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Actuator

Zhenyan Wang1,2, Zhen Zhang1, Jianqin Mao1, Kemin Zhou3

1.School of Automation Science and Electrical Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191,China

2. School of Electronical and Information Engineering, Taiyuan University of Science and Technology, Taiyuan, 030024, China

3. School of Electrical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, China

E-mail: w9851@126.com

Abstract: Most smart materials used in engineering applications have rate-dependent hysteresis nonlinearity. In this

paper, a Hammerstein-based model is proposed to describe the dynamic characteristics of rate-dependent hysteresis in

piezoelectric actuator. A Bouc-Wen model is used to approximate the static nonlinear characteristic while a linear

dynamic model is constructed to capture the rate-dependent property of the hysteresis. Firstly, Bouc-Wen model

parameters are optimized with particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to model the static hysteresis nonlinearity.

Based on this constructed static hysteresis nonlinear model, a recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm is utilized to

identify the dynamic linear model parameters of Hammerstein model according to the input-output data with rich

frequency information. Finally, the experimental results of applying the proposed method to the modeling of

rate-dependent hysteresis in a piezoelectric actuator are presented with a 100Hz sinusoidal scanning signal. The model

generation capability is verified in the given frequency range from 1Hz to100Hz when the excitation voltage are 40V,

80V, 120V, respectively.

Key Words: Hammerstein; Bouc-Wen; Rate-dependent; Piezoelectric actuator

INTRODUCTION

and it has multi-valued mapping and memory effect [1].

Most smart materials, such as piezoelectrics,

magnetostrictives, shape memory alloys, and electroactive

polymers, show the characteristics of the hysteresis

nonlinearities which are commonly viewed as an

undesirable and detrimental effect in engineering systems

[2]. The hysteresis nonlinearity has rate-dependent

characteristics by the different excitation frequency, i.e.,

the output of hysteresis nonlinear system is related to the

rate of input.

The piezoelectric actuator (PZT) has some prominent

advantages such as large force generation, high stiffness,

high control precision, low power consumption and fast

response. So it is widely used to meet some specific

requirements, especially in the field of precision pointing

[3], micro-manipulation [4], micro-robot arm [5], and

active vibration control [6]. The main drawback of PZT

comes from the nonlinearities mainly attributed to

hysteresis behavior, creep phenomena and high frequency

vibration. As the dominant nonlinear characteristics, the

rate-dependent hysteresis nonlinearity between the applied

voltage and the output displacement severely restricts

PZTs application in some high-precision required tasks

and situations and makes the control of the PZT movements

a challenge. Therefore, it is essential to study the

This work is supported by the state Key-Program of National Natural

Science Foundation of P.R.China under Grant 91016006 and by the

Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China.

c

978-1-4577-2074-1/12/$26.00 2012

IEEE

its application in high-precise micro-manipulation field.

Many modeling methods for the rate-dependent hysteresis

nonlinearities have been widely researched. Based on

Jiles-Atherton model, a rate-dependent hysteresis nonlinear

model for magnetostrictive transducers was constructed to

characterize the magnetization and strain behavior of

Terfenol-D at frequencies from 1 Hz to 30 kHz [7]. The

rate-dependent semilinear Duhem model and parameter

identification method was proposed based on classical

Duhem model by Oh and Bernstein [8]. In literature [9], a

Preisach-based dynamic hysteresis model was presented

through introducing the average input rates into the

weighting function. Janaideh et al. formulated a generalized

Prandtl-Ishlinskii model integrated a rate-dependent play

and stop operators to predict the rate dependent hysteresis

over the frequency range in 1-500 Hz [10]. In literature [11],

the LS-SVM rate-dependent hysteresis model was

constructed for Giant Magnetostrictive Actuator (GMA)

using the selected compound frequency as the training set.

In literature [12], a generalized dynamic Preisach operator

was proposed to describe the dynamic hysteresis

nonlinearity under varying compressive stress, excitation

rate, as well as their couple effect.

As a nonlinear model, Hammerstein model consist a static

nonlinear block followed by a linear dynamic block. This

model has many successful applications in engineering

practice, and indeed, it has been extended widely to system

with memory and hysteresis properties. The Hammerstein

configuration was applied to model the rate-dependent and

temperature-dependent

hysteresis

phenomenon

of

transformer [13, 14]. The nonlinear static block was

1391

model and the linear dynamic block was realized by a

low-pass filter. Giri et al. [15] investigated the

Hammerstein systems identification in presence of

backlash and relay nonlinearities. Miyashita et al. [16]

discussed the identification method of Hammerstein

systems with piecewise nonlinearities and memory.

In this paper, for a class of nonlinear system with

rate-dependent hysteresis, a Hammerstein-based model

with Bouc-Wen hysteresis nonlinearity is developed. The

paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, the model

structures including Bouc-Wen model and classic

Hammerstein model are described as well as a

rate-dependent Hammerstein model is proposed. The

Bouc-Wen static hysteresis nonlinear model identification

by PSO and linear dynamic block identification by RLS

algorithm are discussed in Section 3. Finally, Section 4

presents the experimental measurements, Hammerstein

model and model verification in a piezoelectric actuator.

The main results are summarized in Section 5.

MODEL DESCRIPTION

Bouc-Wen model was introduced by Bouc [17], and

extended by Wen [18]. It is mathematically simple with

very fewer parameters and is often used to describe

hysteretic phenomena. Bouc-Wen model can be described

by the following nonlinear differential equations [17, 18]:

n 1

n

h = V V h h V h

(1)

nonlinear term. For a piezoelectric hysteresis behavior [19],

V represents the applied electrical voltage. V and h are

the derivatives of V and h with respect to time t,

respectively; the coefficient controls the amplitude of

hysteretic loop, while the coefficients and control the

shape of the hysteresis loop. Additionally, the coefficient n

controls the smoothness of transition from elastic to plastic

responses. Through appropriate choices of model

parameters, it is able to represent a wide variety of

hysteresis with various shapes.

The main advantage of Bouc-Wen model is in its simplicity

with few parameters and its ability to describe a variety of

complicated hysteresis shapes. However, it is worth to

notice that the Bouc-Wen model cannot model asymmetry

hysteretic shape. Furthermore, Bouc-Wen model is only

available for the static hysteresis and it is powerless for

rate-dependent hysteresis. Considering these restrictions,

the modeling error could not be ignored when specific

precision pointing or micromanipulation are needed in

practical applications.

It is well known that many practical systems with different

physical nature can be modeled as a cascade

interconnection of a static nonlinearity and a linear dynamic

model; this interconnection is referred to as Hammerstein

1392

model [20] includes a static nonlinearity followed by a

linear dynamic model, as shown in Fig.1. Where V is the

input variable, x is an inaccessible intermediate variable,

F() is the function which describes the static nonlinearity,

is a white stochastic process and y is the measurable output.

Most previous works on Hammerstein model and

identification have focused on the case of memoryless

nonlinearities. In general, the static nonlinear block of

Hammerstein model can be carried out using polynomial

form, neural network [21], spline functions [22] and

LS-SVM etc.

Nonlinearity

Considering the hysteresis nonlinearity by a harmonic

analysis, it is easy to show that the hysteresis loop shape of

a piezoelectric actuator depends on the applied frequency

[23]. Such a hysteresis is called rate-dependent hysteresis

(or dynamical hysteresis) [1]. But a static hysteresis has

rate-independent characteristics that the value of output

depends only on the sequence of values reached by the

input during the history rather than the velocity of the input.

In order to describe the rate-dependent properties, a static

hysteresis model instead of the static nonlinearity in Fig.1

and the linear dynamics is used to describe the

rate-dependent dynamics. Then a Hammerstein model for

rate-dependent hysteresis in piezoelectric actuator is

proposed in this paper. Here the Bouc-Wen model with

unknown model parameters is employed to model the static

hysteresis effect.

It has already been verified that the Bouc-Wen model is

suitable to describe the hysteresis phenomenon in

piezoelectric actuator by Low and Guo [19]. Without loss

of generality, suppose n=1. For piezoelectric actuator, the

model is established by the following set of equations

x = dV h

h = V V h h V h

(2)

term dV and a nonlinear hysteretic term h. d is the

piezoelectric coefficient. This model reflects local history

dependence through introducing the nonlinear term h.

According to Eq.(2), the relationship between the desired

displacement x and control input V can be rewritten as:

x = dV H ()

(3)

hysteresis nonlinear operator characterized by the equation

(2). So the Hammerstein model structure of a

rate-dependent hysteresis model in piezoelectric actuator

can be constructed as shown in Fig.2, which is similar to a

classic Hammerstein model, except that the static block is

dynamic block G(z)=B(z-1)/A(z-1)is employed to describe

the rate-dependent effects.

PARAMETER

IDENTIFICATION

OF

HAMMERSTEIN

MODEL

FOR

RATE-DEPENDENT HYSTERESIS

hysteresis characteristics, a Hammerstein-based model with

Bouc-Wen hysteresis nonlinearity is constructed. The

model parameter identifications of Bouc-Wen model and

linear dynamic model are developed in this section.

In the proposed rate-dependent hysteresis Hammerstein

model, Bouc-Wen model is utilized to approximate the

static hysteresis nonlinearity of the piezoelectric actuator.

As the key part to implement hysteretic nonlinear fitting,

Bouc-Wen model parameters identification has been

investigated such as adaptive estimation approach [24] and

evolutionary algorithm [25, 26]. Here PSO algorithm is

developed to identify the Bouc-Wen model parameters

, , and piezoelectric coefficient d in Eq.(2) from

experimental data.

As an evolutionary algorithm, PSO technique is one of the

most powerful methods for solving unconstrained and

constrained global optimization problems [27]. It works

well by the fitness value of each particle based on the

notations of group and evolution. In the original PSO,

the position of each particle in the swarm represents a

possible solution to a problem in D-dimensional space. The

position of particle i (i=1~N, N denotes group scale)

represents as xi = ( xi1 , xi 2 , " xid ," , xiD ) . Each particle also

maintains

a

memory

of

its

previous

best

position Pi = ( pi1 , pi 2 , " p id , " piD ) , and a flying velocity

along

each

dimension,

represented

as vi = (vi1 , vi 2 ," vid , " , viD ) . At each iteration, the distance

between the position of the best particle in the swarm pgd

between the particle previous best position pid and the

current particle position xid , are combined to adjust the

velocity along each dimension for the particle [27]. And the

position xid is thus iteratively updated with the velocity.

The update is shown as follows:

vid (t + 1) = wvid (t ) + c1r1 ( pid xid (t )) + c2 r2 ( pgd xid (t ))

(4)

xid [ xmin , xmax ]; vid [vmin , vmax ];

iteration number. Acceleration constants c1 and c2 are

cognitive and social parameters respectively, and r1 and r2

are two random values in the range of [0, 1]. From Eq.(4),

the above deterministic and probabilistic parameters reflect

the effects on the particle positions from both the individual

memory and swarm influence.

And the inertia weight operator w plays the role of

balancing the global search and the local search and a

time-varying inertia weight w is employed to assure the

initial global search and the later local research:

(5)

linearly form maximum value wmax to minimum value wmin

during the optimization progress.

In general, the hysteresis shapes have little change at low

frequencies in piezoelectric actuator. So the static

hysteresis property can be described with the experimental

data at low frequency input excitation. The cost function

between experimental data and model described by the

root-mean-square error (RMSE) or relative error (RE) are

shown in equation (6-7).

J RMSE =

(Y

exp

YBW i )2 / L

(6)

i =1

J RE =

(Y

exp

i =1

YBW i ) 2 / (Yexp i ) 2

(7)

i =1

sampling time, and YBW i is the corresponding Bouc-Wen

model estimator output, and L is the total number of

samples. In order to fit the model output and experimental

data accurately, the evaluating indicator fitness functions is

defined to verify the model performance, i.e.

f (, , , n, d ) = 1/(J RE +1)

(8)

max

f ( , , , d )

x = dV h

subject to

h = V V h h V h

(9)

Algorithm

the block scheme of Fig.2. The cascade interconnection of

the static hysteresis nonlinearity and the ARX linear model

is the Hammerstein model of the rate-dependent hysteresis

nonlinear system.

With a set of static hysteresis experiment data at low

frequencies, the Bouc-Wen model parameter can be

implemented by PSO. Then based on this Bouc-Wen model,

the linear model parameter will be identified according to a

set of dynamic experiment data which covers a wide

frequency band, i.e. the experiment data for linear model

identification will include rich frequency information of

our interest.

1393

20

10Hz

40Hz

70Hz

100Hz

15

(10)

10

displacement(m)

A( z ) y (k ) = B( z ) x(k ) + (k )

A( z 1 ) = 1 + a1 z 1 + " + an z n

1

(11)

B ( z 1 ) = b0 + b1 z 1 + " + bm z m

M

(13)

k =1

parameter vector to minimize J when the input and

output data are given.

Suppose the estimator of parameter vector can be

expressed as . The RLS algorithm is utilized to identify the

linear dynamic model parameters:

k +1 = k + S k +1 k +1 ( yk +1 k +1T k )

S i k +1 k +1 S i

, i = 0,1,..., L 1

S i+1 = S i

T

1 + k +1 S i k +1

(14)

could be restricted as 0 = 0 , S0 = I . is a bigger positive

number, and I denote unite matrix.

MODEL

VALIDATION

PIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATOR

IN

piezoelectric actuator is carried out by the Hammerstein

model at different excitation frequencies.

An experimental system is setup to acquire modeling data

as shown in Fig.3 (a-b). The D/A converter transform the

control signal to piezoelectric actuator by the specified

power amplifier (0~150V). The displacement is measured

by the eddy current sensor, and the corresponding transfer

ratio of displacement to the voltage measured is 8mV/m.

Finally, actuator displacement is transformed via the A/D

converter to DSPACE control card and recorded in the IPC.

The real-time control experiment works with a sampling

frequency 10 KHz. The measured hysteresis shapes of the

piezoelectric actuator at different frequencies are shown in

Fig.4.

-20

20

40

60

voltage(V)

80

100

120

According to the proposed rate-dependent Hammerstein

model in Fig.2 and parameter identification method

introduced in Section 3, the rate-dependent Hammerstein

model could be realized in this part.

A preliminary characterization at 0.1-5Hz shows that the

hysteresis shapes have little change when the frequency is

less than 1Hz for the used piezoelectric actuator. So the

hysteresis property at 1 Hz can be used to model the static

hysteresis model. In addition, the amplitude of the input

excitation voltage at 1Hz changes linearly to ensure the

extension capability of this static hysteresis model for

different amplitude input.

Therefore, the Bouc-Wen model parameters are identified

with the experiment data at 1Hz acquired by the experiment

system in Section 4.1. For the model identification, in PSO

we have taken the acceleration constants c1=c2=2, the group

scale N=30 and inertia weighting factor restricts w [0, 1.2]

for obtaining best results. The Bouc-Wen static hysteresis

model performance are shown in Fig.5 with the modeling

RE 0.0595 and the Bouc-Wen model parameters

=17.0000[m/V], =8.2228[V-1], =-3.6464[V-1] and

d=52.0315[m/V]. The modeling curves, as shown in Fig.5,

show that the model simulation curves coincide with that of

the experimental result. The identified model well captures

the hysteresis of the actuator.

Furthermore, in order to verify the validation of this static

hysteresis model for input excitations with different

amplitudes, the model validation curves at 1Hz are shown

in Fig.6 when the input voltages are respectively 40V, 80V

and 120V with the corresponding REs 0.1582, 0.0535 and

0.0387.

30

30

Experimental curve

Modeling curve

25

20

15

15

10

5

0

10

5

0

-5

-5

-10

-10

-15

Experimental curve

Modeling curve

25

20

displacement(m)

(12)

-15

displacement(m)

parameter

vector

and

= (a1 , " an , b0 , b1 ,"bm )T

T

,

the

system

(10)

can

be

rewritten

as

k =[yk1,",ykn, xk, ", xkm]

J = [ y (k ) T (k ) ]2

0

-5

-10

-1

y (k ) = T + (k )

0.5

1.5

2.5

time

3.5

4.5

-15

20

40

60

Voltage

80

100

120

(a)

(b)

Fig.5. Bouc-Wen modeling performance. (a) Displacement curve; (b)

Input/output curve.

g

20

15

Experimental curve

Modeling curve

Experimental curve

Modeling curve

10

Experimental curve

Modeling curve

15

-2

displacement(m)

displacement(m)

displacement(m)

10

-5

5

0

-5

-10

-4

-10

-15

(a)

(b)

Fig.3. Experimental setup. (a) Diagram; (b) Photograph;

1394

-6

10

15

20

25

voltage

30

35

40

45

-15

10

20

30

40

50

voltage

60

70

80

90

-20

20

(a)

(b)

Fig.6. Model performance. (a) 40V; (b) 80V; (c) 120V;

40

60

80

voltage

(c)

100

120

140

-2

-6

-4

10

15

20

25

voltage(V)

30

35

-6

40

Experimental curve

Model curve

10

10

displacement(m)

-5

-10

10

40

20

30

40

50

voltage(V)

60

70

80

10

20

(a) 10Hz

60

70

80

60

70

80

5

displacement(m)

displacement(m)

40

50

voltage(V)

Experimental curve

Model curve

10

30

(b) 20Hz

Experimental curve

Model curve

10

-5

-5

-10

-10

-5

10

20

30

40

50

voltage(V)

60

70

80

10

20

(c) 40Hz

0.3

0.4

0.5

time(s)

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

5

displacement(m)

In this part, the generation performance of this

rate-dependent Hammerstein model is verified when

piezoelectric actuator is subject to different frequencies and

amplitudes excitations voltage.

-5

-5

-10

-10

10

20

30

40

50

voltage(V)

60

70

80

10

20

30

40

50

voltage(V)

60

70

80

(e) 80Hz

(f) 100Hz

Fig. 9 Model checking with 80V excitation voltage

rate-dependent hysteresis shapes measured by experiments

and those simulated based on the rate-dependent

Hammerstein model when the excitation voltages are 40V,

80V and 120V respectively. Table 1 shows the RMSE and

RE of model validation. The model is shown to offer high

accuracy at different frequencies.

20

20

Experimental curve

Model curve

15

displacement(m)

10

10

5

0

-5

-10

5

0

-5

-10

-15

-20

Experimental curve

Model curve

15

-15

20

40

60

voltage(V)

80

100

-20

120

20

(a) 10Hz

6

40

50

voltage(V)

Experimental curve

Model curve

10

displacement(m)

0.2

displacement(m)

0.1

30

(d) 60Hz

Experimental curve

Model curve

10

40

60

voltage(V)

80

100

120

80

100

120

(b) 20Hz

Experimental curve

Model curve

20

Experimental curve

Model curve

20

Experimental curve

Model curve

15

-2

10

displacement(m)

-2

displacement(m)

displacement(m)

5

0

-5

-10

-4

Experimental curve

Model curve

15

10

displacement(m)

35

-10

0

-15

5

0

-5

-10

-4

-15

0

10

15

20

25

voltage(V)

30

35

-6

40

(a) 10Hz

10

15

20

25

voltage(V)

30

35

40

-20

-15

20

40

(b) 20Hz

60

voltage(V)

80

100

-20

120

Experimental curve

Model curve

15

10

-2

displacement(m)

5

0

-5

-10

-4

60

voltage(V)

displacement(m)

displacement(m)

-2

40

20

Experimental curve

Model curve

15

10

20

(d) 60Hz

20

Experimental curve

Model curve

(c) 40Hz

Experimental curve

Model curve

4

displacement(m)

30

-5

5

0

-5

-10

-4

-15

-6

20

25

voltage(V)

-10

-6

15

Experimental curve

Model curve

10

Experimental curve

Model curve

Error curve

10

-2

(e) 80Hz

(f) 100Hz

Fig. 8 Model checking with 40V excitation voltage

implemented with a Bouc-Wen model followed by an ARX

linear dynamics. By the sinusoidal scanning signal,

Hammerstein modeling curve is carried out in Fig.7.

displacement(m)

displacement(m)

-4

z 2 0.3651z 0.5449

15

Experimental curve

Model curve

displacement(m)

G=

6

Experimental curve

Model curve

displacement(m)

dynamic model parameters will be identified according to a

set of dynamic experiment data which include a wide range

of frequency information of our interest. Here a sinusoidal

scanning signal generated by matlab function idinput with a

frequency range of [0, 100] Hz is adopted to excite the

piezoelectric actuator, and the acquired input/output data

have rich frequency information for linear dynamic model

identification. By the RLS algorithm, the linear dynamic

model can be obtained as:

10

15

20

25

voltage(V)

30

(c) 40Hz

35

40

-6

10

15

20

25

voltage(V)

(d) 60Hz

30

35

40

-20

-15

20

40

60

voltage(V)

80

100

120

-20

20

40

60

voltage(V)

80

100

120

(e) 80Hz

(f) 100Hz

Fig. 10 Model checking with 120V excitation voltage

1395

40V

80V

120V

f (HZ)

10

20

40

60

80

100

RMSE

0.3263

0.3500

0.3329

0.3157

0.3035

0.3237

RE

f (HZ)

RMSE

RE

f (HZ)

RMESE

0.1019

0.1132

0.1090

0.1065

0.1033

0.1129

10

20

40

60

80

100

0.4237

0.4234

0.4533

0.4174

0.4803

0.5778

0.0559

0.0568

0.0623

0.0589

0.0687

0.0842

10

20

40

60

80

100

0.7290

0.6499

0.6326

0.7404

0.9354

1.3115

RE

0.0585

0.0529

0.0534

0.0635

0.0830

0.1200

[12]

[13]

Conclusions

hysteresis model is presented. The nonlinear static block is

realized by a Bouc-Wen model and a linear dynamic block

by an ARX model to capture the rate-dependent effects of

hysteresis. First of all, the Bouc-Wen model parameters are

identified by PSO with the static hysteresis property.

Secondly, based on this Bouc-Wen static hysteresis model,

the linear dynamic model can be obtained by a set of

dynamic experimental input/output data which has rich

dynamic frequency information. Simulation results show

that the Hammerstein model can offer higher accuracy at

different frequencies when the excitation voltages are 40V,

80V and 120V respectively in a piezoelectric actuator. The

rate-dependent Hammerstein model investigated would be

important for control of hysteresis nonlinear system in a

wide range of frequencies.

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[15]

[16]

[17]

[18]

[19]

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