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Transparencies for: Prosser, Ossimitz DataData WarehouseWarehouse ManagementManagement UsingUsing SAPSAP BWBW UTB f¸r

Transparencies for:

Prosser, Ossimitz

DataData WarehouseWarehouse ManagementManagement UsingUsing SAPSAP BWBW

UTB f¸r Wissenschaft, Stuttgart 2001

Background

Functional software

MM

Sales
Sales

PPC

Background Functional software MM Sales PPC Acc. (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management,

Acc.

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Background

Process orientation:

Background Process orientation: Business Process MM Sales PPC Acc. Value for the customer (C) Prosser, A.,

Business Process

Background Process orientation: Business Process MM Sales PPC Acc. Value for the customer (C) Prosser, A.,
MM
MM
Background Process orientation: Business Process MM Sales PPC Acc. Value for the customer (C) Prosser, A.,
Sales PPC Acc.
Sales
PPC
Acc.
Value for the customer
Value for
the
customer

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Background noitargetnilacitrVe EIS Decision Support Reporting Reporting, Analysis, Controlling Functional

Background

noitargetnilacitrVe

noitargetnilacitrVe

noitargetnilacitrVe
EIS Decision Support Reporting Reporting, Analysis, Controlling Functional applications Cross-functional base
EIS
Decision
Support
Reporting
Reporting,
Analysis, Controlling
Functional applications
Cross-functional base applications
Operational systems
Office automation
base applications Operational systems Office automation Horizontal integration (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L.,

Horizontal integration

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Background

Background Organisation #1 Decision Support Reporting, Analysis, Controlling Functional applications
Organisation #1 Decision Support Reporting, Analysis, Controlling Functional applications Cross-functional base
Organisation #1
Decision
Support
Reporting,
Analysis, Controlling
Functional applications
Cross-functional base applications
Office automation
Organisation #2 Decision Support Reporting, Analysis, Controlling Functional applications Cross-functional base
Organisation #2
Decision
Support
Reporting,
Analysis, Controlling
Functional applications
Cross-functional base applications
Office automation
Cross-functional base applications Office automation Cross-company integration (e.g ., supply chain management)
Cross-functional base applications Office automation Cross-company integration (e.g ., supply chain management)

Cross-company integration (e.g., supply chain management)

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Why this subject?

Why this subject? ï Warehouse knowledge has become a key factor also for non-IT specialists, e.g.,

ï Warehouse knowledge has become a key factor also for non-IT specialists, e.g., controlling, strategic planning, production planning, marketing, Ö

ï Conventional reporting increasingly replaced by more powerful warehouse tools

ï Warehouse ìboomî in IT and consulting industry

ï Warehouses are the foundation of decision support systems

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Why this subject?

ï Introduction, concepts

ï Conceptual design

ï Database design

ï Case study: SAP BW

Conceptual design ï Database design ï Case study: SAP BW (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

External Sources

Introduction External Sources Operational IS Data Mining KBS OLAP DW (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department

Operational IS

Introduction External Sources Operational IS Data Mining KBS OLAP DW (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department
Introduction External Sources Operational IS Data Mining KBS OLAP DW (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department
Introduction External Sources Operational IS Data Mining KBS OLAP DW (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department
Introduction External Sources Operational IS Data Mining KBS OLAP DW (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department
Introduction External Sources Operational IS Data Mining KBS OLAP DW (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department
Data Mining KBS OLAP DW
Data Mining
KBS
OLAP
DW

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

Introduction   Operational system Data warehouse Usage Transaction-intensive (read and write)
 

Operational system

Data warehouse

Usage

Transaction-intensive (read and write)

Query-intensive (read only)

Users

Relatively large number

Relatively small number

Coverage

(In most cases) current data only

Current & historical data; time-dependent

Integration

Data is integrated according to functional activity or business processes

Data is integrated according to subjects

Data

Depending on maintenance of data in the individual operational system

Quality is defined in terms of consistency

quality

Database

Data is updated continuously and is therefore volatile

Data is refreshed or updated at intervals and is therefore non-volatile

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

Introduction Data Mining KBS OLAP DW ODS Operational IS Read/write Read-only Periodic update (C) Prosser, A.,
Data Mining KBS OLAP DW ODS
Data Mining
KBS
OLAP
DW
ODS
Operational IS

Operational IS

Operational IS
Operational IS
Operational IS
Operational IS
Introduction Data Mining KBS OLAP DW ODS Operational IS Read/write Read-only Periodic update (C) Prosser, A.,
Introduction Data Mining KBS OLAP DW ODS Operational IS Read/write Read-only Periodic update (C) Prosser, A.,

Read/write

Read-only

Periodic update

DW ODS Operational IS Read/write Read-only Periodic update (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

operational

current data

Introduction operational current data n m 1 warehouse history n (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department
Introduction operational current data n m 1 warehouse history n (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department
Introduction operational current data n m 1 warehouse history n (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department

n

n m
n m

m

n m
n m
n m
n m
n m
n m

1

warehouse

history

operational current data n m 1 warehouse history n (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of
operational current data n m 1 warehouse history n (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of

n

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction Key Integration

Introduction Key Integration Operational IS DW one object in DW Read/write Key_1 Key_2 Example: ï accounts

Operational IS

Introduction Key Integration Operational IS DW one object in DW Read/write Key_1 Key_2 Example: ï accounts
DW
DW
DW
DW

DW

DW

one object in DW

Read/write

Key_1

Operational IS DW one object in DW Read/write Key_1 Key_2 Example: ï accounts receivable ï customer

Key_2

Operational IS DW one object in DW Read/write Key_1 Key_2 Example: ï accounts receivable ï customer
Operational IS DW one object in DW Read/write Key_1 Key_2 Example: ï accounts receivable ï customer

Example:

ï accounts receivable

ï customer

ï transport destination

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction Field Integration

Introduction Field Integration Operational IS Transaction or process-oriented Filter: ï field format ï numeric
Operational IS Transaction or process-oriented Filter: ï field format ï numeric construction
Operational IS
Transaction or
process-oriented
Filter:
ï field format
ï numeric construction

Subject-oriented

DW

DW

DW
ï field format ï numeric construction Subject-oriented DW ï allowable field content ï attributes stored (C)
ï field format ï numeric construction Subject-oriented DW ï allowable field content ï attributes stored (C)
ï field format ï numeric construction Subject-oriented DW ï allowable field content ï attributes stored (C)

ï allowable field content

ï attributes stored

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

Semantic integration

Introduction Semantic integration Customer 1:1? Accounts receivable Transport destination (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz,
Customer 1:1? Accounts receivable
Customer
1:1?
Accounts receivable
Semantic integration Customer 1:1? Accounts receivable Transport destination (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L.,
Transport destination
Transport destination

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

Semantic integration

Introduction Semantic integration DW Work center Work center Work center B a t c h p
DW Work center
DW
Work center

Work center

Work center
Work center

Batch production

Project management

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

Introduction   Operational system Data warehouse Develop- Often OLTP systems are built by first capturing a
 

Operational system

Data warehouse

Develop-

Often OLTP systems are built by first capturing a full set of requirements and then applying the well established waterfall development method

Data warehouses are built according to the principles of evolutionary and iterative development

ment

Sponsor-

Operational systems tend to be sponsored by a clear process owner who has responsibilities which clearly map onto the organisational hierarchy

The data warehouse requires a more complex sponsorship model because of the organisational scope of the project

ship

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

Introduction   Operational system Data warehouse Model Data is usually normalised and is modeled according
 

Operational system

Data warehouse

Model

Data is usually normalised and is modeled according to the needs of the transaction being supported

Data is usually de-normalised and is modeled according to dimensions of a subject

Data

Typically, data is organised relationally or hierarchically

Data is usually multi- dimensional according to the subject

structure

Scope

Operational transaction systems are defined by the scope of the application which is fixed

The data warehouse project is concerned with providing a decision-support infrastructure that is scalable, extensible and flexible.

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Insert on Normalization

Insert on Normalization SID Activity Fee $ 1 Squash 35 2 Sailing   210 3 Fe

SID

Activity

Fee $

1

Squash

35

2

Sailing

 

210

3

Fencing

50

4

Squash

35

4

Sailing

210

5

Squash

35

5

Weights

50

5

Sailing

210

sh 35 5 Wei ghts 50 5 Sail ing 210 Only singular entries First Normal Form,

Only singular entries

ghts 50 5 Sail ing 210 Only singular entries First Normal Form, 1NF The following examples

First Normal Form, 1NF

The following examples are taken and adapted from David Kroenke, Database Processing, 2000

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Insert on Normalization

SID

Activity

Fee $

1

Squash

35

2

Sailing

210

3

Fencing

50

4

Squash

35

4

Sailing

210

5

Squash

35

5

Weights

50

5

Sailing

210

Key: ID, Activity Activity

50 5 Sail ing 210 Key: ID, Activity Activity Fee Deletion anomaly: delete entry 5 weights

Fee

Deletion anomaly: delete entry

5 weights 50

Activity Fee Deletion anomaly: delete entry 5 weights 50 -? (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department

-?

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Insert on Normalization

SID

Activity

Fee $

1

Squash

35

2

Sailing

210

3

Fencing

50

4

Squash

35

4

Sailing

210

5

Squash

35

5

Weights

50

5

Sailing

210

sh 35 5 Wei ghts 50 5 Sail ing 210 Update anomaly: change entr y 4

Update anomaly: change entry

4 sailing 210

to

4 sailing 200

-?

Insertion anomaly: insert

6 sailing 190

-?

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Insert on Normalization

Insert on Normalization All non-key attributes d epend on the entire key => Second Normal Form,

All non-key attributes depend on the entire key

=> Second Normal Form, 2NF

SID

Activity

1

Squash

2

Sailing

3

Fencing

4

Squash

4

Sailing

5

Squash

5

Weights

5

Sailing

Activity

Fee $

Squash

35

Sailing

210

Fencing

50

Weights

50

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Insert on Normalization

Second Normal Form, 2NF:

SID

Activity

1

Squash

2

Sailing

3

Fencing

4

Squash

4

Sailing

5

Squash

5

Weights

5

Sailing

Sailing 5 Squash 5 Weights 5 Sailing Activity Fee $ Squash 35 Sailing 210 Fencing 50
Activity Fee $ Squash 35 Sailing 210 Fencing 50 Weights 50
Activity
Fee $
Squash
35
Sailing
210
Fencing
50
Weights
50

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Insert on Normalization

SID

Building

Fee $

1

A

1000

2

B

1200

3

C

1300

4

A

1000

5

B

1200

6

C

1300

7

C

1300

8

A

1000

Anomalies??

C 1300 7 C 1300 8 A 1000 Anomalies?? (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Insert on Normalization

SID

Building

Fee $

1

A

1000

2

B

1200

3

C

1300

4

A

1000

5

B

1200

6

C

1300

7

C

1300

8

A

1000

SID

!

Building

!

Fee

7 C 1300 8 A 1000 SID ! Building ! Fee (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L.,

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Insert on Normalization

Insert on Normalization If relation in 2NF and no transitive dependencies => Third Normal Form, 3NF

If relation in 2NF and no transitive dependencies

=> Third Normal Form, 3NF

SID

SID Building

Building

1

A

2

B

3

C

4

A

5

B

6

C

7

C

8

A

Building

Fee $

A

1000

B

1200

C

1300

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Insert on Normalization

Third Normal Form, 3NF:

SID

SID Building

Building

 

1

A

2

B

3

C

 

4

 

A

 
 
 

5

B

6

C

7

C

8

A

    5 B 6 C 7 C 8 A Building Fee $   A  

Building

Fee $

 

A

 

1000

 

B

1200

C

1300

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Insert on Normalization SID Major Prof.   1 WI Werthner 2 AI Janko 2 Production

Insert on Normalization

SID

Major

Prof.

 

1

WI

Werthner

2

AI

Janko

2

Production Man.

Taudes

3

Marketing

Scheuch

3

Production Man.

Jammernegg

3 Product ion Man. Jammernegg

4

Production Man.

Taudes

4

AI

Janko

4 AI Janko

5

Marketing

Schlegelmilch

5 Marketing Schlegelmilch

5

WI

Neumann

Assume: (i) student can have several majors, (ii) major several supervisors, (iii) each professor only supervises one subject.

Anomalies??

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Insert on Normalization

Insert on Normalization SID Major Prof. 1 WI Werthner 2 AI Janko 2 Production Man. Taudes
SID Major Prof. 1 WI Werthner 2 AI Janko 2 Production Man. Taudes 3 Marketing
SID
Major
Prof.
1
WI
Werthner
2
AI
Janko
2
Production Man.
Taudes
3
Marketing
Scheuch
3
Production Man.
Jammernegg
4
Production Man.
Taudes
4
AI
Janko
5
Marketing
Schlegelmilch
5
WI
Neumann

Prof. ! Major

Key candidate #1: SID/Major Key candidate #2: SID/Prof.

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Insert on Normalization

Insert on Normalization Relation in 3NF and all key candidates are keys => Boyce-Codd Normal Form,

Relation in 3NF and all key candidates are keys

=> Boyce-Codd Normal Form, BCNF

Prof.

Major WI AI Production Man. Marketing Production Man. Production Man. Marketing WI

Werthner

Janko

Taudes

Scheuch

Jammernegg

Taudes

Schlegelmilch

Neumann

SID

Prof.

1

Werthner

2

Janko

2

Taudes

3

Scheuch

3

Jammernegg

4

Taudes

4

Janko

5

Schlegelmilch

5

Neumann

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Insert on Normalization

Boyce-Codd Normal Form, BCNF:

Prof.

Major

Werthner

WI

 
  AI
AI
AI

Janko

Taudes

Production Man. Marketing Production Man.

Scheuch

Jammernegg

Taudes

 

Production Man.

Schlegelmilch

Marketing

Neumann

WI

Man. Schlegelmilch Marketing Neumann WI SID   Prof. 1 Werthner   2 Janko

SID

 

Prof.

1

Werthner

 

2

Janko2

2

 

Taudes2  

 

3

 

Scheuch

3

Jammernegg

4

Taudes

4

Janko

5

Schlegelmilch

5

Neumann

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Insert on Normalization

Insert on Normalization       SID Major Activity 1 WI Squash 1 AI Squash 2
     
     

SID

Major

Activity

      SID Major Activity 1 WI Squash 1 AI Squash 2 Producti on Man.

1

WI

Squash

    SID Major Activity 1 WI Squash 1 AI Squash 2 Producti on Man. Sailing

1

AI

Squash

2

Production Man.

Sailing

3

Transport/Logistics

Fencing

3

Production Man.

Fencing

4

AI

Squash

4

AI

Sailing

5

Marketing

Squash

5

Marketing

Weights

5

Marketing

Sailing

Anomalies??

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Insert on Normalization

Insert on Normalization SID Major Activity     1 WI       Squash 1 AI
Insert on Normalization SID Major Activity     1 WI       Squash 1 AI

SID

Major

Activity

   

1

WI

 
   

Squash

1

AI

Squash

2

Production Man.

Sailing

3

Transport/Logistics

Fencing

 

3

Production Man.

Fencing

4

AI

Squash

4

AI

Sailing

5

Marketing

Squash

5

Marketing

Weights

5

Marketing

Sailing

SID ! Major SID ! Activity

Multi-value dependency

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Insert on Normalization

Relation in BCNF and no multi-value dependencies

=> Fourth Normal Form, 4NF

no multi-value dependencies => Fourth Normal Form, 4NF SID Major SID Activity 1 WI 1 Squash

SID

Major

SID

Activity

1

WI

1

Squash

1

AI

2

Sailing

2

Production Man.

3

Fencing

3

Transport/Logistics

4

Squash

3

Production Man.

4

Sailing

4

AI

5

Squash

5

Marketing

5

Weights

 

5

Sailing

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Insert on Normalization

Fourth Normal Form, 4NF:

SID

Major

1

WI1

1

AI1

2

Production Man.

3

Transport/Logistics

3

Production Man.

4

AI

5

Marketing

3 Production Man. 4 AI 5 Marketing SID 1   Activity Squash 2 Sailing

SID

1
1
 

Activity

Squash
Squash
SID 1   Activity Squash 2 Sailing 3 Fencing 4 Squash 4 Sailing 5 Squash 5

2

Sailing

3

Fencing

4

Squash

4

Sailing

5

Squash

5

Weights

5

Sailing

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Insert on Normalization

Insert on Normalization Exercise on Normalization #1: Customer Sales_Area Delivery_Plant Artner & Co

Exercise on Normalization #1:

Customer

Sales_Area

Delivery_Plant

Artner & Co

Austria/East

Graz

Umbrellas&More

Austria/West

Innsbruck

Umbrella Store

Austria/West

Innsbruck

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Insert on Normalization

Insert on Normalization Exercise on Normalization #2: Cust_Nr Cust_Name Product Unit_Price Order_qty 101

Exercise on Normalization #2:

Cust_Nr

Cust_Name

Product

Unit_Price

Order_qty

101

Artner & Co

Beau Paysage

450

100

102

Umbrellas&More

Beau Paysage

450

500

103

Umbrella Store

Adelaide

400

1000

101

Artner & Co

Beau Paysage

450

500

102

Umbrellas&More

Adelaide

400

1000

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

Relational

Introduction Relational multidimensional n m predef Source PO source_ in m 1 n Material Info record

multidimensional

Introduction Relational multidimensional n m predef Source PO source_ in m 1 n Material Info record
n m predef Source PO source_ in m 1 n Material Info record processed_ by
n
m
predef
Source
PO
source_
in
m
1
n
Material
Info record
processed_
by
n
n
m
PR_line
n
PR
order
_item
assigmt.
(batch)
m

Elementary fact in data warehouse

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

Introduction Material Purchase transactions $ Purchase organization Source (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of

Material

Purchase transactions

$

Purchase organization

Source

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

Introduction Step #1 in designing a data warehouse: Identify your elementary transaction, the dimensions of analysis

Step #1 in designing a data warehouse:

Introduction Step #1 in designing a data warehouse: Identify your elementary transaction, the dimensions of analysis

Identify your elementary transaction, the dimensions of analysis and the aggregation steps in each dimension

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

Introduction Exercise: extract possible facts from the following data model of a cost center accounting system

Exercise: extract possible facts

from the following data model of a cost center

accounting system

(to be continued)

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

Introduction n Perf- n m n 1 Cost price Activity attributed depd Element n 1 m
n Perf- n m n 1 Cost price Activity attributed depd Element n 1 m
n
Perf-
n
m
n
1
Cost
price
Activity
attributed
depd
Element
n
1
m
Cost
OH
IS A
Centre
surch
n
n
n
Ass.
n
cost
is
credit
elem.
Alloc
to
con-
is
sumes
1
prim.
cost
m
stat.
m
m
key
has
Base
accordg.
uses
n
n
to
n
Calc.
n
m
OH
has
1
Schema
surchrg.
m
m
n
n
debits
cycle
m
has
Credit
m
(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

Introduction Introducing the Cenox chainstore case: The dimensions under consideration: ï customers (such as Woolworths,

Introducing the Cenox chainstore case:

The dimensions under consideration:

ï customers (such as Woolworths, K-Mart and McDonalds),

ï items (such as oranges, bananas, milk),

ï days when the transaction was concluded.

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

Item

Item n

Item 4

Item 3

Item 2

Item 1

Customer Customer n . Customer 4 Customer 3 Customer 2 Customer 1 Period D D
Customer
Customer n
.
Customer 4
Customer 3
Customer 2
Customer 1
Period
D
D
D
D
D
a
a
a
a
a
Item 1
y
y
y
y
y
1
2
3
4
n
D D D a a a a a Item 1 y y y y y 1

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

.

Introduction

Aggregation

Introduction Aggregation Business   objects Hierarchy levels Customer: Customer (individ.) !

Business

 

objects

Hierarchy levels

Customer:

Customer (individ.) !

Customer group !

Customer total

Item:

Item (individual)

!

Item type

!

Item total

Period:

Day

!

Month

!

Year

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

Introduction Simple graphical representation * Customer group Customer $_value no_trans Item * Y M D Item

Simple graphical representation

*

Customer group

Customer

$_value no_trans
$_value
no_trans

Item

*

* Customer group Customer $_value no_trans Item * Y M D Item type (C) Prosser, A.,
* Customer group Customer $_value no_trans Item * Y M D Item type (C) Prosser, A.,
* Customer group Customer $_value no_trans Item * Y M D Item type (C) Prosser, A.,
* Customer group Customer $_value no_trans Item * Y M D Item type (C) Prosser, A.,
* Customer group Customer $_value no_trans Item * Y M D Item type (C) Prosser, A.,
* Customer group Customer $_value no_trans Item * Y M D Item type (C) Prosser, A.,

Y

M

D

* Customer group Customer $_value no_trans Item * Y M D Item type (C) Prosser, A.,
* Customer group Customer $_value no_trans Item * Y M D Item type (C) Prosser, A.,
* Customer group Customer $_value no_trans Item * Y M D Item type (C) Prosser, A.,
* Customer group Customer $_value no_trans Item * Y M D Item type (C) Prosser, A.,
* Customer group Customer $_value no_trans Item * Y M D Item type (C) Prosser, A.,
* Customer group Customer $_value no_trans Item * Y M D Item type (C) Prosser, A.,

Item type

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

Introduction Naming convention - the CENOX case Business Level 0 Level 1 Level 2 Objects Customer:

Naming convention - the CENOX case

Business

Level 0

Level 1

Level 2

Objects

Customer:

C_cu customer (individual)

C_gr customer group

C_* customer total

Item:

I_it

item

I_ty

item type

I_*

item total

(individual)

   

Period:

P_d

day

P_m month

P_y year

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

Information cube:

Introduction Information cube: I Total t Item e type m Total Item Customer group Customer Customer
I Total t Item e type m Total Item Customer group Customer Customer Day Month
I
Total
t
Item
e
type
m
Total
Item
Customer group
Customer
Customer
Day
Month
Year

Period

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

Introduction individual hypercube, ìcubeî: i t e m s tomatoes milk bananas oranges Mc Donalds K-Mart

individual hypercube, ìcubeî:

items

tomatoes

milk

bananas

oranges

Mc Donalds K-Mart Woolworths
Mc Donalds
K-Mart
Woolworths

01/ 02/ 03/ 04/ 01/ 01/ 01/ 01/

00 00

00 00

customer

period

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

I Total t Item e type m Total Customer group Item Customer Customer Day Month
I
Total
t
Item
e
type
m
Total
Customer group
Item
Customer
Customer
Day
Month
Year
Period
group Item Customer Customer Day Month Year Period  I _ it    C

I _ it

C _ cu

  P _ d

  C _ cu   P _ d     Cubes derived
  C _ cu   P _ d     Cubes derived
  C _ cu   P _ d     Cubes derived

Cubes derived from an information cube:

  I _ ty

_ cu

  _ d

C

P

  I _ it

_ d

 

 

C

P

_ gr

I _ it


 

C

P

_ cu

_ m


 

      C P _ gr  I _ it  

.

.

.

  C P _ cu _ m     . . . 
  C P _ cu _ m     . . . 
  C P _ cu _ m     . . . 

I _*

C _*

  P _*

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

I Total t Item e type m Total Item Customer group Customer Customer Day Month
I
Total
t
Item
e
type
m
Total
Item
Customer group
Customer
Customer
Day
Month
Year
Period
Customer group Customer Customer Day Month Year Period  I _ *   C _

I _ *

C _ cu

  P _ d

 C _ cu   P _ d       I

I _ *

C _ gr

  P _ d

 C _ gr   P _ d      Sample cubes:

Sample cubes:

  P _ d      Sample cubes:  I _ *

I _ *

C _ *

  P _ d

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

Derivatives of a cube

I _ it

_ gr

  _ m

C

P

I _ it



C

P

_ gr

_ m

?

        C P _ gr _ m ? ?

?

       C P _ gr _ m ? ? 

I _ ty

_ gr

  _*

C

P

I _*


C

P

_ gr

_ d

   C P _ gr _ d      (C) Prosser,

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

Derivatives of a cube

a

v = b , w =

c

 

x

 

y

z

w is a derivative of v, iff a x and b y and c z

derivati ve of v, iff a ≤ x and b ≤ y and c ≤ z

with a x meaning a is of lower or the same hierarchy level in the respective dimension

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

Introduction ï characteristics , identify an aggregation level e.g., customer, item, time period ï key figure

ï characteristics, identify an aggregation level e.g., customer, item, time period

ï key figure, aggregated e.g., sales value in $, number of transactions

ï non-aggregation attributes, additional information e.g., customer address

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

Introduction Each characteristic and key figure has a value set (in some cases a continuous space)

Each characteristic and key figure has a value set (in some cases a continuous space)

e.g., customers={Baumann AG, Meier&Co, Ö}

number_of_transactions = N +

length = R +

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

Introduction Entries in cube are defined by Cartesian Product of value sets of characteristics cube c=(

Entries in cube are defined by Cartesian Product of value sets of characteristics

cube c=(I_*,C_cu,P_y):

VS(c)=VS(I_*) X VS(C_cu) X VS(P_y) Baumann AG 1990 Meier & Co Artner KEG 1991 *
VS(c)=VS(I_*) X VS(C_cu) X VS(P_y)
Baumann AG
1990
Meier & Co
Artner KEG
1991
*
1992

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

Introduction Important qualification on dimensions: => should show pairwise independence Example : * Customer type

Important qualification on dimensions:

=> should show pairwise independence

Example:

*

Customer type

Customer

$_value no_trans
$_value
no_trans

YMD

Example : * Customer type Customer $_value no_trans YMD Rate * Rate group (C) Prosser, A.,
Example : * Customer type Customer $_value no_trans YMD Rate * Rate group (C) Prosser, A.,
Example : * Customer type Customer $_value no_trans YMD Rate * Rate group (C) Prosser, A.,
Example : * Customer type Customer $_value no_trans YMD Rate * Rate group (C) Prosser, A.,
Example : * Customer type Customer $_value no_trans YMD Rate * Rate group (C) Prosser, A.,
Example : * Customer type Customer $_value no_trans YMD Rate * Rate group (C) Prosser, A.,

Rate

*

: * Customer type Customer $_value no_trans YMD Rate * Rate group (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz,
: * Customer type Customer $_value no_trans YMD Rate * Rate group (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz,
: * Customer type Customer $_value no_trans YMD Rate * Rate group (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz,
: * Customer type Customer $_value no_trans YMD Rate * Rate group (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz,
: * Customer type Customer $_value no_trans YMD Rate * Rate group (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz,
: * Customer type Customer $_value no_trans YMD Rate * Rate group (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz,

Rate group

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

Aggregation operator:

Introduction Aggregation operator: One or more indicated for each combination of characteristics in a cube summation,

One or more indicated for each combination of characteristics in a cube

summation, average, extremum

Aggregation:

(key figure, aggregation operator)

e.g., number_of_transactions, summation

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

Introduction       Operator Nominal Ordinal   Interval Rational      
 
 
   
   
   
   
   
   

Operator

Nominal

Ordinal

 

Interval

Rational

     
       
 

Sum

No

 

No

 

No

"

Average

No

(

" )

 

"

"

     
     
     
     
     

Minimum

No

 

"

 

"

"

     
 
     
 
     
 

Maximum

No

 

"

 

"

"

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

Introduction Nominal: numerical coding without meaningful values Ordinal: coding represents >< relationships,

Nominal: numerical coding without meaningful values

Ordinal: coding represents >< relationships, no meaningful sum

Interval: metric, but have a ìbeginningî and/or ìendî, hence, no meaningful sum

Rational: metric, any operation

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction * Additivity Plant Σ Storage_location Material * Stock_ level Y M W Material_group Σ
Introduction
*
Additivity
Plant
Σ
Storage_location
Material
*
Stock_
level
Y
M
W
Material_group
Σ
Σ
=>
AVG
"

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

x

Σ

max
max
AVG
AVG

min

Introduction x Σ max AVG min   Some dimensions Semi-additive Semi -additive All dimensions Some aggregation
Introduction x Σ max AVG min   Some dimensions Semi-additive Semi -additive All dimensions Some aggregation
 

Some dimensions Semi-additive Semi -additive

All dimensions

Some aggregation operator

Semi-additive

All aggregation operators

Additive

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

Introduction Step #2 in designing a data warehouse: Identify your aggregation hierarchy and the key figures

Step #2 in designing a data warehouse:

Introduction Step #2 in designing a data warehouse: Identify your aggregation hierarchy and the key figures

Identify your aggregation hierarchy and the key figures to aggregate

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

Introduction Exercise: extract possible dimensions and hierarchy levels from the following data model of a cost

Exercise: extract possible dimensions and hierarchy

levels from the following data model of a cost center

accounting system

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

Introduction n Perf.- n m n 1 Cost price Activity attributed depd. Element n 1 m
n Perf.- n m n 1 Cost price Activity attributed depd. Element n 1 m
n
Perf.-
n
m
n
1
Cost
price
Activity
attributed
depd.
Element
n
1
m
Cost
OH
IS A
Centre
surch.
n
n
n
Ass.
cost
n
is
Alloc.
credit
elem.
to
con-
is
sumes
1
prim.
cost
m
stat.
m
m
key
Base
has
accordg.
uses
n
n
to
n
Calc.
n
m
OH
has
n
Schema
1
surchrg.
m
m
n
debits
cycle
m
has
Credit
m
(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Key Terms

Key Terms I want to keep one dimension at a fixed value Item Customer Item n

I want to keep one dimension at a fixed value

Item Customer Item n Customer n Item 4 Customer 4 . Item 3 Customer 3
Item
Customer
Item n
Customer n
Item 4
Customer 4
.
Item 3
Customer 3
Item 2
Customer 2
Item 1
Customer 1
Period

Customer 3 fixed

Item n Item 4 Item 3 Item 2 Item 1
Item n
Item 4
Item 3
Item 2
Item 1

D

D

D

D

D

D

D

D

D

D

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

y

y

y

y

y

y

y

y

y

y

1

2

3

4

n

1

2

3

4

n

.

=> Slicing

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Key Terms

Key Terms Item Customer Item n Customer n Dimensions exchanged Item 4 . Customer 4 Item
Item Customer Item n Customer n Dimensions exchanged Item 4 . Customer 4 Item 3
Item
Customer
Item n
Customer n
Dimensions
exchanged
Item 4
.
Customer 4
Item 3
Customer 3
Item 2
Customer 2
Item 1
Customer 1
Period
D
D
D
D
D
a
a
a
a
a
y
y
y
y
y
1
2
3
4
n

=> Pivoting

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Key Terms

Item

. Customer 4 Customer 3 Customer 2 Customer 1
.
Customer 4
Customer 3
Customer 2
Customer 1

Customer

Item n

Customer n

Item 4

Item 3

Item 2

Item 1

Period

Item n

Item 4

Item 3

Item 2

Item 1

3 Item 2 Item 1 Period Item n Item 4 Item 3 Item 2 Item 1

Customer = ì*î

1 Period Item n Item 4 Item 3 Item 2 Item 1 Customer = ì*î D

D

D

D

D

D

D

D

D

D

D

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

y

y

y

y

y

y

y

y

y

y

1

2

3

4

n

1

2

3

4

n

=> Dicing

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Key Terms

Key Terms ìSlicing & dicingî used for user-specific data presentation and access rights: marketing controller

ìSlicing & dicingî used for user-specific data presentation and access rights:

used for user-specific data presentation and access rights: marketing controller product manager t o p m
used for user-specific data presentation and access rights: marketing controller product manager t o p m

marketing

controller

product manager

top manager or

manager

ad hoc view

customer i revenue t e m
customer
i
revenue
t
e
m
r manager ad hoc view customer i revenue t e m period (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz,

period

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Key Terms

Key Terms Items total Food Dairy Vegetables Oranges Bananas Milk Tomatoes Drill through (C) Prosser, A.,
Items total Food Dairy Vegetables Oranges Bananas Milk Tomatoes
Items total
Food
Dairy
Vegetables
Oranges
Bananas
Milk
Tomatoes
Food Dairy Vegetables Oranges Bananas Milk Tomatoes Drill through (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of
Food Dairy Vegetables Oranges Bananas Milk Tomatoes Drill through (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of
Food Dairy Vegetables Oranges Bananas Milk Tomatoes Drill through (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of
Food Dairy Vegetables Oranges Bananas Milk Tomatoes Drill through (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of
Food Dairy Vegetables Oranges Bananas Milk Tomatoes Drill through (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of
Food Dairy Vegetables Oranges Bananas Milk Tomatoes Drill through (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of
Food Dairy Vegetables Oranges Bananas Milk Tomatoes Drill through (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of
Food Dairy Vegetables Oranges Bananas Milk Tomatoes Drill through (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of
Food Dairy Vegetables Oranges Bananas Milk Tomatoes Drill through (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of
Food Dairy Vegetables Oranges Bananas Milk Tomatoes Drill through (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of
Food Dairy Vegetables Oranges Bananas Milk Tomatoes Drill through (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of

Drill through

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Key Terms

Key Terms Items total Food Dairy Vegetables Bananas Milk Drill down Oranges Tomatoes Roll up (C)
Items total Food Dairy Vegetables
Items total
Food
Dairy
Vegetables

Bananas

Milk
Milk

Drill down

Items total Food Dairy Vegetables Bananas Milk Drill down Oranges Tomatoes Roll up (C) Prosser, A.,

Oranges

Tomatoes

Roll up

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Key Terms

Cube: filter for customers with revenue p.a. in excess of $100,000.-

Item n

Item 4

Item 3

Item 2

Item 1

Item Customer Customer n . Customer 12 Customer 6 Customer 5 Customer 3 Period D
Item
Customer
Customer n
.
Customer 12
Customer 6
Customer 5
Customer 3
Period
D
D
D
D
D
a
a
a
a
a
y
y
y
y
y
1
2
3
4
n

=> Filtering (screening, selection)

.

y 1 2 3 4 n => Filtering (screening, selection) . (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L.,

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

Introduction Step #3 in designing a data warehouse: Make a user-oriented warehouse model, relate warehouse model

Step #3 in designing a data warehouse:

Introduction Step #3 in designing a data warehouse: Make a user-oriented warehouse model, relate warehouse model

Make a user-oriented warehouse model, relate warehouse model to data model in operational database

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Introduction

Introduction Step #4 in designing a data warehouse: define your tables and input paths (C) Prosser,

Step #4 in designing a data warehouse:

Introduction Step #4 in designing a data warehouse: define your tables and input paths (C) Prosser,

define your tables and input paths

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Conceptual Modeling

Conceptual Modeling Conceptual Model: user view, database-independent in operational systems: ERM or SOM Logical

Conceptual Model: user view, database-independent in operational systems: ERM or SOM

Logical Model: database-dependent, represents data structures to be stored, e.g., relational model

Physical Model: implementation of the logical model on storage medium, indices, blocks, etc., product-dependent

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Conceptual Modeling

Operational IS
Operational IS
Conceptual Modeling Operational IS Aggregates Aggregation Path Array DW Dimensional Fact Modeling (C) Prosser, A.,
Conceptual Modeling Operational IS Aggregates Aggregation Path Array DW Dimensional Fact Modeling (C) Prosser, A.,

Aggregates

Conceptual Modeling Operational IS Aggregates Aggregation Path Array DW Dimensional Fact Modeling (C) Prosser, A.,
Aggregation Path Array DW
Aggregation
Path Array
DW
Operational IS Aggregates Aggregation Path Array DW Dimensional Fact Modeling (C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L.,

Dimensional Fact Modeling

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Dimensional Fact Modeling

Dimensional Fact Modeling Dimensional Fact Modeling (DFM) developed by Golfarelli, Maio and Rizzi (1998) ï facts

Dimensional Fact Modeling (DFM)

developed by Golfarelli, Maio and Rizzi (1998)

ï facts - event of interest

ï dimensions

ï hierarchies

ï ëmeasuresí the facts from different points of view

(C) Prosser, A., Ossimitz, M.L., Department of Production Management, Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. Vienna, Austria, 2000

Dimensional Fact Modeling

The Sales Example revisted:

Dimensional Fact Modeling The Sales Example revisted: Business Level 0 Level 1 Level 2 Objects Customer:

Business

Level 0

Level 1

Level 2

Objects

Customer:

C_cu customer (individual)

C_gr customer group