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Tensile Test Experiment

Group 1

Mykenson Pierre
Hanser Castro
Adam Wechsler

3903289
3256769
1152905

EMA3702L
Lab 1. Tensile Test

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Department


Florida International University
Professor: Dr. Bao
07/02/15

Table of Content
List of Figures.........................................................................................2
List of table............................................................................................3
Nomenclature.........................................................................................4
Abstract..................................................................................................5
Introduction............................................................................................6
Data and Results....................................................................................8
Discussion............................................................................................11
Conclusion............................................................................................13
Recommendation.................................................................................14
References...........................................................................................15
Appendices...........................................................................................16
Appendix A...........................................................................................17
Appendix B...........................................................................................18
Appendix C...........................................................................................19
Appendix D...........................................................................................20
Appendix E...........................................................................................28

List of Figures
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure

1. Various points on stress-strain curve.......................................6


2. Aluminum, Force vs Extension.................................................7
3. Steel, Force vs extension.........................................................7
4 Aluminum: Stress vs Strain.......................................................8
5 Carbon Steel: Stress vs Strain..................................................9
6 United SSTM SMART Table Model.........................................16
7 United SSTM SMART Table Model.........................................16

List of tables
Table
Table
Table
Table

1
2
3
4

Final Data for Aluminum specimen............................................9


Final Data for Carbon steel specimen.....................................10
Sample Data from Aluminum specimen...................................24
Sample Data for Steel specimen..............................................27

Nomenclature
Symbol
L
F
L
E
A

Description
gauge length elongation
axial tensile load
length of the specimen
Young's modulus of
elasticity
cross-sectional area of the
specimen
engineering stress
the engineering strain

Units
in
lbs.
in
psi
in2
psi
n/a

Abstract
The purpose of this experiment is to understand the principle of uniaxial tensile
testing and gain experience using tensile test machine to obtain necessary tensile
properties.
On the experiment we will analyze load-extension and stress-strain relationships
and represent them in graphical form. Also we will evaluate ultimate tensile stress,
percent elongation, fracture strain and Youngs Modulus of elasticity of materials such as
aluminum and carbon steel when subjected to uniaxial tensile load.

Introduction
The mechanical properties of materials are found by performing delicate
experiments on the part to see how it reacts under physical forces. In real life there are
innumerable number of factors in which load are applied on materials, some of the most
frequent examples include tensile, compressive and shear. These properties are extremely
important in mechanical design selection.
During tensile test experiment a plot of stress () versus strain () is created by the
software, we reproduce the same graph on Excel spreadsheet. The value of stress on this
experiment is calculated by dividing the amount of force (F) which is applied by the
machine on the cross section area (A) which is measure at the beginning of the
experiment.
Stress is mathematically express in equation 1. The stress strain value can be
found from equation 2 where L is the instantaneous length of the specimen and L0 is the
initial length of the specimen

F
A

L L0
L0

(Eq. 1)

(Eq. 2)

Figure 1. Represent a theoretical stress-strain curve, not all stress-strain curves


look like the one shown in fig1 (1). This curve typically represent ductile materials
elements. When the material reaches the ultimate stress strength on the curve, the cross
section reduces drastically, this term is known as necking. When plotting the curve, the
software assume the area stays constant throughout the experiment, this cause a slope
down on the curve.

Figure 1. Various

points on stress-strain curve

Theoretically the stress-strain curve can be constructed by assuming that the volume of
the specimen remain the same throughout the experiment, even without measuring the
cross sectional area (2).

Data and Results

Figure 2. Aluminum,

Figure 3.

Force vs Extension

Steel, Force vs extension

Aluminum: Stress vs Strain


80000
60000

Stress vs Strain
Yield Strength Line

40000
Stress

Yield Strength
Proportional Limit

20000

Elastic Limit
Ultimate Point

0
-0.04 -0.02

0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12

Fracture Point

-20000
-40000
Strain
Figure 4 Aluminum: Stress vs Strain
X-Sect Area:
Length:
E:

0.019663
3.000000
1,889,751.708820

yield strength:
proportional limit:

0.026487
0.012663

elastic limit:

0.016433

ultimate point:

0.075988

fracture point:

0.102300

46275.123
62
44451.04
45363.081
81
48850.924
33
37214.813
75

Table 1 Final Data for Aluminum specimen.

Carbon Steel: Stress vs Strain

Stress

Stress vs
Strain

Yield Strength
Line

Yield Strength

Proportional
Limit

Elastic Limit

Ultimate
Point

Fracture Point

Strain

Figure 5 Carbon Steel: Stress vs Strain


X-Sect Area:
Length:
E:

0.029413
3.000000
2,091,175.786312

yield strength:

0.032545

proportional limit:

0.011712

elastic limit:

0.017901

ultimate point:

0.028258

fracture point:

0.093777

63874.827
37
38365.894
49
51120.360
93
64041.784
61
29703.936
52

Table 2 Final Data for Carbon steel specimen.

Discussion

10

On this experiment we were able to analyzed stress- strain graph


of two different materials. First we obtain the graphs of force vs.
extension and base on that information we create a stress vs. strain
from on an Excel spread sheet. Our result differ from the actual value,
this may be due to calibration or sensor problems as explained by the
professor. We started analyzing the information first with aluminum and then with
steel. As stated on previous equation the modulus of elasticity E is equal to the slope of
the linear section of the stress-strain curve, with the y-axis representing stress and the xaxis representing strain. The first and last points of the linear section were determined by
identifying where l experienced significant changes. A linear regression was performed
on the points in the linear selection, and E is equal to its slope, which is approximately
1.89 x 106 psi. The stress of the last point of the linear section is the proportional limit.
The point representing a stress of 0 and strain of 0.002 (0.2 %) intersects the
stress-strain curve. The formula of this line was determined by initially using the pointslope form for a line, with slope E and point (0.002, 0)
y 0 = 1.89 x 106(x 0.002)
Which simplifies to:
y = 1.89 x 106x + 1.89 x 106*0.002
All strain values in the data set were entered into this formula, generating the
yield strength line. It was then determined between which two points in the original
data set the yield strength line intersected. Linear interpolation was then used to
approximate the yield strength of 46275 psi. Ultimate and fracture points were
determined by analyzing the data.
11

12

Conclusion
The primary goal on this lab was to analyze the derivation of
experimental formulas that are used in materials engineering. By
examining the reaction of the specimens under uniaxial tension, we
can collect relevant information on their structural and mechanical
properties. This lab helped us as engineers explore and understand the
behavior of materials under axial stretch loading.

13

Recommendation
Roark's Formulas for Stress and Strain is a book that includes an extended coverage of
joints and shearing stress. It also covers material behavior and stress strain
measurements.
Stress, Strain, and Structural Dynamics by Bingen Yang is a book that focus
on the analysis of Stress, Strain, and Structural Dynamics, this is an
extremely useful reference to statics and dynamics of solids and
structures, including mechanics of materials, structural mechanics,
elasticity, rigid-body dynamics, vibrations, and structural dynamics.

14

References
1) Beer, Ferdinand P. Mechanics of Materials. 6th ed. New York:
McGraw-Hill, 2011. Print.
2) Roark, Raymond J., and Warren C. Young. Roark's Formulas for
Stress and Strain. 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002. Print.
3) Yang, Bingen. Stress, Strain, and Structural Dynamics: An
Interactive Handbook of Formulas, Solutions, and MATLAB Toolboxes.
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2007. Print.

15

Appendices
Appendix A: Apparatus
Appendix B: Procedure
Appendix C: Calibration Data
Appendix D: Experimental Data
Appendix E: Sample Calculations

16

Appendix A
Apparatus
The United Model SSTM testing machine is a computer
inclusive, electromechanical, test system designed to
accommodate a variety of testing instruments and
accessories to test various types of material including
ceramics, plastics, polymers, metals and composites

Figure 6 United SSTM SMART Table Model

Figure 7 United SSTM SMART Table Model

17

Appendix B
Procedure
The first step was to measure the specimen, then we insert the values of width, thickness
and area into the software and reproduce figures 2 and 3. Sample data is collected from
the software in for of Excel table after the figures are obtained,
Aluminum Specimen Dimensions:
Thickness 0.053 in
Width: 0.371 in
Initial Length (L): 3.0 in
Final Length (L2): 3.216 in
A = t*w = (0.053)(0.371) = 0.019663 in2
= F/A
Strain calculation:
L = 3.000
Strain = (L2-L)/L
Carbon Steel Specimen Dimensions:
Thickness 0.067 in
Width: 0.430 in
Initial Length (L): 3.0 in
Final Length (L2): 3.305 in
Strain calculation:
L = 3.000
Strain = (L2-L)/L

18

Appendix C
Calibration Data
We did not use calibration on this experiment.

FORCE

STRESS

EXT

STRAIN

del-del-L

yield str

stress - yield line

Append
ix D
Experimenta
l Data
19

ultimate point

POSITION
0.025933

39.03631

1985.267

-0.01961

-0.00654

-16130.8

18116.01781

1985.267166

0.030299

48.21369

2452.001

-0.01524

-0.00508

0.004366

-13380.5

15832.50745

2452.000799

0.030299

48.20651

2451.635

-0.04554

-0.01518

-0.0303

-32466.3

34917.90385

2452.000799

0.031573

59.38021

3019.896

-0.04427

-0.01476

0.001274

-31663.8

34683.67487

3019.895788

0.03327

67.68148

3442.073

-0.04257

-0.01419

0.001697

-30594.7

34036.76273

3442.07295

0.034121

72.12654

3668.135

-0.04172

-0.01391

0.000851

-30058.8

33726.92156

3668.135134

0.03495

76.74393

3902.961

-0.04089

-0.01363

0.000829

-29536.5

33439.44771

3902.961247

0.035809

81.47623

4143.632

-0.04003

-0.01334

0.000859

-28995.1

33138.77283

4143.631532

0.036686

86.23006

4385.397

-0.03915

-0.01305

0.000877

-28442.9

32828.31395

4385.396774

0.037541

91.07005

4631.544

-0.0383

-0.01277

0.000855

-27904.3

32535.83827

4631.544174

0.038383

95.96032

4880.248

-0.03746

-0.01249

0.000842

-27373.8

32254.08308

4880.248157

0.039208

100.9655

5134.796

-0.03663

-0.01221

0.000825

-26854.3

31989.051

5134.796312

0.040041

106.0712

5394.456

-0.0358

-0.01193

0.000833

-26329.2

31723.68676

5394.456467

0.040879

111.3851

5664.705

-0.03496

-0.01165

0.000838

-25801.5

31466.19152

5664.705351

0.041734

117.1227

5956.502

-0.03411

-0.01137

0.000855

-25262.9

31219.37001

5956.50224

0.042589

122.7239

6241.362

-0.03325

-0.01108

0.000855

-24724.2

30965.60194

6241.361941

0.043427

128.9067

6555.8

-0.03241

-0.0108

0.000838

-24196.5

30752.30041

6555.799853

0.044282

135.0751

6869.506

-0.03156

-0.01052

0.000855

-23657.9

30527.38384

6869.50637

0.045137

141.6672

7204.761

-0.0307

-0.01023

0.000855

-23119.2

30324.00786

7204.760505

0.045992

148.0009

7526.873

-0.02985

-0.00995

0.000855

-22580.6

30107.50295

7526.87282

0.046843

154.3488

7849.708

-0.029

-0.00967

0.000851

-22044.7

29894.43557

7849.707606

0.04769

160.1438

8144.423

-0.02815

-0.00938

0.000846

-21511.5

29655.97135

8144.423477

0.048536

165.8383

8434.029

-0.0273

-0.0091

0.000846

-20978.4

29412.38925

8434.028511

0.049374

171.6118

8727.651

-0.02647

-0.00882

0.000838

-20450.6

29178.26641

8727.650976

0.050233

177.4427

9024.193

-0.02561

-0.00854

0.000859

-19909.3

28933.47012

9024.192811

0.051101

183.2593

9320.007

-0.02474

-0.00825

0.000868

-19362.5

28682.49706

9320.006744

0.051965

189.4205

9633.347

-0.02387

-0.00796

0.000864

-18818.4

28451.77122

9633.346982

0.052807

195.3807

9936.465

-0.02303

-0.00768

0.000842

-18288

28224.42983

9936.464771

0.053641

201.4629

10245.79

-0.0222

-0.0074

0.000833

-17762.9

28008.72864

10245.7868

0.054483

207.5667

10556.21

-0.02136

-0.00712

0.000842

-17232.5

27788.68838

10556.20689

0.055325

213.7638

10871.37

-0.02051

-0.00684

0.000842

-16702

27573.38877

10871.37232

0.05618

220.1763

11197.49

-0.01966

-0.00655

0.000855

-16163.4

27360.88612

11197.49276

0.057061

226.6248

11525.44

-0.01878

-0.00626

0.000881

-15608.5

27133.89801

11525.44381

0.057916

233.1306

11856.31

-0.01792

-0.00597

0.000855

-15069.8

26926.13405

11856.3088

0.058762

239.6365

12187.18

-0.01708

-0.00569

0.000846

-14536.6

26723.82321

12187.17923

0.059626

246.3434

12528.27

-0.01621

-0.0054

0.000864

-13992.6

26520.84923

12528.27132

0.060472

253.5027

12892.37

-0.01537

-0.00512

0.000846

-13459.4

26351.76873

12892.3715

0.061319

260.6908

13257.94

-0.01452

-0.00484

0.000846

-12926.2

26184.15257

13257.93602

0.062165

268.3025

13645.04

-0.01367

-0.00456

0.000846

-12393

26038.07292

13645.04349

0.06302

276.2948

14051.51

-0.01282

-0.00427

0.000855

-11854.4

25905.92011

14051.5079

0.063871

284.4809

14467.83

-0.01197

-0.00399

0.000851

-11318.5

25786.33832

14467.8277

0.064713

292.624

14881.96

-0.01113

-0.00371

0.000842

-10788

25670.00509

14881.96068

0.065555

300.6952

15292.44

-0.01028

-0.00343

0.000842

-10257.6

25550.01586

15292.43709

0.066406

309.0896

15719.35

-0.00943

-0.00314

0.000851

-9721.68

25441.02882

15719.35105

0.067231

317.8645

16165.62

-0.00861

-0.00287

0.000825

-9202.1

25367.71327

16165.61572

0.068043

326.4097

16600.2

-0.0078

-0.0026

0.000812

-8690.68

25290.87715

16600.19827

0.068881

335.2564

17050.11

-0.00696

-0.00232

0.000838

-8162.94

25213.05168

17050.11487

0.06971

344.1821

17504.05

-0.00613

-0.00204

0.000829

-7640.63

25144.68292

17504.04813

0.070556

353.5099

17978.43

-0.00528

-0.00176

0.000846

-7107.45

25085.88418

17978.43095

20

0.071416

363.4481

18483.86

-0.00442

-0.00147

0.000859

-6566.11

25049.96349

18483.85748

0.072271

373.695

19004.98

-0.00357

-0.00119

0.000855

-6027.49

25032.46963

19004.98435

0.073143

384.5954

19559.34

-0.0027

-0.0009

0.000872

-5477.98

25037.32561

19559.34486

0.073977

394.9644

20086.68

-0.00186

-0.00062

0.000833

-4952.96

25039.64097

20086.67985

0.074819

405.915

20643.6

-0.00102

-0.00034

0.000842

-4422.5

25066.09211

20643.595

0.075656

416.3845

21176.04

-0.00018

-6.1E-05

0.000838

-3894.76

25070.79636

21176.04084

0.076499

427.8018

21756.69

0.000659

0.00022

0.000842

-3364.29

25120.98127

21756.68964

0.077388

438.9821

22325.29

0.001549

0.000516

0.00089

-2803.9

25129.18937

22325.28537

0.078248

450.3922

22905.57

0.002408

0.000803

0.000859

-2262.57

25168.1351

22905.56944

0.079107

461.4002

23465.4

0.003268

0.001089

0.000859

-1721.22

25186.6204

23465.40241

0.079949

472.1425

24011.72

0.00411

0.00137

0.000842

-1190.76

25202.48095

24011.72184

0.080804

482.9278

24560.23

0.004965

0.001655

0.000855

-652.133

25212.36273

24560.22964

0.081646

493.8065

25113.49

0.005807

0.001936

0.000842

-121.674

25235.16086

25113.48665

0.082475

504.52

25658.34

0.006636

0.002212

0.000829

400.6281

25257.71442

25658.34252

0.083343

516.5116

26268.2

0.007504

0.002501

0.000868

947.4151

25320.7839

26268.19899

0.084194

527.9863

26851.77

0.008355

0.002785

0.000851

1483.318

25368.45027

26851.76871

0.085045

539.7481

27449.94

0.009206

0.003069

0.000851

2019.217

25430.71974

27449.93683

0.0859

551.5602

28050.66

0.010061

0.003354

0.000855

2557.842

25492.82077

28050.6627

0.086742

562.9271

28628.75

0.010903

0.003634

0.000842

3088.308

25540.44309

28628.75065

0.087576

574.2508

29204.64

0.011736

0.003912

0.000833

3613.325

25591.3129

29204.63782

0.088413

585.6248

29783.09

0.012574

0.004191

0.000838

4141.07

25642.0162

29783.08584

0.089286

597.0275

30362.99

0.013446

0.004482

0.000872

4690.578

25672.41465

30362.99277

0.090162

608.1573

30929.02

0.014323

0.004774

0.000877

5242.801

25686.21727

30929.01834

0.091009

619.8616

31524.26

0.015169

0.005056

0.000846

5775.982

25748.28069

31524.26244

0.091855

630.7114

32076.05

0.016016

0.005339

0.000846

6309.162

25766.89036

32076.05278

0.092693

641.4463

32622

0.016854

0.005618

0.000838

6836.908

25785.08734

32621.99507

0.093527

652.1523

33166.47

0.017687

0.005896

0.000833

7361.925

25804.54406

33166.46914

0.094364

662.7292

33704.38

0.018525

0.006175

0.000838

7889.669

25814.70891

33704.37812

0.095198

673.9379

34274.42

0.019358

0.006453

0.000833

8414.687

25859.73378

34274.42035

0.09604

684.5722

34815.25

0.020201

0.006734

0.000842

8945.159

25870.08849

34815.24714

0.096878

695.185

35354.98

0.021038

0.007013

0.000838

9472.897

25882.08439

35354.98131

0.097685

705.9197

35900.91

0.021846

0.007282

0.000808

9981.594

25919.32079

35900.91429

0.098532

716.9274

36460.73

0.022692

0.007564

0.000846

10514.78

25945.95421

36460.73484

0.099395

727.4395

36995.35

0.023556

0.007852

0.000864

11058.84

25936.50764

36995.34731

0.100255

738.0881

37536.9

0.024415

0.008138

0.000859

11600.18

25936.7168

37536.90046

0.101097

747.9827

38040.11

0.025258

0.008419

0.000842

12130.65

25909.46236

38040.11224

0.101926

757.9491

38546.97

0.026087

0.008696

0.000829

12652.95

25894.01911

38546.9713

0.102751

767.2908

39022.06

0.026912

0.008971

0.000825

13172.53

25849.5267

39022.06029

0.10361

777.6233

39547.54

0.027771

0.009257

0.000859

13713.87

25833.66889

39547.54061

0.104483

787.5035

40050.02

0.028643

0.009548

0.000872

14263.38

25786.63711

40050.01673

0.105338

797.3191

40549.21

0.029498

0.009833

0.000855

14802

25747.20605

40549.20876

0.10618

807.0198

41042.56

0.03034

0.010113

0.000842

15332.46

25710.09278

41042.55584

0.107018

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0.000842

184664.2

-141799.0936

48850.92433

0.375868

834.1686

42423.26

0.300029

0.10001

0.000872

185213.7

-142790.4174

48850.92433

0.37674

825.107

41962.42

0.300901

0.1003

0.000872

185763.2

-143800.8038

48850.92433

0.377621

814.8823

41442.42

0.301782

0.100594

0.000881

186318.2

-144875.7665

48850.92433

0.378468

804.5138

40915.11

0.302628

0.100876

0.000846

186851.3

-145936.2313

48850.92433

0.379319

793.2622

40342.89

0.303479

0.10116

0.000851

187387.3

-147044.3841

48850.92433

0.380165

781.235

39731.22

0.304326

0.101442

0.000846

187920.4

-148189.2237

48850.92433

0.381016

767.7072

39043.24

0.305176

0.101725

0.000851

188456.3

-149413.0611

48850.92433

0.381884

751.9319

38240.95

0.306044

0.102015

0.000868

189003.1

-150762.1847

48850.92433

0.382739

731.7549

37214.81

0.306899

0.1023

0.000855

189541.7

-152326.9038

48850.92433

Table 3 Sample Data from Aluminum specimen.

POSIT

FORCE

STRESS

EXT

STRAIN

0.025933

38.68444

1315.216

-0.01884

-0.00628

0.030299

57.04637

1939.495

-0.01454

-0.00485

0.030299

56.95302

1936.321

-0.03553

-0.01184

0.031573

62.62604

2129.196

-0.03512

0.03327

70.44618

2395.07

-0.03427

del-del-L

yield str

stress - yieldline

ultimate point

-17312.8

18627.99078

1315

0.004297

-14317.5

16257.04359

1939

-0.02099

-28947.5

30883.79173

1939

-0.01171

0.00041

-28661.5

30790.69721

2129

-0.01142

0.000846

-28071.5

30466.55387

2395

24

0.034121

76.33461

2595.268

-0.03343

-0.01114

0.000838

-27487.5

30082.7569

2595

2793

0.03495

82.1656

2793.513

-0.03259

-0.01086

0.000846

-26897.5

29690.99059

0.035809

88.32691

3002.989

-0.03173

-0.01058

0.000859

-26298.4

29301.42043

300

0.036686

94.66773

3218.568

-0.03087

-0.01029

0.000855

-25702.4

28920.96565

3218

0.037541

101.1091

3437.565

-0.03

-0.01

0.000868

-25097.3

28534.90176

3437

0.038383

107.5576

3656.805

-0.02916

-0.00972

0.000846

-24507.3

28164.12984

365

0.039208

113.8051

3869.211

-0.02829

-0.00943

0.000864

-23905.3

27774.48036

3869

0.040041

120.311

4090.402

-0.02746

-0.00915

0.000838

-23321.3

27411.67518

4090

0.040879

127.2622

4326.733

-0.02661

-0.00887

0.000846

-22731.3

27057.99567

4326

0.041734

134.357

4567.946

-0.02576

-0.00859

0.000855

-22135.2

26703.17366

4567

0.042589

141.5165

4811.359

-0.0249

-0.0083

0.000855

-21539.2

26350.55282

4811

0.043427

148.4317

5046.466

-0.02403

-0.00801

0.000872

-20931.1

25977.58785

5046

0.044282

155.4332

5284.507

-0.02317

-0.00772

0.000855

-20335.1

25619.59507

5284

0.045137

162.413

5521.81

-0.02233

-0.00744

0.000838

-19751.1

25272.90311

5521

0.045992

169.3929

5759.117

-0.02151

-0.00717

0.000825

-19176.1

24935.24756

5759

0.046843

176.3225

5994.713

-0.02066

-0.00689

0.000851

-18583.1

24577.82123

5994

0.04769

183.5322

6239.833

-0.01979

-0.0066

0.000868

-17978

24217.87309

6239

0.048536

190.591

6479.822

-0.01892

-0.00631

0.000868

-17373

23852.79476

6479

0.049374

197.657

6720.056

-0.01807

-0.00602

0.000855

-16776.9

23497.00135

6720

0.050233

204.522

6953.456

-0.01722

-0.00574

0.000851

-16183.9

23137.37904

6953

0.051101

211.5305

7191.735

-0.01638

-0.00546

0.000838

-15599.9

22791.6629

7191

0.051965

218.6109

7432.458

-0.01554

-0.00518

0.000838

-15015.9

22448.39707

7432

0.052807

225.9282

7681.236

-0.01469

-0.0049

0.000851

-14422.9

22104.14586

768

0.053641

233.3604

7933.92

-0.01384

-0.00461

0.000855

-13826.9

21760.79544

7933

0.054483

241.087

8196.614

-0.01299

-0.00433

0.000846

-13236.9

21433.47797

8196

0.055325

250.0631

8501.788

-0.01213

-0.00404

0.000864

-12634.8

21136.59542

8501

0.05618

259.0105

8805.987

-0.01128

-0.00376

0.000851

-12041.8

20847.77165

8805

0.057061

268.7908

9138.503

-0.01045

-0.00348

0.000829

-11463.8

20602.31542

9138

0.057916

277.9032

9448.312

-0.0096

-0.0032

0.000842

-10876.8

20325.12304

9448

0.058762

287.8415

9786.2

-0.00878

-0.00293

0.000821

-10304.9

20091.05683

9786

0.059626

297.6434

10119.45

-0.00793

-0.00264

0.000855

-9708.83

19828.27676

1011

0.060472

308.0052

10471.74

-0.0071

-0.00237

0.000829

-9130.85

19602.58943

1047

0.061319

318.4174

10825.74

-0.00628

-0.00209

0.000816

-8561.91

19387.6473

1082

0.062165

329.2389

11193.65

-0.00545

-0.00182

0.000833

-7980.93

19174.5807

1119

0.06302

341.2093

11600.63

-0.00459

-0.00153

0.000855

-7384.89

18985.5232

1160

0.063871

354.5583

12054.48

-0.00372

-0.00124

0.000872

-6776.82

18831.29521

1205

0.064713

367.9935

12511.25

-0.00287

-0.00096

0.000851

-6183.8

18695.04922

1251

0.065555

381.6082

12974.13

-0.00203

-0.00068

0.000842

-5596.79

18570.92693

1297

0.066406

395.3737

13442.14

-0.00119

-0.0004

0.000842

-5009.79

18451.93231

1344

0.067231

409.3187

13916.25

-0.00034

-0.00011

0.000842

-4422.79

18339.03804

1391

0.068043

423.4503

14396.71

0.00051

0.00017

0.000855

-3826.75

18223.45836

1439

0.068881

438.0917

14894.49

0.00137

0.000457

0.000859

-3227.71

18122.20272

1489

0.06971

452.4459

15382.51

0.002225

0.000742

0.000855

-2631.68

18014.19063

1538

0.070556

467.3889

15890.55

0.003071

0.001024

0.000846

-2041.66

17932.21702

158

0.071416

481.8938

16383.7

0.003905

0.001302

0.000833

-1460.68

17844.38032

1638

0.072271

496.8942

16893.69

0.004738

0.001579

0.000833

-879.699

17773.39227

1689

0.073143

511.6935

17396.85

0.005559

0.001853

0.000821

-307.745

17704.5939

1739

0.073977

527.0312

17918.31

0.006383

0.002128

0.000825

267.2159

17651.09198

1791

0.074819

543.1445

18466.14

0.00723

0.00241

0.000846

857.2328

17608.90358

1846

0.075656

559.2936

19015.18

0.008085

0.002695

0.000855

1453.264

17561.91887

1901

25

0.076499

575.1268

19553.49

0.008931

0.002977

0.000846

2043.276

17510.21299

0.077388
0.078248
0.079107

623.3082

0.079949

639.1485

0.080804

655.0245

22269.9

0.081646

671.3386

0.082475

687.7388

0.083343

1955

591.4985

20110.1

0.00976

0.003253

0.000829

2621.244

17488.85949

201

607.3747

20649.87

0.01059

0.00353

0.000829

3199.22

17450.65247

2064

21191.59

0.011414

0.003805

0.000825

3774.182

17417.4075

2119

21730.14

0.012235

0.004078

0.000821

4346.139

17383.99686

2173

0.013068

0.004356

0.000833

4927.11

17342.78684

2226

22824.55

0.013911

0.004637

0.000842

5514.124

17310.43075

2282

23382.14

0.014748

0.004916

0.000838

6098.112

17284.0237

2338

705.2878

23978.78

0.015603

0.005201

0.000855

6694.147

17284.63075

2397

0.084194

722.9517

24579.33

0.016467

0.005489

0.000864

7296.203

17283.12338

2457

0.085045

740.5222

25176.7

0.017314

0.005771

0.000846

7886.215

17290.48338

2517

0.0859

759.2056

25811.91

0.018169

0.006056

0.000855

8482.242

17329.66553

2581

0.086742

776.2877

26392.67

0.019011

0.006337

0.000842

9069.256

17323.41846

2639

0.087576

794.5475

27013.48

0.019836

0.006612

0.000825

9644.217

17369.26338

2701

0.088413

812.1249

27611.09

0.020682

0.006894

0.000846

10234.23

17376.85787

2761

0.089286

829.9394

28216.75

0.021533

0.007178

0.000851

10827.25

17389.50322

2821

0.090162

848.199

28837.55

0.022396

0.007465

0.000864

11429.31

17408.24618

2883

0.091009

866.1498

29447.86

0.023256

0.007752

0.000859

12028.35

17419.50339

2944

0.091855

884.5456

30073.29

0.024111

0.008037

0.000855

12624.39

17448.90114

3007

0.092693

901.9291

30664.3

0.024962

0.008321

0.000851

13217.41

17446.89208

3066

0.093527

920.2459

31287.05

0.025787

0.008596

0.000825

13792.37

17494.67594

3128

0.094364

938.735

31915.65

0.026616

0.008872

0.000829

14370.34

17545.30482

3191

0.095198

957.6693

32559.39

0.027475

0.009158

0.000859

14969.38

17590.00682

325

0.09604

977.2856

33226.31

0.028334

0.009445

0.000859

15568.43

17657.87972

3322

0.096878

996.3203

33873.47

0.029198

0.009733

0.000864

16170.48

17702.98435

3387

0.097685

1015.326

34519.63

0.03004

0.010013

0.000842

16757.49

17762.14287

3451

0.098532

1034.483

35170.95

0.030887

0.010296

0.000846

17347.5

17823.44322

3517

0.099395

1052.943

35798.56

0.03172

0.010573

0.000833

17928.48

17870.07785

3579

0.100255

1072.207

36453.51

0.032558

0.010853

0.000838

18512.48

17941.03253

3645

0.101097

1090.373

37071.13

0.033422

0.011141

0.000864

19114.53

17956.59565

3707

0.101926

1109.809

37731.92

0.034277

0.011426

0.000855

19710.56

18021.35532

377

0.102751

1128.456

38365.89

0.035136

0.011712

0.000859

20309.61

18056.28407

3836

0.10361

1147.856

39025.46

0.035974

0.011991

0.000838

20893.6

18131.86313

3902

0.104483

1166.833

39670.66

0.036812

0.012271

0.000838

21477.6

18193.06065

396

0.105338

1185.48

40304.63

0.037637

0.012546

0.000825

22052.56

18252.07007

4030

0.10618

1204.148

40939.31

0.038444

0.012815

0.000808

22615.48

18323.82924

4093

0.107018

1183.326

40231.4

0.038898

0.012966

0.000453

22931.55

17299.84111

4093

0.107851

1318.46

44825.76

0.042875

0.014292

0.003977

25704.02

19121.73372

4482

0.108693

1514.612

51494.65

0.051041

0.017014

0.008166

31396.44

20098.20805

5149

0.109561

1688.718

57414

0.059432

0.019811

0.008391

37245.4

20168.6002

5741

0.110446

1821.969

61944.34

0.067823

0.022608

0.008391

43094.35

18849.99174

6194

0.111297

1875.578

63766.97

0.076218

0.025406

0.008395

48946.33

14820.64749

6376

0.112152

1883.661

64041.78

0.084773

0.028258

0.008555

54909.67

9132.114984

6404

0.112999

1881.314

63961.99

0.093419

0.03114

0.008646

60936.23

3025.755178

6404

0.113828

1876.051

63783.06

0.102073

0.034024

0.008654

66968.86

-3185.801649

6404

0.115521

1869.669

63566.07

0.110629

0.036876

0.008555

72932.2

-9366.121292

6404

0.117244

1862.446

63320.51

0.119067

0.039689

0.008438

78814.26

-15493.74949

6404

0.11895

1854.528

63051.3

0.127479

0.042493

0.008413

84678.26

-21626.96059

6404

0.121437

1845.539

62745.69

0.135896

0.045299

0.008417

90545.27

-27799.57818

6404

0.123955

1835.265

62396.39

0.14446

0.048153

0.008564

96514.67

-34118.27583

6404

26

0.12652

1823.67

62002.18

0.153127

0.051042

0.008667

102556.3

-40554.09741

6404

0.129068
0.131625

1810.826

61565.5

0.161777

1797.588

61115.43

0.170289

0.053926

0.00865

108585.8

-47020.33512

6404

0.056763

0.008512

114519.1

-53403.63045

0.133352

1783.695

60643.08

6404

0.178732

0.059577

0.008443

120404.2

-59761.10412

0.135861

1768.949

6404

60141.74

0.187174

0.062391

0.008443

126289.2

-66147.50264

0.137593

6404

1753.068

59601.81

0.195626

0.065209

0.008451

132180.4

-72578.55587

6404

0.139299

1734.896

58983.99

0.204181

0.06806

0.008555

138143.7

-79159.71067

6404

0.14179

1714.657

58295.89

0.212835

0.070945

0.008654

144176.2

-85880.35992

6404

0.143505

1691.245

57499.91

0.221494

0.073831

0.008659

150211.9

-92711.9603

6404

0.145215

1664.494

56590.42

0.230032

0.076677

0.008538

156163.1

-99572.72886

6404

0.147715

1633.112

55523.48

0.238474

0.079491

0.008443

162048.3

-106524.7999

6404

0.150229

1594.629

54215.11

0.246909

0.082303

0.008434

167927.3

-113712.2313

6404

0.151939

1545.42

52542.07

0.255334

0.085111

0.008425

173800.4

-121258.326

6404

0.153658

1478.412

50263.9

0.263906

0.087969

0.008572

179775.7

-129511.8445

6404

0.155364

1375.712

46772.24

0.272578

0.090859

0.008672

185820.3

-139048.0968

6404

0.157894

873.6819

29703.94

0.281332

0.093777

0.008754

191922.2

-162218.2587

6404

Table 4 Sample Data for Steel specimen.

27

Appendix E
Sample Calculations
Modulus of elasticity and proportional limit calculations:
The modulus of elasticity E is equal to the slope of the linear section of the stress-strain
curve, with the y-axis representing stress and the x-axis representing strain. The first and
last points of the linear section were determined by identifying where l experienced
significant changes. A linear regression was performed on the points in the linear
selection, and E is equal to its slope, which is approximately 1.89 x 106 psi. The stress of
the last point of the linear section is the proportional limit.
Yield strength calculation:
The yield strength is equal to the stress at which a line parallel to the linear section and
intersecting the point representing a stress of 0 and strain of 0.002 (0.2 %) intersects the
stress-strain curve. The formula of this line was determined by initially using the pointslope form for a line with slope E and point (0.002, 0)
y 0 = 1.89 x 106(x 0.002)
which simplifies to
y = 1.89 x 106x + 1.89 x 106*0.002
All strain values in the data set were entered into this formula, generating the yield
strength line. It was then determined between which two points in the original data set
the yield strength line intersected. Linear interpolation was then used to approximate the
yield strength of 46275 psi.
Elastic limit calculation:
The elastic limit of 45363 psi was approximated by finding the average of the yield
strength and the proportional limit.
Ultimate strength calculation:
The ultimate strength of 48851 psi is the highest stress in the data set.
Fracture point calculation:
The fracture point of 37215 psi is the final stress in the data set.

28

29