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KAZOILTERMINALPROJECT

EnvironmentalandSocialImpactAssessment
NonTechnicalSummary
Onbehalfof:

WaterwayTrading&PetroleumServicesLLC

ProjectReference:

0141287
Revision:

REV01
Date:

December2014

Earth&MarineEnvironmentalConsultants
ChelseaBusinessCentre
2ndFloor
AlCornicheStreet
Basrah
RepublicofIraq

enquiry@eame.co.uk
www.eame.co.uk


EnvironmentalandSocialImpactAssessment
KAZOilTerminalProject,Iraq

NonTechnicalSummary
WaterwayTrading&PetroleumServicesLLC

DocumentControlRecord
Revision

Date

Author(s)

Authorisedby

ReasonforChange

00

30/11/14

MJS/DCW

SPR

FirstinternalDraft

01

11/12/14

DCW

SPR

IssuefollowingClientcomments

COMMERCIALINCONFIDENCE
ThisdocumentandalltheinformationcontainedwithinitareproprietarytoEarthandMarine
EnvironmentalConsultantsLtd(hereinaftercalledEAME)andaresuppliedinconfidence.Thisdocumentis
nottobereproducedinwholeorinpartnordisclosedtoanythirdpartywithoutthepriorwritten
permissionofEAME.Norshallitbeusedotherwisethanforthepurposeforwhichithasbeensupplied.

0141287Revision01

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WaterwayTrading&PetroleumServicesLLC

IraqOilTerminalProject
EnvironmentalandSocialImpactAssessment,NonTechnicalSummary

Contents

Page

AcronymsandAbbreviations

Introduction

1.1

ProjectOverview

1.2

ProjectLocation

1.3

ProjectSchedule

1.4

ESIAProcessandMethodology

StakeholderConsultation

ProjectDescription

3.1

Introduction

3.2

ConsiderationofAlternatives

EnvironmentalImpactAssessment

10

4.1

Introduction

10

4.2

AirQuality

10

4.3

NoiseQuality

12

4.4

SoilQuality

13

4.5

SedimentQuality

15

4.6

SurfaceWaterQuality

16

4.7

GroundwaterQuality

17

4.8

EcologyandBiodiversity

17

4.9

CumulativeandTransboundaryImpacts

19

4.10

HazardAnalysisandRiskManagement

19

SocialImpactAssessment

22

5.1

SocialandPoliticalEnvironments

22

5.2

SocioeconomicSurveyFindings

23

EnvironmentalandSocialImpactSummary

26

6.1

ImpactAssessmentCriteria

26

6.2

ProjectImpactsMatrix

26

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WaterwayTrading&PetroleumServicesLLC

EnvironmentalandSocialImpactAssessment
KAZOilTerminalProject,Iraq

EnvironmentalandSocialManagementandMonitoringPlan

36

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WaterwayTrading&PetroleumServicesLLC

IraqOilTerminalProject
EnvironmentalandSocialImpactAssessment,NonTechnicalSummary

AcronymsandAbbreviations
CEMP

ConstructionEnvironmentalManagementPlan

CO

CarbonMonoxide

CSSF

CommonSeawaterSupplyFacility

dB

Decibel

DWB

DeeperWaterBerth

DWT

DeadweightTonnage

EAME

Earth&MarineEnvironmentalConsultants

ESIA

EnvironmentalandSocialImpactAssessment

ESMMP

EnvironmentalandSocialManagementandMonitoringPlan

GCPI

GeneralCompanyPortsofIraq

GDP

GrossDomesticProduct

HAZOP

HazardandOperabilityStudy

HAZID

HazardIdentification

KAZ

KhorAlZubairOilTerminalProject

Km

Kilometre

Km2

Squarekilometre

KZP

KhorAlZubairPort

IUCN

InternationalUnionforConservationofNature

IS

IslamicState

Metre

m3

Cubicmetres

MoF

MinistryofFinance

NGO

NonGovernmentalOrganisation

NOx

Nitrogenoxides

NTS

NonTechnicalSummary

OSERP

OilSpillEmergencyResponsePlan

SKA

SKAInternationalGroup

SOx

SulphurOxide

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EnvironmentalandSocialImpactAssessment
KAZOilTerminalProject,Iraq

SRFO

StraightRunFuelOil

SVOC

SemiVolatileOrganicCompound

UQP

UmmQasrPort

VOC

VolatileOrganicCompound

VR

VacuumResidue

WTPS

WaterwayTrading&PetroleumServicesLLC

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EnvironmentalandSocialImpactAssessment
KAZOilTerminalProject,Iraq

Introduction
WaterwayTrading&PetroleumServicesLLC(WTPS)havecommissionedanEnvironmental
andSocialImpactAssessment(ESIA)oftheproposedKhorAlZubair(KAZ)OilTerminalProject
inordertoassessthepotentialadverseandbeneficialimpactsandassociatedmitigationand
managementmeasures.AnESIAisadetailedstudyoftheenvironmentalandsocialconditions
intheprojectareaandanassessmentofhowtheprojectmaychangetheseconditions.If
these changes are deemed to be negative and severe, the study has defined measures to
reduceoreliminatetheseimpacts.
ThisdocumentistheNonTechnicalSummary(NTS)oftheESIA.

1.1

ProjectOverview
Asaresultofarmedconflicts,tradesanctionsandisolationfromtheinternationalcommunity
fordecades,Iraqdoesnotpresentlyhavetheresourcestoproviderefinedpetroleumproducts
atasufficientratetomeetdemand.Assuch,WTPSintendstoconstructanewpetroleum
products Terminal on the Khor AlZubair River, close to the Khor AlZubair Port (KZP) in
SouthernIraq.TheproposedTerminalwillprovideamodernimportfacilityandalsoafuture
exportterminalforrefinedpetroleumproductsthatwillbeproducedinIraq.
TheTerminalwillprovideberthingfacilities,storageinfrastructure,truckloading/unloading
facilities and all associated utility and support systems for multiple berths capable of
dischargingvesselsupto47,000deadweighttonnage(DWT).TheconstructionoftheTerminal
will be phased: the first phase being a single Deeper Water Berth (DWB) and associated
pipelineconnectiontotheexistingSKATerminal.Subsequentadditionalphaseswillinclude
storagetanksandassociatedutilities,withapotentialstoragecapacityofupto300,000m3.
The Terminal will be constructed to the appropriate international industry standards using
reliable and proven technology and will be operated in accordance with standards and
practicesgenerallyprevailinginthepetroleummarineterminalandstorageindustry.
AnindicativelayoutoftheTerminalispresentedinFigure1.1.Itshouldbenotedthatthisis
basedoncurrentstateofknowledgeandgroundconditionsandmaybesubjecttochangeas
more detailed design studies take place. The overall concept is not expected to change
significantlyanymaterialenvironmentalimpacthowever.

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KAZOilTerminalProject,Iraq

Figure1.1:ConceptualDevelopmentLayout

1.2

ProjectLocation
TheproposeddevelopmentislocatedonthewesternbankoftheKhorAlZubair,adjacentto
theKZPandtheKZPFreezone.UmmQasrPort(UQP)is14kmsouthofthesite,BasraCity
Centreis37kmtothenorthandthebordercrossingintoKuwaitatSafwanislocated19kmto
thesouthwestofthesite(Figures1.2and1.3).

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Figure1.2:LocationoftheproposedTerminaldevelopment
GoogleEarthProImagingwiththepermissionofGoogleLicensedtoEarthandMarineEnvironmentalConsultantsLtd

Figure1.3:ProposedTerminaloutline
GoogleEarthProImagingwiththepermissionofGoogleLicensedtoEarthandMarineEnvironmentalConsultantsLtd

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1.3

ProjectSchedule
ThepreciseschedulehasnotbeenspecifiedatthisstageaspoliticaldisruptioninBaghdad
associatedwiththeIslamicState(IS)insurgencyandchangeofgovernmenthasplacedsome
uncertainty on the anticipated date of approvals to start, however, construction works for
Phase1areexpectedtocommenceinearly2015.

1.4

ESIAProcessandMethodology
ThemainobjectiveoftheESIAprocessistoidentifypotentiallysignificantnegativeimpacts
onthephysical,humanandnaturalenvironmentthatcouldarisethroughtheentirelifeofthe
project.Wheresuchimpactsareidentified,theprocessidentifiesmeasurestoeliminateor
mitigate them and management measures for any residual impacts. It also provides an
opportunityforconsultationwithpotentiallyaffectedstakeholders.
Theassessmentprocessconstitutesasystematicapproachtotheevaluationoftheproposed
projectinthecontextofthenatural,regulatoryandsocioeconomicenvironmentsinwhich
thedevelopmentisproposed.
ThepotentialenvironmentalandsocialeffectsresultingfromtheTerminalprojecthavebeen
assessedagainst:

Applicableregulations,standardsandguidelines;

Existingenvironmentalandsocioeconomicconditions;and

Issuesandconcernsraisedbyidentifiedstakeholders.

TheESIAandtheidentificationofassociatedrecommendationshasbeendevelopedbydesk
based research, fields studies (to establish baseline conditions), assessment of results,
stakeholderconsultationandexpertopinion.
The baseline environmental and social conditions of the Terminal project were identified
initially from a comprehensive desk study. This exercise helped to narrow down the most
criticalenvironmentalandsocialissuesrequiringdetailedevaluation.Theseissueswerethen
investigatedviaaseriesofstudiesincluding:

Acomprehensivedeskstudyincludingsocioeconomicbaselineinformation;

Baselinelandqualityassessmentincludingtheexcavationofboreholesandsoilsampling;

Baselineairqualitymeasurement;

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Baselinenoiseassessment;

SurfacewaterandsedimentqualitysamplingoftheKhorAlZubair;

Baselinegroundwaterassessment;

Baselineterrestrialecology;

BaselinemarineecologyofKhorAlZubair;

SurveysoffishermenontheKhorAlZubair;

MarineTrafficSurvey;and

TrafficsurveyatakeypointonHighway28.

Thesensitivityoftheenvironmentalandsocialreceptors,andthemagnitudeofthepotential
impacts were then identified and used to determine impact significance. Potential and
residual impacts (i.e. those remaining after the application of mitigation measures) were
characterisedasbeingoflow,mediumorhighsignificanceorasbeneficial.Wherever
practicable,additionalmitigationmeasureswereidentifiedtoreducefurtherthoseadverse
residualimpactsthatwereconsideredtobeofmediumorhighsignificance.
ThemitigationandenhancementmeasuresthathavebeenproposedintheESIAtoreduce
adverse impacts (and enhance potential benefits) have been captured in a commitments
register. The commitments that relate to the operating phase of the Terminal will be
incorporatedintotheEnvironmentalandSocialMonitoringandManagementPlan(ESMMP).

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StakeholderConsultation
Stakeholder consultation is of crucial importance to understand how the Terminal would
impactonstakeholdersandtoobtaintheirinputonwhichimpactsshouldbeincludedand
excluded. WTPS recognises the importance of consultation and that it is also an early
opportunityforstakeholderstobecomebetterinformedabouttheplannedTerminal.
Stakeholderconsultationcomprisedtwoparts:

thedevelopmentandissueofaScopingReport;and

thedirectconsultationwithpotentiallyaffectedcommunities.

TheScopingReport(0141287WTPSIraqOilTerminalEnvironmentalScopingReportREV03,
EAME, August 2014) was prepared at the start of the ESIA process. It is a standalone
documentthatdescribestheproject,setsouttheenvironmentalissuesthatwillbeassessed
throughtheESIA(andthosethathavebeenscreenedout),explainshowthesewillbeassessed
andseeksfeedbackfromtheconsulteesontheseissuesandanyadditionalinformationthat
they have. The Scoping Report was sent to government departments, NonGovernmental
Organisations (NGOs), local businesses, regional environmental organisations and public
representatives in August and September 2014. Over one hundred copies of the Scoping
Reportwereissued,however,replieswereonlyreceivedfromthreeentities,noneofwhich
providedanyadditionalinformationorsoughttoamendtheproposedapproach.
This low level of responsiveness is not unusual for Iraq which only has a short history and
experience of ESIAs being performed and no formal requirements for public or statutory
consultation. Also, there are no residential communities in the area and the nearest
businessesthatcouldbeaffected(SKAandKZP)aredirectstakeholdersintheproject.
The consultation with local people (especially fishermen) is described in the Social Impact
AssessmentsectionofthisNTS.

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3
3.1

ProjectDescription
Introduction
TheproposedTerminaldevelopmentislocatedonthewesternbankoftheKhorAlZubair,
adjacenttotheKZPandtheKZPFreezone.Theonshoreproportionofthesitecoversapiece
oflandapproximately1,500mby500m,coveringatotalareaofapproximately0.95km2(95ha)
withaperimeterofroughly4,944m.
ItisunderstoodthatWTPShavesecureda25yearaccess/licenceagreementwithGeneral
CompanyforPortsofIraq(GCPI)todevelopthesite.
The Terminal will ultimately be designed to handle up to five different products: gasoline,
gasoil,naphtha,StraightRunFuelOil(SRFO)andVacuumResidue(VR).Gasolineandgasoil
willbeimportedbymarinetankersandoffloadedintothetankfarmbeforebeingexported
via road tanks. Simultaneous truck loading and marine tanker unloading will increase the
efficiencyoftheTerminal.Naphtha,SRFOandVRareexpectedtobebroughttotheTerminal
viaroadtankersandloadedontomarinetankersforexport.
Theoffshoreelementsofthe(ultimate)projectinclude:

Jettyfacilityprovidingtwoberthsofvesselsrangingfrom27,000to47,000DWT;

Accesstrestletothejetty;and

Topsideelementstofacilitatetheimportandexportofproducts.

Thejettyfacilitieswillbedesignedtoallowforunloadingandloadingofdifferentproducts
withfromamaximumoftwovesselsatanyonetime.
When the Terminal is fully developed, it is envisaged that the site could comprise around
twenty buildings of six generic building types and in the region of thirty tanks totalling
approximately300,000m3ofstorage.

CurrentSiteConditions
Themajorityofthesite,approximately95%,isundevelopedandvacantwithsparsehalophytic
vegetation[vegetationthatgrowsinverysalinesoilsorsediments],unsurfacedaccessroads
and evidence of flytipped waste. There is evidence of disturbance of some of the soils by
heavyplantandsomeaccumulationsofearthmoundsfromearthworksactivities.Alsothere
isanearthbankroadrunningalongthesiteparalleltotheshorelinewithtwosmallerearth
bankroadsextendingtothewaterline.

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ThenorthernelevationofthesitecomprisesKAZJettyNo.1andareasofunsurfaced,derelict
landwithareasusedforthestorageofscrapmetal,muchofwhichappearstobemarine
derived(shipwreckclearance).
Itisunderstoodthatthe majorityofthesitehasneverbeen developed,however,thesite
walkoverbyEAME,variousmapsoftheregionandremotesensingdatahasindicatedsignsof
humanimpactsincludingflytipping/dumping,offroadvehicleactivitiesandtheremnantsigns
ofwar.

Photograph2.1:Projectsitelandarea

Photograph2.2:Projectsiteintertidalarea

3.2

ConsiderationofAlternatives
The environmental and social implications of alternative development sites or a no
developmentoptionwereconsidered.
ItisimportanttoappreciatethelocationspecificconstraintsrepresentedbytheIraqicoastline
(i.e. only 58km in length) and the presence of only two navigable rivers suitable for the
locationofaTerminal.TheproposedsiteisidealforthisprojectasadjacenttoitistheSKA
Terminal (an existing small capacity storage facility jointly owned by WTPS that will be
connectedtothenewberth).TheSKATerminalwillnotbeabletoentirelyfulfilthelongterm
requirementsparticularlyasthereislittleroomforexpansion.Itdoes,however,allowfor
considerableoperationalbenefits,butmustnecessarilyhavetheberthslocatedclosetoit.
Furthermore,fromearlybathymetricstudiesofthearea,itseemsthatthechannelmaintains
a natural scoured minimum depth of around 12m in this location, which means it forms a
naturaldeeperwaterlocationforaloadingberth,withminimaldredgingrequirement(andits

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associated environmental disturbance). It is also close (with direct access to) the port
distributorroadswhichconnecttothemainhighwaytoBasraandthevariousdevelopment
zonesoftheSouthernRegion.
The opposite bank of the Khor AlZubair is largely undeveloped and has no established
transportinfrastructure,sotheconstructionprojectandlogisticswouldbeconsiderablylarger
thanadevelopmentonthewestsideofthechannel(aswellastherelatedimpacts).
The only alternative channel which could receive relatively large ships is the Shatt AlArab
Waterway,however,thereisasandbarontheentrancetothechannelthatdriesoncertain
tides(limitingaccessibilitytimes)andthechannelhasbeenneglectedformanyyearsinterms
ofmaintenancedredgingsoisonlyaround810mindepthwhichisinsufficientforthevessels
required.
TheKhorAlZubairis,therefore,theonlylogicaloptionforsuchaberthandtheonlyzonethat
isreachablefromthenavigablechannelandaccessibletotransportinfrastructureisthewest
bankwheretheproposedTerminalistobedeveloped.
Iftheprojectdoesnotgoahead,therewillevidentlybenoenvironmentalandsocioeconomic
impacts from construction or operation of such a facility, however, the potential positive
benefitswouldalsobelost,including:
Lossofdedicatedimportandexportfacilitiesforrefinedpetroleumproducts;
ThecontinueduseofinefficientandpoorlymaintainedinfrastructureatKZPwhichprevent
its reversion to its original design use of dry cargo (for which there is also a pressing
requirement);and
Lossofthesocialbenefitsoftheemploymentopportunitiesandeconomicstimulusthat
theTerminalwouldgenerate.
Apart from the storage of large fragments of shipwreck scrap, the site is unused and
unoccupiedandalternatepotentiallybeneficialusesarenotpresentlyproposed.Themost
likelyalternativeuseofthesitewouldprobablybeforsimilarport/logisticsrelatedfacilities
withsimilarattributesandimpactsasthoseproposedforthecurrentproject.

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4
4.1

EnvironmentalImpactAssessment
Introduction
BaselineenvironmentalconditionswereidentifiedduringtheScopingExerciseforarangeof
parametersincluding:

AirQuality;

NoiseQuality;

SoilQuality;

SedimentQuality;

SurfaceWaterQuality;

GroundwaterQuality;and

EcologyandBiodiversity.

EachofthesearediscussedinmoredetailinthefullESIAandsummarisedbelowintermsof
baselineconditions,impactassessment,mitigationandresidualimpacts.

4.2

AirQuality
AirQualityBaseline
Exposuretohighlevelsofatmosphericpollutantsordustcansometimescauseadverseeffects
on human health so it is important to understand the levels of such pollutants in the
environment. The ESIA focussed on Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), sulphur dioxide
(SOx),oxidesofnitrogen(NOx),carbonmonoxide(CO)andbreathabledustinparticularas
theprojectcouldreleasequantitiesofsomeorallofthesepollutantstoatmosphere.
Theexistinglevelsweremeasuredatfivelocationsaroundtheprojectsiteusingacombination
of passive diffusion tubes left out for 30 days (for SOx, NOx and VOCs), instantaneous
measurements of particulates using a dust meter and direct capture (laboratory analysis
measurements)forCOusingapumpedsamplecapturesystem.
Baseline ambient air quality monitoring at the site was found to be below published
environmentalbenchmarks.

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Forparticulatematter,theambientairqualityofthesiteislikelytobeaffectednegativelyby
occasionalsandstorms,whicharefrequenteventsinthisregion.Thesesandstormsmove
large volumes of fine dust into the atmosphere and can last from several hours to several
days. The measured high levels of total particulate and breathable (below 10 microns)
particulate matter observed during the survey period are very probably due to these
windblowndustsandsands,ratherthanfromindustrialsources.Therefore,thiswillremain
themaininfluenceonthelocalairqualityregardlessofanyconstructionworksassociated
withtheTerminalprojectorotherbuiltdevelopment.

Figure4.1:Airandnoisesamplingandmonitoringpositions
GoogleEarthProImagingwiththepermissionofGoogleLicensedtoEarthandMarineEnvironmentalConsultantsLtd

AirQualityImpactsandMitigation
Duringconstruction,dieselpoweredvehicles,constructionplantandpowergeneratorswould
emitatmosphericpollutants,includingnitrogenoxides.Theseemissionswouldbeproduced
foralimitedtimeandfrommobilesourcesoverawideareaso,giventhegoodbaselineair
qualityintheProjectarea,itisnotanticipatedthattheywillaffecthumanhealth(thenearest
habitationbeingover5kmaway).
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Construction vehicles and earth moving activities have the potential to generate dust, but
typically these only travel a few hundred metres at most from the source activity. It is
consideredthatwithanappropriateConstructionEnvironmentalManagementPlan(CEMP)
thepotentialfordustduringconstructiontocauseanynuisancewillbeminimal.TheCEMP
shouldrequireweathermonitoringanddampingdownofdustsduringperiodsofhighactivity.
Theduststhatcanbegeneratedasaresultofconstructionactivitiesarelocalisedandshort
livedandareinsignificantcomparedtonaturaldustfromdustandsandstormswhichoccur
frequently.
WhentheTerminalisoperational,thedustgenerationpotentialwouldbeinsignificantasthe
sitevehicleswouldbetravellingoverhardstandingareasandhardsurfacedsiteroads.
VOCsassociatedwithtankventingduringloadingandtransferoperationswouldbeminimised
byusingindustrystandardpumpingandtransferfacilitiesandtankinventorymanagement
programmes.Atpresent,petroleumproductsareloadedandunloadeddirectlyintotankers
atKZPwithnosuchcontrols.TheproposedTerminalwillutilisebulktankstorage,thereby,
reducingshipdischargetimesandassociatedemissions.
Overall,theresidualimpactsonairqualityarenotconsideredlikelytoresultinanydetrimental
effectsonhumanhealthandecosystems.Thesignificanceisconsideredtobelow.

4.3

NoiseQuality
NoiseBaseline
During the monitoring period, the general noise levels were considered low with no
discernibleobtrusivetonalornoiseimpactsbeingobserved.Nosignificantdifferenceswere
notedbetweenthemonitoringlocations.ThelocationsaredepictedinFigure4.1.
Using1993IraqiNoiseStandards,noneofthemaximumvaluesorcalculatedaverageswere
foundtobeabovethe70dBstandardforindustrialandcommercialpropertiesandoverall
the site can be considered to be a quiet, low noise environment at present. The most
noticeablenoiseonthesiteisthewindandoccasionalbirdsongfromwadingbirdsonthe
foreshore.
Exposuretonoiseatextremelyhighlevelsforalongperiodoftimecanharmthehearingof
humansandanimals.Atlowerlevels,noisecanalsobeanuisance.

NoiseImpactAssessmentandMitigation
Itisinevitablewithanymajordevelopmentthattherewillbesomenoise,particularlyduring
thesiteclearanceandconstructionphasewhenheavyplantandmachinerywouldbeused.
Typically, however, noise disruption due to construction is localised, temporary and only
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peoplelivingorworkingwithinafewhundredmetresofthesiteboundaryarelikelytobe
impacted. It is possible, however, that workers on the adjacent Freezone and KZP would
receivenoiseimpactsbecauseoftheirclosenesstotheworks.Themainnoisewouldbefrom
theenginesofheavyplantandequipmentduringearthworksactivitiesandthepilingrigs.The
noiselevelswould,however,betransientandwillbemaskedtosomeextentbylocalactivities
within the port such as crane loading and ship engine running during berthing operations.
Therearenosignificantactivities(thatwouldinvolvepersonnelbeingpresentforprolonged
periodsoftime)intheportandFreezoneareasclosesttotheTerminal.Therefore,giventhe
naturalattenuationofnoisebybuildings,theexposuretimeofpersonnelinareaslikelytobe
affectedwouldbeverysmall.
Themainnoisegeneratingactivitieslikelytobeassociatedwiththeproposeddevelopment,
(once operational) would include generators, compressors, pumps, mechanical equipment
andmaintenanceactivities.Giventhedistancebetweentheproposedoperationalareasand
noisesensitivereceptors,itisconsideredthatnoisefromthedaytodaysiteoperations(and
associated mechanical plant and equipment) is unlikely to be noticeable at those noise
sensitivereceptorlocations(suchasthenearestresidenceswhichareover5kmaway).Itis
likelythatoperationalnoisefromtheTerminalwillbeaudibleintheFreezoneandportarea
butthedurationandlevelofexposuretooperativesinthoselocationswouldbenegligible.
Also,thewindconditionsarefairlyconsistentandpredictableinIraqwiththemainwindbeing
theShamalwhichblowsfromthewestandnorthwestonmostdays.Thiswould,onmost
occasions, carry any noise generated on the site out onto the open water of the Khor Al
Zubair,awayfromneighbouringlandusesanddistantresidentialproperties.
Itisreasonabletoconclude,therefore,thatnoiseimpactwouldbeoflowsignificance.

4.4

SoilQuality
SoilBaseline
EAMEcollected20surfacesoilsamplesfromacrossthesiteandalsodrilledsevenboreholes
toallowthecollectionofsampleswithdepth(threefromeachborehole).Thesampleswere
senttoanindependentlaboratoryforchemicalanalysisforarangeofcommoncontaminants.
SamplelocationsareshowninFigure4.2.
Noneofthesoilsamplesobtainedshowedconcentrationsabovetheirrespectivescreening
criteriaforrisktohumanhealth(wherepublishedcriteriaexist).Noneofthesampleswere
positively identified in the radiation screening as having detectable radioactivity.
Furthermore,therewasnoevidenceofhydrocarboncontaminationonthesite.

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Figure 4.2:BoreholeandSurfacesoilsamplinglocations
GoogleEarthProImagingwiththepermissionofGoogleLicensedtoEarthandMarineEnvironmentalConsultantsLtd

Cemented asbestos sheeting was observed within the area of scrap metal storage on the
northernpartofthesite.Onesoilsample,here,wasfoundtocontainlooseasbestosfibres
whichisadangertohumanhealthandmustberemoved.
The baseline assessment shows that the site is effectively uncontaminated with any of the
speciestargetedforanalysisand,inthatregard,therearenoobviouscontaminationlegacy
issuesthatneedtobeaddressedaspartofthesitedevelopmentworks.

SoilQualityImpactsandMitigation
Soil is an important environmental resource that can sometimes be adversely affected by
constructionactivitiesandiscloselyassociatedwiththefunctioningofotherresourcessuch
aslandscape,ecology,agriculturalandproductivity.Offroaduseofvehicles,heavyplantand
equipmentcancompactsoil,alteritsdrainagecharacteristicsandreducesoilaerationlevels,

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whichcoulddecreasetheabilityofvegetationtogrowback.Howeverinthecontextofthis
site,allsoilareaswillbedevelopedandimportantagriculturalorecologicalcommunitiesdo
notexistonthesiteorclosetoit.
Withtheexceptionofthelooseasbestosfibres,nosignificantsoilcontaminationwasfound
intheprojectareasodisturbanceandspreadofcontaminationisunlikely.However,spillsof
fuel and other hazardous materials from construction plant or stored materials could
contaminate the soils and sediments of the Khor AlZubair unless care is taken during
construction.
The construction works would be performed under a CEMP that would set out specific
environmentalprotectionandpollutionpreventionmeasuresandanyresponsemeasuresto
beusedifanycontaminationisdiscoveredorspillsoccur.
The operational development would implement a pollution prevention plan and Oil Spill
EmergencyResponsePlan(OSERP)todealwiththestorageoffuelandhazardousmaterials
andtheresponsetoanyspillevents.Therewouldalsobeawastemanagementplantodeal
withthedisposalofroutinewastesandcontaminatedsoilfromanyincident.Thiswouldset
outmeasurestopreventpollutionfromthedisposalofanysuchwastes.
Theresidualimpactsoftheprojectonsoilare,therefore,expectedtobeoflowsignificance
exceptfortheremovalofflytippedwaste(asbestossheeting),scrapmetalandforeshore
debris,whichwould,actually,bebeneficialcomparedtothebaselineconditions.

4.5

SedimentQuality
SedimentBaseline
SedimentsampleswerecollectedfromtheKhorAlZubairandtheonlypotentialsourceof
contamination identified relates to elevated concentrations of lead identified at three
locations.Allotherparameterswererecordedatconcentrationsbelowtherelevantscreening
criteriaatwhichtheyareconsideredtobeenvironmentallynotsignificant.Consideringthe
resultsoverallandpreviousstudies,thecontaminationlevelofthesedimentsisconsideredto
belowandsoistheirassociatedpollutionpotential.

SedimentImpactAssessmentandMitigation
The Terminal is unlikely to have any impact on sediment quality and specific mitigation
measuresarenotrecommendedtoberequired.

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4.6

SurfaceWaterQuality
SurfaceWaterBaseline
AlltensamplescollectedfromtheKhorAlZubairwerefoundtohaveincreasedconcentrations
of sulphate and chloride above the relevant guideline values. However, this is effectively a
marineenvironmentsosuchhighlevelsarenaturalandtobeexpected.
Intermsofpotentialcontamination,elevatedconcentrationsofmercurywerenotedinallof
the samples. These concentrations could be the result of natural accumulations in the
environment (of geological origin). However, they may also be related to human activities
sourcesgiventheproximityofaport,heavyindustryandmajorcity,withlimitedpollution
controlmeasuresinplace.
Overall,whilstsomeelevatedconcentrationsofcertainsubstanceshavebeenobserved,the
KhorAlZubairisnotregardedassignificantlycontaminatedandthelevelsofcontaminants
observed are not considered to be a problem or to require remediation. Apart from the
potential for the high sulphate and chloride levels in the soils and groundwater (and river
water)tobeaggressivetowardsconstructionmaterialslikeconcrete,thechemicalconditions
ofthegroundwaterandriverwaterarenotlikelytocauseproblems.

SurfaceWaterQualityImpactsandMitigation
The construction of the development could lead to pollution if surface runoff laden with
sedimentisallowedtodrainuncontrollablytotheKhorAlZubair,orifspillagesoccurfrom
constructionplantorequipmentduringuseorrefuelling.Theentireconstructionoperations
would, however, operate under a CEMP with environmental protection and pollution
preventionmeasuresinplacetodealwiththeseeventualitiesorrespondwithappropriate
cleanupactionsifsystemsfail.
Thegreaterenvironmentalriskwouldbeduringtheoperationallifeofthefacilityiftherewere
amajorreleaseofpetroleumproductsfromthestoragetanks,transfersystemsofshipsusing
theberth.TomitigateagainstthisthereshouldbeadetailedOSERP,whichshouldinclude
measuresto reduce theimpactsontheKhorAlZubairbyusingcleanupand containment
equipmentandteams(seeSection4.10).
Undernormaloperatingconditionstherewouldbenoreleasesofpollutingmaterialsfromthe
facilitytosurfacewaterandthustheimpactwouldbenegligible(neutral).

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4.7

GroundwaterQuality
GroundwaterBaseline
Groundwatersampleswereobtainedfromsevenboreholes.Thelocationsarepresentedin
Figure4.2.
Anumberofcontaminantswerefoundtobegreaterthanrelevantguidelinevaluesincluding
sulphate,chloride,nitrate,manganese,mercuryandnickel.
Thesulphate,chlorideandmanganeseconcentrationswerenotunexpectedduetothehighly
salineenvironmentofthesiteandsuchlevelsareconsiderednatural.Themercurylevelsmay
be due to its natural occurrence in the environment, however, there could also be a
contributionfromnearbyindustrialemissions.Thesamecouldapplytonickel.
Lowlevelsofhydrocarbonsweredetectedinthreeboreholes.However,asnohydrocarbon
contamination was noted in the soil samples (or observed onsite) this suggests that the
hydrocarbonsmaybetheremnantsofhistoriccontaminationonthesite.Thelevelsarenot
consideredtobeaproblem.
TherewasoneVOCandthreeSemiVolatileOrganicCompounds(SVOC)thatweredetectedin
thegroundwatersamplesbutthesewereatlevelswhicharenotconsideredtobeaproblem.
However,itisindicativeoflowlevelsofcontamination.
Overallitcanbeconcludedthatthereisnotsignificantcontaminationofthegroundwateron
thesite.

GroundwaterQualityImpactAssessmentandMitigation
Thesameriskscenariosapplytogroundwaterastosurfacewaters.Potentialimpactsduring
theconstructionphase(primarilyfromfuellingofconstructionplantandequipment),would
bemitigatedviathecontrolsappliedthroughtheCEMP.Therewouldbenooperationalphase
dischargestothegroundwaterundernormaloperatingconditions.Underamajoraccident
scenariogroundwatercouldbeimpactedbuttheriskisconsiderablylessthanthattosurface
waterasthesitewillbehardsurfacedandprovidedwithbulkstoragecontainmentsystems.
Nonetheless,theOSERPwouldstillrespondtosuchasituation.

4.8

EcologyandBiodiversity
EcologyandBiodiversityBaseline
The habitats identified within the site boundaries have all been significantly affected by
humanactivities.Thelimitedvegetationprovideslimitedsupportforspeciesoffaunaonland

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and the intertidal area is also sparsely vegetated and disturbed by debris that has
accumulatedonthebeachorbeendepositedthereaspartofthewreckclearanceactivities.
Wherevegetationispresent,itisprimarilydominatedbyasmallrangeofspecies.Asaresult
ofthesignificantdisturbancethroughoutthearea,thehabitatssupportonlylimitedfloristic
cover, with those species identified during the September survey comprising common
halophytic species. Only four plant species were identified during the baseline survey. All
speciesrecordedareconsideredcommonthroughouttheregionandacrosssuchhypersaline
coastalenvironments.Thespeciesidentifiedarequicktocolonisedisturbedhabitats.
Thesurveyrecordedthepresenceoftwomammalspecieswithintheproposeddevelopment
area.However,thespeciesferaldogandcamel,arenotlistedontheIUCNRedListdueto
populationsprimarilyresultingfromescaped,domesticatedanimals.
Atotalofthreebirdspecieswererecordedduringthebaselinesurvey.Thesespeciesareall
considered to be common resident, common breeding resident and/or common migratory
species in Iraq. Similarly, all species are listed as Birds of Least Concern on the Bird Life
InternationalDatabase.
The marine environment itself if highly dynamic and could support a wide range of fish,
mammalandplanktonspecies.However,theexistingshipping,dredgingandhighturbidity
levelshavelimitedthiscomparedtothemoreopenwatersoftheArabianGulfandlessturbid
coastalzonesofsomeoftheGulfstates.Nonetheless,thisisthemostecologicallyinteresting
and sensitive aspect of the project area natural environment. The most abundant species
identifiedwerelargecoloniesofmudskippersthatarepresenteverywherealongthebanksof
theKhorAlZubair.
The overall conclusion is that the site has a negligible to low conservation value and
ecologicalsensitivityofthesiteintermsofspecies,habitatandregionalimportanceisalso
low.

EcologyandBiodiversityImpactandMitigation
ThemainimpactsassociatedwiththeTerminalwouldbephysicaldisturbanceofthelandand
intertidal areas and a proportion of the tidal sediments (from piling). Whilst this would
directlyimpactanyspeciesintheaffectedarea,thespeciespresent(sabkhavegetationand
mudskippers)areabundantintheareaandtheimmediatelossofanyofthosespecieswould
beinsignificantintermsoftotalpopulation.Furthermore,themudskippersaremobileand
will move in the early stages of disturbance and recolonise after construction works are
complete.
Theimpactoftheproposeddevelopmentontheecologyoftheareaisthusconsideredtobe
negligible.

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4.9

CumulativeandTransboundaryImpacts
Thereareanumberofotherproposeddevelopmentsintheareathatcouldhaveimpactson
theenvironmentthatwouldbecumulativewithotherprojects.Theprincipalamongstthese
istheCommonSeawaterSupplyFacility(CSSF)thatisduetobedevelopedonanadjacent
site.ThismayhavesimilarimpactstotheTerminalprojectbutissimilarlyinalowquality
environment, remote from residential areas and on a site of low ecological value.
Consequently,thecombinedimpactsaresimilarlylikelytobeoflowsignificance.
Atthetimeofwritingofthisreport,theothermajorprojectnearby(BIOGH)wasnotbelieved
tobegoingahead.

4.10 HazardAnalysisandRiskManagement
TheproposedTerminalhasbeenspecifiedtobedesignedtointernationalindustrystandards
andwoulduserelevantmanagementandtechnologicalcontrolstoensurethatundernormal
operatingconditionsthefacilitywouldnothaveasignificantimpactupontheenvironment.
Thereisalways,however,thepotentialforamajorincidentoraccidentthatcouldgiveriseto
majorimpacts.ThesearesummarisedinTable4.1.
The design control, management systems and equipment standards being applied should
ensurethatthefacilityandallaspectsofitunderWTPScontrolareadequatelysafeguarded
againsttheincidentscenariosdescribed.

Table4.1:EnvironmentalRiskScenariosandMitigation
IncidentScenario

AffectedEnvironment

MitigationMeasures

FireExplosion

Air,waterandsoil
Quality

Humanhealthimpacts

SocioEconomicImpacts

Air,landandwater
quality

Socioeconomicstatus

Air,landandwater
quality

Socioeconomicstatus

Humanhealth

The facility would be a modern


materials handling and berthing
Terminal designed and built to
international standards, The design
would go through an Engineering
design,
Procurement
and
Construction process and will be
subjected to HAZOP and HAZID
reviews and Construction Quality
Assurance programmes. This
provides the opportunity to identify
and design out many potential
incident scenarios and where they
cannot be designed out, protection

Builtenvironment

LargescaleHydrocarbon
ReleasetoLand

LargescaleHydrocarbon
Releasetowater

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Table4.1:EnvironmentalRiskScenariosandMitigation
IncidentScenario

DumpingofWasteon
Land

DumpingofWastein
Water
PlantandEquipment
Failure

FacilityDebrisfromLarge
scaleDamage

AffectedEnvironment

MitigationMeasures

Habitats,speciesand
ecologicalproductivity

measureswouldbeemployedwhich
include:

Waterandsoilquality

Humanhealthimpact

TotalSiteSecurity(controlled
access)

Habitatimpact

FireDetectionandAlarmSystem

FirefightingCapability

Waterqualityimpact

Habitatimpact

PreventiveMaintenance
Programme

Airqualityimpact

ModernEquipment

Speciesimpact

Ecologicalproductivity
impact

TrainedandExperienced
Operatives

CertifiedManagementSystems

MonitoringandAudit
Programmes

EmergencyResponsePlan

Waterandsoilquality

Socioeconomicimpact

Builtenvironmentimpact

Onanyindustrialfacilitysuchasthiswhereoilsandpetroleumproductsarebeinghandledin
bulk and transferred to and from ships via pipelines between storage vessels, there is a
possibility of leakage or loss from these systems either in terms of liquid spills or a
fire/explosionrelatedincident.Furthermore,ifenvironmentalmanagementandoperational
proceduresarenotfollowedcorrectly,therecouldbeunauthoriseddischargesanddisposals
that could impact the environment. The mitigation of such events is based upon a 3part
approach:
1.

Design out potential problems where possible before constructing and operating the
facility;

2.

Operate high quality well maintained equipment under formal audited management
programmesandstandardoperatingproceduresusingtrainedcompetentpersonnel;and

3.

Providealarms,monitoringandemergencyresponseteamsandequipmenttorespond
rapidlyandcomprehensivelytoanyincident.

Consequently,whilstsuchimpactsarestillpossible,theyarehighlyimprobableandrobust
interventionmeasuresshouldlimittheconsequencesofsuchincidentsiftheyoccur.

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Theworstcasescenarioisamajoroilreleasetothewaterthatisnotadequatelymitigatedby
theimplementationofanOSERP.However,oneadvantageofa longlinearchannelisthat
boomscanbedeployedupstreamanddownstreamofthespilltocontainitandpreventtidal
spreadoftheslick,andbothshorescanbeaccessedbypersonnelandequipmenttocleanup.
The ecosystem here is highly dynamic (tides and mixing), has a high environmental
temperature(watertempsof35oC+andairtempsof50oC+),biologicallyactivebacteriaand
hasstrongpersistentwinds.Sointheunfortunatelybutunlikelyeventofsuchaspill,these
conditions would promote breakdown and degradation of the oil products and assist the
recovery of the natural environment. Finally, with the exception of wading birds in the
intertidal area (which are in very low numbers around the project site), the receiving
environmentisoflowecologicalqualityandlesssensitivetoimpactthanahighlyproductive
ecologicallydiversearea.

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5
5.1

SocialImpactAssessment
SocialandPoliticalEnvironments
Demographics
AccordingtotheMinistryofPlannings2013data,thepopulationoftheBasrahGovernorate
was2,672,425.Accordingdatafrom2010,theethnoreligiousidentityoftheGovernorateis
classifiedas99.8%ArabShiaMuslim.
EconomyandLivelihoods
TheaveragemonthlyhouseholdincomeforBasrahGovernorateisID898,400whichisjust
abovetheIraqinationalmonthlyaverageofID858,800.
ThesurveydataindicatesagriculturalactivityisofonlylimitedimportanceintheAlZubair
District.Thereisaheavyrelianceonstateemployment,witharoundahalfoftheworkforce
beingemployedaspublicservants.
Employment
Iraqseconomyisveryvulnerabletooilpricefluctuationsbecauseofaweakprivatesector
andarelianceonthestatetoprovideemployment.Theneedtocreateemploymentsince
2003 has led Iraq to double its public sector. However, ultimately Iraqs Gross Domestic
Product(GDP)isstill95%derivedfromoilrevenues.
Unemploymentstatisticsfor2013recordthenationalunemploymentrateinIraqas14.7%.
Thus the unemployment in the Basrah Governorate (based on 2009 figures) appear to be
slightlyabovethenationalaverage,however,theactualrateislikelymuchhigher,considering
underemploymentanddiscouragedjobseekers. Themainreasonsforunemploymentcited
withinhouseholdsinthesurveywerenoopportunitiesforworkandillness/oldage.
Inaddition,femaleemploymentisgenerallylowthroughoutthegovernorateespeciallywithin
AlZubairandFao.FemaleparticipationinthelabourforceislowinIraq,generally,compared
tomostofIraqsneighbours.Employmentratesamongstwomeninthelabourforcearealso
relativelylow.
InfrastructureandServices
Thesupplyofwaterandenergyandtheprovisionofeducationandhealthcarefacilitiesare
keyelementsofsocialinfrastructureandservices.

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TheelectricityinfrastructurewasseverelydamagedduringtheGulfWar,sufferedfromlack
ofinvestmentandlackofavailableequipmentundersanctions,andsufferedagainfollowing
theUSledoccupationin2003.Whilethesupplyofelectricityisincreasing,itisunabletokeep
pacewithrisingdemand.Problemsintheelectricitysectorarewidespread.Powergeneration
ishamperedbyissuessuchasagingpowerplantsandshortagesinfuelandwater.Tomeet
theelectricitydemandsofBasra,threepowerstationships,producing450MWofelectricity,
havebeeninstalledontheShattAlArabWaterwayandKhorAlZubair.
Watersalinityduetothehighsaltcontentoflocalwatersourcesisamajorissueaffectingthe
publicnetworkintheBasrahGovernorate.Itisestimatedthatonly1%percentofhouseholds
inthegovernorateusethepublicnetwork.Householdsrelyonbottledortankerdelivered
water. Rehabilitationofthewatertreatmentanddistributionsystemsisurgentlyneeded.
TheGovernmentofIraqhasidentifiededucationasoneofitsmainpriorities.Between1990
and2007therewasanationaldropinnetprimaryschoolenrolmentratesfrom91%to85%.
Thequalityofeducationishamperedbypoorlearningenvironmentscausedbypoorquality
infrastructureandovercrowding.Nationally,oneinfiveIraqisagedover15yearsisilliterate
andintheAlZubairDistrict15.1%ofpeopleagedover10areilliterate.
The health system in Iraq is overburdened and suffers from a shortage of infrastructure,
equipmentandprofessionalstaff.
TheclosestmajorroadtothesiteisHighway26,whichisanasphalteddualcarriagewaywith
no central reservation. The highway has been undergoing subject to improvements since
2012,and,sectionsofthedualcarriagewayareclosed.Assuch,theseclosuresandthelackof
centralreservationsmeanthatinmanyplaces,trafficfrombothwaysuseonesideofthedual
carriageway.

5.2

SocioeconomicSurveyFindings
Theproposedprojectareaisunoccupiedandeffectivelyunused.Thelandisownedbythe
Ministry of Finance (MoF) (i.e. state owned) and under the control of GCPI. The nearest
residentialpremisesareover5kmfromtheprojectsiteandthelandinbetweentheproject
siteandnearestresidentialpropertiesisalsounusedandunoccupied.Consequently,there
arenoresidentialcommunitieslikelytodirectlyinteractwiththeprojectactivitiesandsite
development. At present, the site provides no employment opportunities and is not a
purchaser of goods and services so there is no net contribution to the local economy or
employmentstatus.
Themainactivitythattakesplaceinthevicinityoftheprojectsiteandwhichcouldpotentially
beaffectedbyitissmallscalefishing.

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AllfishermenhaveofficiallettersissuedfromcentralGovernmentwhichentitlethemtofish
insideanyIraqiterritorialwaters(exceptmilitaryexclusionzones)andtheriverpoliceand
GCPIcannotpreventthefishermenusingtheriver.Smallcatchesaresoldlocally,eitheron
thewatertoKuwaitifishermen(whocannotenterIraqiwaters),oratsmallroadsidestallsin
UmmQasrandZubair.IftheylandalargecatchtheycallafishingagentinBasrawhosells
theminthemarketsinBasra.
Theproposedprojectsitewasnotaconcerntotheinterviewedfishermenastheysaythatthe
areaisseldomusedandtheycanworkoutsideofthatareafromtheirsmallboatsorfrom
landfurthersouth.Theyaremoreconcernedaboutplanneddevelopmentworksinthesmall
adhocporttheyuseforaccessingtheirvesselsandthewaterway.Concernshavebeenraised
bythelocalfishermenaboutplansforanewberththerewhichtheyfearwillpreventthem
accessingthisareainthefuture.Theyhavesaidthattheywillinsistoncompensationorwill
demonstrateandprotestiftheproposeddevelopmentaffectstheiraccess.Thissiteisclose
toUmmQasrnorthandiswelloutsidetheprojectarea.
Demographics,EmploymentandLivelihoods
The proposed Terminal would generate employment in an areas that has high levels of
unemployment and poverty. The construction would offer temporary employment, while
operation of the Terminal would require a much smaller workforce of skilled technical
personnelandsecuritystaff.
ItislikelythatsomeoftheworkersfortheTerminalwouldbesourcedfromlocalcommunities
which would help to strengthen the local economy and improve the standard of living for
householdswithmembersemployedattheTerminal.
LandOwnershipandUse
WTPShaveleasedthelandfortheTerminalfromGCPIfor25yearsandwillleaselandfrom
MoFneededfortheconstructionperiod.
InfrastructureandServices
ThekeysensitivityandpotentialimpactoftheTerminaloninfrastructureandservicesislikely
tobeontheexistingroadsinthevicinityoftheTerminalwhichmayaffectroadconditionand
trafficflow.However,Highway26isintheprocessofrefurbishmentandlikelytobeingood
conditionduringtheconstruction.Thevolumeofpetroltankersvisitingthefacilitywilltoa
largeextentsimplybethesamevehiclesthataccesstheKZPfacilitiesatpresent.

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CommunityHealthandSafety
The following should all be implemented to ensure that projectrelated activities do not
significantlyaffectcommunityhealthandsafety:

Toreducetheriskoftrafficaccidents,theconstructioncontractorshouldberequiredto
useonlytheagreedaccessroutesandtocomplywiththerelevantspeedlimits;

The construction areas should be clearly demarcated and safety fencing should be
erected;and

TheTerminalshouldbebuiltandoperatedtointernationalindustrysafetystandards.

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6
6.1

EnvironmentalandSocialImpactSummary
ImpactAssessmentCriteria
This section of NTS provides a tabulated overview of the key aspects of the baseline
environmentalconditionsandthemitigatedenvironmentalimpactsoftheprojectproposals.
Importantly,thissectionidentifiestherelativemagnitudeandsignificanceofthepredicted
impacts and an overall concluding statement of the impact assessment of the proposed
development.Itisimportanttonotethatimpactscanbepositiveaswellasnegative.
Thecriteriaandsymbolsusedinthisassessmentareasfollows:

Major Positive +++or Major Negative effectwherethedevelopmentwouldcausea


significantimprovement(ordeterioration)totheexistingenvironment;

Moderate Positive ++ or Moderate Negative effect where the development would


causeanoticeableimprovement(ordeterioration)totheexistingenvironment;

Minor Positive + or Minor Negative effectwherethedevelopmentwouldcauseabarely


perceptibleimprovement(ordeterioration)totheexistingenvironment;and

Insignificantonodiscernibleimprovementordeteriorationtotheexistingenvironment.

The impact assessment also includes consideration of whether or not the impacts are
permanent, temporary, direct or indirect. Furthermore, where there are other potential
sourcesofsimilarimpactsthatcouldaffectthelocalenvironmentthencumulativeimpacts
havebeenconsideredalso.Consequently,thischapteroftheNTSprovidesanoverviewof
theoverallpotentialeffectofthedevelopmentproposalsontheenvironment.

6.2

ProjectImpactsMatrix
Table 6.1 presents each of the aspects of the development where potential impacts were
predictedduringtheScopingExerciseandsubsequentlyassessedduringthisESIA.Thetable
providesanoverviewofthefollowingaspectsofeachtechnicalareaassessed:

Baselineenvironmentalconditions;

Predictedenvironmentalimpactsforboththeconstructionphaseandoperationalphase;

Identification of the relative magnitude of the impact for both the construction and
operationalphases;and

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Identificationofwhetherthepredictedimpactispositiveornegativeorwhetherthereis
nopredictedimpact.

Thepredictionsareallbaseduponacomparisonoftheconditionsthatwouldprevailifthe
development does not proceed (i.e. the ongoing status of the baseline conditions) against
thosethatwillprevailifthedevelopmentdoesproceedasdescribed.

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Table6.1:ProjectImpactsMatrix
Environmentalor
Socioeconomic
BaselineConditions
Issue
Socioeconomic
Issues

There is presently no employment associated with the


site or activity on the site and there are no residential
communitiesorculturalsensitivitiesassociatedwiththe
landorsurroundingareas.

RelativeSizeandNatureof
Impact
DescriptionofImpact(AfterMitigation)
Construction
Phase
TheTerminalwouldprovidejobsduringtheconstruction
andoperationalbothdirectlyandintermsofbenefitsto
localbusinesses.

Operational
Phase
+++

The traffic impact is unlikely to be significant as the


Thereareoccasionalvisitorstothesite,forexample,local volume of required products will be driven by demand
fishermenusethelandtoaccesstheKhorAlZubairand andtherearenoalternativelocationsfortheimportof
deployfishingnets.
such products so even if this development did not
Adjacent to the site is the Freezone (logistics and SKA proceed, there would probably be a similar amount of
marineandroadtrafficinthelocalareaandatthesame
Terminal)andKZP.
junctions.

Thefishermenthatpresentlyaccesstheshorefromthe

sitewillnolongerbeabletodosoonceitisdeveloped,
but there are numerous other locations where this
practice can continue unaffected. The local fishermen
wereinterviewedaspartofthestakeholderengagement
exercise and did not see the development as affecting
theiractivities.

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Table6.1:ProjectImpactsMatrix
Environmentalor
Socioeconomic
BaselineConditions
Issue

RelativeSizeandNatureof
Impact
DescriptionofImpact(AfterMitigation)
Construction
Phase

Operational
Phase

Overall the impacts on the socioeconomic conditions


wouldbepositiveintermsofjobcreationandsupportto
thegeneraleconomyofsouthernIraq.
Archaeologyand
CulturalHeritage

AirQuality

Thesitedoesnotcontainanyarchaeologicalorreligious Asthereiseffectivelynobaselinetobeaffectedforthis
relicts and is not culturally significant and there are no parametertheimpactwouldbeneutral.
dwellingsorresidentialcommunitiesincloseproximityto
thesite.

Thesurfaceofthesitehasbeenheavilydisturbedinthe
past by earth moving plant (and possibly dredgings
disposal).

Air quality in the area is generally good with no noted


benchmarkvaluesexceeded.Themainissuewithrespect
toairqualityistheincreaseinbreathabledustcausedby
dustandsandstorms,butthisaffectsthewholeregion
andisnotasitespecificphenomenon.

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Impacts of the construction on both nuisance dust and


localairqualityhavebeenassessedwithregardstothe
location of locally sensitive receptors. Whilst the
constructionactivities(especiallyearthmoving)havethe
potentialtocauselocalnuisance,thiscanbecontrolled
andminimisedbyeffectiveenvironmentalmanagement
onthesite.Theworkswouldbecarriedoutinaccordance
withaCEMP.Theimpactsduringtheconstructionphase

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Table6.1:ProjectImpactsMatrix
Environmentalor
Socioeconomic
BaselineConditions
Issue

RelativeSizeandNatureof
Impact
DescriptionofImpact(AfterMitigation)
Construction
Phase

Operational
Phase

are thus predicted to be moderate to minor at all


receptors if not adequately controlled but insignificant
withtheimplementationofaCEMPandtheassociated.
Impactsduringtheoperationalphasearepredictedtobe
insignificant.
Noise

Thesitepresentlydoesnotcontainanyactivitiessoin
thatregardtherearenonoisesourcesresultingfrom
humanactivitiesonthesite.Furthermore,thereareno
noisesensitivereceptorsincloseproximitytothesite.

Noise levels from the construction of the development


could arise, although there are no sensitive receptors
closeby.Nonethelesstherewillbenoisesourcesonthe
sitethatdonotexistpresently.Impactsarepredictedto
beoflocalsignificance,howeverwiththeimplementation
ofmitigationmeasuresandaCEMP,noiseandvibration
impacts, which will be for short durations only and will
not be continuous. They could be noticeable however
andareconsideredtorepresentaminornegativeimpact.

The noise impacts from road traffic during the


constructionarenotconsideredtobesignificant,withthe
estimated levels of noise from construction haulage at
the nearest noise receptor being well below the

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Table6.1:ProjectImpactsMatrix
Environmentalor
Socioeconomic
BaselineConditions
Issue

RelativeSizeandNatureof
Impact
DescriptionofImpact(AfterMitigation)
Construction
Phase

Operational
Phase

respective noise criteria at the nearest residential


properties. The impacts from road traffic during the
operationalphaseareconsideredtobeinsignificantgiven
that there is very little difference between the vehicle
trafficaccessingKZPandthataccessingthenewfacilities
instead.Theroadtrafficnoisethatprevailsatpresentwill
continuetobetheroadtrafficnoisethatdominatesinthe
futureattheclosestresidentialreceptor.
Once operational, the predicted noise emissions
generated within the proposed development from
mechanical services, plant and day to day operations is
predicted to be insignificant to the nearest residential
receptors.
Ecologyand
Nature
Conservation

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Thedevelopmentsitedoesnotsupportawidevarietyof
ecologicalspeciesandisnotsoimportantfromanature
conservation perspective. The majority of the site is
occupied by disturbed ground and patches of sabkha
vegetation. The Intertidal area houses mudskipper

Therewillbealossofhabitatsuchasitisontheareas
where new infrastructure will be developed, but the
species affected (sabkha vegetation and mudskippers)
areabundantandwillrapidlyrecolonizeinadjacentareas
sotheoverallimpactwillbeneutral.

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NonTechnicalSummary
WaterwayTrading&PetroleumServicesLLC

Table6.1:ProjectImpactsMatrix
Environmentalor
Socioeconomic
BaselineConditions
Issue

RelativeSizeandNatureof
Impact
DescriptionofImpact(AfterMitigation)
Construction
Phase

Operational
Phase

colonies (which are ubiquitous along the banks of the


KhorAlZubair).
Themostinterestingfeatureofthesiteisitspotentialas
asiteforwadingbirds,althoughonlyahandfulofbirds
havebeenobservedonthesiteduringanyofthesurvey
visits.
Thewatersofthemarineenvironmentarehighlyturbid
arelikelytohavelowbiologicalproductivityandspecies
diversity.
Overall the project site is considered to be of low
ecologicalvalue.
WaterQuality
andHydrology

0141287Revision01

The water quality in both the surface water and Thesiteconstructionactivitieswouldbemanagedunder


groundwater is relatively unimpacted by human aCEMPandpollutionofwatersisnotanticipated.
activities(otherthancoliformsinthesurfacewater).
Furthermore, water required for the operational
Thegroundwaterishighlysalineduetothemarinenature activitieswillbebroughtinbytankerandnotabstracted
oftheenvironmentandlandformingprocessesthereand locally.Undernormaloperatingconditions,allpolluting
materials will be within managed and monitored
theKhorAlZubairisatidalestuary.

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EnvironmentalandSocialImpactAssessment
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NonTechnicalSummary
WaterwayTrading&PetroleumServicesLLC

Table6.1:ProjectImpactsMatrix
Environmentalor
Socioeconomic
BaselineConditions
Issue

RelativeSizeandNatureof
Impact
DescriptionofImpact(AfterMitigation)
Construction
Phase

Operational
Phase

Althoughtheareahasbeenasiteofarmedconflict,there containment systems so pollution from site activities is


was no development and infrastructure here to be notanticipated.
damagedandreleasepollutantssothesetpresentlydoes
notposeapollutionthreattosurfaceandgroundwater
resources.
Soils,Geology
and
Contamination

Thesiteinvestigationhasnotidentifiedanysignificant
contaminationonthesiteineitherthesoilsor
sediments(althoughtherearesomeelevatedmetal
speciespresent).Thisisnotunexpectedastherehave
beennopollutingactivitiesonthesitetodate(other
thanlocalisedstorageofvesselscrapwhichmayhave
ledtosomelocalisedsurfacecontamination).
Thegeologyoftheareaisrelativelyconsistent
comprisingsands,siltsandclays.

Waste
Management

0141287Revision01

Basedonthesiteinvestigationfindings,specificremedial
measureswillnotberequiredonthesiteandthe
developmentoverallwillhaveaminorpositiveimpact
byremovingthefewcontaminantsandwastematerials
thatarepresenttoanappropriatelyauthorisedfacility.

Followingredevelopment,thesitewillbeunder
predominantlyhardstandingwithcontrolleddrainage
suchthatanyspillagesorreleasesshouldbecontained
andpollutionofthesoilsavoided.

The site does not presently generate any wastes from Theprojectwouldgeneratewastes.Thesiteworkswill
activities per se, but there are large quantities of scrap becoveredbyaCEMPwhich,amongstotherthings,will
metal on the site from shipwrecks and debris on the
foreshorethathasbeendepositedbytides.Thereisalso

December2014
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EnvironmentalandSocialImpactAssessment
KAZOilTerminalProject,Iraq

NonTechnicalSummary
WaterwayTrading&PetroleumServicesLLC

Table6.1:ProjectImpactsMatrix
Environmentalor
Socioeconomic
BaselineConditions
Issue

RelativeSizeandNatureof
Impact
DescriptionofImpact(AfterMitigation)
Construction
Phase

Operational
Phase

evidenceofasbestoscementsheet (isolatedfragments) seektoidentifyallwastesgeneratedbytheconstruction


amongstthescrapmetalwaste.
activitiesandsetoutmanagementmeasuresforthese.

To ensure adequate standards of waste management


duringtheoperations,afacilityWasteManagementPlan
wouldbedevelopedandimplementedwhichwillsetout
the appropriate measures to be employed for the
management and disposal of wastes and pollution
prevention.
Althoughsignificantimpactsarenotexpectedfromwaste
generating and management activities on the site, the
factthatthesitedoesnotpresentlygenerateanywaste
butwouldinthefutureisaminornegativeimpact.

KEY:NegativeImpact,+PositiveImpact/+MinorImpact/++ModerateImpact/+++MajorImpactoInsignificantImpact

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EnvironmentalandSocialImpactAssessment
KAZOilTerminalProject,Iraq

NonTechnicalSummary
WaterwayTrading&PetroleumServicesLLC

The Terminal development proposals have been assessed in relation to their potential to
impact upon the environmental conditions that currently prevail on the site and in the
surroundingarea.Thisassessmenthasunderstoodtheenvironmentalsensitivityofthearea
aroundtheproposalsite.
Theenvironmentalimpactsoftheconstructionoftheprojectaretypicallyminorandnegative
and are largely a function of the inevitable disruption caused by a major redevelopment
projectandespeciallytheinitialearthworksphaseswhichareunavoidablyintrusive.Thelong
lasting/permanentimpactsassociatedwiththedevelopmentare,onthewhole,eitherneutral
(environmentallyinsignificant)or,morefrequentlypositive.
Themostnotableimpactisthemajorpositiveimpactrelatedtojobcreationandcontribution
totheIraqieconomy.Inoveralltermsthen,theprincipalconclusionoftheESIAisthatdespite
some localised, temporary negative impacts, the overall effect of the development will be
positiveontermsofsocioeconomicbenefits.

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NonTechnicalSummary
WaterwayTrading&PetroleumServicesLLC

EnvironmentalandSocialImpactAssessment
KAZOilTerminalProject,Iraq

EnvironmentalandSocialManagementandMonitoringPlan
AnotherkeyoutputoftheESIAprocessisthedevelopmentofanEnvironmentalandSocial
Management and Monitoring Plan (ESMMP), which sets out various commitments by the
developerandhiscontractor.Thisispresentedasastandalonedocumentbutwillinclude
suchcommitmentsas:

DevelopmentandenforcementofaCEMPduringanyoftheconstructionactivitiesofthe
project;

Appointmentofalocalstakeholderliaisonofficertoactasapointofcontactbetween
thedevelopmentteamandthelocalcommunity(especiallyfishermen);

Development and implementation of an Environmental Management Plan for


operational activities that sets out environmental protection and pollution prevention
activitiesthatwillbeengaged;

Provision of adequate containment systems, monitoring and surveillance systems and


development,implementationandmaintenance(includingdrills)ofanOSERP;

Development and implementation of a Waste Management Plan to ensure adequate


managementanddisposalofallwastesgeneratedbythesiteactivities;and

Preparation of a Demolition Environmental Management Plan, setting out how the


facilitieswilleventuallybedepolluted,decontaminatedanddecommissionedtoensure
thatnoresidualenvironmentalrisksremain.

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