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ESSAY WRITING

PROBLEMS
RESPONSE TO READINGS

Introductory paragraph
Concluding paragraph
Developmental paragraph

INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH
Sample question:
Select any two characters in two plays you have read. Analyse
their character as they stand firm to fight for their rights. Give
four points per each character.
DONT START WITHOUT BRIEF EXPLANATION
It is wrong to start direct with thesis statement.
For example, dont start like this:
With reference to two plays I have read, the following is the
analysis of the characteristics of a character namely Njango from
the play THIS TIME TOMORROW written by Ngugi Wa Thiongo
as she stands firm to fight against her rights;

Thesis statement

INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH
START WITH A BRIEF EXPLNATION
Dont start direct with thesis statement
For example, you may start like this in introduction without a
transitional paragraph;
Characters refer to people or inanimate objects whom the
literary works are talked about. With reference to two plays I have
read, the following is the analysis of the characteristics of a
character namely Njango from the play namely THIS TIME
TOMORROW written by Ngugi Wa Thiongo as she stands firm
to fight against her rights;

Thesis statement

INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH
Introductory paragraph
START WITH A BRIEF EXPLNATION
Transitional paragraph
Dont start direct with thesis statement
For example, you may start like this in introduction with a
transitional paragraph;
Characters refer to people or inanimate objects whom the
literary works are talked about. Commonly, there are two categories
of characters namely main characters and minor characters. Main
characters and minor characters can either be dynamic, flat or
round. Both of them play a big role in the development of a story.
Then, with reference to two plays I have read, the following is
the analysis of the characteristics of a character namely Njango
from the play called THIS TIME TOMORROW written by Ngugi
Wa Thiongo as she stands firm to fight against her rights;

Thesis statement

INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH
TRANSITIONAL PARAGRAPH
A transitional paragraph is a short paragraph, usually consisting
of a few sentences, that act as a conclusion to one section and an
introduction to the next section
Transitional paragraphs are like bridges: the first section of the
essay is like one river bank; the second section is the other river
bank, the transitional paragraph like bridge, links them.
For instance;
Now ,With reference to two plays I have read, the following is
the analysis of the characteristics of a character namely Njango
from the play, THIS TIME TOMORROW, written by Ngugi Wa
Thiongo as she stands firm to fight against her rights;

Thesis statement

INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH
TRANSITIONAL PARAGRAPH
For instance;
For a start, the following is the analysis of the characteristics
of a character namely Njango from the play, THIS TIME
TOMORROW, written by Ngugi Wa Thiongo as she stands firm
to fight against her rights;
OR
In the first place, with reference to one of the two plays I have
done, namely THREE SUITORS ONE HUSBAND written by
Oyono Mbia, the following is the analysis of the characteristics of
a character namely Juliette as she stands firm to fight against her
rights;

INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH
TRANSITIONAL PARAGRAPH
For instance;
For one thing, With reference to two plays, the following is the
analysis of the characteristics of a character namely Njango from
the play THIS TIME TOMORROW written by Ngugi Wa Thiongo
as she stands firm to fight against her rights;
OR
With reference to two plays, starting with, the play titled
THE LION AND THE JEWEL written by Wole Soyinka, the
analysis of the characteristics of a character who is called Sidi as
she stands firm to fight against her rights is as follows;

INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH
TRANSITIONAL PARAGRAPH
For instance;
Then, in many literary work, many characters show their
characteristics of standing firm to fight for their rights in
different facet of life. To begin with, this is shown well by a
character, Remi from the play called THE BLACK HERMIT by
Ngugi Wa Thiongo as follows;
All in all, it is not necessary to write transitional paragraph after
the introductory paragraph but still it is important. A writer may
stick to one introductory paragraph especially in short essay and
still look good.

CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH

Sample question:

Many modern children spend too much time sitting in front of a


television screen. This is extremely harmful to their development.
Therefore Parents should strictly limit the time that children spend
in this way. Do you agree?
for example:
In
summary,
In
conclusion,
Consequently,
To
It
conclude,
Clearly,
iswhole,
clear, although the internet has advantages and
To
On
summarise,
the
Therefore,
Finally,
disadvantages, it has made life so much easier in so many ways
that, as long as people know how to use it effectively, it can be an
excellent tool.
.

CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH
Simply, start with concluding transitional words

In conclusion,
in summary,
finally,
therefore,
consequently,
clearly,
it is clear,
to conclude,
to summarise,
on the whole,

CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH
Simply, start with concluding transitional words
as I have argued,
as I have shown,
the bulk of the evidence,
then, points to,
however, as I have shown,
based on this evidence,
the evidence presented indicates/suggests that,

CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH
Simply, start with concluding transitional words
in other words,
in short,
in brief,
then,
generally speaking,
all in all,
that is,

CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH
Simply, start with concluding transitional words
based on the evidence available,,
to return to our original question,
it would appear that,
what is clear, then, is that,
what emerges from this discussion is,
there is strong evidence, to suggest that,
we can conclude from the foregoing discussion that

DEVELOPMENTAL PARAGRAPH
Simply, start with TOPIC SENTENCE
TOPIC SENTENCE carries your POINT
DONT write only a PHRASE
For example;
Sample question:

DEVELOPMENTAL PARAGRAPH
Noun Phrase
For example;
Provision of education to among the citizens. It acts as a
It needs a VERB to be a complete sentence
SUBJECT
SOLN: write a complete TOPIC SENTENCE
For instance;
Provision of education to among the citizens is one of the
measures which I will take, as a president of Tanzania in 2015, to
combat the killing of Albino.
I will provide education about albinism to among the citizens.
If I were a president, I would provide good education about albino
to citizens.
Albinism Education will be provided to among the citizens.
VERB (Phrase)

DEVELOPMENTAL PARAGRAPH
Simply, start with TOPIC SENTENCE
TOPIC SENTENCE carries your POINT
DONT write only a PHRASE
For example;
Sample question:

DEVELOPMENTAL PARAGRAPH
Noun Phrase
For example;
Death of some people to in the society.
It acts as a
It needs a VERB to be a complete sentence
SUBJECT
SOLN: write a complete TOPIC SENTENCE
For instance;
Adyeri and his wife died from HIV AIDS. Adyeri died after getting
infections of HIV AIDS because of his promiscuous behaviour. He slept
with different women especially when he drunk. His wife acquire HIV
AIDS probably from him, however, she was also not faithful in her
marriage. Hence, death is one of the major effects of HIV AIDS.
HIV AIDS brings death to many people. For instance, Adyeri died
after getting infections of HIV - AIDS due to his womanizing behaviour.
Short Amoti, the wife of Adyeri, died form HIV AIDS which probably
she acquired form her husband. Also, Davids father died from HIV
AIDS after he undergo sexual intercourses with different women.
Many people died from HIV AIDS.
VERB

DEVELOPMENTAL PARAGRAPH
Simply, start with TOPIC SENTENCE
TOPIC SENTENCE carries your POINT
DONT write only a PHRASE
For example;
Sample question:

DEVELOPMENTAL PARAGRAPH
Noun Phrase
For example;
To be against the bad traditional beliefs in the play.
It acts as a
It needs a VERB to be a complete sentence
SUBJECT
SOLN: write a complete TOPIC SENTENCE
For instance;

Remi goes against the Marua tradition of inheriting the


widows. Remi runs away from Marua village to the City because

the village elders and his family forced him to marry, Thoni, the
wife of his brother after his brother passed away. Also, after many
years of being a hermit in the City, Remi goes back to Marua
village and says openly against the Marua tradition of inheriting
of widows in front of the villagers and his family.
To be against the inheritance of widows, Remi refuses to marry
Thoni, the wife of his late elder brother. ,to be against the inheritance
VERB
of widows.

TRANSITIONAL PARAGRAPH
Simply, start with TRANSITIONAL WORDS

For example;
Sample question:
Select any two characters in two plays you have read. Analyse their character
as they stand firm to fight for their rights. Give four points per each
character.

On the other hand


Apart from that/those
Besides that/those
Other than that/those
Also
Moreover
Furthermore
Then
Additionally

TRANSITIONAL PARAGRAPH
Simply, start with TRANSITIONAL WORDS
For example;
Sample question:
Select any two characters in two plays you have read. Analyse
their character as they stand firm to fight for their rights. Give
four points per each character.
On
the
other
hand
Moreover
Furthermore
Also , the following is the analysis of the
Apart
from
that/those
Then
Other
than
Additionally
Besides
that/those
characteristics of a character namely Njango from the play THIS
TIME TOMORROW written by Ngugi Wa Thiongo as she stands
firm to fight against her rights;

TRANSITIONAL PARAGRAPH
Simply, start with TRANSITIONAL WORDS
For example;
A
long
with
Relating
In distinction
With
toreference
to , the play titled THE LION AND
In conjunction
the
other
respects
Added
to
that/those
In
Like
with
wise
THE JEWEL written by Wole Soyinka, the analysis of the
characteristics of a character who is called Sidi, as she stands
firm to fight against her rights, is shown as follows;

The End
The Best Me I Ban Be
By Twiddy

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