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PROTEINS

WHAT IS PROTEIN?
Proteins (/protinz/ or /proti.nz/) are large biological molecules, or macromolecules, consisting
of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within
living organisms, including catalyzing metabolic reactions, replicating DNA, responding to stimuli,
and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in
their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and
which usually results in folding of the protein into a specific three-dimensional structure that
determines its activity.
A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long
polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than about 20-30 residues, are rarely considered to
be proteins and are commonly called peptides, or sometimes oligopeptides. The individual amino
acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues. The
sequence of amino acid residues in a protein is defined by the sequence of a gene, which is
encoded in the genetic code. In general, the genetic code specifies 20 standard amino acids;
however, in certain organisms the genetic code can include selenocysteine andin certain archaea
pyrrolysine. Shortly after or even during synthesis, the residues in a protein are often chemically
modified by posttranslational modification, which alters the physical and chemical properties, folding,
stability, activity, and ultimately, the function of the proteins. Sometimes proteins have non-peptide
groups attached, which can be called prosthetic groups or cofactors. Proteins can also work together
to achieve a particular function, and they often associate to form stable protein complexes.
BENEFITS OF PROTIENS
It's easy to understand the excitement. Protein is an important component of every cell in the body.
Hair and nails are mostly made of protein. Your body uses protein to build and repair tissues. You
also use protein to make enzymes, hormones, and other body chemicals. Protein is an important
building block of bones, muscles, cartilage, skin, and blood.
Along with fat and carbohydrates, protein is a "macronutrient," meaning that the body needs
relatively large amounts of it. Vitamins and minerals, which are needed in only small quantities, are
called "micronutrients." But unlike fat and carbohydrates, the body does not store protein, and
therefore has no reservoir to draw on when it needs a new supply.
How Much Protein Is Enough?
We've all heard the myth that extra protein builds more muscle. In fact, the only way to build muscle
is through exercise. Bodies need a modest amount of protein to function well. Extra protein doesn't
give you extra strength. According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services:
-Teenage boys and active men can get all the protein they need from three daily servingsfor a total
of seven ounces.

-For children age 2 to 6, most women, and some older people, the government recommends two
daily servings for a total of five ounces.
-For older children, teen girls, active women, and most men, the guidelines give the nod to two daily
servings for a total of six ounces.
-Everyone who eats an eight-ounce steak typically served in restaurants is getting more protein that
their bodies need. Plus they're getting a hefty amount of artery-clogging saturated fat as well.

FOOD RICH IN PROTEIN


Eggs, milk, yogurt, seafood, soya, pistachio nuts, pork, poultry.

FATS
WHAT IS FATS?
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients: fat, carbohydrate, and protein.[1] Fats are a wide group
of compounds whose basis is in long-chain organic acids, called fatty acids. More particularly fats
are esters of such organic acids formed with the alcohol glycerol. Glycerol is a triol, meaning that it
has three chemically active -OH (hydroxyl) groups. Fats are made when each of these three -OH
groups reacts with a fatty acid. The resulting fats are called triglycerides. Because of their
preponderant aliphatic structure, fats are hydrophobic, generally soluble in organic solvents but
generally insoluble in water. Fats made up of shorter chain fatty acids are usually liquid at room
temperature, whereas the longer chain fats will be solid. Some ambiguity in terminology arises
because the words "oil", "fat", and "lipid" are often used interchangeably. Of these lipid[2] is the
general term, because a lipid is not necessarily a triglyceride. Oil is the term usually used to refer to
fats that are liquids at normal room temperature, while fat is usually used to refer to fats that are
solids at normal room temperature.
Fat is important foodstuff for many forms of life, and fats serve both structural and metabolic
functions. They are necessary part of the diet of most heterotrophs (including humans). Some fatty
acids that are set free by the digestion of fats are called essential because they cannot be
synthesized in the body from simpler constituents. There are two essential fatty acids (EFAs) in
human nutrition: alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid) and linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty
acid).[2][3] Other lipids needed by the body can be synthesized from these and other fats. Fats and
other lipids are broken down in the body by enzymes called lipases produced in the
pancreas.Unsaturated fat is healthier than saturated fat.

BENEFITS OF FATS
Fats provide energy

Gram for gram fats are the most efficient source of food energy. Each gram of fat provides nine
calories of energy for the body, compared with four calories per gram of carbohydrates and proteins.

Fats build healthy cells


Fats are a vital part of the membrane that surrounds each cell of the body. Without a healthy cell
membrane, the rest of the cell couldnt function.

Fats build brains


You need fats because provides the structural components not only of cell membranes in the brain,
but also of myelin, the fatty insulating sheath that surrounds each nerve fiber, enabling it to carry
messages faster.

Fats help the body use vitamins


Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble vitamins, meaning that the fat in foods helps the intestines
absorb these vitamins into the body.

Fats make hormones


Fats are structural components of some of the most important substances in the body, including
prostaglandins, hormone-like substances that regulate many of the bodys functions. You need fats
because they regulate the production of sex hormones, which explains why some teenage girls who
are too lean experience delayed pubertal development and amenorrhea.

Fat provides healthier skin


One of the more obvious signs of fatty acid deficiency is dry, flaky skin. In addition to giving skin its
rounded appeal, the layer of fat just beneath the skin (called subcutaneous fat) acts as the bodys
own insulation to help regulate body temperature. Lean people tend to be more sensitive to cold;
obese people tend to be more sensitive to warm weather.

Fat forms a protective cushion for your organs

Many of the vital organs, especially the kidneys, heart, and intestines are cushioned by fat that helps
protect them from injury and hold them in place. (True, some of us overprotect our bodies.) As a

tribute to the bodys own protective wisdom, this protective fat is the last to be used up when the
bodys energy reserves are being tapped into.

LIPIDS
WHAT IS LIPIDS?

Lipids are a group of naturally occurring molecules that include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble
vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides,
phospholipids, and others. The main biological functions of lipids include storing energy, signaling,
and acting as structural components of cell membranes.[4][5] Lipids have applications in the
cosmetic and food industries as well as in nanotechnology.[6]

Lipids may be broadly defined as hydrophobic or amphiphilic small molecules; the amphiphilic nature
of some lipids allows them to form structures such as vesicles, multilamellar/unilamellar liposomes,
or membranes in an aqueous environment. Biological lipids originate entirely or in part from two
distinct types of biochemical subunits or "building-blocks": ketoacyl and isoprene groups.[4] Using
this approach, lipids may be divided into eight categories: fatty acids, glycerolipids,
glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, saccharolipids, and polyketides (derived from condensation of
ketoacyl subunits); and sterol lipids and prenol lipids (derived from condensation of isoprene
subunits).[4]

Although the term lipid is sometimes used as a synonym for fats, fats are a subgroup of lipids called
triglycerides. Lipids also encompass molecules such as fatty acids and their derivatives (including
tri-, di-, monoglycerides, and phospholipids), as well as other sterol-containing metabolites such as
cholesterol.[7] Although humans and other mammals use various biosynthetic pathways to both
break down and synthesize lipids, some essential lipids cannot be made this way and must be
obtained from the diet.

FOOD RICH IN LIPIDS


Oils, dairy, nuts, meat, poultry, fish, vegetables, sauces, packaged and processed foods.

BENEFITS FROM LIPIDS


Provide Energy
Lipids provide a more dense form of energy, or calories, than carbohydrates or protein. A gram of fat
provides 9 calories, whereas a gram of carbohydrate or protein only provides 4 calories. For this

reason, fats are able to help you feel full on a small volume food and can be useful when food is
scarce. If you're underweight or have a very poor appetite, fats can also be useful to provide you
with the energy you need. However, if you consume more lipids than your body can use as energy in
a day, the remainder is stored in fat cells in your body for later use.

Absorptionof Vitamins
In addition to its other roles, fat aids in the absorption and storage of certain essential vitamins. The
fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K all rely on lipids for absorption, transport and storage in your body.
They can't be absorbed or excreted in fluid the same way the water-soluble vitamins can. If you
consume more of the fat-soluble vitamins than your body needs at one time, they are stored with
lipids in your liver and tissues for later use. Getting enough of the fat-soluble vitamins helps maintain
your vision, reproductive health, immune system, bone density, heart health and blood clotting,
according to the Colorado State University Extension website.

Essential Fatty Acids


Certain types of lipids are considered essential fatty acids because your body is unable to make
them and they must come from your diet. Omega-3 fatty acids are one type of essential lipid found in
fatty fish, such as tuna, salmon and halibut, and certain nuts. These lipids are essential to
maintaining proper brain function and may reduce inflammation in your body. Meeting your needs for
essential fatty acids may also help reduce your risk of developing heart disease, cancer and arthritis,
notes the University of Maryland Medical Center website.