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www.iasexamportal.com The rise and the popularity of the Neo-nationalists have also, to be located against

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The rise and the popularity of the Neo-nationalists have also, to be located against the rise of religious revivalism. One of the most peculiar trajectory taken by any movement was perhaps that taken by the social reform movements of the early nineteenth Century. These reform movements e.g. Arya Samaj of Swami Dayanad and those that perpetuated to the Village level, though started with the aim of countering colonial influences also fostered religious orthodoxy and increasingly demarcated the communities. One such movement was that of “Cow Protection” with the first Gaorakshini Sabha founded by Swami Dayanand in 1882. Initially, protection of cow was primarily aimed at the beef eating English and also to a degree at the muslims Part of their aim was to petition government to stop cow slaughter. Cow protection societies soon spranged up across UP, Bihar, etc. These efforts were furthered by the decree of High Court of NWP in 1888 according to which, cow was not a religious object and thus its slaughter could not be held as violation of the law.

cow was not a religious object and thus its slaughter could not be held as violation

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www.iasexamportal.com The neo-nationalists had strong ties with India and they did not consider everything western

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The neo-nationalists had strong ties with India and they did not consider everything western as the best. They were more critical of the English. Their ideas and notions were more in connection with the problems of the masses. They were more reactionary than the moderates. They also encouraged the use of Swadeshi products for developing Indian industries. The Swadeshi enterprise can be traced back to Gopalrao Deshmukh of Poona who advocated use of indigenous products as early as 1849 and in Bengal it was encouraged through Hindu Mela or National Mela founded by Nabagopal Mitra in 1867. Rabindranath Tagare called for self-reliance / atmasakti through Swadeshi and national education. Lala Lajpat Rai, an Arya Samajist advocated Swadeshi cult in the Punjab. But since the neo-nationalists glorified the ancient past, they bypassed the medieval period which had Muslim power structure at the main seat of power. So India came to be identified as being Hindu. For this reason the neo-nationalists found very little support from the Muslims. The main contribution of the neo-nationalists was in mobilizing the masses, educating them to participate in the political struggle.

was in mobilizing the masses, educating them to participate in the political struggle. © IASEXAMPORTAL .COM

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www.iasexamportal.com Partition of Bengal The idea of partition of Bengal was quite an old one.

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Partition of Bengal

The idea of partition of Bengal was quite an old one. Bengal as truly too big to be governed by a Lieutenant Governor without the aid of an Executive Council. As early as 1868 territorial realignments were being discussed and such considerations finally led to separation of Assam from Bengal in 1874, which was placed under a Chief Commissioner. The province of Bengal now comprised of Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Chhotanagpur. Then again in 1892-96 plans were being made to transfer to Assam either whole of the Chittagong Division or Chittagong district. By making Assam bigger in size its administration would have improved. Its small size meant that Assam did not have a separate cadre of Indian Civil Service officers. And Bengal was too big and too populated to be governed effectively. In 1903 Sir Andrew Fraser became the Lieutenant Governor of Bengal and suggested that along with the Chittagong Division two districts of Dacca Division-Dacca and Mymensingh should also be transferred to Assam. Lord Curzon forwarded this idea.

Division-Dacca and Mymensingh should also be transferred to Assam. Lord Curzon forwarded this idea. © IASEXAMPORTAL

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www.iasexamportal.com On December 3, 1903, Lord Curzon announced the scheme of territorial redistribution which came

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On December 3, 1903, Lord Curzon announced the scheme of territorial redistribution which came into effect on October 16, 1905. The following were the territorial realignments:

The Plan: - The new province of Assam would consist of the state of Tripura, the

Division of Chittagong, Dacca, Mymensingh (Both were the districts of the Dacca Division). Later more of its districts- Bakharganj, Faridpur, Rajshahi (excluding Darjeeling), Malda, Dinajpur, Bogra, and Jalpaiguri (along with the state of Cooch Bihar) were added to Assam. Bengal was to surrender not only these large eastern territories but also to cede to

the Central Provinces the five Hindi-speaking states. Real Motives: In Lord Curzon’s own words- ‘to split up and thereby weaken a solid body of opponents to the British rule.’ ‘Calcutta is the center from which Congress party is manipulated throughout the-whole of Bengal and indeed whole of India.’ In short, the partition would have led to a rupture in the development of /national and political consciousness which till now was focused around Bengal and radiated outwards from there.

political consciousness which till now was focused around Bengal and radiated outwards from there. © IASEXAMPORTAL

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www.iasexamportal.com Course- T he Announcement of- the partition - created mass unrest and agitation across

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Course- The Announcement of- the partition - created mass unrest and agitation across Bengal. The neo-nationalists were at the forefront of the agitation. Petitions, memoranda, speeches and public meetings were the main methods of protesting. The moderates’ peaceful methods were no longer sufficient. Zamindars, lawyers, merchants, students, common people, and even women came forward to protest the partition. Bankim Chandra’s song ‘Vande Matram’ became the national song of Bengal most overnight. Some Muslims too opposed the partition but majority of them, were later influenced by the idea of Muslim majority. In 1906 the Muslim League was formed in Dacca where the Nawab Salimulla played an important role. The League worked for the partition.

Muslim League was formed in Dacca where the Nawab Salimulla played an important role. The League
in Dacca where the Nawab Salimulla played an important role. The League worked for the partition.

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www.iasexamportal.com Swadeshi movement The boycott of British goods, especially cotton would harm the financial interests

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Swadeshi movement

The boycott of British goods, especially cotton would harm the financial interests of the English manufactures who in turn would pressure the British government to resolve the problem. It included boycotting government schools, colleges, courts and titles, government services, civil disobedience of unjust laws, organisation of strikes; public burning of foreign cloth, and picketing shops selling foreign goods. They were successful to some degree. The boycott led to 55% fall in sale of cigarettes; 68% in boots; 22% in imported cotton piece goods. By advocating Swadeshi, indigenous industries were to be promoted thereby simulating the country’s economy. Encouragement to cottage industries; Swadeshi textile mills; match and soap factories; potteries and tanneries; revival of handloom and silk were given. But there was shortage of capital which limited the development of Swadeshi industries. And Swadeshi was essentially an economic weapon which was not a sufficient tool to threaten the British hold over the economy.

an economic weapon which was not a sufficient tool to threaten the British hold over the

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www.iasexamportal.com Efforts were made to, develop national education- varieties of education demands- from establishment

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Efforts were made to, develop national education- varieties of education demands- from establishment of technical training to development of vernacular education were forwarded. Bengal National College was formed by Aurobindo Ghosh; in 1906 National Council of Education was established to organise a system of education mixing literary, scientific and technical in vernacular. Bengal Technical School was established. The University of Calcutta established by the Government to supervise education in schools and colleges was decried as the ‘golam-khana’ or the house for manufacturing slaves. There was a growth in literary culture. Tagore, Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Mukunda Das- burst in drama, poetry, songs and art. The Swadeshi-cum-Boycott Movement was launched on August 7, 1905 at a meeting in Calcutta Town Hall when leaders like Surendranath Banerjee accepted the boycott programme.

in Calcutta Town Hall when leaders like Surendranath Banerjee accepted the boycott programme. © IASEXAMPORTAL .COM

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Revolutionary activities in Bengal

Revolutionary activities in Bengal www.iasexamportal.com Bengal was forerunner in neo nationalism. Neo- nationalism was

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Bengal was forerunner in neo nationalism. Neo- nationalism was popularized by the works o Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, especially Anandamath, which popularized the idea of mothe India and depicted the sanyasis as martyrs for the sake of their mother country. Preaching o Swami Vivekananda and of his disciple, Sister Nivedita (she popularized the cult of Kali th Mother) also mobilized the masses. They preached the duty of fighting for the right caused Anushilan Samiti was one of the earliest and the most revolutionary societies with Satis Chandra Bose and Pramathanath Mitra as the main members. Bipin Behari Ganguly founde Atmonnati Samiti. Bhupendra Datta edited Yugantar, a journal and later a society by its nam played a very important role in mobilizing people and made popular the idea of revolutio amongst the masses. The group was active in undertaking violent acts against unfavourabl British officials. One such incident was in 1903 when Prafulla Chaki and Khudiram Bose threw a bomb at the carriage that they thought was transporting an unpopular judge o Muzzafarpur.

threw a bomb at the carriage that they thought was transporting an unpopular judge o Muzzafarpur.

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www.iasexamportal.com Revolutionary movement in Maharashtra Vasudeo Balwant Phadke was another great revolutionary. He was

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Revolutionary movement in Maharashtra

Vasudeo Balwant Phadke was another great revolutionary. He was born on November 4, 1845, in Maharashtra. He was profoundly influenced by the two speeches of Ranade on the subject of ‘Swadeshi Trade’. He began to reflect on how to save his country from economic exploitation by Britain. He was hot with rage and hatred against the white masters who drew fat salaries at the expense of starving Indians. The grave famine that broke out in Poona in 1876 resulted in thousands of casualties. Instead of organising relief work, the Government imposed upon the people a heavier burden of taxes. In protest against the callous in-difference of the Government, Phadke resigned his job in the Finance Commissariat at Poona and undertook a tour of Maharashtra.

Phadke resigned his job in the Finance Commissariat at Poona and undertook a tour of Maharashtra.

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www.iasexamportal.com He decided to organise the youth of Maharashtra to strike at the root of

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He decided to organise the youth of Maharashtra to strike at the root of alien

He decided to organise the youth of Maharashtra to strike at the root of alien power in India. He began to awaken the nation by his speeches and writings. He also used to take out copies of his addresses and distribute them amongst the educated young men. He also raised a powerful organisation of Ramoshis and set about collecting arms and ammunition. He needed money and he soon realised that begging could not bring the required amount. He decided to extort it by loot and plunder. He plundered the rich, homes of moneylenders to get a part of their wealth for purchasing arms. In the seven districts of Maharashtra he created a terror for some time. Like Shivaji he made his home in the hills of Sahyadri ranges. The English officers were in mortal fear of him. The Government became panicky. It announced a handsome reward for his arrest. In 1878, Phadke was arrested and his trial commence before the Sessions Court. So great was the terror of the police in those days that no pleader dared defend a revolutionary. Fortunately Sri Ganesh Vasudeo Joshi offered his services as Phadke’s defence counsel. Vasudeo was sentenced to life’s imprisonment.

Ganesh Vasudeo Joshi offered his services as Phadke’s defence counsel. Vasudeo was sentenced to life’s imprisonment.
Ganesh Vasudeo Joshi offered his services as Phadke’s defence counsel. Vasudeo was sentenced to life’s imprisonment.
Ganesh Vasudeo Joshi offered his services as Phadke’s defence counsel. Vasudeo was sentenced to life’s imprisonment.

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www.iasexamportal.com Neo-Nationalism in Punjab The neo-nationalist mobilization in the Punjab grew out of problems

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Neo-Nationalism in Punjab

The neo-nationalist mobilization in the Punjab grew out of problems created by the frequent famines, increase in the burden caused by land revenues and taxes imposed on irrigation. Bharat Mata Society was found in 1904 by J.M. Chaterji in Saharanpur. Other leaders- Lala Hardayal, Ajit Singh, Amba Prasad, Lala Lajpat Rai. Further impetus was given when Ghadar Party’ was established in USA with Punjab becoming its hub February 21, 1915 was infact fixed as the date for an armed revolt by the Ghadarites in the Punjab. But the Government came to know about the plot and many of the Ghadarites were detained while traveling back to India.

came to know about the plot and many of the Ghadarites were detained while traveling back

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www.iasexamportal.com Morley-Minto reform / Indian council Act of 1909 In 1905, Lord Minto succeeded Lord

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Morley-Minto reform / Indian council Act of 1909

In 1905, Lord Minto succeeded Lord Curzon as the Viceroy and John Morley was appointed as

 

the

Secretary

of

State

for

India

in

London.

Background to the Indian Council Act of 1909.

 

Growing

discontent

amongst

Indians

and

general

dissatisfaction

with

the

British

government; Increasing economic distress and recurring famines, and pestilences.

Racial discrimination

Remember the outcry because of Lord Curzon’s policies

Politicisation of the public and the dissatisfaction with the Act of 1892

Some positive changed in the governance were needed in face of the rising discontent if only to placate the grievances. The Morley-Minto Reforms were an attempt at conciliating the growing unrest of the Indians and the incessant demand for more Indian participation in the governance of the country.

the Indians and the incessant demand for more Indian participation in the governance of the country.

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www.iasexamportal.com Main Features It increased the membership of non-officials in the Imperial and Provincial

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Main Features It increased the membership of non-officials in the Imperial and Provincial Legislative Councils. The clause of the Indian Council Act of 1892 that sought to increase the number of non-officials was extended. Thus by 1910 more than 100 indirectly elected Indians assumed seats in the Councils. While in-the Provincial Legislature the non-official majority was allowed, at the centre the official majority was retained. The Act provided for the appointment of an Indian to the Viceroy’s Executive Council and same provision was made for the Provincial Executive Councils. The powers of the Legislature were extended. The members could raise questions and debate the budget. But they could not vote. The members could introduce legislative proposals But could not enact laws.

But they could not vote. The members could introduce legislative proposals But could not enact laws.

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www.iasexamportal.com First World War The First World War was fought between the Triple Alliance (Germany,

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First World War

The First World War was fought between the Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria and Italy) and Triple Entente (France, Russia and England) and Britain’s entry in it on August 4, 1914 also pulled India in it without consulting India However, India suffered huge losses, financial and human. Indian troops were sent to France, East Africa, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Gallipoli, Palestine, Salonika, Aden and the Persian Gulf. The degree of Indian manpower is evident from the figures of recruitment of combatants for the Indian army. The normal rate of recruitment was 15,000 a year but by the May end of 1917, it was 121,000 and by the following May it was over 300,000 men. The total recruitment, combatant and non- combatant was nearly half a million. Financially, India had to bear the burden of transporting the soldiers to the foreign outposts. In addition a free gift of one hundred million dollars was made by the Indian Government to Britain for war efforts. This increased India’s national debt by 30%. Indian Princes and other people also gave monetary contributions.

India’s national debt by 30%. Indian Princes and other people also gave monetary contributions. © IASEXAMPORTAL

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www.iasexamportal.com The moderates were supportive of the British in the hope gaining concessions especially of

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The moderates were supportive of the British in the hope gaining concessions especially of self-government and each war year the demands of the Congress kept increasing. Gandhi himself informed the Viceroy that they were helping the British Empire at this hour of need so that India could become its self-governing unit “all the more speedily”. While some Indians leaders tried to recruit Indians for the army the fact remains that their efforts were of no great extent. The Indian Government did not consult Indians at length before making decisions which led to Indian involvement in the First World War. Indians did what the masters demanded. Declaration of war by the British on Turkey, latter’s later defeat and talk of dismemberment led to dissatisfaction of the Indian Muslims with the Government (even though initially the Muslims supported the British war efforts). This brought the League and the Congress closer for some time and this collaboration was manifested in the Lucknow Pact of 1916 and the Khilafat Movement.

Congress closer for some time and this collaboration was manifested in the Lucknow Pact of 1916
time and this collaboration was manifested in the Lucknow Pact of 1916 and the Khilafat Movement.

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www.iasexamportal.com Second Split in the Congress, 1918 The Montagu Declaration elicited conflicting reactions from the

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Second Split in the Congress, 1918

The Montagu Declaration elicited conflicting reactions from the Congress ranks. There was a clear acceptance of the Declaration by the Moderates. While Annie Besant supported the establishment of a Responsible Government, Tilak criticized the Declaration by calling it ‘sunless dawn’. These differences were visible in the Calcutta Session of Congress in December 1917 with Annie Besant as the President. However, no concrete decision was made at the session. But in August 1918 at the special Session the Declaration was criticized for being unsatisfactory. This is no way implied consensus in the ranks Congress over the Declaration. These differences led to yet another split in Congress but this time the Moderates walked out. Even though the Moderates formed a new party, National Liberal League, later known as the All-India Liberal Federation, their walkout marked their demise from the politics.

known as the All-India Liberal Federation, their walkout marked their demise from the politics. © IASEXAMPORTAL

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