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Executive summary in Romanian

Cercetarea privind scaderea emisiilor cauzate de propulsia aeronautica este incurajata de importanta
crescanda a consecintelor asupra mediului: legislatia restrictiva este generata la nivel global, iar
producatorii de motoare investesc in cercetarea motoarelor curate, cu scopul unei reduceri
substantiale a emisiilor. Orice avans tehnologic care ar putea reduce nivelul emisiilor este intotdeauna
binevenit. In ceea ce priveste motoarele aeronavelor, o solutie posibila pentru aceasta problema ar
putea fi folosirea unui radiator de supraalimentare.
O inovatie tehnologica care poate fi extrem de avantajoasa pentru a reduce consumul de combustibil
este integrarea unor schimbatoare de caldura in ciclul motorului avionului. Noxele emise si nivelul de
zgomot poate fi redus de asemenea datorita unor imbunatatiri aduse camerei de ardere dar si
configuratiei raportului ridicat de flux secundar. Aceasta nu este o solutie noua. Aceste schimbatoare
de caldura se folosesc deja in motoarele stationare. Pentru motoarele de avion greutatea aditionala a
echipamentului ar putea depasi combustibilul salvat.
Aceasta lucrare compara performantele unui motor conventional cu cele ale unui motor pe a carei
configuratie este adaugat un racitor intermediar folosind mersul de calcul preluat din lucrarea
Elements of Propulsion: Gas Turbines and Rockets a lui Jack D. Mattingly, implementata in
MATLAB R2011b.

1. Introduction to the theme


them of the project
Public awareness and political concern over the environmental impact of the growth in civil aviation
over the past 30 years have intensified
intensi
industry efforts to address
emissions
emissions.
emissions are
directly proportional to aircraft fuel burn and one way to minimise the latter is by having engines with
reduced Specific
fic Fuel Consumption (SFC) and installations that minimize nacelle drag and weight.
Significant
ficant factors affecting SFC are propulsive
pro
efficiency
ficiency and thermal efficiency. Propulsive
efficiency
ficiency has been improved by designing turbofan engines with bigger fans to give lower specific
thrust (net thrust divided by fan inlet mass flow) until increased engine weight and nacelle drag have
started to outweigh the benefits.
fits. Thermal efficiency has been improved mainly by increasing the
Overall Pressure Ratio (OPR) and Turbine Entry Temperature (TET) to the extent possible with new
materials and design technologies. [3]
Mission fuel burn benefits
fits from reducing specific thrust are illustrated in Figure
Figure 1.1 (for a year 2020
entry into service, but otherwise conventional, direct drive fan engine for long range applications). The
engine Take-Off
Off (TO) thrust at Sea Level Static International
International Standard Atmosphere (SLS ISA)
conditions is 293.6kN (66,000 lbf) and all Fan Pressure Ratio (FPR) and Bypass Ratio (BPR) values
quoted are at mid-cruise
cruise conditions. The figure shows that only a modest reduction in block fuel is
obtained by increasing
ing the already large fan diameter. Reduced power plant weight and/or nacelle drag
would be needed before lower specific
specific thrust would be justified, and one way of doing this would be to
discard the nacelle and fit an open rotor in place of the fan. [4]

Figure 1.1 Block fuel benefits


fits from reducing specific thrust for a year 2020 entry into service conventional turbofan
engine for long range applications.

An alternative design approach to improving SFC is to consider an increased OPR intercooled core
performance cycle. The thermal efficiency
efficiency benefits from intercooling have been well documented in
the literature - see for example. Very little information is available
ailable however, with respect to design
space exploration and optimization for minimum block fuel at aircraft system level.

History of Propulsion Devices and Turbomachines


Manmade propulsion devices have existed for many centuries, and natural devices have
hav developed
through evolution. Most modem engines and gas turbines have one common denominator:
compressors and turbines or "turbomachines." Several of the early turbomachines and propulsive
devices will be described in this brief introduction before modem engines are considered. Included are
some familiar names not usually associated with turbomachines or propulsion. Many of the manmade
devices were developed by trial and error and represent early attempts at design engineering, and yet
some were quite sophisticated
histicated for their time.
One of the earliest manmade turbomachines was the aeolipile of Heron (often called "Hero" of
Alexandria), as shown in Figure 1.2.
2. This device was conceived around 100 B.C. It operated with a
plenum chamber filled with water, which
which was heated to a boiling condition. The steam was fed
through tubes to a sphere mounted on a hollow shaft. Two exhaust nozzles located on opposite sides of
the sphere and pointing in opposite directions were used to direct the steam with high velocity and
rotate the sphere with torque (from the moment of momentum) around an axis - a reaction machine.
By attaching ropes to the axial shaft, Heron used the developed power to perform tasks such as
opening temple doors.

Figure 1.2 Heron's aeolipile

In about A.D. 1232, Wan Hu developed and tested the Chinese rocket sled, which was driven by an
early version of the solid propulsion rocket. Fuel was burned in a closed container, and the resulting
hot gases were exhausted through a nozzle, which produced high exit velocities and thus the thrust.
Tragically, this device resulted in one of the earliest reported deaths from propulsion devices, for Hu
was killed during its testing. Leonardo da Vinci also contributed to the field of turbomachines
turbomachin with his
chimney jack in 1500. This device was ~ turbine within the chimney that used the free convection of
hot rising gases to drive a set of vanes rotationally. The rotation was redirected, using a set of gears, to
tum game in the chimney above the fire.
fire. Thus, the game was evenly cooked. At the same time, da
Vinci also contributed to turbomachinery development with his conception of a helicopter producing
lift with a large "screw."

From the conceptions of Robert Hooke and others, windmills (Figure 1.3) - actually large wind
turbines - were extensively used in the Netherlands for both water pumping and milling from the
1600s to the 1800s. These huge wind turbines (more than 50 m in diameter) made use of the flat
terrain and strong and steady winds and turned at low rotational speeds. Through a series of wooden
"bevel" gears and couplings, the torsional power was turned and directed to ground level to provide
usable power. Some of the early pumping applications of "windmills" in the Netherlands used an
inverse of a water wheel- that is, the "buckets" on the wheel scooped water up at a low level and
dropped it over a dyke to a higher level, thus, recovering land below sea level from flooding.
Giovanni de Branca developed a gas turbine in 1629 that was an early version of an impulse turbine.
Branca used a boiling, pressurized vessel of steam and a nozzle to drive a set of radial blades on a shaft
with the high-velocity steam. The rotation was then redirected with a set of bevel gears for a
mechanical drive.
In 1687, Sir Isaac Newton contributed the steam wagon, which may be viewed as an early automobile.
He used a tank of boiling water constantly heated by a fire onboard the wagon and a small nozzle to
direct the steam to develop thrust. By adjusting the fire intensity, the valve on the nozzle, and the
nozzle direction, he was able to regulate the exhaust velocity and thus the thrust level as well as thrust
direction. Although the concept was viable, the required power exceeded that available for reasonable
vehicle speeds. Thus, the idea was abandoned.

Figure 1.3 Dutch windmill.

Denis Papin developed the first scientific conceptions of the principles of a pump impeller in a volute
in 1689, although remains of early wooden centrifugal pumps from as early as the fifth century A.D.
have been found. In 1754, Leonhard Euler, a well-known figure in mathematics and fluids, further
developed the science of pumps and today has the ideal pump performance named after him - "Euler
head." Much later, in 1818, the first centrifugal pumps were produced commercially in the United
States.
4

driven mill in 1730. This mill was an early venture with a water (or
Garonne developed a water-driven
hydraulic) turbine. Water at a high hydrostatic head from a dammed river
river was used to direct water
onto a conoid (an impeller) with a set of conical vanes and turn them. The rotating shaft drove a
grinding mill above the turbine for grain preparation. The same concept was applied in 1882 in
Wisconsin, where a radial inflow hydraulic
hy
turbine was used to generate electricity.
Gifford was the first to use a controlled propulsion device
device successfully to drive an "aircraft."
"air
In 1851,
he used a steam engine to powerr a propeller-driven
propeller
dirigible. The total load required to generate power
was obviously quite large because of the engine size, combustion fuel, and water used for boiling,
boilin
making the idea impractical.
In 1883, Carl de Laval developed the so-called
so
Hero-type reaction turbine shown in Figure 1.4 utilized
for early water turbines.
bines. Water flowed through hollow spokes, formed high-velocity
velocity jets normal to,
and at the end of, the spokes, and was used to turn a shaft. This is the basic type of rotating sprinkler
head used to convert potential energy from a static body of water to a rotating shaft with torque.
As another example, in 1897 de Laval developed the impulse steam turbine (Figure
ure 1.5). This utilized
jets of steam and turning vanes or blades mounted on a rotating shaft. The high-speed
speed steam impinged
on the blades and was turned,
rned, thus imparting momentum to the blades and therefore rotating the shaft
and providing torque.
Over the next quarter century, rapid developments took place. Gas and steam turbines came into wide
use for ships and power generation. For example, in 1891
189 the first steam turbine was developed by
Charles Parsons. This device was a predecessor to the modern gas turbine. It had two separate
components: the steam generator-combustor
generator
and the turbine.

Figure 1.4 DeLaval "Hero" reaction turbine,1883.

Figure 1.5 DeLaval impulse turbine, 1897.

The generator-combustor
combustor developed a high-pressure
high pressure steam, which was directed as a high-velocity jet
into the steam turbine. In the early 1800s, ship propellers
propelle or "screws," which are themselves a variety
of turbomachines, were invented by Richard Trevithick and others. Parsons' steam turbine, rated at
2100 hp (1570 kW), was used to power such a propeller directly on the 100-ft
ft (30.5-m)-long
(30.5
ocean
vessel Turbinia
ia in 1897 and drove it at 34 kt, which was a true feat if one considers that most
seaworthy vehicles were slow-moving
moving sail craft.
In 1912, a large (64-stage)
stage) steam turbine facility was installed in Chicago and ran at 750 rpm to deliver
25 MW of electricall power. In the 1920s, several General Electric 40-MW
MW units were put in service.
These ran at 1800 rpm and had 19 stages. Although many refinements and advancements have been
5

turbine technology since this installation, the same basic design iss still in use in power
made to steam-turbine
plants throughout the world.
In the 1930s, simultaneous and strictly independent research and development were performed in
Great Britain and Germany on gas turbines. In 1930, Sir Frank Whittle (Great Britain) patented the
modem propulsion gas turbine (Fig. 6). The engine rotated at almost 18,000 rpm and developed a
thrust of 4450 N. It had a centrifugal flow compressor and a reverse-flow
flow combustion chamber; that is,
the flow in the burner was opposite in direction to the net flow of air in the engine - a concept still used
for small engines to conserve space. This gas turbine was first installed on an aircraft in 1941 after
several years of development.

Figure 1.6 Whittle's WU1 jet engine.

In 1939,, the first flight using a gas turbine took place in Germany. Hans von Ohain patented the engine
for this aircraft in 1936, which developed 4890 N of thrust. This engine had a combination of axial
flow and centrifugal compressor stages. In general, this gass turbine and further developmental engines
were superior to the British counterparts in efficiency and durability. A few years later the German
Junkers Jumo 004 (Figure 1.7),
7), designed by Anselm Franz, was the first engine to be mass produced.
Meher-Homji (1996, 1997b, and 1999) also presents an interesting review of these early
developments. Today both Whittle and von Ohain are credited equally with the invention ofthe jet
engine.

Figure 1.7 Junkers' Jumo 004

Also during the 1930s, the first high-speed


high speed turbopumps for rocket propulsion were developed in
Germany for the V2. Hot exhaust gases from a combustor were expanded by turbines and drove the
high-speed
speed oxygen and hydrogen cryopumps, which in turn pumped or compressed the cryofluids,
readying them for the combustor. The maiden voyage of the V2 occurred in 1940, and its introduction
6

allowed for previously unattainable long-range delivery of warheads. This type of propulsion inspired
modem rocket technology and is still the basic operating principle for modern rocketry.
Today the largest engines are built by Pratt & Whitney (PW 4098), General Electric (GE 90), and
Rolls-Royce (Trent), and all of these manufacturers produce engines that develop thrusts in excess of
445,000 N. The Rolls-Royce Trent turbofan series is one in such a series of engines. Since the 1950s,
gas turbines, which are derivatives of jet engines, have found their way into automobiles (Parnelli
Jones almost won the 1967 Indianapolis 500 with an Andy Granatelli turbine), trains (the Union
Pacific BoBoB080 3360-kW oil-burning gas turbine and other trains in Europe and Japan), naval and
commercial ships and boats, and many electric-power generation units. [5]
Before discussing the main subject, it is necessary to establish some basic definitions. The MerriamWebster dictionary defines an engine as a machine for converting any of various forms of energy into
mechanical force and motion. The engine is thus an energy transformer. Energy (also called work, and
quantified in Joules) can itself be interpreted as a force in motion. In the well-known case of a car
engine, the thermal energy coming from the combustion of petrol and air is transformed into
mechanical energy which is applied to the wheels of the vehicle. The more familiar notion of power,
quantified in Watts expresses the quantity of energy used in one unit of time.
In flight, an aircraft does not have wheels in contact with the ground. We therefore need to define the
way of generating energy to allow it to advance. The principle of aeronautical propulsion is a direct
application of Newtons third law of motion (principle of opposite action or action-reaction) which
says that any body A exerting a force on a body B experiences a force of equal intensity, exerted on it
by body B. In the case of aeronautical propulsion, the body A is atmospheric air which is accelerated
through the engine. The force the action necessary to accelerate this air has an equal effect, but in
the opposite direction the reaction -, applied to the object producing this acceleration (the body B,
that is the engine, and hence the aircraft to which it is attached). [6]
For reasons of availability, low weight, and prior manufacturing experience, most early aircraft were
of wood and fabric construction. At the lower speeds then obtainable, streamlining was not a primary
consideration, and many wires, struts, braces, and other devices were used to provide the necessary
structural strength. Preferred woods were relatively light and strong (e.g., spruce), and fabrics were
normally linen or something similarly close-weaved, not canvas as is often stated.
As speeds advanced, so did structural requirements, and designers analyzed individual aircraft parts for
both strength and wind resistance. Bracing wires were given a streamlined shape, and some
manufacturers began to make laminated wood fuselages of monocoque construction (stresses carried
by the skin) for greater strength, better streamlining, and lighter weight. The 1912 record-setting
French Deperdussin racers, the German Albatros fighters of World War I, and the later American
Lockheed Vega were among the aircraft that used this type of construction.
Aircrafts made of wood and fabrics were difficult to maintain and subject to rapid deterioration when
left out in the elements. This, plus the need for greater strength, led to the use of metal in aircraft. The
first general use was in World War I, when the Fokker aircraft company used welded steel tube
fuselages, and the Junkers company made all-metal aircraft of dual tubing and aluminum covering.
During the period from 1919 through 1934, there was a gradual trend to all-metal construction, with
some aircraft having all-metal structures with fabric-covered surfaces, and others using an all-metal
monocoque construction. Metal is stronger and more durable than fabric and wood, and, as the
necessary manufacturing skills were developed, its use enabled airplanes to be both lighter and easier
7

to build. On the negative side, metal structures were subject to corrosion and metal fatigue, and new
procedures were developed to protect against these hazards. A wide variety of aluminum alloys were
developed and exotic metals like molybdenum
molybdenum and titanium were brought into use, especially in
vehicles where extreme strength or extraordinary thermal resistance was a requirement.

Figure 1.8
1. General engine description.

The purpose of this section is to define the basic thermodynamic operating characteristics of each of
the components in a general engine shown in Figure 1.8 and to introduce a few basic definitions. [5]
1.1 The inlet
Thee first component to be considered is the diffuser or inlet. The purpose of the diffuser is to slow the
fluid and to increase the pressure. An ideal diffuser is depicted in Figure 1.9. As it can be seen, the
flow area increases - and thus the flow velocity decreases - from station 1 to 2. Recall that, for ideal
cycle analyses, adiabatic and isentropic flows are assumed both outside (stations a to 1) and inside
(stations 1 to 2) the diffuser. The overall operation of the ideal diffuser is best illustrated on the h-s
h and
p-v diagrams shown in Figure 1.10
10 and Figure 1.11. The free stream of air is at pressure and can be
decelerated adiabatically to total enthalpy
isentropically to total pressure
. Processes
Proces a to 1 and
1 to 2 are both on the same isentropic process line. As can be seen, because the flow velocity is
decreasing, the static enthalpy will increase from ambient enthalpy to that at station 2. Similarly, the
static pressure will increase from ambient
amb
pressure to that at station 2. Stagnation
tion conditions are also
shown. Because all stagnation processes are by definition isentropic, the stagnation properties can be
seen to also be on the same isentropic process line. [5]
Next, in as much as all processes are adiabatic, for the flow outside of the diffuser the stagnation
enthalpy is constant:

(1.1.1)
which of an ideal gas reduces to

(1.1.2)
and for isentropic flow outside of the diffuser the total pressure is constant:

(1.1.3)
Furthermore, outside of the diffuser, for the definition of stagnation temperature,

(1.1.4)

Figure 1.9 Ideal diffuser with streamlines.

Figure 10 h-S
S diagram for an ideal inlet.

Figure 11 p-V
V diagram for an ideal inlet.

and from the definition of stagnation pressure,

(1.1.5)
Thus, for isentropic flow up to the diffuser,

(1.1.6)

Once again, because the flow is adiabatic inside of the diffuser, the total enthalpy is constant:

(1.1.7)
the flow is also isentropic, and thus the stagnation pressure is constant:

(1.1.8)
Therefore, for an ideal diffuser,

And

(1.1.9)

(1.1.10)

Thus, by knowing the freestream Mach number and freestream static properties, the stagnation (or
total) temperature and pressure at the exit of the diffuser can be found. [5]
The inlet reduces the entering air velocity to a level suitable for the compressor. The air velocity is
reduced by a compression process that increases the air pressure. The operation and design of the inlet
are described in terms of the efficiency of the compression
compression process, the external drag of the inlet, and
the mass flow into the inlet. The design and operation of the inlet depend on whether the air entering
9

the duct is subsonic or supersonic. As the aircraft approaches the speed of sound, the air tends to be
compressed
mpressed more, and at Mach 1, shock waves occur. Shock waves are compression waves, and at
higher Mach numbers, these compression waves are stronger. Compression by shock waves is
inefficient. In subsonic flow, there are no shock waves, and the air compression
compression takes place quite
efficiently. In supersonic flow, there are shock waves present. Shock waves and the compressibility of
air then influence the design of inlets. [7]

Figure 1.12
1. Schematic of a compressor section.

1.2 The compressor


The next component to be considered is the compressor. A schematic is presented in Figure 1.12. In
this figure, sets of stationary airfoils are shown (called stator vanes). Directly downstream of these
vanes are rotating or moving airfoils (called rotor blades), which are attached to the drum and shaft.
The vanes are used to turn the flow in a compressor locally. The rotating blades turn the flow
f
and add
energy to the fluid. As is the case for any airfoil, air ideally
ideally flows across a vane or blade without
incidence at the leading edge and is turned smoothly by the vane or blade. One should remember that,
in general, as the compressor total pressure ratio increases, the performance of a gas turbine increases.
i
However,
r, as the compressor pressure ratio is increased, the number of compressor stages increases,
which adds to the cost and weight of the compressor. Furthermore, the burner needs a high inlet
pressure (high compressor exit pressure) for a stable combustion. [5]
The compressor was the main
stumbling block during
ing the early
years of turbojet engine
development. Sir Frank Whittle
solved the problem by using a
centrifugal compressor (Figure
1.13).. This type of compressor is
still being used in many of the
smaller gas turbine engines. The
compressor consists of three
main parts: an impeller, a
diffuser, and a compressor
manifold. Air enters the
compressor near the hub of the
Figure 1.13 Single-stage
stage centrifugal compressor
impeller and is then compressed
by the rotational motion of the impeller. The compression occurs by first increasing the velocity of the
air (through rotation) and then diffusing the air where the velocity decreases and the pressure
increases.
ncreases. The diffuser also straightens the flow, and the manifold serves as a collector to feed the air
into the combustor. The single--stage
stage centrifugal compressor has a low efficiency and a maximum
compression ratio of 4:1 or 5:1. Multistage centrifugal compressors are somewhat better, but an axial
compressor offers more advantages. [7]
10

The air in an axial


compressor flows in an
axial direction through
a series of rotating rotor
blades and stationary
stator vanes that are
concentric with the axis
Figure 1.14 Multistage axial compressor.
of rotation (Figure
1.14). Each set of rotor
blades and stator vanes is known as a stage. The flow path in an axial compressor decreases in the
cross-sectional area in the direction of flow. The decrease of area is in proportion to the increased
density of the air as the compression progresses from stage to stage. Each stage of an axial compressor
produces a small compression pressure ratio (1.1:1 to 1.2:1) at a high efficiency. Therefore, for high
pressure ratios (12:1), multiple stages are used. Axial compressors are also more compact and have a
smaller frontal area than a centrifugal compressor, which are added advantages. For the best axial
compressor efficiency, the
he compressor operates at a constant axial velocity. At high compression
ratios, multistaging a single axial compressor does not produce as efficient an operation as a dual axial
compressor would (see below). For a single rotational speed, there is a limit in the balance operation
between the first and last stages of the compressor. To obtain more flexibility and a more uniform
loading of each compressor stage, a dual compressor with two different rotational speeds is generally
used in high-compression-ratioo axial compressors. [7]
The h-s and p-vv diagrams for an ideal compressor are presented in Figure 1..15 and Figure 1.16.
Process 2 to 3 is isentropic, and both the enthalpy (and temperature) and pressure increase. Also there
are shown the total (or stagnation) pressures and total enthalpies (and temperatures) at conditions t2
and t3.. Because energy is added to the flow, the total pressures and enthalpies also increase from
stations 2 to 3. By definition, the stagnation processes are isentropic. Thus, as can be seen, conditions
2, 3, t2, and t3 are all on-the
the same isentropic process line.

Figure 1.15 h-S diagram for an ideal compressor.

Figure 1.16 p-V


V diagram for an ideal compressor.

Next, one can define two quantities for the compressor, the total pressure and temperature ratios across
the compressor (stations 2 to 3), as follows:

(1.2.1)

11

(1.2.2)

parameter. Furthermore, because the flow is isentropic in an ideal compressor, the total pressure and
total temperature ratios can be related as follows:

(1.2.3)
Thus, if the inlet conditions are known for a compressor and the total pressure ratio is specified, the
exit conditions can be determined.
The function of the compressor is to increase the pressure of the incoming air so that the combustion
process and the power extraction process after combustion can be carried out more efficiently. By
increasing the pressure of the air, the volume of the air is reduced, which means that the combustion of
the fuel/air mixture will occur in a smaller volume.
1.3 The fan
It is well known that the turbofan engine is the most widespread type of engine used nowadays in
aviation. The turbofan or fanjet is a type of air breathing jet engine that finds wide use in aircraft
propulsion. The word "turbofan" is a portmanteau of "turbine" and "fan", the turbo portion refers to a
gas turbine engine whichh takes mechanical energy from combustion, and the fan, a ducted fan that uses
the mechanical energy from the gas turbine to accelerate air rearwards.
A turbofan engine is the most modern variation of the basic gas turbine engine. As with other gas
turbines,
s, there is a core engine. In the turbofan engine, the core engine is surrounded by a fan in the
front and an additional turbine at the rear. The fan and fan turbine are composed of many blades, like
the core compressor and core turbine, and are connected to an additional shaft. As with the core
compressor and turbine, some of the fan blades turn with the shaft and some blades remain stationary.
The fan shaft passes through the core shaft for mechanical reasons. This type of arrangement is called
a two spooll engine (one "spool" for the fan, one "spool" for the core.) Some advanced engines have
additional spools for even higher efficiency.

Figure 1.17 Schematic of a fan.

For a turbofan, a portion of the gas passes through the core of the engine (compressor, combustor, and
turbine, see Figure 1.8), and a portion of the gas is "bypassed", which passes through the fan and then
through the bypass duct and/or fan nozzle. Such a fan section is shown in Figure 1.17.
1.1 The h-s and p-v
diagrams for a fan are identical in nature to those for a compressor except for station numbers. The
only differences are in the relative increases in pressure and temperature for a compressor and fan;
they are much higher for a compressor. Process 2 to 7 is isentropic, and both the temperature and
pressure increase. Also, the stagnation pressures and total temperatures are conditions t2 and t7, and
12

these also increase from stations 2 to 7. Because the stagnation


stagnation processes are isentropic, conditions 2,
7, t2, and t7 all are on the same isentropic process line.
The core gas flow will be referred to as , and the bypassed flow, or secondary flow, will be termed
. Thus, the bypass ratio is the ratio of airflow through only the fan to that of the core and is defined
by:

(1.3.1)
This ratio is a very important design parameter. For modem aircraft, typical bypass ratios are 0.5 to 9.
The next quantities to be defined are the fan total pressure and total temperature ratios (stations 2 to 7).
These are given by

(1.3.2)
and

(1.3.3)

which for the ideal case can be related by the isentropic relationship

! "

(1.3.4)

It is very important to note that the total pressure and temperature ratios for the compressor ( and )
include the property rises in both the compressor and fan. That is, the fan is also acting as the first
stage(s) of the low-pressure
pressure compressor.

Figure 1.18 Schematic of a turbine.

1.4 The turbine


The next component to be considered is the turbine. A schematic is shown in Figure 1.18. Like a
compressor, a turbine consists of a series of airfoils: stator vanes (stationary) and rotating rotor blades.
For this component, power is derived from the fluid with the rotor blades. The number of turbine
stages is considerably less than for a compressor. The h-s
h and p-vv diagrams for an ideal turbine are
shown in Figure 1.199 and Figure
Figur 1.20.. As is true for an ideal compressor, processes 4 to 5 are
isentropic. For the turbine, however, the pressure and temperature drop as do the total pressure and
temperature because energy is removed from the fluid. Once again, the static and total conditions
con
at
stations 4 and 5 all occur on the same isentropic process line.

13

Figure 1.19 h-S


S diagram for ideal turbine.

Figure 1.20 p-V


V diagram for ideal turbine.

Two quantities can be defined for the turbines that are similar to those of a compressor: the total
pressure and temperature ratios across the turbine (stations 4 to 5):
#

(1.4.1)

(1.4.2)

$
$

Once again, because the flow is isentropic in an ideal turbine one can relate the total pressure and total
temperature ratios:

(1.4.3)

The turbine extracts kinetic energy from the expanding gases that flow from the combustion chamber.
The kinetic energy is converted to shaft horsepower to drive the compressor and the accessories.
Nearly three-fourths
fourths of all the energy available from the products of combustion is required to drive
the compressor. The axial-flow
flow turbine consists of a turbine wheel rotor and a set of stationary vanes
stator. The set of stationary vanes of the turbine is a plane of vanes (concentric with the axis of the
turbine) that are set at an angle to form a series of small nozzles that discharge the gases onto the
blades of the turbine wheel.
l. The discharge of the gases onto the rotor allows the kinetic energy of the
gases to be transformed to mechanical shaft energy. Like the axial compressor, the axial turbine is
usually multistaged. There are generally fewer turbine stages than compressor stages because in the
turbine the pressure is decreasing, whereas in the compressor the pressure is increasing .In each
process (expansion or compression), the blades of the axial turbine or axial compressor act as airfoils,
and the airflow over the airfoil
il is more favorable in the expansion process. The result is that one stage
of turbine can power many compressor stages. [7]
In the impulse turbine (Figure 1.21a),
1.21a), the relative discharge velocity of the rotor is the same as the
relative inlet velocity because there is no net change in pressure between the rotor inlet and rotor exit.
The stator nozzles of the impulse turbine are shaped to form passages that increase the velocity and
reduce the pressure of the escaping gases.

14

1.21b), the relative discharge velocity of the rotor increases and the
In the reaction turbine (Figure 1.21b),
pressure decreases in the passages between rotor blades. The stator nozzle passages of the reaction
turbine merely alter the direction of the flow.

Figure 1.21
1. Impulse and reaction stages turbine.

15

Most turbines in jet engines are a combination of impulse and reaction turbines. In the design of
turbines, the following items must be considered:

shaft rotational speed


gas flow rate
inlet and outlet temperatures
inlet and outlet pressures
exhaust velocity

required power output. [7]

Figure 1.22
1. Schematic of the turbojet engine shaft.

1.5 The shaft


In all engines, except for a ramjet, power is derived from a turbine and delivered to drive all of the
compressive devices (namely, a compressor and possibly a fan or propeller). In Figure 1.22 a turbojet
shaft is shown. Ideally, all of the derived power will be delivered to the compressive devices. Also,
ideally, the mass flow rate remains constant through
through the engine core (i.e., the fuel flow rate is
negligible), and thus the mass flow rate through the turbine is the same as in the compressor.
Therefore, with the compressor, fan, propeller, and turbine power taken into consideration, an energy
balance on the
he shaft for the most general ideal case (Figure 1.8) yields

Where

%& '

%& '

%& '

#(

(1.5.1)

%& '

%& '

%& '

#(

(1.5.1)

compressor
fan
turbine
is the bypassed air, which, when used with Eq. 1.3.1 yields:

Figure 1.23 Schematic of a combustor with relation to other engine components.

1.6 The combustor


A schematic of a primary combustor is shown in Figure 1.23.. The design is complex and empirical.
Fuel is injected into the air stream and gradually mixed and burned with the oxidant. The combustor or
burner is often the only method by which energy is added to the engine (the only other location is the
afterburner). Thus, an energy balance is necessary for the combustor (stations 3 to 4). The h-s and p-v
diagrams for an ideal combustor are shown in Figure 1.24 and Figure 1.25.. The process 3 to 4 is
isobaric (constant pressure) for an ideal process; the process is certainly not isentropic because the
entropy increases owing to the irreversible combustion process. Also, for low gas velocities (as
assumed), process 3 to 4 is at constant
co
total pressure (isobaric) and is also not isentropic. Obviously,
the static and total temperatures increase significantly
si
in the combustor. As a result, the static and total
specific volumes increase for process 3 to 4, and the fluid density decreases significantly across the
combustor.

Figure 1.24 h-S


S diagram for an ideal combustor.

Figure 1.25 p-V


V diagram for an ideal combustor

One needs first to examine the steady-state


steady
energy equation for the combustor:

(1.6.1)

where ) is the heat energy rate added to the flow by combustion, L is the work derived from the flow,

and * is the rate change in total enthalpy of the flow. The quantity * contains two contributions.
The first is for the air passing through the burner. The second
se
is for the fuel injected into the
combustor. The entering air and exiting gas from the burner are both assumed to have specific heats
heat %&
which will be evaluated based on pure air. This assumption is valid for low fuel flow rates. The fuel
has specific heat %& . All gases leaving the burner are at
at

$ . The air entering is at

the fuel enters

. Applying this equation across positions 3 and 4 and realizing no work is produced by the

burner, we find that:

or

'

*+
*+

.%&

%&

.%&

In this equation, *+ is the heating value of the fuel, and


the burner. Rewriting this equation, using dh

$
$

%&

(1.6.2)
/

is the flow rate of the fuel injected into

%0 1 and defining engine parameter


$

yields
4

(1.6.3)
2 by

(1.6.4)

*+

%&

%&

Next, the fuel ratio for a nonafterburning engine is defined as

%&
4
%&

(1.6.5)

(1.6.6)

For many engines this quantity is very small (on the order of 0.02). Thus, for the ideal analysis it will
be assumed to be negligible. Therefore, using Eq. 1.6.6 and solving for
,we obtain

%&
The final equation for the burner is given by

*+

(1.6.6)

(1.6.7)

which for the ideal case is unity because the total pressure is constant across the combustor:
$

(1.6.8)

The combustion analysis is greatly simplified at this point so that it can easily be incorporated into an
ideal cycle analysis. For an initial engine cycle analysis, the heating value method is sufficient.
The combustor is designed to burn a mixture of fuel and air and to deliver the resulting gases to the
turbine at a uniform temperature. The gas temperature must not exceed the allowable structural
temperature of the turbine. A schematic of a combustor is shown in Fig. 1.26. About one-half of the
total volume of air entering the burner mixes with the fuel and burns. The rest of the air-secondary air- is simply heated or may be thought of as cooling the products of combustion and cooling the burner
surfaces.

Figure 1.26 Schematic of a combustor with its components.

The ratio of total air to fuel varies among the different types of engines from 30 to 60 parts of air to 1
part of fuel by weight. The average ratio in new engine designs is about 40:1, but only 15 parts are
used for burning (since the combustion process demands that the number of parts of air to fuel must be
within certain limits at a given pressure for combustion to occur). Combustion chambers may be of the
can, the annular, or the can-annular type as shown in Figure 1.27. [7]
5

Figure 1.27 Combustor types.

For an acceptable burner design, the pressure loss as the gases pass through the burner must be held to
a minimum, the combustion efficiency must be high, and there must be no tendency for the burner to
blow out (flameout). Also, combustion must take place entirely within the burner. [4]

Figure 1.28 Schematic of a primary nozzle.

1.7 The primary nozzle


The purpose of the exhaust nozzle is to increase the velocity of the exhaust gas before discharge from
the nozzle and to collect and straighten gas flow from the turbine. In operating, the gas turbine engine
converts the internal energy of the fuel to kinetic energy in the exhaust gas stream. The net thrust (or
force) of the engine is the result of this operation, and it can
can be calculated by applying Newton's
second law of motion. For large values of specific thrust, the kinetic energy of the exhaust gas must be
high, which implies a high exhaust velocity. The nozzle supplies a high exit velocity by expanding the
6

exhaust gas in an expansion process that requires a decrease in pressure. The pressure ratio across the
nozzle controls the expansion process, and the maximum thrust for a given engine is obtained when
the exit pressure equals the ambient pressure. [7]
Figure 1.28 presents a schematic of a primary nozzle. In Figure 1.299 and Figure 1.30,
1.30 the h-s and p-v
diagrams are depicted for an ideal nozzle. Basically, the flow is accelerated from 6 to 8.

Figure 1.29 h-S


S diagram for an ideal nozzle
nozz

Figure 1.30 p-V


V diagram for an ideal nozzle

As a result, the static temperature and pressure decrease through the nozzle. The specific volume
markedly increases (density decreases) through the nozzle, which gives rise to the increase in fluid
velocity. The acceleration process is ideally isentropic and adiabatic as is the stagnation process. Thus,
once again the conditions 6 and 8 and the stagnation conditions all occur on the same isentropic
process line, and the total pressure and temperature are
are constant through the nozzle. One can first
consider the total temperature at the exit:
6

For the ideal case the nozzle is adiabatic; thus,

Therefore,
7

The exit total pressure can be considered as follows:


6

For the ideal case, the nozzle is also isentropic; thus,


6

Therefore,
7

(1.7.2)
1

(1.7.5)
(1.7.6)
6

Also, for an ideal engine case the nozzle exit pressure "matches," or is equal to, the ambient

(1.7.3)

(1.7.4)

(1.7.1)

pressure. That is,


6

Thus,

(1.7.7)

(1.7.8)
6

Therefore, if the inlet total pressure and ambient pressure are known, the exit Mach number can be
found. Using the exit Mach number, one can find the exit temperature from Eq.1.7.3 if the inlet total
temperature is known. Finally, the exit velocity can be found from the speed of sound and Mach
number:

86

69

(1.7.8)

Also, using the energy equation across the nozzle for adiabatic flow yields

86

;2%& '

6(

(1.7.9)

Equations 1.7.8 and 1.7.9 will yield identical results.


The reader should recognize that two separate and independent assumptions are made here. First, the
nozzle is ideal - namely isentropic and adiabatic, which means the efficiency is unity. Second, the
engine is operating at the exit ideally, namely 6
.
The two basic types of nozzles used in jet engines are the convergent and convergent-divergent
nozzles.
The convergent nozzle is a simple convergent duct, as shown in Fig. 4.18. When the nozzle pressure
ratio (turbine exit pressure to nozzle exit pressure) is low (less than about 2), the convergent nozzle is
used. The convergent nozzle (Figure 1.31) has generally been used in low-thrust engines for subsonic
aircraft. [5]
The convergent-divergent nozzle can be a convergent duct followed by a divergent duct. Where the
cross-sectional area of the duct is a minimum, the nozzle is said to have a throat at that position. Most
convergent-divergent nozzles used in supersonic aircraft are not simple ducts, but incorporate variable
geometry and other aerodynamic features. Only the throat area and exit area of the nozzle are set
mechanically, the nozzle walls being determined aerodynamically by the gas flow. The convergentdivergent nozzle is used if the nozzle pressure ratio is high. High-specific-thrust engines in supersonic
aircraft generally have some form of convergent-divergent nozzle. If the engine incorporates an
afterburner, the nozzle throat and exit area must be varied to match the different flow conditions and to
produce the maximum available thrust. [8]

Figure 1.31 A basic exhaust system.

1.8 Fan Nozzle


Figure 1.32 is a schematic of a fan nozzle. The fundamental fluid mechanics and thermodynamics of
an adiabatic and ideal fan nozzle (stations 13 to 18)) are exactly the same as those for an adiabatic and
ideal primary nozzle. That is, the flow is accelerated
accelerat from 13 to 18.. The static temperature and
pressure decrease through the fan nozzle. The specific volume significantly increases through the
nozzle, so to increase the fluid velocity. The acceleration process is ideally isentropic and adiabatic as
is the stagnation process. Thus, once again, the conditions 13 and 18 and the stagnation conditions all
occur on the same isentropic process line, and the stagnation pressure and temperature are constant
through the nozzle. Because the operation is similar to the
the primary nozzle, the details of the equation
development will not be covered. The equations of interest are listed below.

Figure 1.32 Schematic of a fan nozzle.


6

6
6

2
1

(1.8.1)
(1.8.2)
(1.8.3)
(1.8.4)

(1.8.5)

86

86

1
1

(1.8.6)
6

(1.8.7)
(1.8.8)

2
:
9
6

6 ;2%& '

6
6

6(

(1.8.9)
(1.8.10)

Thus, whereas all the air taken in by a turbojet passes through the turbine (through the combustion
chamber), in a turbofan some of that air bypasses the turbine. A turbofan thus can be thought of as a
turbojet being used to drive a ducted fan, with both of those contributing to the thrust. A turbofan thus
can be thought of as a turbojet being used to drive a ducted fan, with both of those contributing to the
thrust. The engine produces thrust through a combination of these two portions working in concert;
engines that use more jet thrust relative to fan thrust are known as low bypass turbofans, while those
that have considerably more fan thrust than jet are known as high bypass. Most commercial aviation
jet engines in use today are of the high-bypass type, and most modern military fighter engines are lowbypass. Afterburners are not used on high-bypass turbofan engines but may be used on either lowbypass turbofan or turbojet engines. [9]

1.9 Intercooler.
Enhancing the performance of an engine without affecting its efficiency is of paramount importance
and the ultimate goal while designing an engine for the aviation industry. Continuous research has
been done and many novel techniques have been applied to achieve this goal.
As engine designers increase overall pressure ratio to improve thermal efficiency, intercooling
becomes increasingly attractive because it enables lower high pressure compressor delivery and
turbine cooling air temperatures, and tends to reduce NOx emissions. [10] Although it is still a
relatively new concept for aero engines, intercooled gas turbines have been employed in the power
generation industry and also in marine gas turbines to a great effect thus offering a consistent design
solution for aero engines as well. [11]
An intercooler is any mechanical device used to cool a fluid, including liquids or gases, between
stages of a multi-stage heating process, typically a heat exchanger that removes waste heat in a gas
compressor. They are used in many applications, including air compressors, air conditioners,
refrigerators, and gas turbines, and are widely known in automotive use as an air-to-air or air-to-liquid
cooler for forced induction (turbocharged or supercharged) internal combustion engines to improve
their volumetric efficiency by increasing intake air charge density through nearly isobaric (constant
pressure) cooling. [2]
In a conventional turbofan engine the thermal efficiency is increased by increasing OPR and
optimizing TET. In an intercooled engine thermal efficiency is also improved by reducing the work
required for compression, but this benefit is outweighed at low OPR by pressure losses in the
intercooler and its associated ducting systems. Increasing OPR and taking advantage of a reduced HP
compressor delivery temperature to increase combustor temperature rise reduces the core mass-flow
and further increases the thermal efficiency. [12]

10

Figure 1.33
1. Thermal efficiency of different gas turbine cycles

In principle it would be more efficient to use fuel as the heat sink, but as long as the fuel is a
hydrocarbon like kerosene it will have too little thermal capacity. Bypass duct air provides the most
practical heat sink.

Figure 1.29 Intercooled engine

Intercoolers increase the efficiency of the induction system by reducing induction air heat created by
the supercharger or turbocharger and promoting more thorough combustion. This removes the heat of
compression (i.e., the temperature rise) that occurs in any gas when its pressure is raised or its unit
mass per unit volume (density) is increased. A decrease in intake air charge temperature sustains use
of a denser intake charge intoo the engine, as a result of forced induction. The lowering of the intake
charge air temperature also eliminates the danger of pre-detonation
pre detonation (knock) of the fuel/air charge prior
to timed spark ignition. This preserves the benefits of more fuel/air burn per
per engine cycle, increasing
the output of the engine.

11

Figure 1.30 Intercooled aero-engine stations

Two main types of intercoolers exist: an inline design and the more conventional off the flow path
design (Figure 1.37).. The typical components of an inline intercooler are illustrated in the Figure 1.36.
The inline intercooler is illustrated in Figure 6. In an inline intercooler, fins (4) are located on struts (3)
and house between an inner(2) an outer casing (1). The struts
struts themselves have coolant flow paths (5)
located inside them. The fins increase the heat transfer area and act as heat sinks. Cooling fluid is
usually air (for aviation purposes). The cold flow for the intercooler is extracted from the bypass flow
by ann additional flow splitter in the bypass stream. (Gogoi, 2012)

Figure 1.31 Typical design of an inline intercooler

Figure 1.327
1.
Off the path flow design intercooler.

12

13