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17. High explosives detonated underneath it.

16. Flowing water, in streams and rivers or across the


land in sheets, is the dominant erosional process in
shaping Earth's landscape. Streams and rivers are not
merely systems for moving surface water to the world's
oceans and seas. They are also systems for moving
weathered rocks and other sediment to those large
bodies of water. In fact, it is estimated that streams and
rivers move about 1.65 billion tons (1.5 billion metric
tons) of sediment from land to the oceans each year. By
shifting such great masses of sediment, streams and
rivers become sculptors of the land. Streams and rivers
erode, transport sediment, change course, and flood their
banks in natural and recurring patterns. It is true that
most of the erosional work done by surface water is not
done by streams or rivers but instead by falling raindrops
and by the resulting unorganized runoff down slopes. Yet
streams and rivers are able to create both erosional
landforms (their own channels, canyons, and valleys) and
depositional landforms (floodplains, alluvial fans, and
deltas) as they flow over Earth's surface. Streams are also
found on the ground surface in caves and underneath and
... When water flows down a slope, it tends to gather in
small depressions on the ... an intermittent, yet rapidly
flowing, canyon or mountain stream spills out onto a plain
..... its velocity remains constant or increases (if it
increases, it can carry an even ...
15. A nozzle is a device designed to control the direction
or characteristics of a fluid flow (especially to increase

velocity) as it exits (or enters) an enclosed chamber or


pipe. A nozzle is often a pipe or tube of varying cross
sectional area, and it can be used to direct or modify the
flow of a fluid (liquid or gas). nozzel is a device which
convert (high pressure and low
velocity fluid) at inlet into (high velocity fluid and low
pressure) at exit
14. When the liquid molecules are heated, they move
faster so the liquid boils and some molecules becomes
gas molecules. Answer When the liquid molecules are
heated, they move faster so the liquid boils and some
molecules becomes gas molecules. There are three basic
ways in which heat is transferred. In fluids, heat is often
transferred by convection, in which the motion of the fluid
itself carries heat from one place to another. Another way
to transfer heat is by conduction, which does not involve
any motion of a substance, but rather is a transfer of
energy within a substance (or between substances in
contact). The third way to transfer energy is by radiation,
which involves absorbing or giving off electromagnetic
waves.
13. if the floating wood block is pushed down at one end
slightly, the block tilts in the direction of the downward
push. This changes the shape of the displaced water and
shifts the location of the center of buoyancy. an object
whose density is greater than that of the fluid in which it
is submerged tends to sink. If the object is either less
dense than the liquid or is shaped appropriately (as in a

boat), the force can keep the object afloat. This can occur
only in a reference frame which either has a gravitational
field or is accelerating due to a force other than gravity
defining a "downward" direction (that is, a non-inertial
reference frame). In a situation of fluid statics, the net
upward buoyancy force is equal to the magnitude of the
weight of fluid displaced by the body.[3]

The center of buoyancy of an object is the centroid of the


displaced volume of fluid.
12. Some people follow newer guidelines of 30 feet per
minute, and others are comfortable ascending at 60 feet
per minute. Some divers follow the rates set by the
manufacturers of their dive computers, and others just
make sure to ascend more slowly than their own bubbles.
In underwater diving, ascending and descending is done
using strict protocols to avoid problems caused by the
changes in ambient pressure and the hazards of
obstacles near the surface or collision with vessels. Diver
certification and accreditation organisations place
importance on these protocols early in their diver training
programmes.The procedures vary depending on whether
the diver is using scuba or surface supplied equipment.
Scuba divers control their own descent and ascent rate,
while surface supplied divers may control their own
ascents and descents, or be lowered and lifted by the
surface team, either by their umbilical, or on a diving
stage or in a diving bell.

11. Water supply is the provision of water by public


utilities, commercial organisations, community endeavors
or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and
pipes. Irrigation is covered separately. A water tower is an
elevated structure supporting a water tank constructed at
a height sufficient to pressurize a water supply system for
the distribution of potable water, and to provide
emergency storage for fire protection. In some places, the
term standpipe is used interchangeably to refer to a
water tower, especially one with tall and narrow
proportions.[1] Water towers often operate in conjunction
with underground or surface service reservoirs, which
store treated water close to where it will be used.[2]
Other types of water towers may only store raw (nonpotable) water for fire protection or industrial purposes,
and may not necessarily be connected to a public water
supply.Water towers are able to supply water even during
power outages, because they rely on hydrostatic pressure
produced by elevation of water (due to gravity) to push
the water into domestic and industrial water distribution
systems; however, they cannot supply the water for a
long time without power, because a pump is typically
required to refill the tower. A water tower also serves as a
reservoir to help with water needs during peak usage
times. The water level in the tower typically falls during
the peak usage hours of the day, and then a pump fills it
back up during the night. This process also keeps the
water from freezing in cold weather, since the tower is
constantly being drained and refilled.

10. A water tower is an incredibly simple device. Although


water towers come in all shapes and sizes, they all do the
same thing: A water tower is simply a large, elevated
tank of water. For example, take the water tower shown
at the right. This tower is located in Kill Devils Hill, near
Kitty Hawk, NC. It is about 165 feet (50 meters) tall.
Water towers are tall to provide pressure. Each foot of
height provides 0.43 PSI (pounds per square Inch) of
pressure. A typical municipal water supply runs at
between 50 and 100 PSI (major appliances require at
least 20 to 30 PSI). The water tower must be tall enough
to supply that level of pressure to all of the houses and
businesses in the area of the tower. So water towers are
typically located on high ground, and they are tall enough
to provide the necessary pressure. In hilly regions, a
tower can sometimes be replaced by a simple tank
located on the highest hill in the area. A water tower's
tank is normally quite large. A normal in-ground
swimming pool in someone's backyard might hold
something like 20,000 or 30,000 gallons (that's a lot of
water!), and a typical water tower might hold 50 times
that amount! Typically, a water tower's tank is sized to
hold about a day's worth of water for the community
served by the tower. If the pumps fail (for example,
during a power failure), the water tower holds enough
water to keep things flowing for about a day. Pressure is
the force that pushes water through pipes. Water
pressure determines the flow of water from the tap. The
amount of pressure at your tap can depend on how high
the service reservoir or water tower is above your home,

or on how much water other customers are using. The


height of your property can also affect your water
pressure - properties at the top of a hill may receive lower
pressure than properties which are at the bottom of the
hill. You should not notice any difference in your water
pressure after having a water meter installed. Low
pressure can reduce water flow to a trickle and it will take
a long time to fill a kettle or a cistern. Some modern
heating appliances and showers will not work below
certain pressure levels. You should seek your water
company's advice before installing this type of equipment
to check whether the pressure in your water company's
area is sufficient for these systems to operate
efficiently.Low pressure can have a number of causes. For
example, when demand for water is high (such as in the
morning or early evenings) pressure can be lower than
during the rest of the day. There can also be problems
during dry spells when people use hosepipes or sprinklers
to water their gardens.
9. automobile driver - someone who drives racing cars at
high speeds automobile driver - someone who drives
racing cars at high speeds. race driver ... Driving in wet
conditions can be hazardous and even drivers with local
knowledge can be caught out during heavy downpours,
as the most modern road surface is still susceptible to
standing water.
Standing water creates a potential aquaplaning hazard as
well as reducing visibility. Take it easy through standing
water and if the steering does become unresponsive due

to the rain, ease off the accelerator and slow down


gradually.Only attempt to drive through flood water if you
know it's not too deep and maintain a steady, slow speed
to avoid creating a bow wave. The air intake on many
cars is low down at the front and just an egg cupful of
water in the combustion chamber is enough to wreck an
engine.Water doesn't compress and the piston in effect
hits a wall, bending or breaking a con rod. Driving fast even if the intake's above the water level - could cause
water to be ingested.
8. Spoilers on the front of a vehicle are often called air
dams, because in addition to directing air flow they also
reduce the amount of air flowing underneath the vehicle
which generally reduces aerodynamic lift and drag. Many
cars, from drag racers to sports cars to monster trucks
carry different kinds of spoilers on them. Some cars, like
the Ferrari F1 cars, have them front and back; and since
they are probably the most scientifically advanced
wheeled transportation, I'll use them for the discussion.

Cars have spoilers to increase their grip on the road.


Normally the weight of a car is the only thing that forces
the tires down onto the pavement. Without spoilers, the
only way to increase the grip would be to increase the
weight, or to change the compound the tire was made out
of. The only problem with increasing the weight is that it
doesn't help in turns, where you really want to grip. All
that extra weight has inertia, which you have to
overcome to turn, so increasing the weight doesn't help

at all. The way the spoiler works is like an airplane wing,


but upside down. The spoiler actually generates what's
called 'down force' on the body of the car. The
advantages of this can be seen very readily. Instead of
having a heavy car, which is slow, or having a very light
car, which can slide away easily, you now have a car that
sticks better the faster it goes. Sounds perfect, right?
There is one catch. Every time a wing generates lift (or a
spoiler generates down force) it also generates drag.
Drag is the natural reaction of the fluid (air) to resist
motion through it (the car). Drag is bad, because it slows
down the car. So, more down force is good... but too
much down force = too much drag, which is bad. Very
very high performance sports cars, like Le Mans or F1,
have a ratio called the 'lift/drag' ratio. The car designers
try and maximize this so that the car has just enough
force to get around the corners, but not so much that
they are too slow. Indy cars, and ones that are designed
like that can have down force on the order of 3G's, at
200mph. That means they could hang completely upside
down on the track, and as long as they kept going fast
enough, they would still stick to the road.
7. A supersonic aircraft is an aircraft able to fly faster
than the speed of sound (Mach number 1). Supersonic
aircraft were developed in the second half of the
twentieth century and have been used almost entirely for
research and military purposes. Only two, Concorde and
the Tupolev Tu-144, were ever designed for civil use as
airliners. Fighter jets are the most common example of

supersonic aircraft, although they don't always travel at


supersonic speed.

The aerodynamics of supersonic flight is called


compressible flow because of the compression (physics)
associated with the shock waves or "sonic boom" created
by any object travelling faster than soundAircraft flying at
speeds above Mach 5 are often referred to as hypersonic
aircraft. Because the plane is flying faster (and therefore
ahead of) its own sound.
6. Yes. The sound seems to come from behind the plane
because you're hearing sound that the plane emitted
many seconds earlier. The plane is flying ahead of its
sound, so what you see and what you hear get out of
sync.

This problem becomes more severe as the plane's speed


increases and, at a certain point, something totally new
happens. When the plane outruns its own sound waves,
thus traveling faster than sound itself, its sound begins to
pile up in a cone that radiates outward and backward
from the supersonic plane. Outside the cone, you can't
hear the plane at all. Inside the cone, you hear the plane
as it was sometime in the past. But right at the cone, you
hear a "sonic boom," a sudden surge in pressure as the
piled-up sounds of the plane finally reach your ears. The
cone moves along with the plane and as it sweeps over
you, you hear the sonic boom. The angle of the cone

depends on how fast the supersonic plane is going but


the fact that it sweeps along the ground means that not
everyone hears it at once. Furthermore, the sonic boom
has little to do with actually passing through the speed of
sound. Sonic booms can be heard throughout the plane's
supersonic flight and they're so disturbing to people and
animals that supersonic fight is limited to unpopulated
areas or oceans.
Rocks come from magma, which is the molten material
found within the earth. When magma cools, either above
or below the earth's surface, it crystallizes and forms the
igneous rocks that can later be changed into
metamorphic or sedimentary rocks. Magma, which can be
considered molten rock, is referred to as lava when it
reaches the earth's surface. Igneous rock is formed when
melted rock cools and hardens. Created by lava from
volcanoes or magma that cools inside the Earth.
Metamorphic rock forms when igneous, sedimentary, or
other metamorphic rock is changed by heat and pressure.

The rock cycle is a basic concept in geology that


describes the dynamic transitions through geologic time
among the three main rock types: sedimentary,
metamorphic, and igneous. The rock cycle is a basic
concept in geology that describes the dynamic transitions
through geologic time among the three main rock types:
sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous. As the diagram
to the right illustrates, each of the types of rocks is
altered or destroyed when it is forced out of its

equilibrium conditions. An igneous rock such as basalt


may break down and dissolve when exposed to the
atmosphere, or melt as it is subducted under a continent.
Due to the driving forces of the rock cycle, plate tectonics
and the water cycle, rocks do not remain in equilibrium
and are forced to change as they encounter new
environments. The rock cycle is an illustration that
explains how the three rock types are related to each
other, and how processes change from one type to
another over time.
The geological time scale (GTS) is a system of
chronological measurement that relates stratigraphy to
time, and is used by geologists, paleontologists, and
other Earth scientists to describe the timing and
relationships between events that have occurred
throughout Earths history. The table of geologic time
spans presented here agrees with the nomenclature,
dates and standard color codes set forth by the
International Commission on Stratigraphy.

Evidence from radiometric dating indicates that Earth is


about 4.54 billion years old. The geology or deep time of
Earths past has been organized into various units
according to events which took place in each period.
Different spans of time on the GTS are usually delimited
by changes in the composition of strata which correspond
to them, indicating major geological or paleontological
events, such as mass extinctions. For example, the
boundary between the Cretaceous period and the

Paleogene period is defined by the CretaceousPaleogene


extinction event, which marked the demise of the nonavian dinosaurs and many other groups of life. Older time
spans which predate the reliable fossil rec