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GENERAL PROCEDURE FOR ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION

1. Scope
This procedure describes the requirements for the ultrasonic
examination of full penetration welds and raw materials. For details
of search units, sizes, frequencies, mode of wave prorogation,
number of scanning/scanning directions etc. refer to attached
ultrasonic examination plans

2. Responsible Persons
For operation - UT Level I
For Evaluation UT Level - II

3. Applications
The principle objective of the technique described herein is the
detection, location and evaluation of defects within the weld, heat
effected zone and adjacent base material. The welds shall be
examined by an angle beam method wherever practical. All welds
shall be examined from both the sides of the welds form a single
surface or a combination of surfaces so that the full volume of the
weld is covered. Where geometry of the assembly does not allow
examination form both sides, one of the alternative of a), b) and c)
may be used.
a) Combination of angle beam and straight beam.
b) Straight beam in two direction at 90 Deg. To each other.
c) No. of angle probes to be used as appropriate for the
configuration being examined.
The scanning shall be by contact method using manual, semi
automatic or automatic mechanism and recording may be carried
out using automatic alarm and recording system or by manual
method. Special wedges, shoes or saddles may be used as and
when needed depending on the scanning surface/curvature of
scanning surface and scanning techniques used.
Post examination cleaning of the test surface shall be carried out
as and when it is necessary.

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4. Equipment
4.1 Apparatus: Krautkramer USK 6 / USK 7/EEC make EX10 or
equivalent
4.2 Probes: Longitudinal wave straight beam probe. Transverse
wave angle beam probe. Longitudinal wave angle beam probe.
4.3 Couplant: Grease, oil, water or any other similar material, which
permits satisfactory transmission ultrasonic waves.
Basic calibration block: The basic calibration block shall
be1.6 mm diameter hole, at T,5/4T,7/4T depth along with
1.6mm notches at top & bottom side.

5. TEST SURFACE PREPRATION


5.1 Base Metal: The base metal on each side of weld shall be free of
weld spatters, surface irregularities or foreign matters that might
interfere with the examination.
5.2 Weld Metal: Where the weld surface interferes with the
examination, the weld shall be prepared as per the requirement
of the job.

6. CALIBRATION
6.1 Frequency: The nominal frequency shall be 4MHz unless
variable such as material grain structure requires the use other
frequencies to ensure adequate penetration, better resolution.

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6.2 Angle Beam Method


6.2.1 BEAM ANGLE
An angle shall be selected as appropriate for the configuration
being examined.
6.2.2 DISTANCE AMPLITUDE CORRECTION (DAC)
a) Position the search unit for maximum response from 1.6 mm
diameter hole, at T depth
Which gives the highest amplitude.
b) Adjust the sensitivity control to provide an 80% of FSH from
the1.6 mm diameter hole, at T depth
Mark the peak of the indication on the screen.
c) Position the search unit for maximum response from another
hole at 5/4T , 7/4T depth Mark the peak of the indication
on the screen.
d) Position the search unit for maximum response from the hole
at depth and mark the peak of the indication on the screen.
e) Connect the screen marks to provide a distance amplitude
curve.
6.2.3 CALIBRATION CORRECTION FOR PLANER FOR
REFLECTORS PERENDICULAR TO THE EXAMINATION
SURFACE AT OR NEAR THE OPPOSITE SURFACE
Position the search unit for maximum amplitude from the
square notch
on the opposite surface. X mark the peak of the indication on
the screen.
6.3 STRAIGHT BEAM METHOD
a) Position for maximum response from the back wall which give
maximum response
b) Adjust the sensitivity control to provide an 80% FSH from the
hole Mark the peak on the screen.

-47. SCANNING
7.1 STRAIGHT BEAM.
7.1.1 The scanning of adjacent base material shall be performed to
detect reflectors that might affect interpretation of angle beam
results and is not to be used for acceptance or rejection of the
weld. Location and areas of such reflectors shall be recorded.
7.1.2 Whenever straight beam examination is part of weld testing.
The scanning shall be performed at a gain setting of at least
two times the primary reference levels.

7.2 ANGLE BEAM


7.2.1 SCANNING FOR REFLECTORS ORIENTED PARALLEL TO
THE WELD.
The angle beam shall be directed approximately at right angles
to the weld axis from two directions where possible. The search
unit shall be manipulated so that the ultrasonic energy passes
through the required volumes of the welds and adjacent base
metal. The Scanning shall be performed at a gain setting of at
least two times the primary reference level ( i.e. at + 6 dB ).
Evaluation shall be performed with respect to the primary
reference level.

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7.2.2 SCANNING FOR REFLECTORS ORIENTED TRANSVERSE


TO THE WELD.
The angle beam shall be directed essentially parallel to the
weld axis. The search unit shall be manipulated so that the
angle beam passes through the required volumes of the weld
and the adjacent weld metal. The scanning shall be performed
at a gain setting at least two times the primary reference level.
The search unit shall be rotated 180 0 and the examination shall
be repeated.
8. EVALUATION :
Any imperfection that causes an indication in excess of 20% of
DAC shall be investigated to the extent that it can be evaluated
in terms of acceptance or rejection standards.
9.0 ACCEPTANCE / REJECTION STANDARDS.
Acceptance / rejection of weld material shall be as per
AWSD 1.1 Acceptance Criteria A & Acceptance Criteria C
(Specification API RP 2X will be taken as guideline) See the
attachment Fig 8C.
10 EXAMINATION OF REPAIRS
All repaired areas shall be re examined by the same procedure
as used for the original detection of the discontinuity.
11. REPORT OF EXAMINATION
A report of the examination shall be made containing weld details
technique followed. Settings used and all reflections from
uncorrected areas having responses which exceeds 50% of the
reference level.

12. GENERAL NOTES


a) Hole shall be drilled and reamed a minimum of 1 or in. deep
essentially parallel to the examination surface.
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b) Alternatively a block may be constructed as shown in fig. T441.1

c) For curved surfaces, two curved blocks, one for each


representational curvature, or two sets of calibration reflectors
oriented 90 0 from each other shall be used.
d) Notches may be provided as required.
e) The tolerance for hole diameter shall be within 1/32 . The
tolerance on notch depth shall be +10 and 20%. The
tolerance on hole location through thickness shall be with in
1/8 .
f) Surface finish of the block shall be representative of the
surface finish on the components
g) The basic calibration block shall be curved for materials of
diameters 20 in. (508 mm) and less.