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CURRENT

ELECTRICITY

1.

ELECTRIC CURRENT :
Electric charges in motion constitute an electric current. Any medium having practically free electric
charges , free to migrate is a conductor of electricity. The electric charge flows from higher potential
energy state to lower potential energy state. Positive charge flows from higher to lower potential and
negative charge flows from lower to higher. Metals such as gold, silver, copper, aluminium etc. are good
conductors.

2.

ELECTRIC CURRENT IN A CONDUCTOR :

In absence of potential difference across a conductor no net current flows through a corss section.
When a potential difference is applied across a conductor the charge carriers (electrons in case of
metallic conductors) flow in a definite direction which constitutes a net current in it . These electrons are
not accelerated by electric field in the conductor produced by potential difference across the conductor.
They move with a constant drift velocity . The direction of current is along the flow of positive charge (or
opposite to flow of negative charge). i = nvdeA, where Vd = drift velocity .

3.

CHARGE AND CURRENT :

The strength of the current i is the rate at which the electric charges are flowing. If a charge Q coulomb
passes through a given cross section of the conductor in t second the current I through the conductor is
given by I =

Q
Coulomb
Q
=
= ampere .
t
sec ond
t

dq
Ampere is the unit of current . If i is not constant then i =
, where dq is net charge transported at
dt
a section in time dt.
In a current carrying conductor we can define a vector which gives the direction as current per unit
normal, cross sectional area.

Thus J = n or I = J S
S
Where n is the unit vector in the direction of the flow of current.

For random J or S, we use I = J ds

4.

RELATION IN J, E AND D :
In conductors drift vol. of electrons is proportional to the electric field in side the conductor
as d = E
where is the mobility of electrons
I
current density is given as J =
= ne d
A
= ne(E) = E
1
where = ne is called conductivity of material and we can also write =
resistivity

5.

SOURCES OF POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE & ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE :

Dry cells , secondary cells , generator and thermo couple are the devices used for producing potential
difference in an electric circuit. The potential difference between the two terminals of a source when no
energy is drawn from it is called the " Electromotive force" or " EMF " of the source. The unit of
potential difference is volt.
1 volt = 1 Amphere 1 Ohm.

P. No. 1

6.

ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE :
The property of a substance which opposes the flow of electric current through it is termed as electrical
resistance. Electrical resistance depends on the size, geometery, temperature and internal structure of the
conductor.

7.

LAW OF RESISTANCE :
The resistance R offered by a conductor depends on the following factors :
R L (length of the conductor) ;

l
(cross section area of the conductor)
A

l
.
A
Where is the resistivity of the material of the conductor at the given temperature . It is also known as
specific resistance of the material .

at a given temperature R =

8.

DEPENDENCE OF RESISTANCE ON TEMPERATURE :

The resistance of most conductors and all pure metals increases with temperature , but there are a few in
which resistance decreases with temperature . If Ro & R be the resistance of a conductor at 0 C and
C , then it is found that R = Ro (1 + ) .
Here we assume that the dimensions of resistance does not change with temperature if expansion
coefficient of material is considerable. Then instead of resistance we use same property for
resistivity as
= 0 (1 + )
The materials for which resistance decreases with temperature, the temperature coefficient of
resistance is negative.
Where is called the temperature co-efficient of resistance . The unit of is K 1 of C 1 reciprocal of
resistivity is called conductivity and reciprocal of resistance is called conductance (G) . S.I. unit of G is
ohm.

9.

OHM'S LAW :
Ohm's law is the most fundamental of all the laws in electricity . It says that the current through the cross
section or the conductor is proportional to the applied potential difference under the given physical
condition . V = R I . Ohm's law is applicable to only metalic conductors .

10.

KRICHHOFF'S LAW'S :
I - Law (Junction law or Nodal Analysis) :This law is based on law of conservation of charge . It
states that " The algebric sum of the currents meeting at a point is zero " or total currents entering a
junction equals total current leaving the junction .
Iin = Iout. It is also known as KCL (Kirchhoff's current law) .
II - Law (Loop analysis) :The algebric sum of all the voltages in closed
circuit is zero.
IR + EMF = 0 in a closed loop . The closed loop can be traversed
in any direction . While traversing a loop if higher potential point is
entered, put a + ve sign in expression or if lower potential point is
entered put a negative sign .

V1 V2 +V3 V4 = 0. Boxes may contain resistor or battery or any other element (linear or non-linear).
It is also known as KVL (Kirchhoff's voltage law) .
P. No. 2

11.

COMBINATION OF RESISTANCES :
A number of resistances can be connected and all the
complecated combinations can be reduced to two different types,
namely series and parallel .
(i)

RESISTANCE IN SERIES :
When the resistances are connected end toend then they are said to be in series . The current
through each resistor is same . The effective resistance appearing across the battery .
R = R1 + R2 + R3 + ................ + Rn and
V = V1 + V2 + V3 + ................ + Vn .
The voltage across a resistor is proportional to the resistance
V1 =

(ii)

R1

R1R 2 .........R n

V;V2 =

R2

R1R 2 .........R n

V ;

etc

RESISTANCE IN PARALLEL :
A parallel circuit of resistors is one in which the same voltage is applied across all the
components in a parallel grouping of resistors R1, R2, R3, ........, Rn .
CONCLUSIONS :
(a)
Potential difference across each resistor is same .
(b)

I = I1 + I2 + I3 + .......... In .

(c)

Effective resistance (R) then

(d)

1 1 1 1
1
..........
.
R R1 R 2 R 3
Rn
Current in different resistors is inversally
proportional to the resistance .
I1 : I2 : ........... In =
I1 =

G1

1 1 1
1
: : :..........:
.
R1 R 2 R 3
Rn

G1G 2 .........G n

I , I2 =

G2

G1G 2 .........G n

I , etc .

I
= Conductance of a resistor .
R
EMF OF A CELL & ITS INTERNAL RESISTANCE :
If a cell of emf E and internal resistance r be connected with a resistance R the total resistance of
the circuit is (R + r) .
E
E
I=
;
VAB =
where
R r
R r

where G =

12.

E = Terminal voltage of the battery .If r 0, cell is Ideal & V E .

13.

GROUPING OF CELLS :
(i)
CELLS IN SERIES :
Let there be n cells each of emf E , arranged in series.Let r be the internal resistance of each cell.
nE
The total emf = n E . Current in the circuit I =
.
R nr
If nr << R then I =

nE
R

If nr >> R then I =

Series combination should be used .

Series combination should not be used .
P. No. 3

(ii)

CELLS IN PARALLEL :
If m cells each of emf E & internal resistance r be connected in parallel and if this
combination be connected to an external resistance then the emf of the circuit = E .
Internal resistance of the circuit =
I=

(iii)

r
.
m

mE
E
=
.
r
mR r
R m

If mR << r ; I =

mE
r

If mR >> r ; I =

E
R

CELLS IN MULTIPLE ARC :

mn = number of identical cells .
n = number of rows
m = number of cells in each rows .
The combination of cells is equivalent to single cell of :
(a) emf = mE
Current I =

R=

&

mE
.
R mr
n

mr
n

For maximum current nR = mr or

mr
= internal resistance of battery .
n

nE mE
.

2r 2R
WHEAT STONE NETWORK :
When current through the galvanometer is zero (null point or balance

Imax =

P R
=
. When PS > QR; VC < VD & PS <QR ; VC > VD or
Q S
PS = QR products of opposite arms are equal. Potential difference
between C & D at null point is zero . The null point is not affected by
resistance of G & E. It is not affected even if the positions of G & E are
inter changed. ICD (QR PS) .
point)

14.

POTENTIOMETER :
A potentiometer is a linear conductor of uniform cross-section with a steady current set up in it. This
maintains a uniform potential gradient along the length of the wire . Any potential difference which is less
then the potential difference maintained across the potentiometer wire can be measured using this . The
potentiometer equation is

E1 I1
.
E 2 I2

P. No. 4

15.

AMMETER :
It is a modified form of suspended coil galvanometer it is used to measure
current . A shunt (small resistance) is connected in parallel with
galvanometer to convert into ammeter . S =

Ig R g
II g

; An ideal ammeter

has zero resistance . where

Ig = Maximum current that can flow through the galvanometer .
I = Maximum current that can be measured using the given ammeter .
16.

VOLTMETER :
A high resistance is put in series with galvanometer . It is used to measure potential difference .
Ig =

Vo
R g R

R , Ideal voltmeter .
17.

RELATIVE POTENTIAL :
While solving an electric circuit it is convinient to chose a reference point and assigning its voltage as
zero. Then all other potential are measured with respect to this point . This point is also called the
common point .

18.

ELECTRICAL POWER :
The energy liberated per second in a device is called its power . The electrical power P delivered by an
electrical device is given by P = VI , where V = potential difference across device & I = current. If the
current enters the higher potential point of the device then power is consumed by it (i.e. acts as load) . If
the current enters the lower potential point then the device supplies power (i.e. acts as source) .

19.

V2
Power consumed by a resistor P
= VI =
.
R
HEATING EFFECT OF ELECTRIC CURRENT :
When a current is passed through a resistor energy is wested in over coming the resistances of the wire
. This energy is converted into heat .

20.

V2
t Joule .
W = VIt
Joule ;=
R
JOULES LAW OF ELECTRICAL HEATING :
The heat generated (in joules) when a current of I ampere flows through a resistance of R ohm for
T second is given by :

= I2R

Joule ; = I2 Rt

I 2 RT
Calories .
4.2
If current is variable passing through the conductor then we use for heat produced in resistance in time

H = I2 RT Joules

0 to t is:

2
H = I Rdt
0

21.

UNIT OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION :

1 unit of electrical energy = Kilowatt hour = 1 KWh = 3.6 106 Joules.
P. No. 5

EXERCISE # I
Q.1

A current of 5 amp. is passing through a metallic wire of cross sectional area 4 106 m2. If the density
of the charge carrier in the wire is 5 1026/m3. Find the drift speed of the electrons.

Q.2

A uniform copper wire of mass 2.33 103 kg caries a current of 1 A, when 1.7 V is applied across it.
Calculate its length and area of cross section. If the wire is uniformly stretched to double its length,
calculate the new resistance. Density of Cu is 8.92 103 kg m3 and resistivity is 1.7 108 m.

Q.3

Figure shows, as function of time, the energy dissipated by current in a resistor. Rank the three lettered
time period according to (a) the current through the resistor and (b) the rate of dissipation in the resistor,
greatest first.

Q.4

In the circuit shown, if the current in the vertical resistance is equal to I then what is the potential of the
battery ?

Q.5

In a electric circuit, a cell of constant E.M.F 6 V and internal resistance 2 is connected in closed circuit
with an external resistance. The potential difference across the terminals of the cell is 5 volt. If the
external resistance is doubled, the potential difference across the terminals of the cell is ________.

Q.6

The four terminal network shown in the figure consists of four equal resistors and is a part of a larger
circuit. The points A, B & C are at same potential. The p.d. between A and D is 40 volts. The p.d.
between O and D is

Q.7

A network of nine conductors connects six points A, B, C, D, E and F

as shown in figure. The figure denotes resistances in ohms. Find the
equivalent resistance between A and D.

P. No. 6

Q.8

Find the current I & voltage V in the circuit shown.

Q.9

Find the equivalent resistance of the circuit between points A and B shown in
figure is: (each branch is of resistance = 1)

Q.10

Find the current through 25V cell & power supplied by

20V cell in the figure shown.

Q.11

If a cell of constant E.M.F. produces the same amount of the heat during the same time in two independent
resistors R1 and R2, when they are separately connected across the terminals of the cell, one after the
another, find the internal resistance of the cell.

Q.12

In the circuit shown in figure, all wires have equal resistance r. Find the
equivalent resistance between A and B.

Q.14

Q.15

In the circuit shown in figure the reading of ammeter is the same

with both switches open as with both closed. Then find the
resistance R. (ammeter is ideal)

P. No. 7

Q.16

If the switches S1, S2 and S3 in the figure are arranged such that
current through the battery is minimum, find the voltage across
points A and B.

Q.17

A battery of emf 0 = 10 V is connected across a 1 m long uniform

wire having resistance 10/m. Two cells of emf 1 = 2V and 2 = 4V
having internal resistances 1 and 5 respectively are connected as
shown in the figure. If a galvanometer shows no deflection at the
point P, find the distance of point P from the point a.

Q.18

A potentiometer wire AB is 100 cm long and

has a total resistance of 10ohm. If the
galvanometer shows zero deflection at the
position C, then find the value of unknown
resistance R.

Q.19

In the figure shown for which values of R1 and R2 the balance point for Jockey is at 40 cm from A. When
R2 is shunted by a resistance of 10 , balance shifts to 50 cm. Find R1 and R2. (AB = 1 m) :

Q.20

A part of a circuit is shown in figure. Here reading of ammeter is 5

ampere and voltmeter is 96V & voltmeter resistance is 480 ohm. Then
find the resistance R

P. No. 8

EXERCISE # II
Q.1(a) The current density across a cylindrical conductor of radius R varies according to the equation
r

J = J 0 1 , where r is the distance from the axis. Thus the current density is a maximum Jo at the
R
axis r = 0 and decreases linearly to zero at the surface r = R. Calculate the current in terms of Jo and the
R2.
Suppose that instead the current density is a maximum Jo at the surface and decreases linearly to zero at
r
the axis so that J = J0 . Calculate the current.
R
c

(b)

Q.2

What will be the change in the resistance of a circuit consisting of five

identical conductors if two similar conductors are added as shown by
the dashed line in figure.

Q.3

The current I through a rod of a certain metallic oxide is given by I = 0.2 V5/2, where V is the potential
difference across it. The rod is connected in series with a resistance to a 6V battery of negligible internal
resistance. What value should the series resistance have so that :
the current in the circuit is 0.44
the power dissipated in the rod is twice that dissipated in the resistance.

(i)
(ii)
Q.4

(i)
(ii)

A network of resistance is constructed with R1 & R2 as

shown in the figure. The potential at the points 1, 2, 3,.., N
are V1, V2, V3 , .., Vn respectively each having a potential
k time smaller than previous one. Find:
R2
R1
and R in terms of k
R2
3
current that passes through the resistance R2 nearest to the V0 in terms V0, k & R3.

Q.5

A person decides to use his bath tub water to generate electric power to run a 40 watt bulb. The bath
tube is located at a height of 10 m from the ground & it holds 200 litres of water. If we install a water
driven wheel generator on the ground, at what rate should the water drain from the bath tube to light
bulb? How long can we keep the bulb on, if the bath tub was full initially. The efficiency of generator is
90%.(g = 10m/s2)

Q.6
(i)
(ii)

In the circuit shown in figure, calculate the following :

Potential difference between points a and b when switch S is open.
Current through S in the circuit when S is closed.

Q.7

A rod of length L and cross-section area A lies along the x-axis between x = 0 and x = L. The material
obeys Ohms law and its resistivity varies along the rod according to (x) = 0 ex/L. The end of the rod
at x = 0 is at a potential V0 and it is zero at x = L.
Find the total resistance of the rod and the current in the wire.
Find the electric potential in the rod as a function of x.

(a)
(b)

P. No. 9

Q.8

An ideal cell having a steady emf of 2 volt is connected across the potentiometer wire of length 10 m.
The potentiometer wire is of magnesium and having resistance of 11.5 /m. An another cell gives a null
point at 6.9 m. If a resistance of 5 is put in series with potentiometer wire, find the new position of the
null point.

Q.9

An enquiring physics student connects a cell to a circuit and measures the current drawn from the
cell to I1. When he joins a second identical cell is series with the first, the current becomes I2. When
the cells are connected are in parallel, the current through the circuit is I3. Show that relation between
the current is 3 I3 I2 = 2 I1 (I2 + I3)

Q.10

Find the potential difference VA VB for the circuit

shown in the figure.

Q.11

A resistance R of thermal coefficient of resistivity = is connected in parallel with a resistance = 3R,

having thermal coefficient of resistivity = 2. Find the value of eff .

Q.12
(a)
(b)

Q.13

In the primary circuit of potentiometer the rheostat can be varied from 0 to 10. Initially it is at minimum
resistance (zero).
Find the length AP of the wire such that the galvanometer shows zero
deflection.
Now the rheostat is put at maximum resistance (10) and the switch S is
closed. New balancing length is found to 8m. Find the internal resistance r
of the 4.5V cell.
A galvanometer (coil resistance 99 ) is converted into a ammeter using a shunt of 1and connected as
shown in the figure (i). The ammeter reads 3A. The same galvanometer is converted into a voltmeter by
connecting a resistance of 101 in series. This voltmeter is connected as shown in figure(ii). Its reading
is found to be 4/5 of the full scale reading. Find

(a)

(b)

(c)

full scale deflection current of the galvanometer

. The appropriate terminals of a cell of emf 1.5 volt and internal resistance

1is connected to one end of the wire, and the other terminal of the cell is connected through a sensitive
galvanometer to a slider on the wire. What length of the wire will be required to produce zero deflection
of the galvanometer ? How will be balancing change (a) when a coil of resistance 5 is placed in series
with the a accumulator, (b) the cell of 1.5 volt is shunted with 5 resistor ?

P. No. 10

EXERCISE # III
Q.1

In the circuit shown in the figure, the current through :

(A) the 3 resistor is 0.50 A
(B) the 3resistor is 0.25 A
(C) 4 resistor is 0.50 A
(D) the 4resistor is 0.25 A
[JEE98, 2]

Q.2

In the circuit shown, P R, the reading of the galvanometer is same with

switch S open or closed. Then
(B) IP = IG
(C) IQ = IG
(D) IQ = IR
[JEE99, 2]
R = IG
(

Q.3

The effective resistance between the points P and Q of the electrical

circuit shown in the figure is
(A) 2 Rr / (R + r)
(B) 8R(R + r)/(3R + r)
(C) 2r + 4R
(D) 5 R/2 + 2r
[JEE 2002 (Scr), 3]

Q.4

A 100 W bulb B1, and two 60 W bulbs B2 and B3, are connected to a
250 V source, as shown in the figure. Now W1, W2 and W3 are the
output powers of the bulbs B1, B2 and B3 respectively. Then
(A) W1 > W2 = W3
(B) W1 > W2 > W3
(C) W1 < W2 = W3
(D) W1 <W2 < W3
[JEE 2002 (Scr), 3]

Q.5

A thin uniform wire AB of length l m, an unknown resistance X

and a resistance of 12 are connected by thick conducting
strips, as shown in figure. A battery and a galvanometer (with a
sliding jockey connected to it) are also available. Connections
are to be made to measure the unknown resistance X using the
principle of Wheatstone bridge. Answer the following question.
Are there positive and negative terminals on the galvanometer?
Copy the figure in your answer book and show the battery and the galvanometer (with jockey) connected
at appropriate points.
After appropriate connections are made, it is found that no deflection takes place in the galvanometer
when the sliding jockey touches the wire at a distance of 60 cm from A. Obtain the value of resistance X.
[JEE 2002, 1 + 2 + 2]

(a)
(b)
(c)

P. No. 11

Q.6

Arrange the order of power dissipated in the given circuits, if the same current is passing through all
circuits and each resistor is 'r'
[JEE 2003 (Scr)]
(I)

(II)

(III)

(IV)

(A) P2 > P3 > P4 > P1 (B) P3 > P2 > P4 > P1 (C) P4 > P3 > P2 > P1 (D) P1 > P2 > P3 > P4
Q.7

In the given circuit, no current is passing through the galvanometer. If

the cross-sectional diameter of AB is doubled then for null point of
galvanometer the value of AC would
[JEE 2003 (Scr)]
(A) x
(B) x/2
(C) 2x
(D) None

Q.8

How a battery is to be connected so that shown rheostat will behave

like a potential divider? Also indicate the points about which output can
be taken.
[JEE 2003]

Q.9

Six equal resistances are connected between points P, Q and R as shown

in the figure. Then the net resistance will be maximum between
(A) P and Q
(B) Q and R
(C) P and R
(D) any two points
[JEE 2004 (Scr)]

Q.10

For the post office box arrangement to determine the value of unknown resistance,
the unknown resistance should be connected between [JEE 2004 (Scr)]
(A) B and C
(B) C and D
(C) A and D
(D) B1 and C1

Q.11

Draw the circuit for experimental verification of Ohm's law using a source of variable D.C. voltage, a
main resistance of 100 , two galvanometers and two resistances of values 106 and 103 respectively.
Clearly show the positions of the voltmeter and the ammeter.
[JEE 2004]

Q.12

In the figure shown the current through 2 resistor is

(A) 2 A
(B) 0 A
(C) 4 A
(D) 6 A
[JEE 2005 (Scr)]

Q.13

A galvanometer has resistance 100and it requires current 100A for full scale deflection. A resistor
0.1is connected to make it an ammeter. The smallest current required in the circuit to produce the full
scale deflection is
[JEE 2005 (Scr)]
(A) 1000.1 mA
(B) 1.1 mA
(C) 10.1 mA
(D) 100.1 mA
P. No. 12

Q.14

An unknown resistance X is to be determined using resistances R1, R2 or

R3. Their corresponding null points are A, B and C. Find which of the
above will give the most accurate reading and why?
[JEE 2005]

Q.15

Consider a cylindrical element as shown in the figure. Current

flowing the through element is I and resistivity of material of the
cylinder is . Choose the correct option out
the following.
(A) Power loss in second half is four times the power loss in first half.
(B) Voltage drop in first half is twice of voltage drop in second half.
(C) Current density in both halves are equal.
(D) Electric field in both halves is equal.

[JEE 2006]

Q.16

A resistance of 2 is connected across one gap of a metre-bridge (the length of the wire is 100 cm) and
an unknown resistance, greater than 2 , is connected across the other gap. When these resistances are
interchanged, the balance point shifts by 20 cm. Neglecting any corrections, the unknown resistance is
(A) 3
(B) 4
(C) 5
(D) 6
[JEE 2007]

Q.17

Figures shows three resistor configurations R1, R2 and R3 connected to 3V battery. If the power
dissipated by the configuration R1, R2 and R3 is P1, P2 and P3 respectively, then Figure :[JEE 2008]

Q.18

(D) P3 > P2 > P1

Statement-1 : In a Meter Bridge experiment, null point for an unknown resistance is measured. Now,
the unknown resistance is put inside an enclosure maintained at a higher temperature. The null point can
be obtained at the same point as before by decreasing the value of the standard resistance. [JEE 2008]
Statement-2 : Resistance of a metal increases with increase in temperature.
(A) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is true ; statement-2 is a correct explanation for statement-1
(B) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is true ; statement-2 is NOT a correct explanation for statement-1
(C) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is false
(D) Statement-1 is false, statement-2 is true
P. No. 13

QUESTION BANK ON
ONLY ONE OPTION IS CORRECT.
Q.1

Two wires each of radius of cross section r but of different materials are connected together end to end
(in series). If the densities of charge carriers in the two wires are in the ratio 1 : 4, the drift velocity of
electrons in the two wires will be in the ratio:
(A) 1 : 2
(B) 2 : 1
(C) 4 : 1
(D) 1 : 4

Q.2

In a wire of cross-section radius r, free electrons travel with drift velocity v when a current I flows
through the wire. What is the current in another wire of half the radius and of the same material when the
drift velocity is 2v?
(A) 2I
(B) I
(C) I/2
(D) I/4

Q.3

An insulating pipe of cross-section area 'A' contains an electrolyte which has two types of ions their
charges being e and +2e. A potential difference applied between the ends of the pipe result in the
drifting of the two types of ions, having drift speed = v (ve ion) and v/4 (+ve ion). Both ions have the
same number per unit volume = n. The current flowing through the pipe is
(A) nev A/2
(B) nev A/4
(C) 5nev A/2
(D) 3nev A/2

Q.4

A current I flows through a uniform wire of diameter d when the mean electron drift velocity is V. The
same current will flow through a wire of diameter d/2 made of the same material if the mean drift velocity
of the electron is :
(A) v/4
(B) v/2
(C) 2v
(D) 4v

Q.5

A wire has a non-uniform cross-section as shown in figure. A steady current

flows through it. The drift speed of electrons at points P and q is vP and vQ.
(A) vP = vQ
(B) vP < vQ
(C) vP > vQ
(D) Data insufficient

Q.6

A uniform copper wire carries a current i amperes and has p carriers per metre3. The length of the wire
is metres and its cross-section area is s metre2. If the charge on a carrier is q coulombs, the drift
velocity in ms1 is given by
(A) i/sq
(B) i/psq
(C) psq/i
(D) i/psq

Q.7

The current in a metallic conductor is plotted against voltage at two different

temperatures T1 and T2. Which is correct
(A) T1 > T2
(B) T1 < T2
(C) T1 = T2
(D) none

Q.8

If X, Y and Z in figure are identical lamps, which of the following changes to

the brightnesses of the lamps occur when switch S is closed?
(A) X stays the same, Y decreases
(B) X increases, Y decreases
(C) X increases, Y stays the same
(D) X decreases, Y increases

Q.9

Read the following statements carefully :

Y : The resistivity of a semiconductor decreases with increases of temperature.
Z : In a conducting solid, the rate of collision between free electrons and ions increases with increase of
temperature.
Select the correct statement from the following :
(A) Y is true but Z is false
(B) Y is false but Z is true.
(C) Both Y and Z are true.
(D) Y is true and Z is the correct reason for Y.
P. No. 14

Q.10

A piece of copper and another of germanium are cooled from room temperature to 80 K. The resistance
of :
(A) each of them increases
(B) each of them decreases
(C) copper increases and germanium decreases
(D) copper decreases and germanium increases.

Q.11

A storage battery is connected to a charger for charging with a voltage of 12.5Volts. The internal resistance of
the storage battery is 1. When the charging current is 0.5 A, the emf of the storage battery is:
(A) 13 Volts
(B) 12.5 Volts
(C) 12 Volts
(D) 11.5 Volts

Q.12

Under what condition current passing through the resistance R can be

increased by short circuiting the battery of emf E2. The internal resistances
of the two batteries are r1 and r2 respectively.
(A) E2r1 > E1 (R + r2)
(B) E1r2 > E2 (R + r1)
(C) E2r2 > E1 (R + r2)
(D) E1r1 > E2 (R + r1)

Q.13

A battery consists of a variable number n of identical cells having internal resistance connected in series.
The terminals of the battery are short circuited and the current I measured.
Which one of the graph below shows the relationship between I and n?

(A)

Q.14

(B)

(C)

(D)

(E)

In previous problem, if the cell had been connected in parallel (instead of in series) which of the above
graphs would have shown the relationship between total current I and n?

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(E)

Q.15

In the figure shown, battery 1 has emf = 6 V and internal resistance = 1 .

Battery 2 has emf = 2V and internal resistance = 3 . The wires have negligible
resistance. What is the potential difference across the terminals of battery 2 ?
(A) 4 V
(B) 1.5 V
(C) 5 V
(D) 0.5 V

Q.16

(A) 0
(B) > E
(C) < E

Q.17

A circuit is comprised of eight identical batteries and a resistor

R = 0.8. Each battery has an emf of 1.0 V and internal resistance
of 0.2. The voltage difference across any of the battery is
(A) 0.5V
(B) 1.0V
(C) 0 V
(D) 2 V

Q.18

Two batteries one of the emf 3V, internal resistance 1 ohm and the other of emf 15 V,
internal resistance 2 ohm are connected in series with a resistance R as shown. If the
potential difference between a and b is zero the resistance of R in ohm is
(A) 5
(B) 7
(C) 3
(D) 1
P. No. 15

Q.19

A wire of length L and 3 identical cells of negligible internal resistances are connected in series. Due to
the current, the temperature of the wire is raised by T in time t. N number of similar cells is now
connected in series with a wire of the same material and cross section but of length 2L. The temperature
of the wire is raised by the same amount T in the same time t. The value of N is :
(A) 4
(B) 6
(C) 8
(D) 9

Q.20

A cell of emf E has an internal resistance r & is connected to rheostat. When resistance R of rheostat is
changed correct graph of potential difference across it is

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

Q.21

The battery in the diagram is to be charged by the generator G. The generator has
a terminal voltage of 120 volts when the charging current is10 amperes. The battery
has an emf of 100 volts and an internal resistance of 1 ohm. In order to charge the
battery at 10 amperes charging current, the resistance R should be set at
(A) 0.1
(B) 0.5
(C) 1.0
(D) 5.0

Q.22

A wire of cross-section area A, length L1, resistivity 1 and temperature coefficient of resistivity 1 is
connected to a second wire of length L2, resistivity 2, temperature coefficient of resistivity 2 and the
same area A, so that wire carries same current. Total resistance R is independent of temperature for
small temperature change if (Thermal expansion effect is negligible)
(A) 1 = 2
(B) 1L1 1 + 2L2 2 = 0
(C) L1 1 + L2 2 = 0
(D) None

Q.23 Resistances R1 and R2 each 60 are connected in series as shown

in figure. The Potential difference between A and B is kept 120 volt.
Then what will be the reading of voltmeter connected between the
point C & D if resistance of voltmeter is 120.
(A) 48 V
(B) 24 V
(C) 40V
(D) None
Q.24

The resistance of all the wires between any two adjacent dots is R.
Then equivalent resistance between A and B as shown in figure is :
(A) 7/3 R
(B) 7/6 R
(C) 14/8 R
(D) None of these

Q.25

Consider an infinte ladder network shown in figure. A voltage V is applied between the points A and B.
This applied value of voltage is halved after each section.

(A) R1/R2 = 1

(B) R1/R2 = 1/2

(C) R1/R2 = 2

(D) R1/R2 = 3
P. No. 16

Q.26

In the given circuit the current flowing through the resisitance 20 ohms is 0.3
ampere while the ammetre reads 0.8 ampere. What is the value of R1?
(A) 30 ohms (B) 40 ohms (C) 50 ohms (D) 60 ohms

Q.27

A brass disc and a carbon disc of same radius are assembled alternatively to make a cylindrical conductor.
The resistance of the cylinder is independent of the temperature. The ratio of thickness of the brass disc
to that of the carbon disc is [ is temperature coefficient of resistance & Neglect linear expansion ]
(A)

Q.28

C C
BB

(B)

C B
BC

(C)

BC
C B

(A) + 3V
(B) + 2V
(C) 2V

(D)

BB
C C

(D) none

Q.29

In the circuit shown in figure reading of voltmeter is V1 when only S1 is

closed, reading of voltmeter is V2 when only S2 is closed. The reading
of voltmeter is V3 when both S1 and S2 are closed then
(A) V2 > V1 > V3
(B) V3 > V2 > V1
(C) V3 > V1 > V2
(D) V1 > V2 > V3

Q.30

One end of a Nichrome wire of length 2L and cross-sectional area A is attatched to an end of another
Nichrome wire of length L and cross-sectional area 2A. If the free end of the longer wire is at an electric
potential of 8.0 volts, and the free end of the shorter wire is at an electric potential of 1.0 volt, the
potential at the junction of the two wires is equal to
(A) 2.4 V
(B) 3.2 V
(C) 4.5 V
(D) 5.6 V

Q.31

In the diagram resistance between any two junctions is R. Equivalent resistance

across terminals A and B is
(A)

Q.32

11R
7

(B)

18R
11

(C)

7R
11

(D)

11R
18

Power generated across a uniform wire connected across a supply is H. If the wire is cut into n equal
parts and all the parts are connected in parallel across the same supply, the total power generated in the
wire is

H
H
(B) n2H
(C) nH
(D)
2
n
n
Q.33 A constant voltage is applied between the two ends of a uniform metallic wire. Some heat is developed
in it. The heat developed is doubled if
(A) both the length and the radius of the wire are halved.
(B) both the length and the radius of the wire are doubled
(C) the radius of the wire is doubled
(D) the length of the wire is doubled
(A)

P. No. 17

Q.34

When electric bulbs of same power, but different marked voltage are connected in series across the
power line, their brightness will be :
(A) proportional to their marked voltage
(B) inversely proportional to their marked voltage
(C) proportional to the square of their marked voltage
(D) inversely proportional to the square of their marked voltage
(E) the same for all of them

Q.35

Two bulbs rated (25 W 220V) and (100W 220V) are connected in series to a 440 V line. Which
one is likely to fuse?
(A) 25 W bulb
(B) 100 W bulb
(C) both bulbs
(D) none

Q.36

Rate of dissipation of Joules heat in resistance per unit volume is (symbols have usual meaning)
(A) E
(B) J
(C) J E
(D) None

Q.37

If the length of the filament of a heater is reduced by 10%, the power of the heater will
(A) increase by about 9%
(B) increase by about 11%
(C) increase by about 19%
(D) decrease by about 10%

Q.38

A heater A gives out 300 W of heat when connected to a 200 V d.c. supply. A second heater B gives out
600 W when connected to a 200 v d.c. supply. If a series combination of the two heaters is connected
to a 200 V d.c. supply the heat output will be
(A) 100 W
(B) 450 W
(C) 300 W
(D) 200 W

Q.39

Two bulbs one of 200 volts, 60 watts & the other of 200 volts, 100 watts are connected in series to a
200 volt supply. The power consumed will be
(A) 37.5 watt
(B) 160 watt
(C) 62.5 watt
(D) 110 watt

Q.40

Three 60 W light bulbs are mistakenly wired in series and connected to a 120 V power supply. Assume
the light bulbs are rated for single connection to 120 V. With the mistaken connection, the power dissipated
by each bulb is:
(A) 6.7 W
(B) 13.3 W
(C) 20 W
(D) 40 W

Q.41

(A) 9

(B) 27/4

(C) 4/9

Q.42

In the figure shown the power generated in y is maximum when y = 5.

Then R is
(A) 2
(B) 6
(C) 5
(D) 3

Q.43

In the circuit shown, the resistances are given in ohms and the
battery is assumed ideal with emf equal to 3.0 volts. The resistor
that dissipates the most power is
(A) R1
(B) R2
(C) R3
(D) R4

(D) 4/27

P. No. 18

Q.44

What amount of heat will be generated in a coil of resistance R due to a charge q passing through it if the
current in the coil decreases to zero uniformly during a time interval t

4 q 2R
(A)
3 t
Q.45

q 2R
(B) ln
2t

2q 2 R
(C)
3t

(D) ln

2t
q 2R

The variation of current (I) and voltage (V) is as shown in figure A. The variation
of power P with current I is best shown by which of the following graph
(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

Q.46

When an ammeter of negligible internal resistance is inserted in series with circuit it reads 1A. When the
voltmeter of very large resistance is connected across X it reads 1V. When the point A and B are shorted
by a conducting wire, the voltmeter measures 10 V across the battery. The internal resistance of the
battery is equal to
(A) zero
(B) 0.5
(C) 0.2
(D) 0.1

Q.47

In the box shown current i enters at H and leaves at C. If iAB =

i
2i
, iDC = ,
6
3

i
i
i
, iGF = , iHE = , choose the branch in which current is zero
2
6
6
(A) BG
(B) FC
(C) ED
(D) none

iHA =

Q.48

In a galvanometer, the deflection becomes one half when the galvanometer is

shunted by a 20 resistor. The galvanometer resistance is
(A) 5
(B)10
(C)40
(D)20

Q.49

A galvanometer has a resistance of 20 and reads full-scale when 0.2 V is applied across it. To convert
it into a 10 A ammeter, the galvanometer coil should have a
(A) 0.01 resistor connected across it
(B) 0.02 resistor connected across it
(C) 200 resistor connected in series with it (D) 2000 resistor connected in series with it

Q.50

A milliammeter of range 10 mA and resistance 9 is joined in a circuit as

shown. The metre gives full-scale deflection for current I when A and B are used
as its terminals, i.e., current enters at A and leaves at B (C is left isolated). The
value of I is
(A) 100 mA
(B) 900 mA
(C) 1 A
(D) 1.1 A

Q.51

A galvanometer coil has a resistance 90 and full scale deflection current 10 mA. A 910 resistance is
connected in series with the galvanometer to make a voltmeter. If the least count of the voltmeter is 0.1V,
the number of divisions on its scale is
(A) 90
(B) 91
(C) 100
(D) none
P. No. 19

Q.52

In the circuit shown the resistance of voltmeter is 10,000 ohm and that of ammeter
is 20 ohm. The ammeter reading is 0.10 Amp and voltmeter reading is 12 volt.
Then R is equal to
(A) 122
(B) 140
(C) 116
(D)100

Q.53

By error, a student places moving-coil voltmeter V (nearly ideal) in series with

the resistance in a circuit in order to read the current, as shown. The voltmeter
(A) 0
(B) 4V
(C) 6V
(D) 12V

Q.54

ln a balanced wheat stone bridge, current in the galvanometer is zero. It remains zero when:
 battery emf is increased
 all resistances are increased by 10 ohms
 all resistances are made five times
 the battery and the galvanometer are interchanged
(A) only  is correct
(B) ,  and  are correct
(C) ,  and  are correct
(D)  and  are correct

Q.55

A Wheatstone's bridge is balanced with a resistance of 625 in the third arm,

where P, Q and S are in the 1st, 2nd and 4th arm respectively. If P and Q are
interchanged, the resistance in the third arm has to be increased by 51 to
secure balance. The unknown resistance in the fourth arm is
(A) 625
(B) 650
(C) 676
(D) 600

Q.56

In the figure shown for gives values of R1 and R2 the balance point for
Jockey is at 40 cm from A. When R2 is shunted by a resistance of 10 ,
balance shifts to 50 cm. R1 and R2 are (AB = 1 m):
(A)

10
, 5
3

(C) 10 , 15

(B) 20 , 30
(D) 5 ,

15

Q.57

A 6 V battery of negligible internal resistance is connected across a

uniform wire of length 1 m. The positive terminal of another battery of
emf 4V and internal resistance 1 is joined to the point A as shown in
figure. The ammeter shows zero deflection when the jockey touches the
wire at the point C. The AC is equal to
(A) 2/3 m
(B) 1/3 m
(C) 3/5 m
(D) 1/2 m

Q.58

The figure shows a metre-bridge circuit, with AB = 100 cm, X = 12

and R = 18, and the jockey J in the position of balance.
If R is now made 8, through what distance will J have to be moved to
obtain balance?
(A) 10 cm
(B) 20 cm
(C) 30 cm
(D) 40 cm
P. No. 20

Q.59

A potentiometer wire has length 10 m and resistance 10. It is connected to a battery of EMF 11 volt
and internal resistance 1 , then the potential gradient in the wire is
(A) 10 V/m
(B) 1 V/m
(C) 0.1 V/m
(D) none

Q.60

The length of a potentiometer wire is l. A cell of emf E is balanced at a length l/3 from the positive end of
the wire. If the length of the wire is increased by l/2. At what distance will the same cell give a balance
point.
(A)

Q.61

2l
3

(B)

l
2

(C)

l
6

(D)

4l
3

In the figure, the potentiometer wire AB of length L and resistance 9r is joined to

the cell D of emf and internal resistance r. The cell Cs emf is /2 and its
internal resistance is 2r. The galvanometer G will show no deflection when the
length AJ is
(A)

4L
9

(B)

5L
9

(C)

7L
18

(D)

11L
18

Q.62

An ammeter A of finite resistance, and a resistor R are joined in series to an ideal

cell C. A potentiometer P is joined in parallel to R. The ammeter reading is I0
and the potentiometer reading is V0. P is now replaced by a voltmeter of finite
resistance. The ammeter reading now is I and the voltmeter reading is V.
(A) I > I0, V < V0
(B) I > I0, V = V0
(C) I = I0, V < V0
(D) I < I0, V =V0

Q.63

In the given potentiometer circuit length of the wire AB is 3 m

and resistance is R = 4.5 . The length AC for no deflection in
galvanometer is
(A) 2 m
(B) 1.8 m
(C) dependent on r1
(D) none of these

Q.64

A battery of emf E0 = 12 V is connected across a 4m long uniform wire having

resistance 4/m. The cells of small emfs 1 = 2V and 2 = 4V having internal
resistance 2 and 6 respectively, are connected as shown in the figure. If
galvanometer shows no deflection at the point N, the distance of point N from
the point A is equal to
(A)

Q.65

1
m
6

(B)

1
m
3

(C) 25 cm

(D) 50 cm

In the arrangement shown in figure when the switch S2 is open, the

galvanometer shows no deflection for l = L/2. When the switch S2 is
closed, the galvanometer shows no deflection for l = 5L 12 . The internal
resistance (r) of 6 V cell, and the emf E of the other battery are
respectively
(A) 3, 8V
(B) 2, 12V
(C) 2, 24V
(D) 3, 12V

P. No. 21

Q.66

The diagram besides shows a circuit used in an experiment to determine the emf and internal resistance
of the cell C. A graph was plotted of the potential difference V between the terminals of the cell against
the current I, which was varied by adjusting the rheostat. The graph is shown on the right ; x and y are the
intercepts of the graph with the axes as shown. What is the internal resistance of the cell ?
(A) x
(C) x/y

Q.67

(B) y
(D) y/x

Which of the following wiring diagrams could be used to experimentally determine R using ohm's law?
Assume an ideal voltmeter and an ideal ammeter.

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

ONE OR MORE THAN ONE OPTION MAY BE CORRECT

Take approx. 3 minutes for answering each question.
Q.1

A metallic conductor of irregular cross-section is as shown in the figure. A constant potential difference
is applied across the ends (1) and (2). Then :

(A) the current at the cross-section P equals the current at the cross-section Q
(B) the electric field intensity at P is less than that at Q.
(C) the rate of heat generated per unit time at Q is greater than that at P
(D) the number of electrons crossing per unit area of cross-section at P is less than that at Q.
Q.2

Which of the following quantities do not change when a resistor connected to a battery is heated due to
the current?
(A) drift speed
(B) resistivity
(C) resistance
(D) number of free electrons

Q.3

A current passes through a wire of nonuniform cross section. Which of the following quantities are
independent of the cross-section?
(A) the charge crossing in a given time interval.
(B) drift speed
(C) current density
(D) free-electron density.

Q.4

In the circuit shown E, F, G and H are cells of e.m.f. 2V, 1V, 3V

and 1V respectively and their internal resistances are 2, 1,
3 and 1 respectively.
(A) VD VB = 2/13 V
(B) VD VB = 2/13 V
(C) VG = 21/13 V = potential difference across G.
(D) VH = 19/13 V = potential difference across H.
P. No. 22

Q.5

A simple circuit contains an ideal battery and a resistance R. If a second resistor is placed in parallel with
the first,
(A) the potential across R will decrease
(B) the current through R will decreased
(C) the current delivered by the battery will increase
(D) the power dissipated by R will increased.

Q.6

Consider the circuit shown in the figure

(A) the current in the 5 resistor is 2 A
(B) the current in the 5 resistor is 1 A
(C) the potential difference VA VB is 10 V
(D) the potential difference VA VB is 5 V

Q.7

A battery is of emf E is being charged from a charger such that positive terminal of the battery is connected
to terminal A of charger and negative terminal of the battery is connected to terminal B of charger. The
internal resistance of the battery is r.
(A) Potential difference across points A and B must be more than E.
(B) A must be at higher potential than B
(C) In battery, current flows from positive terminal to the negative terminal
(D) No current flows through battery

Q.8

The equivalent resistance of a group of resistances is R. If another resistance is connected in parallel to

the group , its new equivalent becomes R1 & if it is connected in series to the group , its new equivalent
becomes R2 we have :
(A) R1 > R
(B) R1 < R
(C) R2 > R
(D) R2 < R

Q.9

Two identical fuses are rated at 10A. If they are joined

(A) in parallel, the combination acts as a fuse of rating 20A
(B) in parallel, the combination acts as a fuse of rating 5A
(C) in series, the combination acts as a fuse of rating 10A.
(D) in series, the combination acts as a fuse of rating 20A.

Q.10

A battery of emf E and internal resistance r is connected across a resistance R.

Resistance R can be adjusted to any value greater than or equal to zero. A graph
is plotted between the current (i) passing through the resistance and potential
difference (V) across it. Select the correct alternative(s).
(A) internal resistance of battery is 5

(B) emf of the battery is 20V

(C) maximum current which can be taken from the battery is 4A
(D) V- i graph can never be a straight line as shown in figure.

Q.11

The value of the resistance R in figure is adjusted such that power

dissipated in the 2 resistor is maximum. Under this condition
(A) R = 0
(B) R = 8
(C) power dissipated in the 2 resistor is 72 W.
(D) power dissipated in the 2 resistor is 8 W.

P. No. 23

Q.12

A galvanometer may be converted into ammeter or voltmeter. In which of the following cases the resistance
of the device will be the largest ? (Asssume maximum range of galvanometer = 1 mA)
(A) an ammeter of range 10A
(B) a voltmeter of range 5 V
(C) an ammeter of range 5 A
(D) a voltmeter of range 10 V.

Q.13

Mark out the correct options.

(A) An ammeter should have small resistance.
(B) An ammeter should have large resistance.
(C) A voltmeter should have small resistance.
(D) A voltmeter should have large resistance.

Q.14

In the circuit shown the readings of ammeter and voltmeter are 4A and
20V respectively. The meters are non ideal, then R is :
(A) 5
(B) less than 5
(C) greater than 5
(D) between 4 & 5

Q.15

A micrometer has a resistance of 100 and a full scale range of 50A. It can be used as a voltmeter or
a higher range ammeter provided a resistance is added to it. Pick the correct range and resistance
combination(s).
(A) 50 V range with 10 k resistance in series. (B) 10 V range with 200 k resistance in series.
(C) 5 mA range with 1 resistance in parallel. (D) 10 mA range with 1 k resistance in parallel.

Q.16

In a potentiometer wire experiment the emf of a battery in the primary circuit is 20V and its internal
resistance is 5. There is a resistance box in series with the battery and the potentiometer wire, whose
resistance can be varied from 120 to 170. Resistance of the potentiometer wire is 75. The following
potential differences can be measured using this potentiometer.
(A) 5V
(B) 6V
(C) 7V
(D) 8V

Q.17

In the given potentiometer circuit, the resistance of the

potentiometer wire AB is R0. C is a cell of internal resistance r.
The galvanometer G does not give zero deflection for any
position of the jockey J. Which of the following cannot be a
reason for this?
(A) r > R0
(B) R > > R0
(C) emf of C > emf of D
(D) The negative terminal of C is connected to A.

P. No. 24

EXERCISE # I
5m, 5 108m2, 6.8

Q.3

60/11 V

Q.6

30 V

Q.7

Q.8

Q.9

22

35

Q.10

12A, 20W

Q.11

Q.12

3r
5

Q.14

Q.15

600

Q.16

1V

Q.17

46.67 cm

Q.18

4 ohm

Q.19

10
, 5
3

Q.20

20 ohm

Q.1

Q.4

5IR
2

Q.5

Q.2

Q.13 4

R1R 2

EXERCISE # II
Q.1
Q.4
Q.6

(a) J0A/3; (b) 2J0A/3

Q.2

(k 1) k 2 V0
k
(k 1) 2
(i)
;
(ii)
( k 1)
R3
k
(i) Vab = 12 V, (ii) 3 amp from b to a

R2 3

R1 5

Q.3

Q.5 4/9 kg/sec., 450 sec

Q.7

V0 A e
0 L 1
V0 (e x / L e 1 )
1

R=
;I=
;V=
0 L e 1
A e
1 e 1

Q.10

Q.13

22
V
9

Q.11

eff =

Q.8

7.2 m

Q.14

EXERCISE # III
Q.1

Q.5 (a) No, (b)

Q.2

Q.3

Q.4

(c) 8

Q.6

Q.7

P. No. 25

Q.8

Battery should be connected across A and B. Out put can be taken across the terminals A and C or B
and C

Q.9

Q.10

Voltmeter
106
G1
100
Ammeter
G2

Q.11

10-3

Q.12

Q.13

Q.14

Q.17

Q.18

Q.15

Q.16

Q.6
Q.13
Q.20
Q.27
Q.34
Q.41
Q.48
Q.55
Q.62

B
D
D
A
C
D
D
B
A

Q.7
Q.14
Q.21
Q.28
Q.35
Q.42
Q.49
Q.56
Q.63

B
A
C
B
A
D
B
A
D

OBJECTIVE QUESTION BANK

ONLY ONE OPTION IS CORRECT
Q.1
Q.8
Q.15
Q.22
Q.29
Q.36
Q.43
Q.50
Q.57
Q.64

C
B
C
B
A
C
A
C
A
C

Q.2
Q.9
Q.16
Q.23
Q.30
Q.37
Q.44
Q.51
Q.58
Q.65

C
C
D
A
A
B
A
C
B
B

Q.3
Q.10
Q.17
Q.24
Q.31
Q.38
Q.45
Q.52
Q.59
Q.66

D
D
C
B
D
D
B
D
B
D

Q.4
Q.11
Q.18
Q.25
Q.32
Q.39
Q.46
Q.53
Q.60
Q.67

D
C
C
B
B
A
C
D
B
B

Q.5
Q.12
Q.19
Q.26
Q.33
Q.40
Q.47
Q.54
Q.61

C
B
B
D
B
A
B
C
B

Q.1
Q.7
Q.13

ABCD
ABC

Q.2
Q.8
Q.14

D
BC
C

Q.3
Q.9
Q.15

AC
BC

Q.4
Q.10
Q.16

ACD Q.5
A
Q.11
ABC Q.17

C
AC
A

Q.6
Q.12

A
D

P. No. 26