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CONCRETE ROADS

A Sustainable Solution

BACKGROUND
East Africa has a history of relatively poor roads infrastructure :
Poor road conditions
Road congestion
Transport economic challenges
Superficially, East Africa appears to be doing well. Annual economic
growth rates are averaging around 6%, and trade and foreign
investment are rising. This economic growth isnt matched
infrastructure development.
This is evident in the deterioration of both urban and rural roads
Better road networks will lead to
Increased economic activity
Linking economic trade between countries
Better efficiencies
Governments across the region are investing in expanded
roads infrastructure program to address the current backlog
and shortage
Current road building method have significant challenges:
High cost of bitumen
Roads constructed have short lifespan
High cost of maintenance

BACKGROUND CONTD
Governments

/ Road Agencies should consider Concrete

paved roads
Concrete roads will offer:
Availability of materials (All materials will be
proudly East African)
Low cost of maintenance (Virtually no costs in
the first 25 years)
Road drivability
Environmentally sustainable
Usage of concrete roads will help curb unemployment
through job creation at construction phase

Opportunity is Knocking

$
The Shift

CONCRETE
ASPHALT

OVERVIEW

History of paved roads

First record of stone paving 4000 BC

By 2000 BC pavement paving started.


377 Km Appian Way, built in 312 BC, still carries traffic
between Rome and Italys South-Eastern Port of Brindisi
Concrete pavers first manufactured in Netherlands 1924
Widely used since

Concrete roads Global experience

Concrete roads have been in existence for the


past 100 years

Oldest roads in USA & Australia - still exist


even today with little maintenance required.

Concrete roads have an excellent track record


as a cost effective investment.

Rigid concrete roads outperform asphalt roads


with economic and safety benefits and has less
impact on the environment.

Concrete roads are visible in Sub-Sahara

South Africa

Kenya

Zambia
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Statistics on pavement elements


Paved roads present the world over

Use of paved roads worldwide {in millions of square meters per annum}
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Economic activity
More Paved Roadways = STRONGER ECONOMY

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CONCRETE ROADS BENEFITS VS. ASPHALT

South Africa

Kenya

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Performance and Durability Aspects

Concrete pavement spreads the load


Concrete is rigid
Loads are distributed over relatively large areas
Stresses on the subgrade/subbase are relatively low
Thus, concrete pavements do not necessarily
require exceptionally strong foundation support

UNIFORMITY >> STRENGTH


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Performance and Durability Aspects

Concrete pavement is more Durable

Concrete is always rigid Asphalt stiffness changes with the temperature


At hot temperature asphalt becomes very soft. It may even be weaker
than the unbound aggregate layer underneath it

Creep of asphalt layers


High stresses transmitted to granular layers leading to structural rutting

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Performance and Durability Aspects

Concrete pavement is more Safer

A study by the University of Illinois entitled, Safety Considerations of Rutting and


Washboarding Asphalt Road Surfaces demonstrates that overall stopping
distances on concrete surfaces are shorter than for asphalt surfaces, especially
when asphalt is wet and rutted

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Performance and Durability Aspects

Concrete pavement is more User Friendly


Aspect

Concrete Pavement

Asphalt Pavement

Riding comfort index

Results of the study concluded in 1999,


showed that asphalt ride quality falls
below concrete after a very short period
of road life

Profile ride index


(smoothness)

Results of the study indicate that the


concrete pavement maintained much of
its original smoothness, while the
asphalt section showed increased
deterioration

Quiet ride

In a five year study the concrete pavements roadside noise level was on average 2-4
decibels higher than the asphalt pavement. To put this into perspective, normal
conversation registers at 60 to 70 decibels and a human whisper registers at 20 decibels

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Economic Aspects

Concrete pavement Lasts Longer

Source: (Leif Wathne, P.E., ACPA.) Introduction to Concrete Pavements (Part II)

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Economic Aspects

Concrete pavement costs less

Pavement types perform differently over time.

Equivalent designs are not always achievable.

LCCA compares the total discounted cost of each design over a specific
analysis period to minimize the financial burden of the roadway on
taxpayers.

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City of Milwaukee
LCCA Example
Concrete vs Asphalt bids
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Initial Costs Milwaukee Area Costs

Concrete pavement bid prices from City of Milwaukee projects


in the WisDOT letting.

Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) bid prices from recent City of Milwaukee
projects

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Life Cycle Cost Analysis


Present Worth Worksheet
Project:
Analysis Period:
Discount Rate:

City of Milwaukee - Reconstruct


60 Years
3%

Roadway Scenario:

Length = 2000 LF
Roadway SY = 7111 SY
4.5-Inch HMA = 1840 Ton

Concrete Alternative #1:

PCC Pavement Design


7-Inch Concrete over Existing

Concrete Alternative #2:

PCC Pavement Design


7-Inch Concrete over 3-Inch CABC

HMA Alternative #1:

Asphalt Pavement Design


4.5-Inch HMA over 6-Inch CABC

HMA Alternative #2:

Asphalt Pavement Design


5.5-Inch HMA over 8-Inch CABC

Present Worth Costs:

Initial Pavement Costs


Maintenance Costs
Rehabilitation Costs
Reconstruction Costs
Operation Costs
User Costs
Agency Costs
Remaining Service Life
Total Facility Present Worth Cost
Present Worth LF Roadway Cost

Pavement Width = 32 LF
Excavation Width = 41 LF

Concrete Alternative #1
Concrete Alternative #2
7-Inch Concrete over Existing
7-Inch Concrete over 3-Inch CABC
$127,856
$155,656
$938
$938
$2,015
$2,015
$0
$0
***
***
***
***
***
***
$0
$0
$130,808
$158,608
$65
$79
100%
121%

HMA Alternative #1
4.5-Inch HMA over 6-Inch CABC
$139,923
$3,917
$73,797
$0
***
***
***
$0
$217,637
$109
166%

HMA Alternative #2
5.5-Inch HMA over 8-Inch CABC
$181,938
$3,917
$73,797
$0
***
***
***
$0
$259,652
$130
198%

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City of Milwaukee conclusion:

Life Cycle Costs could be lowered 45 -98 percent


utilizing concrete pavements!!!!
Ghassan Khorban, Commissioner of Public Works

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Environmental Aspects

Concrete pavement Reflects Light


Concrete, thanks to its
natural light color,
reflects much more and
absorbs less heat than
asphalt.
Using concrete
pavements contribute
to reduce Heat island
effects in urban areas.
Concrete reflects the light
while asphalt absorbs it.
Using concrete
pavements permits to
reduce light energy
consumption and the cost
of lightning equipment by
almost 30%.
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Source: http://www.pavements4life.com/QDs/Environment_1HeatIsland.asp

APPLICATIONS - CONCRETE ROADS

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Types of Concrete Roads


Depending on the level of reinforcement, the rigid
pavements can be categorized into three basic types:
Jointed unreinforced concrete pavements
(JUCP)
Jointed reinforced concrete pavements (JRCP)
Continuously reinforced concrete pavements
(CRCP)
There are two common concrete surface finishes;
Transverse Textured Concrete Surface (TTCS)
Exposed Aggregate Concrete Surface (EACS)
formerly known as whisper concrete.

Transverse Textured Concrete Surface

Exposed Aggregate Concrete Surface


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Concrete roads application

Complete Concrete Road

Appropriate pavement for heavily trafficked roads

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Concrete roads application

Composite Roads Combining Asphalt and


Concrete
Areas subjected to heavy loading and common to
start-stop traffic.
Applies to new roads and road repairs alike

Intersections/ Traffic Circles


Climbing/ Slow Lanes

Overlays
Inlays

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PROS AND CONS CONCRETE VS ASPHALT - SUMMARISED


Concrete
Pros

Cons
Quick construction Possibility of
Sustainable
construction
Reduced lighting
costs.
Lower whole-life
cost

cracking

Asphalt
Pros
Lower initial

construction cost

Initial construction Easy to install


costs might be high
Availability of
Technically
expertise
challenging

Cons
Need to seal every
3-5 years

Development of
potholes.
Rutting
Higher whole-life
cost

Easy maintenance

Deteriorates quickly

Heavy truck fuel


saving

Environmentally
unfriendly

Re-usable &
recyclable

Shortage of
materials

A quiet ride (EACS)

Involves
importation of binder
material

Use local materials


Can employ labour
based construction

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Concrete Can Cost Less Initially!!


Since 2008, concrete pavement has had a lower INITIAL cost than comparably
designed asphalt pavement in many areas of the US

The Initial Cost Myth

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