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DIGITAL IMAGING

Digital Image Acquisition

Digital image acquisition is the creation of digital images, such as of a physical scene or of the
interior structure of an object. The term is often assumed to imply or include
the processing, compression, storage, printing, and display of such images

Digital imaging can be classified by the type of electromagnetic radiation or other waves whose
variable attenuation, as they pass through or reflect off objects, conveys theinformation that constitutes
the image. In all classes of digital imaging, the information is converted by image sensors into
digital signals that are processed by a computer and outputted as a visible-light image. For example, the
medium of visible light allows digital photography (including digital videography) with various kinds
of digital cameras(including digital video cameras). X-rays allow digital X-ray imaging
(digital radiography, fluoroscopy, and CT), and gamma rays allow digital gamma ray imaging
(digitalscintigraphy, SPECT, and PET). Sound allows ultrasonography (such as medical ultrasonography)
and sonar, and radio waves allow radar. Digital imaging lends itself well toimage analysis by software, as well
as to image editing

Digital imaging

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For the digital forensic process, see Acquisition (forensic process).


This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this
article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and
removed. (July 2007)
Digital imaging or digital image acquisition is the creation of digital images, such as of a physical scene or
of the interior structure of an object. The term is often assumed to imply or include
the processing, compression, storage, printing, and display of such images.
Digital imaging can be classified by the type of electromagnetic radiation or other waves whose
variable attenuation, as they pass through or reflect off objects, conveys theinformation that constitutes
the image. In all classes of digital imaging, the information is converted by image sensors into
digital signals that are processed by a computer and outputted as a visible-light image. For example, the
medium of visible light allows digital photography (including digital videography) with various kinds
of digital cameras(including digital video cameras). X-rays allow digital X-ray imaging
(digital radiography, fluoroscopy, and CT), and gamma rays allow digital gamma ray imaging
(digitalscintigraphy, SPECT, and PET). Sound allows ultrasonography (such as medical ultrasonography)
and sonar, and radio waves allow radar. Digital imaging lends itself well toimage analysis by software, as well
as to image editing (including image manipulation).
Contents
[hide]

History[edit]

1 History

2 The changing environment

3 Key developments of the camera

4 Field advancements

5 Theoretical application

6 Methods

7 Advantages

8 Drawbacks

9 How the camera works

10 See also

11 References

12 External links

Before digital imaging, the first photograph ever produced was in 1826 by Frenchman Joseph Nicphore
Nipce. When Joseph was 28, he was discussing with his brother Claude about the possibility of reproducing
images with light. His focus on his new innovations began in 1816. He was in fact more interested in created
an engine for a boat. Joseph and his brother focused on that for quite some time and Claude successfully
promoted his innovation moving and advancing him to England. Joseph was able to focus on the photograph
and finally in 1826, he was able to produce his first photograph of a view through his window. It took 8 hours
of exposure to light to finally process it. Now, with digital imaging photos do not take that long to process.
Brown, B. (2002, November). The First Photograph. Abbey Newsletter, V26, N3.
Digital imaging was developed in the 1960s and 1970s, largely to avoid the operational weaknesses of film
cameras, for scientific and military missions including the KH-11program. As digital technology became
cheaper in later decades, it replaced the old film methods for many purposes.
The first digital image was produced in 1920, by the Bartlane cable picture transmission system. British
inventors, Harry G. Bartholomew and Maynard D. McFarlane, developed this method. The process consisted
of a series of negatives on zinc plates that were exposed for varying lengths of time, thus producing varying
densities,.[1] The Bartlane cablepicture transmission system generated at both its transmitter and its receiver
end a punched data card or tape that was recreated as an image.[2]
In 1957, Russell A. Kirsch produced a device that generated digital data that could be stored in a computer;
this used a drum scanner and photomultiplier tube.[1]
In the early 1960s, while developing compact, lightweight, portable equipment for the onboard nondestructive
testing of naval aircraft, Frederick G. Weighart[3] and James F. McNulty[4] at Automation Industries, Inc., then,
in El Segundo, California co-invented the first apparatus to generate a digital image in real-time, which image
was a fluoroscopicdigital radiograph. Square wave signals were detected by the pixels of a cathode ray tube to
create the image.
These different scanning ideas were the basis of the first designs of digital camera. Early cameras took a long
time to capture an image and were poorly suited for consumer purposes.[1] It wasnt until the development of
the CCD (charge-coupled device) that the digital camera really took off. The CCD became part of the imaging
systems used in telescopes, the first black and white digital cameras and camcorders in the 1980s.[1] Color was
eventually added to the CCD and is a usual feature of cameras today.

The changing environment[edit]


Great strides have been made in the field of digital imaging. Negatives and exposure are foreign concepts to
many, and the first digital image in 1920 led eventually to cheaper equipment, increasingly powerful yet
simple software, and the growth of the Internet.[5]
The constant advancement and production of physical equipment and hardware related to digital imaging has
effected the environment surrounding the field. From cameras and webcams to printers and scanners, the
hardware is becoming sleeker, thinner, faster, and cheaper. As the cost of equipment decreases, the market for
new enthusiasts widens, allowing more consumers to experience the thrill of creating their own images.
Everyday personal laptops, family desktops, and company computers are able to handle photographic software.
Our computers are more powerful machines with increasing capacities for running programs of any kind
especially digital imaging software. And that software is quickly becoming both smarter and simpler. Although
functions on todays programs reach the level of precise editing and even rendering 3-D images, user interfaces
are designed to be friendly to advanced users as well as first-time fans.
The Internet allows editing, viewing, and sharing digital photos and graphics A quick browse around the web
can easily turn up graphic artwork from budding artists, news photos from around the world, corporate images
of new products and services, and much more. The Internet has clearly proven itself a catalyst in fostering the
growth of digital imaging.
Online photo sharing of images changes the way we understand photography and photographers. Online sites
such as Flikr, Shutterfly, and Instagram give billions the capability to share their photography, whether they are

amateurs or professionals. Photography has gone from being a luxury medium of communication and sharing
to more of a fleeting moment in time. Subjects have also changed. Pictures used to be primarily taken of
people and family. Now, we take them of anything. We can document our day and share it with everyone with
the touch of our fingers. [6]
In 1826 Niepce was the first to develop a photo which used lights to reproduce images, the advancement of
photography has drastically increased over the years. Everyone is now a photographer in their own way ,
whereas during the early 1800s and 1900s the expense of lasting photos was highly valued and appreciated by
consumers and producers. According to the magazine article on five ways digital camera changed us states the
following:The impact on professional photographers has been dramatic. Once upon a time a photographer
wouldnt dare waste a shot unless they were virtually certain it would work.The use of digital
imaging( photography) has changed the way we interacted with our environment over the years. Part of the
world is experience differently through visual imagining of lasting memories, it has become a new form of
communication with friends, family and love ones around the world without face to face interactions. Through
photography it is easy to see those that you have never seen before and feel their presence without them being
around , for example Instagram is a form of social media where anyone is allow to shoot, edit, and share
photos of whatever they want with friends and family. Facebook , snapshot, vine and twitter are also ways
people express themselves with little or no words and are able to capture every moment that is important.
Lasting memories that were hard to capture, is now easy because everyone is now able to take pictures and edit
it on their phones or laptops. Photography has become a new way to communicate and it is rapidly increasing
as time goes by, which has affected the world around us.[7]

Key developments of the camera[edit]


One of the first big advancements was the invention of the camera obscura by Alhazen. This led to the
invention of the camera lucida in the early 19th century by William Hyde Wollaston.[8] The next big
development was Louis-Jacques-Mand Daguerres invention of a new process called the daguerreotype in
1837. Then, in the 1840s, the Calotype process was invented that made multiple copies possible using the
negative and positive method. The next big development was made by Frederick Scott Archer in 1851. He
found a process, called the Collodion process, which called for just 2-3 seconds of light exposure to capture an
image.[9] Richard Leach Maddox invented the gelatin dry plate silver bromide process where negatives did not
have to be developed immediately. Next, Kodak was created in 1888 by George Eastman. Eastman and the
scientists that worked with him developed the photographic film in 1889 and made it available in rolls for mass
use.[10] The first mass use camera became available in 1900. This camera, called the Brownie, was on sale
until the 1960s. In 1948, Edwin Land invented the Polaroid camera which could take a picture and print it in
about one minute. In 1981, Sony made a big jump by inventing the Sony Mavica, the worlds first digital
electronic still camera. Pixar introduced digital imaging and processing in 1985.[11] Fuji introduced the
disposable camera in 1986. Finally, Sharp introduced the worlds first camera phone in 2000. Lastly, the Canon
EOS 5D is launched in 2005. This is the first consumer-priced full-frame digital SLR with a 24x36mm CMOS
sensor.

Field advancements[edit]
Digital imaging has demonstrated its worth in a variety of fields from education to medicine. As digital
projectors, screens, and graphics find their way to the classroom, teachers and students alike are benefitting
from the increased convenience and communication they provide, although their theft can be a common
problem in schools.[12] In addition acquiring a basic digital imaging education is becoming increasingly
important for young professionals. Reed, a design production expert from Western Washington University,
stressed the importance of using digital concepts to familiarize students with the exciting and rewarding
technologies found in one of the major industries of the 21st century.[5]
The field of medical imaging, a branch of digital imaging that seeks to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of
diseases, is growing at a rapid rate. A recent study by the American Academy of Pediatrics suggests that proper
imaging of children who may have appendicitis may reduce the amount of appendectomies needed. Further

advancements include amazingly detailed and accurate imaging of the brain, lungs, tendons, and other parts of
the bodyimages that can be used by health professionals to better serve patients.[13]
There is a program called Digital Imaging in Communications and Medicine (DICOM) that is changing the
medical world as we know it. DICOM is not only a system for taking high quality images of the
aforementioned internal organs, but also is helpful in processing those images. It is a universal system that
incorporates image processing, sharing, and analyzing for the convenience of patient comfort and
understanding. This service is all encompassing and is beginning a necessity.[14]

Theoretical application[edit]
Although theories are quickly becoming realities in todays technological society, the range of possibilities for
digital imaging is wide open. One major application that is still in the works is that of child safety and
protection. How can we use digital imaging to better protect our kids? Kodaks program, Kids Identification
Digital Software (KIDS) may answer that question. The beginnings include a digital imaging kit to be used to
compile student identification photos, which would be useful during medical emergencies and crimes. More
powerful and advanced versions of applications such as these are still developing, with increased features
constantly being tested and added.[15]
But parents and schools arent the only ones who see benefits in databases such as these. Criminal
investigation offices, such as police precincts, state crime labs, and even federal bureaus have realized the
importance of digital imaging in analyzing fingerprints and evidence, making arrests, and maintaining safe
communities. As the field of digital imaging evolves, so does our ability to protect the public. [16]
Digital imaging can be closely related to the social presence theory especially when referring to the social
media aspect of images captured by our phones. There are many different definitions of the social presence
theory but two that clearly define what it is would be "the degree to which people are perceived as real"
(Gunawardena, 1995), and "the ability to project themselves socially and emotionally as real people"
(Garrison, 2000). Digital imaging allows one to manifest their social life through images in order to give the
sense of their presence to the virtual world. The presence of those images acts as an extension of oneself to
others, giving a digital representation of what it is they are doing and who they are with. Digital imaging in the
sense of cameras on phones helps facilitate this effect of presence with friends on social media. Alexander
(2012) states, "presence and representation is deeply engraved into our reflections on images...this is, of
course, an altered presence...nobody confuses an image with the representation reality. But we allow ourselves
to be taken in by that representation, and only that 'representation' is able to show the liveliness of the absentee
in a believable way." Therefore, digital imaging allows ourselves to be represented in a way so as to reflect our
social presence. [17]
Photography is a medium used to capture specific moments visually. Through photography our culture has
been given the chance to send information (such as appearance) with little or no distortion. The Media
Richness Theory provides a framework for describing a mediums ability to communicate information without
loss or distortion. This theory has provided the chance to understand human behavior in communication
technologies. The article written by Daft and Lengel (1984,1986) states the following:
Communication media fall along a continuum of richness. The richness of a medium comprises four aspects:
the availability of instant feedback, which allows questions to be asked and answered; the use of multiple cues,
such as physical presence, vocal inflection, body estures, words, numbers and graphic symbols; the use of
natural language, which can be used to convey an understanding of a broad set of concepts and ideas; and the
personal focus of the medium (pp. 83).
The more a medium is able to communicate the accurate appearance, social cues and other such characteristics
the more rich it becomes. Photography has become a natural part of how we communicate. For example, most
phones have the ability to send pictures in text messages. Apps Snapchat and Vine have become increasingly
popular for communicating. Sites like Instagram and Facebook have also allowed users to reach a deeper level
of richness because of their ability to reproduce information. Sheer, V. C. (January-March 2011). Teenagers

use of msn feartures, discussion topics, and online friendship development: the impact of media richness and
communication control. Communication Quarterly, 59(1).

Methods[edit]
A digital photograph may be created directly from a physical scene by a camera or similar device.
Alternatively, a digital image may be obtained from another image in an analogmedium, such
as photographs, photographic film, or printed paper, by an image scanner or similar device. Many technical
imagessuch as those acquired with tomographic equipment, side-scan sonar, or radio telescopesare
actually obtained by complex processing of non-image data. Weather radar maps as seen on television
news are a commonplace example. The digitalization of analog real-world data is known as digitizing, and
involves sampling (discretization) and quantization.
Finally, a digital image can also be computed from a geometric model or mathematical formula. In this case
the name image synthesis is more appropriate, and it is more often known as rendering.
Digital image authentication is an issue[18] for the providers and producers of digital images such as health care
organizations, law enforcement agencies and insurance companies. There are methods emerging in forensic
photography to analyze a digital image and determine if it has been altered.
Previously digital imaging depended on chemical and mechanical processes, now all these processes have
converted to electronic. A few things need to take place for digital imaging to occur, the light energy converts
to electrical energy- think of a grid with millions of little solar cells. Each condition generates a specific
electrical charge. Charges for each of these "solar cells" are transported and communicated to the firmware to
be interpreted. The firmware is what understands and translates the color and other light qualities. Pixels are
what is noticed next, with varying intensities they create and cause different colors, creating a picture or image.
Finally the firmware records the information for future and further reproduction.

Advantages[edit]
There are several benefits of digital imaging. First, the process enables easy access of photographs and word
documents. Google is at the forefront of this revolution, with its mission to digitize the worlds books. Such
digitization will make the books searchable, thus making participating libraries, such as Stanford
University and the University of California Berkeley, accessible worldwide.[19] Digital imaging also benefits the
medical world because it allows the electronic transmission of images to third-party providers, referring
dentists, consultants, and insurance carriers via a modem. [19] The process is also environmentally friendly
since it does not require chemical processing.[19] Digital imaging is also frequently used to help document and
record historical, scientific and personal life events.[20]
Benefits also exist regarding photographs. Digital imaging will reduce the need for physical contact with
original images.[21] Furthermore, digital imaging creates the possibility of reconstructing the visual contents of
partially damaged photographs, thus eliminating the potential that the original would be modified or destroyed.
[21]
In addition, photographers will be freed from being chained to the darkroom, will have more time to
shoot and will be able to cover assignments more effectively.[22] Digital imaging means that photographers no
longer have to rush their film to the office, so they can stay on location longer while still meeting deadlines. [23]
Another advantage to digital photography is that it has been expanded to camera phones. We are able to take
cameras with us wherever as well as send photos instantly to others. It is easy for people to us as well as help
in the process of self-identification for the younger generation[24]

Drawbacks[edit]
Critics of digital imaging cite several negative consequences. An increased flexibility in getting better quality
images to the readers will tempt editors, photographers and journalists to manipulate photographs. [22] In
addition, staff photographers will no longer be photojournalistists, but camera operatorsas editors have the

power to decide what they want shot.[22] Legal constraints, including copyright, pose another concern: will
copyright infringement occur as documents are digitized and copying becomes easier?

How the camera works[edit]


There is a lot that goes into a photograph than most people know. Photography means drawing of light, making
it easier to understand how we get a photograph. [25] A photograph is literally light captured and transmuted into
an electronic file. [26] Taking a photograph has three parts to it, the lens, the image sensor, and the shutter. [27] The
main aspect of a digital camera is the lens. The lens is in control of how the image will look. There are 2 types
of lenses, a convex and concave lens. [28] A typical camera has 5 to 7 of these lenses that manipulate light as it is
passed through them. [29] The amount of light that enters the lens is controlled by the opening in the lens called
the aperture. [30]The smaller the aperture the less light let in through it. After all the light is passed through the
lens it comes to the next step of the process, the shutter. The shutter controls how much light will be let in.
[31]
The light that passes through the shutter ends up at the image sensor, and creates the image. [32]

See also[edit]

Digital image processing

Digital photography

Dynamic imaging

Image editing

Image retrieval

Graphics file format

Graphic image development

Society for Imaging Science and Technology, (IS&T)

Film recorder

Photoplotter

References[edit]
1.

^ Jump up to:a b c d Trussell H &Vrhel M (2008). "Introduction". Fundamental


of Digital Imaging: 16.

2.

Jump up^ The Birth of Digital Phototelegraphy, the papers of Technical


Meeting in History of Electrical Engineering IEEE, Vol. HEE-03, No. 9-12,
pp 7-12 (2003)

3.

Jump up^ U.S. Patent 3,277,302, titled X-Ray Apparatus Having Means for
Supplying An Alternating Square Wave Voltage to the X-Ray Tube, granted
to Weighart on October 4, 1964, showing its patent application date as May
10, 1963 and at lines 1-6 of its column 4, also, noting James F. McNultys
earlier filed co-pending application for an essential component of invention

4.

Jump up^ U.S. Patent 3,289,000, titled Means for Separately Controlling
the Filament Current and Voltage on a X-Ray Tube, granted to McNulty on
November 29, 1966 and showing its patent application date as March 5, 1963

5.

^ Jump up to:a b Reed, Mike (2002). "Graphic arts, digital imaging and
technology education". T H E Journal 21 (5): 69+. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
(subscription required)

6.

Jump up^ Murray, Susan (August 2008). "Digital Images, Photo-Sharing,


and Our Shifting Notions of Everyday Aesthetics". Journal of Visual
Culture 7 (2): 147163. doi:10.1177/1470412908091935.(subscription required)

7.

Jump up^ Castella, T. D. (2012, 1, 12). Five ways the digital camera
changed us. BBC.

8.

Jump up^ Haslego, C. (2005, March 6). History of the Camera. Retrieved
January 14, 2015

9.

Jump up^ Haslego, C. (2005, March 6). History of the Camera. Retrieved
January 14, 2015

10. Jump up^ Haslego, C. (2005, March 6). History of the Camera. Retrieved
January 14, 2015
11. Jump up^ Haslego, C. (2005, March 6). History of the Camera. Retrieved
January 14, 2015
12. Jump up^ Richardson, Ronny (2003). "Digital imaging: The wave of the
future". T H E Journal 31 (3). Retrieved 28 June 2012.
13. Jump up^ Bachur, R. G.; Hennelly, K.; Callahan, M. J.; Chen, C.;
Monuteaux, M. C. "Diagnostic Imaging and Negative Appendectomy Rates in
Children: Effects of Age and Gender". Pediatrics 129(5): 877
884. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-3375.
14. Jump up^ Planykh, Oleg, S. (2009). Digital Imaging in Communications in
Medicine: A Practical Introduction and Survival Guide. Boston, Mass.:
Springer. p. 3-5. ISBN 9783642108495.
15. Jump up^ Willis, William (1997). "Digital imaging is innovative, useful, and
now within educators reach". T H E Journal 25 (2): 24+. Retrieved 28
June 2012.
16. Jump up^ Cherry, Michael; Edward Imwinkelried (2006). "A cautionary
note about fingerprint analysis and reliance on digital
technology". Judicature 89 (6): 334+. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
17. Jump up^ Alexander, J. C. (2012). Iconic Power: Materiality and meaning
in social life. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

18. Jump up^ Digital image authentication for evidence.


19. ^ Jump up to:a b c Michels, S. (December 30, 2009). "Googles Goal: Digitize
Every Book Ever Printed". PBS Newshour. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
20. Jump up^ Gustavson, T. (2009). Camera: A history of photography from
daguerreotype to digital. New York: Sterling Innovation.
21. ^ Jump up to:a b Frey S (1999). "Digital Imaging as a Tool for
Preservation". IADA preprints: 1914.
22. ^ Jump up to:a b c Parker D (1988). "Ethical Implications of Electronic Still
Cameras and Computer Digital Imaging in the Print Media". Journal of the
Mass Media 3 (2): 4759.doi:10.1080/08900528809358322.
23. Jump up^ Fahmy S, Smith CZ (2003). "Photographers Note Digital's
Advantages, Disadvantages". Newspaper Research Journal 24 (2): 8296.
24. Jump up^ Gai, B. (2009). "A World Through the Camera Phone Lens: A
Case Study of Beijing Camera Phone Use". Knowledge, Technology, and
Policy 22 (3): 195204. doi:10.1007/s12130-009-9084-x.
25. Jump up^ (Miller, K. (n.d.). How Digital Cameras Work: The Basics.
26. Jump up^ Miller, K. (n.d.). How Digital Cameras Work: The Basics.
27. Jump up^ Miller, K. (n.d.). How Digital Cameras Work: The Basics.
28. Jump up^ Miller, K. (n.d.). How Digital Cameras Work: The Basics.
29. Jump up^ Miller, K. (n.d.). How Digital Cameras Work: The Basics.
30. Jump up^ Miller, K. (n.d.). How Digital Cameras Work: The Basics.
31. Jump up^ Miller, K. (n.d.). How Digital Cameras Work: The Basics.
32. Jump up^ Miller, K. (n.d.). How Digital Cameras Work: The Basics.

External links[edit]

Cornell University. Digital imaging tutorial

Digital Imaging FAQ/Frequently Asked Questions. Digital Imaging FAQ

Dartmouth, Hany Farid. Digital Image Forensics

Lectures on Image Processing, by Alan Peters. Vanderbilt University.


Updated 11 March 2013.

http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/cameras-photography/digital/digital-camera.htm
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Digital photography

Digital imaging

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Morphological image processing is a collection of non-linear operations related to


the shape or morphology of features in an image. According to Wikipedia,
morphological operations rely only on the relative ordering of pixel values, not on
their numerical values, and therefore are especially suited to the processing of binary
images. Morphological operations can also be applied to greyscale images such that
their light transfer functions are unknown and therefore their absolute pixel values are
of no or minor interest.

In computer vision, image segmentation is the process of partitioning a digital image into multiple segments
(sets of pixels, also known as superpixels). The goal of segmentation is to simplify and/or change the
representation of an image into something that is more meaningful and easier to analyze. [1][2] Image
segmentation is typically used to locate objects and boundaries (lines, curves, etc.) in images. More precisely,
image segmentation is the process of assigning a label to every pixel in an image such that pixels with the
same label share certain characteristics.
The result of image segmentation is a set of segments that collectively cover the entire image, or a set
of contours extracted from the image (see edge detection). Each of the pixels in a region are similar with
respect to some characteristic or computed property, such ascolor, intensity, or texture. Adjacent regions are
significantly different with respect to the same characteristic(s).[1] When applied to a stack of images, typical
in medical imaging, the resulting contours after image segmentation can be used to create 3D reconstructions
with thehelp of interpolation algorithms like Marching cubes.

Image editing encompasses the processes of altering images, whether they are digital photographs,
traditional photochemical photographs, or illustrations. Traditional analog image editing is known as photo
retouching, using tools such as an airbrush to modify photographs, or editing illustrations with any
traditional art medium. Graphic software programs, which can be broadly grouped into vector graphics
editors, raster graphics editors, and 3D modelers, are the primary tools with which a user may manipulate,
enhance, and transform images. Many image editing programs are also used to render or create computer
art from scratch.

MRI MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGIGNG


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