraltorsional behavior. The

geometry and stacking sequence of composite I-beam is shown in

Fig. 5, and the following engineering constants are used

E1 =E2 25;

m12 0:25

37

lateral, vertical displacement, and load parameter are used

353

u

b3

38a

38b

b3

qL4

3

E2 b3 t 1

38c

equal thickness as follows: h= h2 at the bottom ange and unidirectional at the web and top ange, respectively. For this layup, the coupling stiffnesses E15 ; E16 and E35 do not vanish due to

unsymmetric stacking sequence of the anges. Accordingly, this

beam sustains two kinds of couplings from material anisotropy

and geometric nonlinearity simultaneously.

As the rst example, the stacking sequence at two specic ber

angle h 30 ; 90 is considered to study the effects of load parameter on the displacements in the high nonlinear region. It should be

noted that for h 90 , all the coupling stiffness vanish, that is, only

geometrical nonlinear effect exists. The load with increment of

0:05 is increased until the rst critical point is reached. The

Dq

solutions of the linear analysis are also presented to highlight the

difference between linear and nonlinear responses with increasing

load. Load versus the vertical displacement and load versus the angle of twist at two ber angles are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. It is evident that the linear theory is adequate in a relatively large region

0:5

up to the point where the applied load reaches value of q

and 1 for ber angle h 90 and 30, respectively. The results by

nonlinear analysis are always larger than those of linear analysis.

This is due to the fact that the geometrical nonlinear effect causes

exuraltorsional coupling which results in a decrease in the exural and torsional stiffness of the beam. The effect of the geometric

nonlinearity is apparent with increasing load intensity. The highest

load of ber angle h 90 is smaller than that of h 30 . At this

load of h 90 , the nonlinear vertical and torsional displacements

are about twice of those of linear analysis. It is from Fig. 8 that

highlights the inuence of geometrical nonlinear effect on the lateral displacement of beam. This response is never seen in linear

analysis because lateral displacement is decoupled with vertical

and torsional load. It implies that the structure under an eccentric

transverse load not only causes the transverse displacement and

354

Fig. 7. Load versus the angle of twist at mid-span of a pinned-hinged composite Ibeam under an eccentric uniform load with the ber angle 30 and 90 in the

bottom ange.

composite I-beam under an eccentric uniform load with the ber angle 30 and 90

in the bottom ange.

an additional response due solely to geometric nonlinearity which

does not occur in linear case.

To investigate the geometrical nonlinear effect further, the

same conguration with the previous example except the load

and laminate stacking sequence is considered. A pinned-hinged

composite I-beam under a constant applied load is analyzed while

the ber angle is rotated in the bottom ange. Based on previous

1:25 is chosen to show

numerical example, an applied load q

effect of ber orientation on the exuraltorsional response.

Variation of the lateral, vertical and torsional displacements with

respect to ber angle change are illustrated in Figs. 9 and 10. As

is seen for all ber anexpected, no linear lateral displacement u

gles. For ber angles less than h 30 , the vertical displacement

Fig. 9. Variation of the vertical and lateral displacements at mid-span of a pinnedhinged composite I-beam under an eccentric uniform load with respect to ber

angle change in the bottom ange.

Fig. 10. Variation of the angle of twist at mid-span of a pinned-hinged composite Ibeam under an eccentric uniform load with respect to ber angle change in the

bottom ange.

the angle of twist of two analyzes shows the same tendency and

reaches minimum value between ber angle h 2 1020 , that is,

because the torsional rigidity E55 becomes maximum value at this

range. However, as the ber orientation is rotated off-axis, geometrical nonlinear effect is prominent, that is, the discrepancy between the linear and nonlinear analysis becomes signicant. The

nonlinear vertical displacement is not as sensitive as the nonlinear

lateral and torsional displacements when ber angle changes. The

difference between these displacements of two analyses is minimum at h 0 and reaches maximum value at h 90 . This phenomenon can be explained that the axial, exural and torsional

rigidities decrease signicantly with increasing ber angle, and

thus, the relative geometrical nonlinear effect becomes larger for

higher ber angles.

355

2y2 2yp y2 B211 b2 D211 3y2 2yp b2 F 211 b2

1

2

D311 y2 b3 2y1 2yp y1 B411 b4 D411 3y1 2yp b4

F 411 b4 2y1 2yp y1 B511 b5 D511 3y1 2yp b5 F 511 b5

39c

E46

2

2y2 2yp y2 yp B111 D111 y2 yp F 111 b1

2

2y2 2yp CB111 b1 D111 C 2y2 2yp

b1 x3 xp b1 F 111 b1 x3 xp b1

1

2

2y2 2yp y2 yp B211 D211 y2 yp F 211 b2

2

2y2 2yp y2 yp b1 CB211 b2 D211 y2 yp b1

1

2

2x3 2xp x3 xp B311 D311 x3 xp F 311 b3

2

2x3 2xp y2 yp b1 CB311 b3 D311 y2 yp b1

8. Concluding remarks

A geometrically nonlinear model is developed to study the

exuraltorsional behavior of general thin-walled open-section

composite beams with arbitrary lay-ups under various types of

loadings. This model is capable of predicting accurately nonlinear

exuraltorsional response for various conguration including

boundary conditions and laminate orientation of thin-walled composite beams. The nonlinear governing equations are derived from

the principle of the stationary value of total potential energy and

solved by means of an incremental NewtonRaphson method. A

displacement-based one-dimensional nite element model that

accounts for the geometric nonlinearity in the von Krmn sense

is developed to solve the problem. The present model is found to

be appropriate and efcient in analyzing nonlinear exuraltorsional behavior of thin-walled composite beams.

1

2

2y1 2yp y1 yp B411 D411 y1 yp F 411 b4

2

2y1 2yp y1 yp b4 x3 xp b3

y2 yp b1 CB411 b4 D411 y1 yp b4

2y1 2yp b4 x3 xp x3 xp b3

y2 yp b1 Cb4 F 411 b4 x3 xp b4

1

2

2y1 2yp x3 xp b3 y2 yp b1 CB511 b5

D511 2y1 2yp x3 xp x3 xp b3

Acknowledgments

The support of the research reported here by Basic Science

Research Program through the National Research Foundation of

Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and

Technology (2009-0087819) is gratefully acknowledged. The

authors also would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their

suggestions in improving the standard of the manuscript.

Appendix A

D316 2x3 2xp b3 F 316 b3 D416 2y1 2yp b4 F 416 b4

D516 2y1 2yp b5 F 516 b5

4x3 4xp x3 xp D311 b3 4x3 4xp F 311 b3 H311 b3

4y1 4yp y1 yp D411 b4 4y1 4yp F 411 b4 H411 b4

E26

39e

The explicit forms of the laminate stiffnesses Eij for composite Isection in Fig. 11 can be dened by

39a

1

2

1

2

D111 b1 x3 b1

2y2 2yp B211 D211 b2

2

2y2 2yp x3 B211 b2 D211 x3 b2 2x3 2xp x3 B311 b3

1

2

D311 3x3 2xp b3 F 311 b3

2y1 2yp B411 D411 b4

2

2y1 2yp b4 x3 B411 b4 D411 b4 x3 b4

1

2

2y1 2yp B511 D511 b5

2

2y1 2yp x3 B511 b5 D511 x3 b5

39b

39d

39f

C

1

1

2

2

y2 yp t1 b1 y2 yp t 1 b2 y2 yp b1 t1 b2

2

2

1

1

2

2

x3 xp t3 b3 y2 yp b1 t 3 b3 y1 yp t 2 b4

2

2

y1 yp b4 x3 xp b3 y2 yp b1 t 2 b4

1

2

t1 b1

y1 yp t2 b5 x3 xp b3 y2 yp b1 t 2 b5

2

t 1 b2 t 3 b3 t 2 b4 t 2 b5

39g

356

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