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factors responsible for appreciation or depreciation of a currency:


The value of currency in any country rarely stays constant. Currency values usually continuously
fluctuate. These fluctuations can be large or small depending on the current economic and political state
of the country. Though the appreciation or depreciation of a currency occurs for a number of different
reasons, some of the most common reasons are supply and demand, inflation and economic outlook.

Supply and Demand: Just as with goods and services, the principles of supply and demand apply
to the appreciation and depreciation of currency values. If a country injects new currency into its
economy, it increases the money supply. When there is more money circulating in an economy, there
is less demand. This depreciates the value of the currency. When there is a high domestic or foreign
demand for a countrys currency, the currency appreciates in value.
Inflation and Deflation: Inflation occurs when the general prices of goods and services in a country
increase. Inflation causes the value of the dollar to depreciate, reducing purchasing power.
Deflation occurs when the general prices of goods and services go down. Deflation increases the
purchasing power of money and causes its value to appreciate. Deflation generally occurs at times
when an economy is experiencing slow or no economic growth. During times of deflation,
businesses must continually decrease the prices of their goods and services to find buyers. This
results in the business's earning less revenue, making it necessary to reduce output to cut
production costs. A reduction in output then leads to job lay-offs and can eventually cause business
and plant closures. This results in massive unemployment and a further weakening of the economy.
Economists do not consider deflation a positive economic occurrence.
Economic Outlook: If a countrys economy is in a slow growth or recessionary phase, the value of
their currency depreciates. The value of a countrys currency also depreciates if its major
economic indicators like retail sales and Gross Domestic Product, or GDP, are declining. A
high and/or rising unemployment rate can also depreciate currency value because it indicates
an economic slowdown. If a countrys economy is in a strong growth period, the value of their
currency appreciates. Appreciation also occurs when major economic indicators like GDP and
retail sales are on the rise.
Trade Deficits: A trade deficit occurs when the value of goods a country imports is more than
the value of goods it exports. When the trade deficit of a country increases, the value of the
domestic currency depreciates against the value of the currency of its trading partners. When
the trade deficit of a country decreases, but the country remains in a deficit, the value of its
domestic currency appreciates against the value of the currency of its trading partners.