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Hhe Sbolution BY FLORENCE MARY GARDINER Author of ^'"Furnishings and Fittings for Every Home" ^^
Hhe
Sbolution
BY
FLORENCE
MARY
GARDINER
Author
of ^'"Furnishings and
Fittings for Every
Home"
^^ About
Gipsies,"
SIR
ROBERT
BRUCE
COTTON.
THE
COTTON
PRESS,
Granvii^le
House,
Arundel
Street,
VV-C-

of ifashion

TO FRANCES EVELYN, Countess Warwick, of interest in all movements and kindly whose enthusiastic women
TO
FRANCES
EVELYN,
Countess
Warwick,
of
interest
in
all
movements
and
kindly
whose
enthusiastic
women
is
unsurpassed,
calculated
to
benefit
This
Volume,
is
dedicated,
by
special
respectfully
permission,
BY
THE
AUTHOR.
in
the
year
of
Jubilee,
Her
Majesty
Queen
Victoria's
Diamond
1897.
I I I
I
I
I
PREFACE. T N compiling this volume Costume (portions of which originally appeared on in the
PREFACE.
T
N
compiling
this
volume
Costume
(portions
of
which
originally
appeared
on
in
the
Lndgate
Ilhistrated
Magazine,
under
the
editorship
of
Mr.
A.
J.
Bowden),
I
desire
acknowledge
the
valuable
assistance
I
have
to
received
from
usually
available
the
public
also
indebtedness
not
to
to
the
following
sources
;
my
authors,
from
whose
works
I
have
quoted
Mr.
Beck,
Mr.
R.
Davey,
Mr.
E.
:"
Rimmel,
Mr.
Knight,
and
the
late
Mr.
J.
R.
Planchd.
I
also
take
this
opportunity
of
thanking
Messrs,
Liberty
and
Co.,
Messrs.
Jay,
Messrs.
E.
R,
Garrould,
Messrs.
Walery,
Mr.
Box,
and
others,
who
have
offered
special
me
facilities
for
consulting
drawings,
engravings,
"c.,
in
their
possession,
of
many
which
they
have
courteously
allowed
the
to
reproduce,
by
aid
of
Miss
me
Juh'et
Hensman,
and
other
artists.
The
book
lays
claim
to
being
technical
treatise
subject
which
no
a
on
a
is practically
inexhaustible,
but
has
been
written
with
the
intention
of bringing
before
the
general
public
in
popular
circumstances
which
have
influenced
a
manner
in
marked
degree
the
wearing
apparel
of
the
British
Nation.
a
FLORENCE
MARY
GARDINER.
West
Kensington,
iS^y.
CONTENTS. PAGE. CHAPTER. 3 I. The Dress, 1897 b.c. 594" a.d. ^5 Headgear II. Curious
CONTENTS.
PAGE.
CHAPTER.
3
I.
The
Dress,
1897
b.c.
594"
a.d.
^5
Headgear
II.
Curious
25
III.
Gloves
Footgear
31
IV.
Curious
Costume
39
V.
Bridal
VI.
Mourning
5i
61
Masculine
Costume
VII.
Eccentricities
of
Clothing
A
Chat
Children
VIII.
71
about
and
their
IX.
Fancy
Costume
Various
Periods
79
of
X.
Stage
Floral
Costume
89
and
Chapter I. THE DRESS, 189;. b.c. 594 a.d. "
Chapter
I.
THE
DRESS,
189;.
b.c.
594
a.d.
"
THE EVOLUTION OF FASHION Chapter I. THE DRESS, 1897. b.c. 594" a.d. " Fashions that
THE
EVOLUTION
OF
FASHION
Chapter
I.
THE
DRESS,
1897.
b.c.
594"
a.d.
" Fashions
that are
called new
fibres, while furs and skins are essential
now
Have
been
than you
worn
by more
;
table
articles of dress
in Northern
latitudes.
Per-haps
Elder
times have
used
the same,
the earliest
specimen
of
modiste's bill
a
Though these new
get the name."
ones
in existence
has
recently
been
found
on
a
Aliddleton's '^ Mayor of Quinborough."
chalk tablet
at
Nippur,
in Chaldea.
The
hieroglyphics record
ninety-two robes and
\
HARD
fate
has
condemned
human
tunics : fourteen
of
these
perfumed
were
xx beings to
enter
without any
sphere
natural covering, like that
this mortal
cassia.
The
with myrrh, aloes and
date
of
this curious antique cannot
be less than
two
possessed by the
lower
animals
to protect
thousand
eight hundred
before
the
years
them
from
the
extremes
of heat
and
cold.
Christian era.
In
ancient times
it must
be
Had
this been
otherwise, countless myriads,
remembered
that the principalseats of civili-sation
for untold
have
escaped the
ages, would
Assyria and
were
Egypt, and
upon
tyrannical sway of the goddess Fashion, and
these
countries
Western
nations depended
the French proveib, il faut souffrirpour ctre
of the luxuries
of life.
The
Jews
for many
belle, need never
have been written.
derived
their
fine fabrics from
the latter
The
costume
of our progenitorswas chiefly
remarkable
for
its extreme
simplicity;and,
far as
gather, no difference in
as
we
can
design was made
between
A
few
the sexes.
leaves entwined
by the stalks,the feathers of
birds, the bark
of trees, or
roughly dressed
skins of animals
probably regarded by
were
beaux
and
belles
of the
Adamite
period as
beautiful and appropriate adornments
for the
body, and were
followed
made
by garments
from plaited grass, which was doubtless
the origin of weaving, a process
which
is
nothing more
than the mechanical
plaiting
of hair, wool, flax, "c.
In
remote
many
districts these primitive fashions still prevail,
for
example, in Madras,
where, at
as,
an
annual religiousceremony,
it is customary
for the
low
caste
natives to exchange for a
short period their usual attire for an apron of
leaves.
In the Brazilian forests the lecythis,
" shirt tree," is to
be
found, from
which
or
the people roll off the bark in short
lengths,
and, after making it pliable in water, cut two
slits for the arm-holes
and
for the neck,
one
when
their dress is complete and ready for
The
North
American
use.
Indian employs
of the toilet,and many
feathers for purposes
African tribes are noted for their deftly-woven
fabrics composed
of
and
grass
EARLY
KGVrriAN.
other vege-
1:
2
FASHION. THE EVOLUTION OF is shown in rian costume p"lace, which was particu-larly double pendent,
FASHION.
THE
EVOLUTION
OF
is shown
in
rian costume
p"lace, which was
particu-larly
double
pendent,
noted
for
its linen
rows,
one
while the other stands
out
manufactures
and for mag-nificent
in a horizontal direction.
embroideries, of
The
early Greek
dress,
which
the accompanying
illustration will give some
chiton, was
or
a
very
simple contrivance, reach-ing
idea. Medes
and Baby-lonians,
?V--
to
the
feet.
If
of the highestclass,
partiallyarrayed themselves
un-
the
girdled, itwould trail on
ground; but generally it was
in silk, which cost its weight
in gold, and about the time
drawn through the
waistbelt in such a
zone
or
of Ezekiel (b.c,594) it is
manner
been used
that it was
double
known
to have
to
the ex-tent
in the dress of the Persians.
It is a remarkable
circum-stance
of about thirty inches
the vital organs of the
over
body. The great distinction
that this animal pro-duct
between male and female
brought to the
was
West manufactured in cloth,
dress consisted in the length
of
the
skirt.
The
trim-mings
which
only half silk ;
was
and
it is said the plan was
were
devised
of unravelling the
of embroidery,
diapers,figure bands
woven
with chariots and
horses ;
stuff, which
was
rewoven
into
cloth
of
entire silk.
and, in some
cases, glass
Owing to its high price, the
and
thin metal
ornaments
Romans
forbade its being
plates were applied.Among
used for the entire dress by
the working classes
the
home-spun,
men, complete robes of silk
being reserved for women.
chiton was, of course,
GREEK,
or of leather.
It is numbered
the
The stola was
the Roman
among
luxuries
of
equivalent for the
nine-teenth
extravagant
Heliogabalus that he was
robe
century
or
the first man
who
and
wore
a
gown,
in many
respects
the
resembled the Greek chiton.
silken garment,
and
anecdote
is well known
of
The fabrics employed were
the Emperor Aurelian, who
refused,on the ground of
wool and
linen up
the
to
end of the Republic,though
at a later date, as
has al-ready
its extravagant cost, a silk
dress which
his
consort
been stated, silk was
earnestly desired to possess.
imported. Colour, under
Monuments
still in
the Emperors, was
largely
ex-istence
show
that
the
used, and at least thirteen
Egyptians, owing to the
shades of the dye obtained
warmth
of their climate,
from
the
which
murex,
were
partial to garments of
a semi-transparent charac-ter,
passed under the general
of purple, could be
name
while those living on
of both
in the costume
seen
the banks of the Tigris, who
sexes.
subjected to greater
When
the Roman
Em-pire
were
extremes
of temperature,
was dismembered
(a.d.
wore
clothing of similar
design, but of wool, with
395) a
style of dress seems
to have
heavy fringes of the same
as a trimming. In some
which was
similar
this feature of
Assy-
in mediaeval
cases
to
that worn
ROMAN.

flourished in the im-portant towns of the Medi-terranean,

THE EVOLUTION OF FASHION. broidered times in Britain, and which may the coronation be examined
THE
EVOLUTION
OF
FASHION.
broidered
times in Britain, and which may
the
coronation
be examined in the specimens
mantle of herhusband, Edward
of
statuary adorning tombs of
the Confessor.
the twelfth and thirteenth cen-turies.
For
after the
some
years
The semi-tight under-
Norman
Conquest, women
dress and
sleeves appear
to
retained
the costume
of
the
have
been
elaborately em-broidered,
Anglo-Saxon period, with cer-tain
and
the
loose
additions
and
modifica-tions.
mantle of plain material was
Fine coloured cloths
edged with a border.
and richest furs were
used by
both
One of the earliest descrip-tions
sleeves and
sexes, and
of the
female
dress in
trains
were
such a length that
Britain is that
of Boadicea,
it was
found necessary to knot
the Queen of the Iceni, whom
them, so that they should not
told wore
we
are
a tunic woven
trail upon the ground.
chequerwise in purple,red,
The next importantchange
and blue.
Over
this was
the
surcoat
and
was
tight
a
the
bodice, which was
fastened in
shorter garment open
on
bosom,
and leaving the arms
front to fitthe figure.
bare.
Her yellow hair flowed
There
evident
are
traces
her
shoulders, upon
that
civilisation advanced
over
as
which rested an
ample cloak,
the love
of dress
and
the
secured by a fibula(brooch).
desire of the fair sex
to appear
beautiful in the
all
A torque,
necklet, was
of
or
pair of bronze
also worn;
a
breastplates as a protection
From
ancient MSS,
from
the Roman
and
other
have
arrows, and
sources,
we
BYZANTINE.
her fingers and
arms
ample proof of this. St. Jerome
were
covered with rings and brace-lets.
calls women
" philoscomon"
that is to say, lovers of finery,
The
costume
of the Anglo-
and
another
writer
states:
Saxon
ladies consisted
of
" One
of
the
most difificult
a
sherie,or camise, of linen next
the skin, a kirtle, which
points to manage
with women
is to
root
out
their curiosity
resembled
the modern
petti-coat,
for clothes and ornaments
for
and
the
body."
St,
Bernard
a
gunna,
or
gown,
with sleeves.
Out
of doors
admonished
his
sister with
a
mantle covered
than polite-ness
the upper por-tion
greater candour
of the body, and with the
on her visitinghim, well
coverchief,or head rail, formed
arraied with riche clothinge,
a characteristic feature of the
with
pedes
and
precious
dress of the day. Cloth, silk,
" Such
and
stones
:
pompe
and linen were
the favourite
pride to adorne
a carion
is
as
materials for clothing, and
youre body. Thinke
not
ye
red, blue, yellow, and green
of
the
pore people, that be
the fashionable colours. Very
deyen for hunger and colde;
little black and
white
and
were
that for the sixth parte of
used
at this period. Saxon
youre gay arraye, forty persons
renowned
for
might be clothed, refreshed,
women
were
their skill with the needle, and
and kepte from the colde?"
used largequantities of gold
The increased
facilities for
thread
and
jewels in their
travelling offered to those
work. Among
other instances
engaged in the Crusades, and
quoted, Queen
Editha
intercourse with
em-
the necessary
.\NGLO-SAXON.

eyes beholders increased in like pro-portion.

EVOLUTION OF FASHION. THE marks permitted to wear silver cloth, other nations, caused considerable quantities
EVOLUTION
OF
FASHION.
THE
marks
permitted to wear
silver cloth,
other nations, caused considerable
quantities 200
were
with ribands, girdles, "c., reasonably embel-lished;
of foreign materials to be imported to Eng-land
also woollen
cloth not costing more
Ages: and
this had
during the Middle
of
than six marks
the piece.
a corresponding effect upon the costume
The tight forms of dress
in
now
common
incentive to tight
an
use
were
among
women
lacing, an injuriouspractice, from which their
suffer. A lady is described
descendants
" Clad in purplepall,
With
gentyll body and middle small,"
and another
damsel, whose splendidgirdle of
beaten gold was
embellished
with emeralds
and rubies,evidently, from the description,
had
a waist which
the size intended
was
not
by Nature.
of the
Roses
both trade
During the Wars
made
after
and costume
little progress, and
the union
of the Houses
of York
and
Lan-caster
by the marriage of Henry VII.
with
his Queen, Elizabeth, their attention was
chiefly concerned in filling their impoverished
I2TH
CENTURY.
chiefly remarkable
for
the period, which was
its richness and eccentricity of form. Among
the materials
in
be
mentioned
use
may
diaper cloth from Ypres, a town in Flanders,
famous
for its rich dress stuffs;tartan, called
by the French " tyretaine,"meaning teint,or
colour of Tyre (scarletbeing indifferently
used
for
purple by ancient
writers, and
including all the gradations of colour formed
by a
to crimson). There was
mixture
of blue
and
red, from indigo
a fine white woollen
cloth called Blanket, named after its inventor.
Sarcenet, also from its Saracenic origin, and
which
made
at Gaza
in Palestine.
gauze
was
Ermine was strictly confined to the use
of
the
Royal Family and
nobles, and
14TH
CENTURY.
cloth of gold, and habits embroidered
with
other
coffers, which left them little opportunity for
jewellery, or lined with minever
or
expensivefur, could only be worn
by knights
promoting new
fashions
in dress.
Henry
and ladies with incomes exceeding400 marks
VIII. afforded ample facilitiesfor the revival
Those
who
of the trade in dress goods, and there is little
per annum.
had not
than
more
THE EVOLUTION OF FASHIOA. difficulty in tracing female costume of the "She robed in cloth
THE
EVOLUTION
OF
FASHIOA.
difficulty in tracing female costume
of
the
"She
robed
in
cloth of
was
gold, with
a
sixteenth century when we remember
that in
' (petticoat) of brocade, the sleeves
' saya
lined
with crimson
satin and trimmed
with
the course of thirty-eight years he married
six wives, besides having them painted times
three piled crimson
velvet.
Her
train was
than
two
more
dress were
yards long"
often bequeathed by will.
Articles of
In
one made on the [4th of August, 1540,
William Cherington, yeoman, of Waterbeche,
leaves " To my mother 7ny holyday gowne.'"
Nicholas, Dyer of Feversham, 29th October,
"To
my sister, Alice Bichendyke,
1540,
thirteen shillings and ninepence 7vhkh she
owed
and
two
kerchiefs
of holland."
me,
John Holder, rector of Gamlingay, in 1544
leaves
to
Jane Greene
clothe frock
" my
lined with
entries
satin cypress." These
from
wills in the Ely Registry.
are
A peculiar feature in the costume
of both
sleeves distinct from
the
sexes
was
gown,
but attached
(so as
to be changed at plea-sure)
to the waistcoat.
Among
the inven-
I 6th
century.
Fro7n Portrait of Mary
Queen of Scots,
without number
by all the popular artists of
the day.
J. R. Planch^
in his
Costume," says: "The
" History of British
of the nobility
gowns
magnificent, and at this period were
were
open in front to the waist,showing the kirtle,
Avhat we
inner garment,
should call the
or
as
petticoat was then termed." Anne of Cleves,
who found so littlefavour in Henry's eyes, is
said to have
at their first interview
"
worn
a
of cloth
of gold made
round,
rich gowne
without any train, after the Dutch fashion;"
and
in a wardrobe
account
of the eighthyear
of this Bluebeard's reign appears
the follow-ing
item: "Seven yards of purple cloth of
17TH
CENTURY.
damask
kirtle for Queen
Cathe-
The dress of Catherine
tories we
rme
gold for a
of Arragon."
find three pairs of purple satin
Parr
is thus described
by Pedro
de Gante,
sleeves for women,
pair of linen sleeves
one
secretary to the Spanish Duke
who visited Henry VHI.
de Najera,
paned with gold over
the arm, quilted with
in
black silk and
wrought with flowers; one
1543-1544:
8 THE EVOLUTION OF FASHION. pair of sleeves of purple gold tissue damask costume of
8
THE
EVOLUTION
OF
FASHION.
pair of sleeves of purple gold tissue damask
costume
of Britain more
picturesque than in
wire, each one
tied with aglets of gold ; one
the middle
of the seventeenth
century, and
pair of crimson
satin sleeves, four buttons
naturally turn
to its great delineators
we
of gold being set
each, and
Velasquez, Van
Dyck, Rembrandt,
and
on
in every
button nine pearls.
Rubens, who delighted in giving us such fine
We
all familiar with
the distended
examples of their work
Women
are
had grown
skirts,jewelled stomachers
and
tired of the unwieldy fardingale, and changed
enormous
ruffs which adorned
the virgin form of Good
it for graceful gowns
with flowing skirts and
Queen
Bess.
In
the middle
of her reign
low bodices, finished with deep vandyked
the body was imprisoned in whalebone, and
collars of lace or embroidery.
the fardingale, the prototype of the modern
A studied negligence, an
elegant deshabille
hoop, was
introduced, as it was
not
to
be
prevailed in the Stuart Court, particularly
supposed
after the Restora-tion.
that
lady
Charles II. "s
a
who
is said
bevy of beauties
to have
left
similarly at-tired,
are
""%
three
thou-sand
dresses
and the pic-tures
in Hampton
in her ward-robe
Court
show
us
would
whose
women
remain
necks
and
snowy
faithful to the fashions
are no longer
arms
of her grandmother;
veiled, and
whose
and Elizabeth's love
of rich satin,
gowns
of dress permeated
with
voluminous
all classes of society.
trains,are piled up
The
portrait of
Mary Queen of Scots,
in the background.
Engravings and
who
considered
was
drawings
which
be
in
an
may
seen
matters
authority on
of the toilet,
and
whose
taste
for
window
make
elegance of apparel
special
i11 u
s-
had
been
cultivated
trations
of
this
to
high degree
a
period
unneces-sary.
during her residence
at the PYench Court
Dutch
fashions
is given. There is a
to
have
appear
subtlety and charm
followed
in
the
about
it which
is
wake
of William
wanting in the
cos-tume
and
Mary,
Sto-machers
I 8th
I9TH
CENTURY,
century.
of
her
cousin
and tight
BALL
DRESS,
1809,
WALKING
COSTUME.
Elizabeth, and it may
sleeves were
once
he considered
a fair type
of what
in favour, and
fabrics
of a
rich
and
was
worn
more
by a gentlewoman of
that period. The
full
substantial character were
employed in pre-ference
to
skirt appears
folds, and
the
the
softer makes
to
of silk, which
fall in easy
basqued bodice, with tightsleeves, is closely
lent itself so well to the soft flowing hnes of
moulded
to the figure and surmounted
by an
the previous era.
elaborately-constructedruff of muslin
and
An intelligent
writer has remarked
" that
lace.
Fashion
from
the time of George
I. has been
To the great regret of antiquarians, the
such a varyinggoddess that neither history,
wardrobes
of
our
ancient kings, formerly
tradition,nor
painting has been able to pre-serve
kept at the Tower, were
by
the
order
of
all
her
mimic
forms; like Proteus
James I. distributed.
At no period was
the
struggling in
of Telemachus, on th^
the arms

every printseller's

THE EVOLUTION OF FASHION. Phanaic coast, she passed from shape to shape with the rapidity
THE
EVOLUTION
OF
FASHION.
Phanaic
coast, she passed from
shape to
shape with
the
rapidity of thought." In
wide and generally flounced to the top. The
the hoop had increased
sides
at
the
bodice terminated
with
1745
at
the
waist
belt;
a
and
diminished
in front, and
a pamphlet
but in some
cases
a Garibaldi,or loose bodice
of different texture,
substituted. The
was
change to
garment the " polonaise," which was
be
noted
that hideous
next
was
a revival
of, and constructed
similar lines to, the
on
froc " of the Middle
Ages. For
" super
many
years Englishladies, with a supreme
disregard
for the appropriate, wore
this with
skirt
a
belonging to an entirely different costume.
But at last people got nauseated
with these
abominations, and under the gentle sway and
influence of " Our
Princess " a prettier,more
useful and rational costume
appeared. In
1876 the graceful Princess
dress, which
accentuated every good point in the figure,
was generally worn
; and
though this costume
in the
latter part of its career
fiercely
was
abused
by
the
rotund
matron
and
Mrs.
I9TH
CENTURY.
TEA
DRESS,
1830.
"
was published in that year entitled "The enor-
mousabomination of the hoop petticoat,as the
fashion now is." Ten years later it is scarcely
discernible in some figures, and in 1757 reap-pears,
extending right and
left after
the
of
the
court
dress
of the reign of
manner
George III.
For
the abolition of this mon-strosity
indebted
to George IV., and
we
are
ladies' dresses then
rushed
to
the
other
Steel and whalebone
extreme.
was dispensed
with, and narrow draperiesdisplayed the form
they were
supposed to conceal, and were
girdledjust below the shoulders.
These
in time followed
by the bell-
were
shaped skirts worn at the accession of Her
1872.
Majesty Queen Victoria,during whose reign
19TH
CENTURY.
THE
POLONAISE,
"
fashion has indeed
riot.
The
invention
run
of the sewing machine
the signal for the
Grundy, for clinging too closely to the lines
was
appearance of frillsand furbelows, and mere-tricious
of
the
human
form, it was
distinctly an
kind.
advance
as regards health and beauty on the
ornament
In
the
of every
iTiiddle of the present century crinolines were
varying styles which preceded it,

again to the fore, skirts were proportionately

THE EVOLUTION OF FASHION. lO The cesthetic movement has also had fitness, beauty, and the
THE
EVOLUTION
OF
FASHION.
lO
The
cesthetic movement
has
also had
fitness, beauty, and
the
a
canons
of good
marked
influence
taste in all directions,
taste.
on
our
especially in the costume
of the
Two
dominant
notes, however, have been
but more
last few
though the picturesque
struck in the harmonies
of costume
during the
years; and
last twenty-fiveyears " the tailor-made dress,
which may almost be regarded as a national
livery; and the tea gown, that reposeful gar-ment
to which we affectionately turn in our
hours of ease.
How
well each
is
calculated to seive
in its way
for which
it
the purpose
is designed, the simple cloth, tweed, or serge
costume
moulded
to the
lines of
the
figure,
adapted to our changefulclimate,and
giving
a cachet to the
in
wearer,
not always found
TAILOR-MADE
DRESS,
garb of the
worshippers of the sunflower and
the lily may not be adapted to
the
and
wear
tear of this workaday world, it is beautiful in
form and design, incapable of undue
pres-sure;
and
for children
and
girls it
would
young
be difficult to imagine a more
charm-ing,
artistic,and becoming costume.
Once
more
we
are
eschewing classical
makes
caricatures
lines for grotesque which
and drives plain ones
of lovely women,
to
despair. The
subdued
and
delicate tints
which
few
since were
a
seasons
regarded
with favour have been superseded by garish
shades
and bright colours, which
seem
to
quarrel with everything in Nature
and
Art.
Unfortunately, we
English are
to
prone
extremes,
and
possess the imitative rather
TEA
GOWN,
1897.
than the creative faculty. Consequently,our
national costume
is seldom distinctive, but a
much
more
costlyapparel, a rational costume
combination
of
the
of some
worst
styles of
in the best sense
which
of the word, and
one
our Continental
neighbours, who would scorn
women
with satisfac-tion
of all ages
may
assume
to garb themselves
with so little regard for
to themselves
and
to
those
with whom
THE EVOLUTION OF FASHION. they come in contact. The the dress of decrepitude, submit to
THE
EVOLUTION
OF
FASHION.
they come
in contact.
The
the
dress of decrepitude, submit to be placed on
tea gown,
on
other
hand, drapes the figureloosely so as to
fallin gracefulfolds, and may be regarded as a
the
social shelf without
and
a
murmur,
as it so often takes the place
calmly allow those slightly their junior, and in
some cases their senior, to appropriate the
distinct economy,
of a
expensive dress. Beauty, which is
more
of Heaven's
is
one
best gifts to women,
use-less
unless appropriatelyframed, and
a well-
known
exponent on the art of d ressing artisti-cally,
has laid down
the axiom
that harmonies
of colour
successful
than
are
more
contrasts.
If we
turn
to Nature
have
unfailing
we
an
of inspiration. The foliagetints,sun-set
source
effects, the animal and mineral worlds all
offer schemes
of colour, which can
be readily
adapted to
persons and surroundings.
our
And
to look our
best and, above
all, to grow
old gracefully, is a duty which every daughter
MODERN
EVENING
DRESS.
good things of life, and to monopolise the
attention of all and sundry. Mothers
in their
prime willingly allow anyone who can
be per-suaded
to
do
to
chaperone their
so,
daughters, and to pilot them through the
social eddies and
quicksands of their first
season, and through sheer indolence
fail to
AN
ARTISTIC
DRESS,
1 897.
which
maternity entails.
The
unmarried
After a painting by Sir Jos him /Reynolds.
conscious
that she
is no
longer in
woman,
of Eve
The
owes
to humanity.
in
her first youth, and indifferent to the charms
manner
which
so
many
women
give way early in life
of maturity, takes to knitting socks in obscure
is simplyappalling. While stillin the bloom
and
corners,
assumes
of womanhood
the
habits and
and middle- agedness which apparently takes
they assume

exercise the lawful authority and responsibility

an air of self-repression

THE EVOLUTION OF FASHION. which from her of existence, and fall in stately folds, and
THE
EVOLUTION
OF
FASHION.
which
from
her
of
existence,
and
fall
in stately
folds,
and
give her
dignity,
ten
years
span
the
casual
onlooker,
that
she
has
than
if
she
persists
in
decking
herself
in
to
conveys
passed
the
boundary
line
between
youth
and
muslin,
and
similar
materials,
net,
crepon,
sink
Why
should
these
because
in
the
long
since
old
past
they
suited
women
age.
before
their
time
into
slough
of
dowdyism
her
particular
style.
Gossamers
belong
to
a
with
their
and
themselves
off
from
the
enjoyments
the
dimpled
shoulders
cut
young,
arms,
civilisation
has
provided
for
their
benefit?
of
whiteness,
and
necks
like
columns
snowy
Equally
be
deprecated
those
who
of
ivory.
Their
brighter
than
jewels,
to
are
eyes
are
cling
youth
that
they
entirely
and
their
desperately
luxuriant
locks
need
to
ornament
no
so
forget
the
later
of
life
have
their
nestling
in
its
leaves,
stages
com-pensations.
save
a
rose
green
a
Women
who
in
crowded
ball-rooms
fit emblem
of
youth
and
beauty.
display
their
redundant
attenuated
With
the
education
and
training
art
at
or
forms
the
of
all
beholders,
whose
within
the
of
all
classes
of
the
to
present
gaze
grasp
coiffure
than
and
community
there
is nothing
to
art
nature,
to
owes
more
prevent
our
who
comfort
themselves
with
the
conviction
modifying
prevailing
fashions
to
our
own
that
in
carefully
shaded
light
and
requirements;
and
ought
common
to
a
rouge
sense
pearl
powder
hardly
distinguishable
from
teach
(even
if
ignore
other
senti-ment
are
us
we
every
the
bloom
of
youthful
and
healthy
which
is supposed
guide
to
reasoning
a
com-plexion.
A
variety
of circumstances
combine
creatures)
that
particular
style
be
cannot
one
bring
into
the
world
of
people
who
appropriate
who
to
to
opposites
exact
a
race
women
are
strictly lay claim
beauty,
but
who
each
other.
If
each
would
cannot
to
to
only
person
nevertheless
have
good
points
which
think
for
herself
raiment
beautiful
in
out
many
might
be
accentuated,
while
those
that
form,
rich
in
and
the
are
texture,
adapted
to
less
pleasing
could
be
concealed.
A
middle-
daily
needs
of
life,
should
be
spared
we
a
aged
will
herself
and
be
number
of
startling
incongruities
woman
respect
large
the
more
respected
by
others
if
she
drapes
her
which
ofifend
the
in
various
directions.
person
eye
in
velvet,
brocade,
and
other
rich
fabrics
II. Chapter HEADGEAR. CURIOUS
II.
Chapter
HEADGEAR.
CURIOUS
THE EVOLUTION OF FASHION. IS Chapter II. CURIOUS HEADGEAR. " Here in her hair The
THE
EVOLUTION
OF
FASHION.
IS
Chapter
II.
CURIOUS
HEADGEAR.
" Here
in her hair
The painterplays the spider, and hath woven
surprising that Artemisia could not console
herself for the loss of such a clever husband,
A golden mesh
to entrap the hearts of men
Faster than gnats in cobwebs."
The Merchant
of Venice.
HOLY
Writ simply teems
with allusions
the luxurious
the fair
tresses
of
to
daughters of the East, and
there
is
little doubt
that at
early period in the
an
world's history women
awakened
to
the fact
that
well-tired head
a
was
a
very
potent
attraction, and
had a recognised market
Jewish women
value.
particularly
were
famed
in this respect, and employed female
barbers,who, with the aid of crispingpins,
horns, and towers, prepared their clients for
These
conquest.
jewelled horns were
gene-rally
made
of the precious metals, and the
position denoted
the condition of the wearer.
A married
had
it fixed on
the right
woman
side
of the
head, a
widow
the left, and
on
she who
was still an unappropriated blessing
EGYPTIAN
HEAD-DRESS.
the
Over
the
horn
the veil
on
crown.
was thrown coquettishly, as
in the illustration.
and that, not satisfied with drinking his ashes
Assyrian women delighted in long ringlets,
dissolved
in wine, she
of her
spent some
confined
by
band
of
lamented
a
metal, and
the
in
men
were
revenue
not
above the weakness
of
monument
to
his memory
plaitinggold wire with their
that it was
counted
of
one
beards. Rimmel, in " The
the wonders
of the world.
Book
of Perfumes," relates
The Egyptians were also
a curious anecdote
of Mau-
partial to wigs, some
of
solus. King of Caria, who
which
are still preserved
turned
his people's fond-ness
in
the
British
Museum.
for flowing locks to
Ladies wore
a multitude
of
his exche-quer
account
when
small plaits and jewelled
requiredreplenishing.
head-piecesresembling pea-cocks
"
Having first had a quan-tity
and
other animals,
of
wigs made
and
which contrasted with their
stored
in
the
dark tresses with brilliant
royal ware-houses,
he published an
efiect \
or
a
fillet orna-mented
with
edict compelling all his
subjects to have their heads
lotus bud.
a
The
coiffure of a princess
shaved. A few days after,
for its size
ANCIENT
HEAD-DRESS
was remarkable
JEWISH
the monarch's agents went
and the abundance
of ani-mal,
round, offering them the perukes destined to
vegetable, and mineral treasures
with
their denuded
which
adorned.
In Egyptian tombs
cover
polls, which they were
it was
delighted to buy at any price "
It is not
and
elsewhere
have
been
discovered
small

lord's ill-gotten building such a

OF FASHION. THE EVOLUTION \6 famous instance of the consecration of hair is wooden combs
OF
FASHION.
THE
EVOLUTION
\6
famous
instance of the consecration
of hair is
wooden
combs resembling the modern tooth-
comb,
and
metal
mirrors
of precisely the
that of Berenice, the wife of Ptolemy Ever-
It is related that when
the king went
shape as
those
in
getes.
same
use
at the present
on his expedition to Syria,she, solicitous for
ANCIENT
GRECIAN.
ANCIENT
ROMAN.
day, as well as
other toilet appli-ances.
his safety, made
hair (which was
her
consecrate
numerous
a
vow
to
remarkable
for its fineness
Grecian sculpture affords us the opportu-nity
and beauty) to Venus, if he returned
to her.
of studying the different modes in favour
When
her husband
back
came
and
it is
word, and
she kept her
offered her hair
in that country,
astonishing to find what a
variety of methods were
in the temple of
Cyprus.
This
afterwards
miss-ing,
was
adopted by the
belles of
when
a
report was
ancient Greece
for enhanc-ing
spread that
it
had
been
their charms.
A
loose
turned into a constellation
knot, fastened by a clasp in
in the heavens, which
con-stellation,
the form
of a grasshopper,
an old writer tells
favourite
fashion.
us, is called Coma
Berenices
was
a
Cauls
of
network, metal
(the hair of Berenice) to
mitres of different designs,
and
simple bands, and
the present day. Another
remarkable instance is that
sometimes
chaplets, of
of Nero, who, according to
flowers, all confined, at
Suetonius, cut off his first
different periods, the luxu-riant
beard, put it in a casket
of
locks of the
Helens,
gold set with jewels, and
Penelopes, and Xantippes
consecrated
it
to
Jupiter
of ancient times.
Capitolinus.
ENGLISH
HEAD-DRESS
OF
THE
custom
The
hair of the head
and
It was
a common
13TH
CENTURY.
heathen
nations to
to have been
among
beard appears
to their gods the hair when
consecrate
cut off,
held
in
nations, and
great respect by most
well
that growing on
it
of human
hair
as
as
the head, and
perhaps we may
in spells and
trace
the use
either consumed
on the altar,deposited
incantations
this fact.
was
to
in temples, or
hung upon
the
A
Orientals especially treat the hair which falls
trees.
THE EVOLUTION OE EASHIOK. 17 had treated them unkindly. Ovid dered, rebukes lady of his
THE
EVOLUTION
OE
EASHIOK.
17
had
treated them
unkindly. Ovid
dered,
rebukes
lady
of
his
acquaintance in the
a
plainest terms
for
havingdestroyed her hair.
"
Did
I
not
tell
to
leave
off dyeing
you
hair?
Now
have
hair
left to
yoar
you
no
dye : and
yet nothing was
handsomer
than
locks : they came
down
to
knees,
your
your
and
fine that
afraid to
were
so
you
were
comb
them.
Your
hand
has been
the
own
of the
loss you
cause
deplore: you
poured
the poison on
head.
Now
Ger-many
your
will send you slaves' hair " a vanquished
own
nation
will supply your
ornament.
How
HORNED
HEAD-DRESS
OF
15TH
CENTURY.
troin
Effigy of Countess
of Arundel
in Arundel
Church,
from them with superstitious care, and bury
it,so
that no
shall use
it to their preju-dice.
one
Roman
matrons
generallypreferred blonde
hair to their own
ebon
tresses, and resorted
o wigs and dye when
Nature, as they consi-
\ vor"
EARLY
TUDOR
HEAD-DRESS.
times, when
you hear people praising
many
the beauty of your
hair, you will blush and
say to yourself : ' It is bought ornament
to
which
I
beauty, and
I know
owe
my
not
what Sicambrian virginthey are admiring in
And
yet there
time when
I
me.
was
a
deserved all these compliments.' "
It would
puzzle any Jin de siecle husband
or brother to express his displeasure in more
by the
appropriate words than those chosen
poet.
The Britons, before they mixed with other
nations, were
fair-haired race, and early
STEEPLE
HEAD-DRESS
OF
15TH
CENTURY.
a
c
THE EVOLUTION OF FASHION. writers referred to their washing their auburn a variety of shapes,
THE
EVOLUTION
OF
FASHION.
writers referred to their washing their auburn
a variety of shapes, of which
the accompany-ing
tresses in water boiled with lime to increase
sketches will give a better idea than
any
the reddish colour. Boadicea is described
written description.
her
During the
sixteenth
with flowing locks which
century
matrons
fell upon
Invasion
adopted either a pointed hood, composed of
shoulders; but after the Roman
velvet or other rich fabric, often edged with
fur,a close-fittingcoif,or the French cap to
be seen in the portraits of
the unhappy Mary
who
unmarried
had
Stuart. Those
were
their hair simply braided
and
embellished
with knots of ribbon, strings of pearls, or
for the
Nature's most beautiful adornment
maiden " sweet-scented
flowers.
auburn
of
Her
Gracious
The
tresses
Majesty Queen Elizabeth,were
always bien
coiffee, if we
judge from
her various
may
portraits. She scorned the hoods, lace caps,
and pointed coifs, worn
by her contempo-raries,
and
adopted a miniature
crown
or
jaunty hat of velvet, elaboratelyjewelled.
Her fair complexion and light hair were
thrown
into relief by rufiles of lace, and this
HORNED
HEAD-DRESS
OF
EDWARD
IV. 's
REIGN.
the hair
of
both
and
men
followed
women
the fashion of the conquerors.
From
Planch^'s
"History of British
Costume," we
learn that " the
female
head-dress
among
all classes of the Anglo-Saxons
a long piece of linen or
was
silk wrapped
round
the head
and neck."
to
It appears
have been called a head-rail,or wimple, but
dispensed with in the house, as the hair
was
then as cherished
at the
was
an
ornament
as
present
day.
of Sherborne, who
A wife described
by Adhelm,
Bishop
in
wrote
the
eighthcentury, is said to have had
" twisted
locks,delicately curled by the iron ; " and in
of " Judith " the
heroine
is called
the poem
"the maid of the Creator, with twisted locks."
ELIZABETHAN
HEAD-DRESS.
Two
long plaits were worn
by Norman
ladies,
and
were
countrywomen
probably adopted by our
after the Conquest.
delicate fabric was
own
stretched
fine wire
over
frames, which met
at the back, and remotely
During the Middle
underwent
Ages feminine head-gear
changes. Golden
many
nets,
the nimbus
of a saint, neither
of which
or
and
linen bands
closelypinned round
the
ornaments
was particularlyappropriate to the
hair and
chin, were
followed
by steeple-
lady in question. The front hair was
turned
shaped erections and horned head-dresses in
a cushion, or
dressed
over
in stiff sausage-

suggested the fragilewings of the butterfly,

THE EVOLUTION OF FASHION. 19 like curls,pinned close to the head, and was adorned with
THE
EVOLUTION
OF
FASHION.
19
like curls,pinned close to the head, and was
adorned with strings and stars of flashing
left to the sterner
sex
for some
years after the
restoration
of
the House
of Stuart, and
gems and a pendant resting on
the forehead.
satisfied with
well -brushed
women
were
That ^splendid historian,Stubbs, who has
left us such minute particulars of the fashions
or beautified by a single flower.
The
hair
often arranged in small, flat curls on
the
was
forehead, as in the sketch
of a Beauty of the
Court of Charles
H.; and
this fashion had
a
softening effect on
the face, and
known
was
as the " Sevigne style."
Dutch
fashions naturallyprevailed in the
Court of William
and
Mary, and
this queen
is represented with
high muslin
a
cap,
adorned
with a series of upright frills,edged
with lace, and long lappetsfalling on the
shoulders. Farquhar, in his comedy " Love
and
the Bottle," alludes
to
and
Swift,to the " pinners edged
with colberteen,"as the lace streamers
were
called.
About
this period the hair was
once
again rolled back from the face, and assumed
dimensions, so much
so, that
in
enormous
found
some
cases
it was
necessary to make
A
BEAUTY
OF
THE
COURT
OF
CHARLES
II.
of his time,quaintly describes the coiffure of
the ladies of the Court.
He
states
" It
:
must
be curled, frizzled,crisped, laid out
in
wreaths
and borders
from
one
ear
to
the
other, and lest it should
fall down, must
be
underpropped with
forkes and
weirs, and
ornamented
with
gold or
silver curiously
wrought. Such
which
gewgaws,
being un-skilful
in woman's
tearms,
I
cannot
easily
recount.
Then
the
of
their
upon
toppes
statelyturrets, stand their other capital orna-ments
: a French
hood, hatte, cappe, kircher
and suchlike, whereof
be
some
of velvet,
of
this
fashion
and
of
that.
some
some
Cauls made
of netwire, that the cloth of gold,
silver,or tinsel, with which
their hair was
sometimes
covered, might be seen through ;
and lattice caps with
three horns
or corners,
like the forked caps of popish priests." The
Harleian
MSS., No.
1776, written
in
the
middle of Elizabeth's reign, refers to an ordi-nance
for the reformation
of gentlewomen's
head-dress, and says : " None
shall wear
an
END
OF
17TH
CENTJRY.
ermine
or lattice bonnet
unless
she
be
a
gentlewoman born, having Arms." This
latter phrase, we
conclude, refers to
may
armorial bearings, not to physicaldevelop-ment.
ladies to pass through without displacing the
elaborate erections they carried. Stuffed
The wearing of false hair and periwigs was
with horsehair, clotted with pomade and
c
2

ringletsescaping from a bandeau of pearls,

the " high top-knots,"

doorways broader and higher than they had hitherto been, to allow fashionably-dressed

THE EVOLUTION OF FASHION. 20 conceivable Varied, indeed, have been the fashions of powder, and
THE
EVOLUTION
OF
FASHION.
20
conceivable
Varied, indeed, have
been the fashions
of
powder, and decked
with every
ornament, from a miniature man-of-war
in
the
19th century, the close of which
is fast
full sail,to a cooing
dove with outspread
wings, presumably
approaching. Only
"*
few
of
the
a
styles
be
sitting on its nest, or
a basket
of flowers
adopted can
briefly touched upon,
and, naturally, those
wreathed
with
rib-bons.
will be selected which
Naturally, the
form
the
greatest
aid of the barber
contrast
to each other.
was
called
in, as
ladies
The
belle
of
1830
were
incapable of
constructing and
manipulating such a
tangled locks.
was distinguishedby
upstanding bows of
plain or plaitedhair,
of
arranged
the
mass
on
We
may imagine, on
of
the
head,
crown
and
the
front
the score
of expense
was
and for other reasons,
the
hair
generally in bands or
short ringlets, held
was
not
dressed so frequently
in place by tortoise-
cleanliness
de-manded,
shell side-combs. The
as
for
in
simplicity of
this
a
book
on
costume
coiffure was
a
compen-sated
hairdresser
is
de-scribed
for
by
the
FASHIONABLE
COIFFURE
OF
ELDERLY
LALY
AN
as asking one
size of the
enormous
I 8th
IN
THE
century.
of his customers
how
hats
and
bonnets
long it was
since her
generally worn
with
hair had been opened
it.
These
had
wide
and
repaired. On
and curiously-shaped
her replying, "
Nine
brims, over
which
weeks," he
mildly
stretched
was
or
suggested that that
gathered silk, satin,
was
as
long as a head
aerophane, or similar
could
well
in
materials.
Garlands
go
"and, there-fore,
and
bunches
of
summer,
it was
flowers and
feathers
proper to
deliver it now,
it
used
as
were
in profu-sion,
began to be
little
bows
a
and
and
hazarde."
Various
strings of gauze
rib-bon
anecdotes
of
this
floated
in
the
nature
make
feel
us
wind.
In
that personalhygiene
costume
of
was
a
matter
grand-mothers
were
our
secondaryimportance
wooed
and
to
our
ancestors.
by suitors who
won
Planch"^, in
his
work
British Cos-tume,
on
evidently, from the
impassioned love let-ters
informs
us
stillin existence,
that powder
main-tained
believed them
to
be
its ground till
perfecttypes of love-liness.
FASHIONABLE
HEAD-DRESSES
IN
THE
TIMES
OF
when
it
^793)
was
THE
GEORGES.
discarded
by
Majesty Queen Charlotte,Consort of George
Her
T
d s
the
o
war
middle
of Queen Victoria's reign, the hair
III., and the Princesses."
dressed
in a simple knot, and
the front
was

this be-witching

THE EVOLUTIOA OF FASHION 21 arranged in ringlets, which fell gracefully on The labours of
THE
EVOLUTIOA
OF
FASHION
21
arranged in ringlets, which fell gracefully on
The
labours of Hercules
would
be
mere
the chest
and
shoulders.
Even
youthful child's play compared to giving a faithful
married ladies, in the privacy of their homes
record
of the chameleon-like
changes which
and for morning dress, were expected, by have affected that kaleidoscope,pubhc taste,
1830.
i8S5i
bird's-nest
1 894.
chignon,
1872.
PRESENT
DAY,
of those potent but unwritten
one
laws of the
muslin
during the last forty years, and a very limited
fickle goddess Fashion, to wear
or
net
study of this fascinatingsubject at once con-
with lace borders, embellished
with
vinces
that, whatever
peculiarities may
caps,
us
ribbons.
certain to
be revivals or
ajipcar, they are
THE EVOLUTION OF FASHION. 23 modifications of styles favoured by silver and gold tissue, of
THE
EVOLUTION
OF
FASHION.
23
modifications
of
styles
favoured
by
silver
and
gold
tissue,
of
shape
and
our
more
every
less
size
that
fancy
could
devise,
the
heart
of
remote
ancestors.
or
or
In
1872
loomed
that
ghastly
the
most
exacting
of
fashion
could
upon
us
woman
horror
the
chignon,
which
bore
faint
desire.
The
hair
beneath
dressed
like
a
resem-blance
was
the
exaggerated
coiffures
of
the
the
frizzy mop
illustrated,
in
plaited
wedges
to
1 8th
Upon
this
edifice,
flowing
like
a pendant
hump
half-way
down
century.
monstrous
with
its
seductive
Alexandra
curl,
tilted
the
back,
in
cascade
of
curls
reaching
were
or
a
bonnets
minute
that
they
almost
from
the
of
the
head
the
waist.
to
so
were
crown
invisible
in
the
mountains
of
hair
that
These
followed
by gigantic
rolls
the
at
sur-rounded
were
them.
These
replaced
by
back
of
tbe
skull,
Grecian
knots,
varying
were
hats
la
Chinois,
like
shallow
plates
while
from
the
dimensions
of
door
handle
to
a
;
a
for
winter
others
of
fur
feathers
those
of
loaf,
and
latterly
by
that
wear,
or
were
a
cottage
introduced,
with
animal's
head
fixed
hideous
monstrosity,
the
"
bun."
Another
an
firmly
the
brow
of
the
and
of
the
wheel
of
fashion
has
turn
given
on
wearer,
resem-bling
us
a
nothing
much
the
fox
foot-
simple
mode
of
dressing
the
hair,
which
is
so
as
with
which
ladies
keep
their
well
adapted
the
to
English
head,
warmer,
now
average
pedal
extremities
and
which
is
at
temperature
fully explained
by
the
a
proper
accom-panying
when
enjoying
airing.
Besides
these,
sketch.
It
be
taken
safe
an
may
as
a
there
pinched
turned
keel
rule,
when
the
forehead
is
low
and
face
were
canoes
upper-most,
and
flexible
mushrooms,
which
flapped
small,
that
the
hair
be
drawn
back
with
may
and
caught
the
wind
till
it
advantage,
but
long
face
is
to
generally
was
necessary
a
attach
string
the
edge,
keep
them
improved
by arranging
the
hair
in
to
to
soft
curls
a
and
such
hats
Leech
has
taut
the
forehead,
and
by waving
it slightly
snug
at
;
as
on
immortalised
in
his
sketches.
Turbans
and
the
sides,
which
adds
the
width
to
apparent
facsimiles
of
the
delicious
but
indigestible
of
the
But
whatever
is
countenance.
style
pork-pie,
Gainsborough,
Rousby,
and
Langtry
in fashion,
it
is
have
its admirers,
for
to
sure
hats,
all
named
after
styles
by
their
has
left
record
worn
not
Pope
on
:
respective
namesakes
and
hats
made
of
;
"
Fair
man's
tresses
imperial
race
ensnare,
straw,
leghorn,
crinoline,
lace,
satin,
and
of
And
beauty
draws
by
single
hair."
us
a
Chapter III. GLOVES.
Chapter
III.
GLOVES.
THE EVOLUTION OE FASHION. 25 Chapter III. GLOVES. " Gloves damask sweet roses." " Shakespeare.
THE
EVOLUTION
OE
FASHION.
25
Chapter
III.
GLOVES.
" Gloves
damask
sweet
roses." " Shakespeare.
handle
the
meat
while hot and
devour
as
as
more
than the others present.
" See
how
she leans her
cheek
her hand.
upon
O, that I were
a glove upon
that hand,
That the Anglo-Saxons
wore
gloves we
That
I might touch that cheek."
gather from their being mentioned
in
an
Koineo and Juliet.
"
old
of the
seventh
romance
century known
glove as an article of dress is of great
THE
the
" Poem
of Beowulf," and according
as
antiquity, and among
the fossils of the
the
laws of Ethelred
to
the Unready, five
cave-dwellers
of pre-historic times,
pairs of gloves formed part of the duty paid
which
have
been
recently discovered
in
to that Prince by certain German merchants.
France, Belgium, and Switzerland, there is
In Planchi's "History of British Costume,"
ample proof of its
existence,
Probably the
an Anglo-Saxon lady appears
to be wearing
glove with
for
the
a
a separate division
thumb
but
without
fingers, and
exactly
resembling an infant's glove of the present
day.
In
1462 Edward
IV.
forbade
the
importation of foreigngloves to England, a
law which
remained
in force
till 1826.
In the early Christian Church
glovesplayed
an important part.
granted an
In
Charle-magne
a.d.
790
unlimited
right of hunt-ing
the Abbot
and monks
to
of Sithin, so
that the
skins
of the
deer
they killed could
(sLove
be
used
in
the
manufacture
of gloves,
girdles, and covers
of books.
In
OF
some
cases
commanded
that the
it was
clergy should
H"NRY
\\
first gloves were
formed
of
skins, sewn
with bone needles, and were
long enough to
reach above
the elbow.
HAWKINS
Xenophon, speaking of the Persians,gives
instance
as
an
of their effeminacy "that
-(SLove
they not
only covered
their
head
and
feet, but guarded their hands
from
cold
by thick gloves." Homer, describing Laertes
at work
with
in his garden, represents him
gloves on
his hands
to
protect them
from
thorns.
in speaking of
Pliny the younger,
H6NRY
his uncle's visit to Vesuvius, states that his
secretary sat by ready to write down anything
Nil)
that was
remarkable, and had gloves on
his
hands
that the coldness
of the weather
need
gloves in administering the Sacrament,
wear
not
ancient
writer
impede his work.
"Olives
Varro, an
and
a writer in the "Antiquary"
states: "
gathered with the
always looked upon as decorous
for
says:
"
It was
"
naked hand are preferable to those plucked
the laity to take off their gloves in church
in gloves;" and Atheneus speaks of a glutton
where
ecclesiastics alone might wear
them.
who
gloves at table so
that he might
It
perhaps regarded as a proof of cleaq
wore
was
26 THE EVOLUTION OF FASHION. hands, for to glove. As un d'amour it has this
26
THE
EVOLUTION
OF
FASHION.
hands, for to
glove. As un
d'amour
it has
this day persons
sworn
in our
gage
for cen-turies
law
their
been
courts
esteemed, and
the
are
compelled to remove
in
days of
gloves." In the ancient Consecration
Ser-vice
chivalry it was
usual
for knights to wear
bless-ing
their ladies' gloves in their helmets, as
for the Bishops of the Church, a
a
invoked
the gloves they wore.
talisman of
In old records
was
on
success
in arms.
Those
of William
of Wykeham
preserved
also meet
with the
we
term " glove money,"
paid
with
which
a sum
to servants
they were
to provide this portion of their livery, and
(SLOVe
Of
till quite recently it was the custom
to pre-sent
COARY
those
who
attended
weddings and
QueeNofScoT^
funerals with gloves as a souvenir.
Shakespeare often mentions
that
he
some
assert
the son
gloves, and
of a glover.
was
A pair which
belonged to the dramatist
is
still preserved. They are of brown
leather,
ornamented
with a stamped pattern, and are
edged with gold fringe. They were
presented
by the actor
Garrick
to the Mayor
and
of Stratford-on-Avon
at the Shake-spearian
commemoration
in 1789.
at
New
College,Oxford, are
adorned with
the sacred monogram in red silk, and
ecclesiastical gloves were
often lavishly deco-rated
with embroidery and jewels, and were
bequeathed by will with other valuables.
Formerly judges were
gloves when engaged in their official duties,
forbidden
to
wear
but are
no longer bound
by this restriction,
and
receive as a memorial
of a maiden
assize
(thatis, when
there
prisoners to be
are
no
tried) a pair of white kid gloves from
the
sheriff, and during the time fairs were
held
their duration
marked
was
glove outside the town
hall.
it
remained
there
in
all persons
exempt
from
arrest, but
by hanging a
As long as
the place were
directly it was
OLOve
OF
removed
it
the signal for closing the
was
QueeweuzABeTN.
fair, and
the privilegewas
at an
end.
down
Many royal gloves have found
Throwing
a glove was
regarded as a
a place in
challenge to combat, and
this curious
old
private collections. Henry VI.'s glove has a
is still retained
in
custom
the
English
gauntlet, is made
of tanned
leather, and is
coronation
Kings were
also
lined with deer-skin, and
the hawking glove
ceremony.
invested with authorityby the delivery of a
of Henry VIII. is another interesting relic pf

Cor-poration

THE EVOLUTION OF FASHION. 27 a bygone age. The King kept his hawks there to
THE
EVOLUTION
OF
FASHION.
27
a bygone age.
The
King kept his hawks
there
to believe
at
romance,
is every
reason
Charing Cross, and in the inventories taken
been
used
with
that^they have sometimes
after this monarch's
death
read
of " three
sinister motives, as a large trade was
done
we
at
of hawkes'
gloves, with two lined with
time
payre
one
velvet ;" and again at Hampton
Court
there
perfumed, to conceal their deadly purpose.
"seven
hawkes'
gloves embroidered."
Some
gloves which were
the
were
property of
The
hawking glove, of which
an illustration
James I. are of brown
leather lined with white,
is given, may
be
in the Ashmolean
and
the
with silk and gold
seen
seams
are
sewn
Museum.
It is of a simple
thread.
The
embroidery
character, evidently in-tended
is in gold and silver thread
for use
rather than
on crimson
satin, with a
ornament.
lining of red
silk. They
Gloves
finished
with
were
not
gene-rally
are
till
gold
fringe, and have three loops
worn
by women
after the Reformation; but
the
side.
A
at
glove of
during the sixteenth and
chaste
design, worn
by
seventeenth centuries their
Charles
I. on
the scaffold
gradually extended
to
is made
of cream-coloured'
use
the middle classes.
Queen
kid, the gauntlet embroid-ered
Elizabeth's
glove may
be
the
Bodleian
at
edged
with silver fringe. Queen
with silver and
seen
Library, Oxford, and
is
Anne, on
the other
hand,
believed
to have
been worn
highly - decorated
wore
the
visit of the
at
Virgin
gloves of Suede kid, with
Queen to the University in
raised silken flowers on
the
1566. It is fringed with
gauntlet, and three loops
gold, and
is nearly half a
of rose-coloured
ribbon, to
yard in length ; it is made
allow them
to
be
slipped
of
white
leather
worked
the hands.
They are
over
with gold thread, and
the
further enriched
with gold
cuff is lined with drab
silk.
lace and embroidery, A
Mary
Queen
of
Scots'
yellow Suede Court glove
glove
in
the
Saffron
of George IV.
gives the
Walden
Museum
is
of
impression that the
first
light buff leather,wrought
gentleman of Europe had
(""LOVG
with silver wire and
silk of
a fist
of
tremendous
jAroesi.
different colours.
It
is
lined with crimson
satin,edged with gold
Queen
Victoria
proportions. Her Majesty
generally wears
black
kid
lace enriched
with sequins, and the opening
gloves,
for
Court
functions, when
except
is connected
with
bands
of satin finished
white
glac^
kid
gloves are
invariably
with lace insertion.
This glove was
presented
used.
the morning of her execution
to a member
Her Royal Highness the Princess of Wales
on
of the Dayrell family, who was
in attendance
has a delicately-formed hand with tapering
at Fotheringay Castle.
In happier days
fingers, and
Royal Highness adapts her gloves to the
her
size is six and a-half.
Her
Queen Mary gave an exquisitely embroidered
pair of gloves, with a design in which angels'
occasion
and
toilette, and is always bten
heads and
flowers appear "
her own
work "
to
gante.
her husband. Lord
Darnley ; and the gloves
The
first Napoleon gave
impetus to
an
generally of the Tudor
period were
this branch
of industry by insistingon
more
ornate
than those which
adorn beauty's hands
gentlemen wearing gloves on State occasions
the
of the nineteenth
the fashion
on
eve
century, and
and
at festive gatherings, and
spread through the countries of Europe with
were,
in most
cases, wrought with the needle.
Though the history of gloves savours
of
astonishingrapidity.

in poisoned gloves, delicately

Chapter IV. CURIOUS FOOT-GEAR.
Chapter
IV.
CURIOUS
FOOT-GEAR.
THE EVOLUTION OF FASHION. 31 Chapter IV. CURIOUS FOOT-GEAR. " A tasteful slipper is my
THE
EVOLUTION
OF
FASHION.
31
Chapter
IV.
CURIOUS
FOOT-GEAR.
" A tasteful slipper is my soul's delight."
who
had
fallen under
the sway of Cupid),
" Mil man's
''^ Fazio,"
A WELL-SHAPED
foot has
been
con-sidered
this energeticlady engaged the services of a
neighbouring friar, and cut the gordian knot
from
the earhest times
of
one
by marrying her faithful adorer.
Nature's
kindest
gifts, and
sober
When
primitive man
first conceived
the
history and fairy lore have combined
to give
idea of producing some contrivance
to
interestingparticularsrespecting
defend
himself from
us
many
this portion of the human
cold, sharp stones, or
The
anatomy.
the heated
sand of the desert, his first effort
similarity of the foot-gear of both
to fasten to the bottom
of his
feet soles
sexes
was
makes
it impossible to treat
the
matter
of
bark, wood,
hide, which
or
raw
were
separately, and as the subject is practically followed, in due course, by more
elaborately
inexhaustible, I propose
only to illustrate the
made
sandals
of
tanned
leather.
These
curious and notable examples.
most
were
fastened in various ways, but generally
One of the finest collection of shoes in the
by two leathern straps, one
round the instep,
world
is that
at
the Cluny Museum,
Paris,
while the other passed between
the first and
formed by the eminent French engraver, the late
second
toes.
Egyptian sandals were
some-times
JulesJacquemart. This was enlarged by the
prolonged to a sharp point, and occa-sionally
purchase of the collection of
Baron
Schvitter.
made
were
of papyrus,
or
some
The
Queen of Italy has also
acquired a large
flexible material ; but
the
kinds
commoner
number
of historical boots and
shoes ; and
rule, of wood
or leather.
Often
were,
as
a
Mr.
to
Joseph Box, another
enthusiastic
collector, I am
indebted
for
of the
they had painted upon them the effigy of the
wearer's enemy, who was thus literally trodden
some
drawings used for illustrating this article.
underfoot.
Owing
to their proximity, the
A quaint story is told in a
book,
habits and
customs
of the Egyptians and
rare
entitled "The Delightful,Princely, and
EntertainingHistory of the Gentle Craft of
Jews were
The
in many
respects similar.
Hebrew
word
denotes
both
sandal
same
a
Crispin, the Patron
Saint
of
Shoe
Makers,
and
shoe
; and
it has been concluded
that
a
and his Brother Crispianus," According to
shoes
probably confined
the
to
were
upper
this authority,they were
King of Logia (Kent), and
the two
of the
sons
classes, while
sandals
used
by those
were
lived in the
city
compelled to
work
; and
slaves went
bare-foot.
of Durovenum,
otherwise Canterbury, or the
Court
of
the
Kentish
Having
It
will
be
from
the
sketches
of
men.
seen
embraced Christianity,during the Roman
invasion,they were in considerable danger,
Grecian
and Roman
shoes that they eventu-ally
became
elaborate
article of dress,
an
and at their mother's instigation, to
conceal
bound
to
the
foot and
leg with lacings, and
their identity,adopted humble attire, and
ornamented
in different ways.
The
senators
devoted themselves
to
the modest
craft
of
had
boots
of black
leather, with
of
a
crest
shoemaking, under the auspices of a shoe-maker
gold or
silver on
the foot ; and
the top of
at Faversham, to
whom
they bound
soldiers wore
iron shoes, heavilyspiked, in a
themselves for seven
This industrious
similar manner
to those
used for cricket,
years.
now
a better hold
when
citizen appears to have received the appoint-ment
so
as
to give the wearers
of shoemaker
to
the
Court
of Maxi-
scaling walls in
the attack of fortified places.
minus, whose
daughter Ursula
fell in
love
An
iron boot
also used
for torturing
was
with
Crispin. After
removing the
usual
Christians.
As
instance of the luxury so
an
obstacles (which,even
to have obstructed
in those remote
times,
characteristic
of
the
it is stated
that
seem
the paths of those
Roman
age,
soldiers often had the spikes on their
THE F. VOLUTION OF FASHION. shoes made of gold. According to the testi-mony for we
THE
F. VOLUTION
OF
FASHION.
shoes made
of gold. According to the testi-mony
for we
find the courtiers of the day improved
of Seneca, Julius Caesar wore
shoes
of
the prevailing mode
by stufKing their
upon
the precious metal, a fashion emulated
by
shoes, and twisting them into the shape of a
Cardinal
Wolsey many
centuries after ; and
ram's horn
attached
; the point of which
was
Severus was
fond of covering his with jewels,
to
the
knee
by a
chain.
The
common
to attract the attention
of the people as
he
people were
permitted by law to
" the
wear
walked
through the streets.
The Emperor
pykes on
their
shoon"
half-a-foot, rich
Aurelian
forbade
citizens
foot,
a
red,
while
nobles and
men
to
wear
yellow, white, or
shoes,
princes had theirs
two-and-a-half feet
green
re-serving
these
long.
colours
for
During
the
wo-men
; and
differ-ent
Plantagenetperiod
shapes were
precribedby legal
usual
it was
to wear
two
shoes
enactments
to
be
colours, and
for the easy
they were
often
worn
distinguishment of
slashed
the
on
various trades and
surface, to
upper
professions. In
show
the bright
the reign of Domi-
hose
beneath.
tian, the stalls of
These were
super-seded
shoemakers in the
by a large,
public streets were
padded
shoe,
to
gored
the
so
numerous
as
over
necessitate
foot with coloured
an
edict for their re-moval.
material,a fashion
imported
from
Our
Italy, and
own
ances-tors,
exag-gerated
the Anglo-
much
as
Saxons, wore shoes
the
as
pointed
of
cow-hide,
shoe
had
been.
raw
reaching to
the
Buskins were
high
ankles ;
and
the
boots, made
of
hair turned
out-ward.
splendid tissue,
Those
used
and
by the
worn
ecclesiastics
nobility and
b y
gen-try
kind
of
during the
were
a
sandal
fastened
Middle
Ages,
with
bands
of
generally on
occa-sions
leather round
the
of
State.
instep. The Nor-j
They were
also
half - boots
man
FOOT-GEAR
OF
DIFFERENT
PERIODS
had soles of wood,
largelyadopted by
players of tragedy.
while
They covered
the
the uppers
of
pliable material.
Those
knee, and were
tied just below.
The sock,
were
a
more
by
the Crusaders
of chain, and
low
shoe, on
the other
hand, was
the
worn
were
or
later
of
Very pointed toes
emblem
of comedy.
plate armour.
in fashion during the Middle
One of the greatest follies ever
introduced
were
Ages, and
these were
carried to such a ridiculous length
the chopine, a sort of stiltwhich increased
was
that the dignitaries of
the Church
considered
the height of the wearer.
These
first
were
it necessary to preach against the practice.
used in Persia, but
appeared in Venice
about
the Sixteenth Century, and their use was
However, this did not result in its abolition,

of dif-ferent

THE EVOLUTION OF FASHION. 33 encouraged by jealous husbands in the hope abbot. It is
THE
EVOLUTION
OF
FASHION.
33
encouraged by jealous husbands in the hope
abbot.
It is said, however, that
an
Pope
of keeping their wives at home.
This desire,
John, elected in 1316, was
the son
of a shoe-maker
however, was
not realised,as the ladies went
at Cahors
; and
in the description of
usual, and
required rather more
Chopines were
Absalom, the Parish Clerk, Chaucer
out
tells us,
as
support than hitherto.
leathers of his shoes were
carved
very
" the upper
the length determined
the rank
to resemble
the windows
of St. Paul's Cathe-dral,"
ornate, and
the noblest dames
having them
which
inclines one
to
believe in their
of the wearer,
half-a-yard high.
Shakespeare re-fers
priestlyorigin.
From
various
to them
when
have
-^"2^*^
sources,
we
^-^^^
he makes
Hamlet
descriptions of
"Your
royal
shoes.
say:
"
ladyship is nearer
Richard
Cceur de
heaven
than when
Lion had his boots
last
striped with gold ;
I saw
you
by
the
altitude
those
of
his
of
chopine.'"
brother John were
a
He
also
alludes
spotted with gold
to the general use
in circles. Henry
ANGLO-SAXON
AND
NORMAN
SHOES,
of
shoes
for
in.
had his boots
the
left and
right foot, when
he
speaks of
chequered with golden lines, and
every
square enriched
with a lion.
In the splendid
a man
:
"
Court
of Edward
III., the royal shoes were
" Standing in slippers which his nimble haste
elaborately embroidered.
The
coronation
Mad
falsely thrust upon contrary feet."
shoes
of Richard
III.
covered
with
were
The
exercise
of the
gentle craft of shoe-
crimson
tissue cloth
of gold. Henry VIII.
GREEK
AND
ROMAN
SHOES.
MEDIAEVAL
SHOES.
making was
for a
long time
carried on
in
is described as wearing square-toed shoes,
monastic
institutions,and
increased
the
which were
slashed with coloured
silk, and
of
revenues
the clergy. Richard, the first
exposed a portion of the foot.
Some
worn
Abbot of St. Albans,objectedto canons
and
by his daughter.Queen
Elizabeth, of bro-caded
priests of his era associating themselves
with
silk,are remarkably clumsy in appear-ance,
tanners
and shoemakers, not
of whom,
one
and have lappets which
fasten over
the
in his opinion,ought to be made a bishop or
instep. They form a striking contrast
to
THE EVOLUTION OF FASHION. 34 those used by the unfortunate below the knee, either in
THE
EVOLUTION
OF
FASHION.
34
those used by the unfortunate
below the knee, either in close rolls, like the
Mary Queen
ostler,or crossing
of Scots (now in the possession of Sir James
hay-bands of the modern
William
Drummond), which
each other sandal-wisc,as they are now
are
of kid, em-broidered
worn
with coloured
silks ; the
in
toes
are
some
districts of Europe, particularly in
QUEEN
ELIZABETH
S
BOOTS.
BY
CHARLES
L
SHOE
OF
MARY
QUEEN
SHOE
WORN
OF
SCOTS.
somewhat
squarer, but in other respects re-semble
those in fashion at the present day.
In speaking of curious foot-gear, the under
covering of the leg and pedal extremities
must be briefly referred to. Ancient works
A.
CHOPINE
;
B, BUSKIN
;
C, PEAKED
SHOE
MILITARY
BOOTS
AND
SPURS
USED
AT
THE
;
D,
TUDOR
SHOE.
BATTLE
OF
NASEBY.
costume
hose, socks,
Russia
and
on
frequently mention
Spain. Cloth
stockings, em-broidered
and stockings, which were
made
of woollen
with
gold, are
the
among
cloth,leather,or linen, and held in place by
articles of
dress
ordered
by Henry
III.
cross-bands
of the material
twisted to a little
for
his
sister Isabel ;
and
of
a
woman
THE EVOLUTION OF FASHION. 35 mentioned in the ** CanterburyTales," it is stockings, made in
THE
EVOLUTION
OF
FASHION.
35
mentioned in the ** CanterburyTales," it is
stockings, made in England ; and from that
said :
" Hire
hosen
of
fine scarlet
time
she
others, in the laudable
weren
wore
no
redde, ful streite yteyed (tied), and shoon
their home
manufacture
desire to encourage
full moist (supple) and newe."
by her own
example. The
Queen's patron-age,
In
the reign of Henry VH.
clocks
on
stockings are
dis-cernible;
and the invention, in 1599, of a weaving
frame, by William
and
the
Lee, Master of
Poet
Laureate
of
Arts, and Fellow
this king, describ-ing
of St. John's Col-lege,
the dress
of
Cambridge,
the
hostess
of an
gave a great impe
inn, gives an indi-cation
tus to the stocking
of
how
trade, which
has
boots were
clean-ed
been
carried
on
with considerable
:
ever since,
success
"'She hobbles
she
as
particularly in
the
goes,
With
her
blanket
Midland
counties
hose,
of England.
Her shoone
smear-ed
Spurs can
be
with tallowy
traced back
to the
It is supposed
Anglo-Saxon pe-riod,
that hose or
stock-ings
which
is
of silk were
quite far enough
unknown
in
this
for this purpose.
country before the
middle of the i6th
They had no
row-els,
made
but were
A
century.
pair
simple
point like a goad,
with
a
of
Spanish silk
hose
was
present-ed
and
fastened
were
by Sir Thomas
with
leathers.
Gresham
to
Ed-ward
Early in the
15 th
VL,
his
century spurs were
father never
hav-ing
screwed
to
on
a
worn
any but
steel shoe, instead
those
made
of
of being fastened
cloth. In the reign
with straps. They
of
good Queen
were
long in the
Bess, nether socks
neck, and
the
or stockings were
spikes of the row-els
of silk, jarnsey,
of formidable
worsted crewel, or
dimensions.
From
the
finest yarn,
a sketch
of a spur
thread, or
cloth,
at the Battle
worn
and
of
all
were
of Naseby, in the
colours,"cunning-
reign of Charles I.,
ly knit
and
curi- ancient
shoes"
j f, Persian
ously indented
in
g, h,
greek;
a, b, c, d, e, Egyptian
i, j, k, l, Phrygian
and
dacian.
as
progress
was
every point, with
made
in
armour
querks,clocks, openseams,
and
everything and military gear, considerable
attention was
else accordingly." Planche
states, in
the
paid to this portion of the soldier's outfit ;
third year of Elizabeth, Mistress
Montague,
indeed, it was more elaborate in design than is
the Queen's silk-woman, presented Her
considered
now
From
necessary.
a very early
Majesty with
pair of black
a
silk knit
period spurs have been used by both sexes.
I)
2

; itwill be seen that,'

36 THE EVOLUTION OF FASHION. A curious the indicate custom at Orientals by uncovering was
36
THE
EVOLUTION
OF
FASHION.
A curious
the
indicate
custom
at
Orientals
by uncovering
was
in vogue
reverence
for ladies
do
all occasions
beginning of the present century
to
their feet, and
when
so
on
make
their own
indoor
shoes.
This
fashion
Western
nations
would
their
hats.
remove
inaugurated by Queen
Charlotte, who
Their
heads, being generally shaven,
was
are
particularly deft in handling a beautiful
always covered, and
surmounted
by a
was
are
set
of shoemaker's
tools, mounted
in silver,
head-dress
which
could
not be replaced with-out
with
ivory handles.
Tradesmen
considerable
trouble
; while
for
the
feet
bitterlycom-plained
that
work tables
in boudoirs
they have
loose slippers, with a single sole,
were
strewn
with the implements
of
their craft
made
of coloured
or embroidered
;
morocco
other
feminine
fads, it soon
silk, which are easily thrown
off.
Few
things
but, like many
passed away.
About
this period clogs were
inspire them
with
greater disgust than
for
also used.
These
made
of
wood,
and
with
shoes
were
to
enter
their rooms
anyone
on.
served
protection to
shoes
of
They think
such
conduct
insult
out
to
them-selves
as
a
an
doors.
A similar contrivance, with the addi-tion
and
a pollution to their apartment
;
of
iron ring, leather strap and
and it is considered
the height of irreverence
an
toe-cap,
is still sometimes