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The 4As of Marketing

1. Awareness The extent to which customers are informed regarding a products


characteristics, are persuaded to try it, and are reminded to repurchase it. It has two
dimensions:

Product Knowledge indicated by factors such as interest, understanding,


involvement, relevance

Brand Awareness indicated by factors such as brand recall, brand associations,


perceive brand characteristics, brand attraction

Theoretical Construct 1 Awareness


Themes Product knowledge and brand awareness
Repeat ideas interest, understanding, involvement, relevance; brand recall, brand
associations, perceive brand characteristics, brand attraction
You can look at statements made by the participants (w.r.t awareness) while responding to
your interview questions, FGD, observation etc and branch them under any of repeat ideas
first and then reorganise them as themes and then create the theoretical construct.
2. Acceptability The extent to which the firms total product offering meets and exceeds
the needs and expectations of customers in the target market. It has two dimensions:

Functional Acceptability indicated by factors such as core attributes and capabilities,


functionality,
ease
of
use,
quality,
and
reliability

Psychological Acceptability indicated by factors such as brand image, styling, social


value, emotional value, perceived risk

Theoretical Construct 2 Acceptability


Themes Functional acceptability and psychological acceptability
Repeat ideas Core attributes, capabilities, functionality, ease of use, quality, reliability;
brand image, styling, social value, emotional value, perceived risk
You can look at statements made by the participants (w.r.t acceptability) while responding to
your interview questions, FGD, observation etc and branch them under any of repeat ideas
first and then reorganise them as themes and then create the theoretical construct.
3. Affordability The extent to which customers in the target market are economically and
psychologically willing to pay the products price. It has two dimensions:

Economic Affordability the ability to pay, indicated by factors such as income, time
and
effort
required,
assets,
financing,
fit
within
the
budget

Psychological Affordability the willingness to pay, indicated by factors such as


perceived value for money, perceived fairness, price relative to alternatives

Theoretical construct Affordability


Theme Economic affordability and psychological affordability
Repeat ideas Income, time and effort required, assets, financing, fit within the budget;
willingness to pay indicated by perceived value for money, perceived fairness, price relative
to alternatives
You can look at statements made by the participants (w.r.t affordability) while responding to
your interview questions, FGD, observation etc and branch them under any of repeat ideas
first and then reorganise them as themes and then create the theoretical construct.
4. Accessibility The extent to which customers are able to readily acquire and use the
product.
It
has
two
dimensions:

Availability indicated by factors such as supply relative to demand, the degree to


which the product is kept in-stock, related products and services

Convenience indicated by factors such as the time and effort required to acquire the
product, the ease with which the product can be found within and across locations,
packaging in convenient sizes

Theoretical construct Accessibility


Theme Availability and convenience
Repeat ideas Demand and supply, stocks availability, related products & services; time &
effort, ease in finding the product, packaging
You can look at statements made by the participants (w.r.t accessibility) while responding to
your interview questions, FGD, observation etc and branch them under any of repeat ideas
first and then reorganise them as themes and then create the theoretical construct.