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A Hammerstein-based Model for Rate-dependent Hysteresis in Piezoelectric

Actuator
Zhenyan Wang1,2, Zhen Zhang1, Jianqin Mao1, Kemin Zhou3
1.School of Automation Science and Electrical Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191,China
2. School of Electronical and Information Engineering, Taiyuan University of Science and Technology, Taiyuan, 030024, China
3. School of Electrical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, China
E-mail: w9851@126.com
Abstract: Most smart materials used in engineering applications have rate-dependent hysteresis nonlinearity. In this
paper, a Hammerstein-based model is proposed to describe the dynamic characteristics of rate-dependent hysteresis in
piezoelectric actuator. A Bouc-Wen model is used to approximate the static nonlinear characteristic while a linear
dynamic model is constructed to capture the rate-dependent property of the hysteresis. Firstly, Bouc-Wen model
parameters are optimized with particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to model the static hysteresis nonlinearity.
Based on this constructed static hysteresis nonlinear model, a recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm is utilized to
identify the dynamic linear model parameters of Hammerstein model according to the input-output data with rich
frequency information. Finally, the experimental results of applying the proposed method to the modeling of
rate-dependent hysteresis in a piezoelectric actuator are presented with a 100Hz sinusoidal scanning signal. The model
generation capability is verified in the given frequency range from 1Hz to100Hz when the excitation voltage are 40V,
80V, 120V, respectively.
Key Words: Hammerstein; Bouc-Wen; Rate-dependent; Piezoelectric actuator

INTRODUCTION

Hysteresis nonlinearity is widely present in engineering,


and it has multi-valued mapping and memory effect [1].
Most smart materials, such as piezoelectrics,
magnetostrictives, shape memory alloys, and electroactive
polymers, show the characteristics of the hysteresis
nonlinearities which are commonly viewed as an
undesirable and detrimental effect in engineering systems
[2]. The hysteresis nonlinearity has rate-dependent
characteristics by the different excitation frequency, i.e.,
the output of hysteresis nonlinear system is related to the
rate of input.
The piezoelectric actuator (PZT) has some prominent
advantages such as large force generation, high stiffness,
high control precision, low power consumption and fast
response. So it is widely used to meet some specific
requirements, especially in the field of precision pointing
[3], micro-manipulation [4], micro-robot arm [5], and
active vibration control [6]. The main drawback of PZT
comes from the nonlinearities mainly attributed to
hysteresis behavior, creep phenomena and high frequency
vibration. As the dominant nonlinear characteristics, the
rate-dependent hysteresis nonlinearity between the applied
voltage and the output displacement severely restricts
PZTs application in some high-precision required tasks
and situations and makes the control of the PZT movements
a challenge. Therefore, it is essential to study the
This work is supported by the state Key-Program of National Natural
Science Foundation of P.R.China under Grant 91016006 and by the
Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China.

c
978-1-4577-2074-1/12/$26.00 2012
IEEE

rate-dependent model of piezoelectric actuator to facilitate


its application in high-precise micro-manipulation field.
Many modeling methods for the rate-dependent hysteresis
nonlinearities have been widely researched. Based on
Jiles-Atherton model, a rate-dependent hysteresis nonlinear
model for magnetostrictive transducers was constructed to
characterize the magnetization and strain behavior of
Terfenol-D at frequencies from 1 Hz to 30 kHz [7]. The
rate-dependent semilinear Duhem model and parameter
identification method was proposed based on classical
Duhem model by Oh and Bernstein [8]. In literature [9], a
Preisach-based dynamic hysteresis model was presented
through introducing the average input rates into the
weighting function. Janaideh et al. formulated a generalized
Prandtl-Ishlinskii model integrated a rate-dependent play
and stop operators to predict the rate dependent hysteresis
over the frequency range in 1-500 Hz [10]. In literature [11],
the LS-SVM rate-dependent hysteresis model was
constructed for Giant Magnetostrictive Actuator (GMA)
using the selected compound frequency as the training set.
In literature [12], a generalized dynamic Preisach operator
was proposed to describe the dynamic hysteresis
nonlinearity under varying compressive stress, excitation
rate, as well as their couple effect.
As a nonlinear model, Hammerstein model consist a static
nonlinear block followed by a linear dynamic block. This
model has many successful applications in engineering
practice, and indeed, it has been extended widely to system
with memory and hysteresis properties. The Hammerstein
configuration was applied to model the rate-dependent and
temperature-dependent
hysteresis
phenomenon
of
transformer [13, 14]. The nonlinear static block was
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realized by a modified Preisach model and Jiles-Atherton


model and the linear dynamic block was realized by a
low-pass filter. Giri et al. [15] investigated the
Hammerstein systems identification in presence of
backlash and relay nonlinearities. Miyashita et al. [16]
discussed the identification method of Hammerstein
systems with piecewise nonlinearities and memory.
In this paper, for a class of nonlinear system with
rate-dependent hysteresis, a Hammerstein-based model
with Bouc-Wen hysteresis nonlinearity is developed. The
paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, the model
structures including Bouc-Wen model and classic
Hammerstein model are described as well as a
rate-dependent Hammerstein model is proposed. The
Bouc-Wen static hysteresis nonlinear model identification
by PSO and linear dynamic block identification by RLS
algorithm are discussed in Section 3. Finally, Section 4
presents the experimental measurements, Hammerstein
model and model verification in a piezoelectric actuator.
The main results are summarized in Section 5.

MODEL DESCRIPTION

2.1 Bouc-Wen Hysteresis Model


Bouc-Wen model was introduced by Bouc [17], and
extended by Wen [18]. It is mathematically simple with
very fewer parameters and is often used to describe
hysteretic phenomena. Bouc-Wen model can be described
by the following nonlinear differential equations [17, 18]:
n 1
n
h = V V h h V h

(1)

where the static variable h represents the hysteretic


nonlinear term. For a piezoelectric hysteresis behavior [19],
V represents the applied electrical voltage. V and h are
the derivatives of V and h with respect to time t,
respectively; the coefficient controls the amplitude of
hysteretic loop, while the coefficients and control the
shape of the hysteresis loop. Additionally, the coefficient n
controls the smoothness of transition from elastic to plastic
responses. Through appropriate choices of model
parameters, it is able to represent a wide variety of
hysteresis with various shapes.
The main advantage of Bouc-Wen model is in its simplicity
with few parameters and its ability to describe a variety of
complicated hysteresis shapes. However, it is worth to
notice that the Bouc-Wen model cannot model asymmetry
hysteretic shape. Furthermore, Bouc-Wen model is only
available for the static hysteresis and it is powerless for
rate-dependent hysteresis. Considering these restrictions,
the modeling error could not be ignored when specific
precision pointing or micromanipulation are needed in
practical applications.

2.2 Classic Hammerstein Model


It is well known that many practical systems with different
physical nature can be modeled as a cascade
interconnection of a static nonlinearity and a linear dynamic
model; this interconnection is referred to as Hammerstein

1392

model of the nonlinear system. The classic Hammerstein


model [20] includes a static nonlinearity followed by a
linear dynamic model, as shown in Fig.1. Where V is the
input variable, x is an inaccessible intermediate variable,
F() is the function which describes the static nonlinearity,
is a white stochastic process and y is the measurable output.
Most previous works on Hammerstein model and
identification have focused on the case of memoryless
nonlinearities. In general, the static nonlinear block of
Hammerstein model can be carried out using polynomial
form, neural network [21], spline functions [22] and
LS-SVM etc.

Fig.1. Hammerstein model configation

2.3 Hammerstein Model for Rate-dependent Hysteresis


Nonlinearity
Considering the hysteresis nonlinearity by a harmonic
analysis, it is easy to show that the hysteresis loop shape of
a piezoelectric actuator depends on the applied frequency
[23]. Such a hysteresis is called rate-dependent hysteresis
(or dynamical hysteresis) [1]. But a static hysteresis has
rate-independent characteristics that the value of output
depends only on the sequence of values reached by the
input during the history rather than the velocity of the input.
In order to describe the rate-dependent properties, a static
hysteresis model instead of the static nonlinearity in Fig.1
and the linear dynamics is used to describe the
rate-dependent dynamics. Then a Hammerstein model for
rate-dependent hysteresis in piezoelectric actuator is
proposed in this paper. Here the Bouc-Wen model with
unknown model parameters is employed to model the static
hysteresis effect.
It has already been verified that the Bouc-Wen model is
suitable to describe the hysteresis phenomenon in
piezoelectric actuator by Low and Guo [19]. Without loss
of generality, suppose n=1. For piezoelectric actuator, the
model is established by the following set of equations
x = dV h




h = V V h h V h

(2)

where the displacement output x is represented with a linear


term dV and a nonlinear hysteretic term h. d is the
piezoelectric coefficient. This model reflects local history
dependence through introducing the nonlinear term h.
According to Eq.(2), the relationship between the desired
displacement x and control input V can be rewritten as:

x = dV H ()

(3)

where H () = H (V , h) is used to express the static


hysteresis nonlinear operator characterized by the equation
(2). So the Hammerstein model structure of a
rate-dependent hysteresis model in piezoelectric actuator
can be constructed as shown in Fig.2, which is similar to a
classic Hammerstein model, except that the static block is

2012 24th Chinese Control and Decision Conference (CCDC)

not only static, but also history dependent. The linear


dynamic block G(z)=B(z-1)/A(z-1)is employed to describe
the rate-dependent effects.

Fig.2. Piezoelectric actuator model

PARAMETER
IDENTIFICATION
OF
HAMMERSTEIN
MODEL
FOR
RATE-DEPENDENT HYSTERESIS

For a class of nonlinear system with rate-dependent


hysteresis characteristics, a Hammerstein-based model with
Bouc-Wen hysteresis nonlinearity is constructed. The
model parameter identifications of Bouc-Wen model and
linear dynamic model are developed in this section.

3.1 Identification of Bouc-Wen Model by PSO


In the proposed rate-dependent hysteresis Hammerstein
model, Bouc-Wen model is utilized to approximate the
static hysteresis nonlinearity of the piezoelectric actuator.
As the key part to implement hysteretic nonlinear fitting,
Bouc-Wen model parameters identification has been
investigated such as adaptive estimation approach [24] and
evolutionary algorithm [25, 26]. Here PSO algorithm is
developed to identify the Bouc-Wen model parameters
, , and piezoelectric coefficient d in Eq.(2) from
experimental data.
As an evolutionary algorithm, PSO technique is one of the
most powerful methods for solving unconstrained and
constrained global optimization problems [27]. It works
well by the fitness value of each particle based on the
notations of group and evolution. In the original PSO,
the position of each particle in the swarm represents a
possible solution to a problem in D-dimensional space. The
position of particle i (i=1~N, N denotes group scale)
represents as xi = ( xi1 , xi 2 , " xid ," , xiD ) . Each particle also
maintains
a
memory
of
its
previous
best
position Pi = ( pi1 , pi 2 , " p id , " piD ) , and a flying velocity
along
each
dimension,
represented
as vi = (vi1 , vi 2 ," vid , " , viD ) . At each iteration, the distance
between the position of the best particle in the swarm pgd

and the current particle position xid , and the distance


between the particle previous best position pid and the
current particle position xid , are combined to adjust the
velocity along each dimension for the particle [27]. And the
position xid is thus iteratively updated with the velocity.
The update is shown as follows:
vid (t + 1) = wvid (t ) + c1r1 ( pid xid (t )) + c2 r2 ( pgd xid (t ))
(4)

xid (t + 1) = xid (t ) + vid (t + 1)


xid [ xmin , xmax ]; vid [vmin , vmax ];

where w is the inertia weight and t means the current


iteration number. Acceleration constants c1 and c2 are
cognitive and social parameters respectively, and r1 and r2
are two random values in the range of [0, 1]. From Eq.(4),
the above deterministic and probabilistic parameters reflect
the effects on the particle positions from both the individual
memory and swarm influence.
And the inertia weight operator w plays the role of
balancing the global search and the local search and a
time-varying inertia weight w is employed to assure the
initial global search and the later local research:

w = wmax (wmax wmin )t / T

(5)

where T is the maximum iteration generation, w decreases


linearly form maximum value wmax to minimum value wmin
during the optimization progress.
In general, the hysteresis shapes have little change at low
frequencies in piezoelectric actuator. So the static
hysteresis property can be described with the experimental
data at low frequency input excitation. The cost function
between experimental data and model described by the
root-mean-square error (RMSE) or relative error (RE) are
shown in equation (6-7).
J RMSE =

(Y

exp

YBW i )2 / L

(6)

i =1

J RE =

(Y

exp

i =1

YBW i ) 2 / (Yexp i ) 2

(7)

i =1

where Yexp i is the measured data from experiment at the ith


sampling time, and YBW i is the corresponding Bouc-Wen
model estimator output, and L is the total number of
samples. In order to fit the model output and experimental
data accurately, the evaluating indicator fitness functions is
defined to verify the model performance, i.e.
f (, , , n, d ) = 1/(J RE +1)

(8)

Therefore, the problem can be described as follows:


max

f ( , , , d )

x = dV h
subject to 



h = V V h h V h

(9)

3.2 Identification of Linear Dynamic Model by RLS


Algorithm

Assume that the piezoelectric actuator works according to


the block scheme of Fig.2. The cascade interconnection of
the static hysteresis nonlinearity and the ARX linear model
is the Hammerstein model of the rate-dependent hysteresis
nonlinear system.
With a set of static hysteresis experiment data at low
frequencies, the Bouc-Wen model parameter can be
implemented by PSO. Then based on this Bouc-Wen model,
the linear model parameter will be identified according to a
set of dynamic experiment data which covers a wide
frequency band, i.e. the experiment data for linear model
identification will include rich frequency information of
our interest.

2012 24th Chinese Control and Decision Conference (CCDC)

1393

The ARX linear system is given by:

20
10Hz
40Hz
70Hz
100Hz

15

(10)

10
displacement(m)

A( z ) y (k ) = B( z ) x(k ) + (k )
A( z 1 ) = 1 + a1 z 1 + " + an z n
1

(11)

B ( z 1 ) = b0 + b1 z 1 + " + bm z m

Define the minimization criterion function:


M

(13)

k =1

So the objective of identification is to estimate the


parameter vector to minimize J when the input and
output data are given.
Suppose the estimator of parameter vector can be
expressed as . The RLS algorithm is utilized to identify the
linear dynamic model parameters:
k +1 = k + S k +1 k +1 ( yk +1 k +1T k )

S i k +1 k +1 S i
, i = 0,1,..., L 1
S i+1 = S i
T
1 + k +1 S i k +1

(14)

where S is the covariance matrix. The initial condition


could be restricted as 0 = 0 , S0 = I . is a bigger positive
number, and I denote unite matrix.

MODEL
VALIDATION
PIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATOR

IN

In this section, modeling rate-dependent hysteresis of a


piezoelectric actuator is carried out by the Hammerstein
model at different excitation frequencies.

4.1 Experimental System Setup


An experimental system is setup to acquire modeling data
as shown in Fig.3 (a-b). The D/A converter transform the
control signal to piezoelectric actuator by the specified
power amplifier (0~150V). The displacement is measured
by the eddy current sensor, and the corresponding transfer
ratio of displacement to the voltage measured is 8mV/m.
Finally, actuator displacement is transformed via the A/D
converter to DSPACE control card and recorded in the IPC.
The real-time control experiment works with a sampling
frequency 10 KHz. The measured hysteresis shapes of the
piezoelectric actuator at different frequencies are shown in
Fig.4.

-20

20

40

60
voltage(V)

80

100

120

Fig.4. Measured hysteresis shapes at different frequencies.

4.2 Rate-dependent Hammerstein Model


According to the proposed rate-dependent Hammerstein
model in Fig.2 and parameter identification method
introduced in Section 3, the rate-dependent Hammerstein
model could be realized in this part.
A preliminary characterization at 0.1-5Hz shows that the
hysteresis shapes have little change when the frequency is
less than 1Hz for the used piezoelectric actuator. So the
hysteresis property at 1 Hz can be used to model the static
hysteresis model. In addition, the amplitude of the input
excitation voltage at 1Hz changes linearly to ensure the
extension capability of this static hysteresis model for
different amplitude input.
Therefore, the Bouc-Wen model parameters are identified
with the experiment data at 1Hz acquired by the experiment
system in Section 4.1. For the model identification, in PSO
we have taken the acceleration constants c1=c2=2, the group
scale N=30 and inertia weighting factor restricts w [0, 1.2]
for obtaining best results. The Bouc-Wen static hysteresis
model performance are shown in Fig.5 with the modeling
RE 0.0595 and the Bouc-Wen model parameters
=17.0000[m/V], =8.2228[V-1], =-3.6464[V-1] and
d=52.0315[m/V]. The modeling curves, as shown in Fig.5,
show that the model simulation curves coincide with that of
the experimental result. The identified model well captures
the hysteresis of the actuator.
Furthermore, in order to verify the validation of this static
hysteresis model for input excitations with different
amplitudes, the model validation curves at 1Hz are shown
in Fig.6 when the input voltages are respectively 40V, 80V
and 120V with the corresponding REs 0.1582, 0.0535 and
0.0387.
30

30

Experimental curve
Modeling curve

25

20

15

15

10
5
0

10
5
0
-5

-5

-10

-10
-15

Experimental curve
Modeling curve

25

20

displacement(m)

(12)

-15

displacement(m)

where z is the unit delay operator. Introducing the


parameter
vector
and
= (a1 , " an , b0 , b1 ,"bm )T
T
,
the
system
(10)
can
be
rewritten
as
k =[yk1,",ykn, xk, ", xkm]

J = [ y (k ) T (k ) ]2

0
-5
-10

-1

y (k ) = T + (k )

0.5

1.5

2.5
time

3.5

4.5

-15

20

40

60
Voltage

80

100

120

(a)
(b)
Fig.5. Bouc-Wen modeling performance. (a) Displacement curve; (b)
Input/output curve.
g

20

15

Experimental curve
Modeling curve

Experimental curve
Modeling curve

10

Experimental curve
Modeling curve

15

-2

displacement(m)

displacement(m)

displacement(m)

10

-5

5
0
-5
-10

-4

-10

-15

(a)
(b)
Fig.3. Experimental setup. (a) Diagram; (b) Photograph;

1394

-6

10

15

20
25
voltage

30

35

40

45

-15

10

20

30

40
50
voltage

60

70

80

90

-20

20

(a)
(b)
Fig.6. Model performance. (a) 40V; (b) 80V; (c) 120V;

2012 24th Chinese Control and Decision Conference (CCDC)

40

60

80
voltage

(c)

100

120

140

-2

-6

-4

10

15

20
25
voltage(V)

30

35

-6

40

Experimental curve
Model curve

10

10

displacement(m)

-5

-10
10

40

20

30

40
50
voltage(V)

60

70

80

10

20

(a) 10Hz

60

70

80

60

70

80

5
displacement(m)

displacement(m)

40
50
voltage(V)

Experimental curve
Model curve

10

30

(b) 20Hz

Experimental curve
Model curve

10

-5

-5

-10

-10

-5
10

20

30

40
50
voltage(V)

60

70

80

10

20

(c) 40Hz
0.3

0.4

0.5
time(s)

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1
5
displacement(m)

Fig. 7 Modeling result of Hammerstein model

4.3 Model Checking


In this part, the generation performance of this
rate-dependent Hammerstein model is verified when
piezoelectric actuator is subject to different frequencies and
amplitudes excitations voltage.

-5

-5

-10

-10

10

20

30

40
50
voltage(V)

60

70

80

10

20

30

40
50
voltage(V)

60

70

80

(e) 80Hz
(f) 100Hz
Fig. 9 Model checking with 80V excitation voltage

Fig. 8-Fig.10 indicates comparison between the


rate-dependent hysteresis shapes measured by experiments
and those simulated based on the rate-dependent
Hammerstein model when the excitation voltages are 40V,
80V and 120V respectively. Table 1 shows the RMSE and
RE of model validation. The model is shown to offer high
accuracy at different frequencies.

20

20
Experimental curve
Model curve

15

displacement(m)

10

10

5
0
-5
-10

5
0
-5
-10

-15
-20

Experimental curve
Model curve

15

-15

20

40

60
voltage(V)

80

100

-20

120

20

(a) 10Hz
6

40
50
voltage(V)

Experimental curve
Model curve

10

displacement(m)

0.2

displacement(m)

0.1

30

(d) 60Hz

Experimental curve
Model curve

10

40

60
voltage(V)

80

100

120

80

100

120

(b) 20Hz

Experimental curve
Model curve

20

Experimental curve
Model curve

20
Experimental curve
Model curve

15

-2

10
displacement(m)

-2

displacement(m)

displacement(m)

5
0
-5
-10

-4

Experimental curve
Model curve

15

10
displacement(m)

35

-10
0

-15

5
0
-5
-10

-4

-15
0

10

15

20
25
voltage(V)

30

35

-6

40

(a) 10Hz

10

15

20
25
voltage(V)

30

35

40

-20

-15

20

40

(b) 20Hz

60
voltage(V)

80

100

-20

120

Experimental curve
Model curve

15
10

-2

displacement(m)

5
0
-5
-10

-4

60
voltage(V)

displacement(m)

displacement(m)

-2

40

20

Experimental curve
Model curve

15
10

20

(d) 60Hz

20
Experimental curve
Model curve

(c) 40Hz

Experimental curve
Model curve
4

displacement(m)

30

-5

5
0
-5
-10

-4

-15
-6

20
25
voltage(V)

-10

-6

15

Experimental curve
Model curve

10

Experimental curve
Model curve
Error curve

10

-2

(e) 80Hz
(f) 100Hz
Fig. 8 Model checking with 40V excitation voltage

Therefore, the rate-dependent Hammerstein model is


implemented with a Bouc-Wen model followed by an ARX
linear dynamics. By the sinusoidal scanning signal,
Hammerstein modeling curve is carried out in Fig.7.

displacement(m)

displacement(m)

-4

3.479 z 2 + 7.854 z 4.292


z 2 0.3651z 0.5449

15

Experimental curve
Model curve

displacement(m)

G=

6
Experimental curve
Model curve

displacement(m)

Based on this Bouc-Wen model obtained above, the linear


dynamic model parameters will be identified according to a
set of dynamic experiment data which include a wide range
of frequency information of our interest. Here a sinusoidal
scanning signal generated by matlab function idinput with a
frequency range of [0, 100] Hz is adopted to excite the
piezoelectric actuator, and the acquired input/output data
have rich frequency information for linear dynamic model
identification. By the RLS algorithm, the linear dynamic
model can be obtained as:

10

15

20
25
voltage(V)

30

(c) 40Hz

35

40

-6

10

15

20
25
voltage(V)

(d) 60Hz

30

35

40

-20

-15

20

40

60
voltage(V)

80

100

120

-20

20

40

60
voltage(V)

80

100

120

(e) 80Hz
(f) 100Hz
Fig. 10 Model checking with 120V excitation voltage

2012 24th Chinese Control and Decision Conference (CCDC)

1395

Tab.1 Generation performance of Hammerstein model


40V

80V

120V

f (HZ)

10

20

40

60

80

100

RMSE

0.3263

0.3500

0.3329

0.3157

0.3035

0.3237

RE
f (HZ)
RMSE
RE
f (HZ)
RMESE

0.1019

0.1132

0.1090

0.1065

0.1033

0.1129

10

20

40

60

80

100

0.4237

0.4234

0.4533

0.4174

0.4803

0.5778

0.0559

0.0568

0.0623

0.0589

0.0687

0.0842

10

20

40

60

80

100

0.7290

0.6499

0.6326

0.7404

0.9354

1.3115

RE

0.0585

0.0529

0.0534

0.0635

0.0830

0.1200

[12]

[13]

Conclusions

In the paper, a Hammerstein-based rate-dependent


hysteresis model is presented. The nonlinear static block is
realized by a Bouc-Wen model and a linear dynamic block
by an ARX model to capture the rate-dependent effects of
hysteresis. First of all, the Bouc-Wen model parameters are
identified by PSO with the static hysteresis property.
Secondly, based on this Bouc-Wen static hysteresis model,
the linear dynamic model can be obtained by a set of
dynamic experimental input/output data which has rich
dynamic frequency information. Simulation results show
that the Hammerstein model can offer higher accuracy at
different frequencies when the excitation voltages are 40V,
80V and 120V respectively in a piezoelectric actuator. The
rate-dependent Hammerstein model investigated would be
important for control of hysteresis nonlinear system in a
wide range of frequencies.

REFERENCES

[14]

[15]

[16]

[17]

[18]

[19]

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Springer-Verlag, New York, 1991.
[2] X. Tan and R. V. Iyer, Modeling and Control of Hysteresis,
IEEE Control Systems Magazine, Vol. 29, No. 1, 26-28,
2009.
[3] C. Lin and S. Yang, Precise Positioning of Piezo-Actuated
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2012 24th Chinese Control and Decision Conference (CCDC)