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DOS

commands

1. DATE: - Used to display the current system date and prompt for entering new date.

Syntax: Date <Enter>


Example: C:\> date <Enter>

2. TIME: - Displays the current system Time and prompt for entering new time.
Syntax: Time <Enter>
Example: C:\> Time <Enter>

3. CLS: - Clears the cluster screen.

Syntax: CLS <Enter>


Example: C:\> CLS <Enter>

AFTER CLS

4. DIR: - This command displays the list of directories and files with details like date of creation whether
it is directory or file etc.

Syntax: DIR <Enter>


Example: C:\> CD SAMS and press <Enter> Syntax: DIR <Enter>

5. MD: -Used to create a new Directory or nested Directories.


Syntax: MD [DRIVE:] PATH DIRECTORY NAME
Example: C:\> MD SAMS <Enter>

6. CD: - This command allows you to change present directory to another directory.
Syntax: CD [DRIVE:] PATH

7. COPY CON: -We use this command to create a new file.


Syntax: COPY CON <FILENAME>
Example: C:\> Copy Con sams.txt <Enter>
Note: - Typing here and when you are done, press Ctr+Z or F6 key followed by Enter to save the current
document.

8. TREE: - It is used to display directory structure of a specified directory graphically.

Syntax: TREE [drive:] [path] [/f]

9.VER: - All O/S has its own edition number or release or version number. The version number indicates
which edition of O/S you are working on.
Syntax: VER <Enter>
Example: C:\>Ver<Enter>

10. RD: - To delete the empty directory.


Syntax: RD [DRIVE:] PATH
NOTE: -The directory must be empty when we use RD.
Example: C:\> RD SAMS and press <Enter>

11. PATH: - This command defines a list of directories DOS Searches for external commands.
Syntax: PATH (Display the current Search Path)
PATH; : - ( Clear the search path so DOS will search for external commands only in the current directory)

12. DEL: This command removes one or more files from the disk or current working directories.
SYNTAX: DEL filespec [/p] or ERASE filespec [/p]
Example: C:\> DEL abc And Then Press Enter

13. REN: Used to change the name of the file or directory.

SYNTAX: REN <file name>


Example: REN sams sams1 <Enter>

14. PROMPT: This command allows you to customize the dos prompt.
SYNTAX: 1. PROMPT
Example: PROMPT $P$G <Enter>

15. TYPE: - This command allows you to see the contents of an existing file on the screen.
SYNTAX: TYPE <file name>
Example: C:\> TYPE SAMS

16. TREE: - It is used to display directory structure of a specified directory graphically.


Syntax: TREE [drive:] [path] [/f]

17. XCOPY: This command is faster than Copy Command and allows you to copy entire directories/disk
including all the sub directories and files to destination.
Syntax: XCOPY Source [ Target]SWITCHES :

EXAMPLE: XCOPY C:\SAMS D:\SAMS /S/E

18. MOVE : This command moves a file or group of files from one directory to another and also one
disk to another disk. It can also be used to rename directories.
SYNTAX: Move [Path File Name] [Destination file name path]
EXAMPLE: move c:\sams\fo.txt to d:\ new_sams

19. VOL: - It is used to display volume label and serial number of the current drive
Syntax: Vol [drive:]
Example: C:\> VOL

20. DELTREE: This command used for deleting an entire directory whether in that directory contains
files or subdirectories and also it will delete hidden files.
Syntax: DELTREE [drive:][path] directories [/y]
EXAMPLE: C:\> DELTREE my.txt and then press <Enter>

21. EDIT:This is the DOS Editor, which you can use to edit the text file and also creating new file.
Syntax: Edit [drive:][path][filename]
EXAMPLE: C:\> EDIT c:\sams\FO.TXT and then press <Enter>

2. Make the following hierarchy using DOS:MBA

IT

Couse_details_file

DS

Student_folder

Student_details_file
Output-

d1

d2

d3

1. Rename course_details file.


2. Delete d1 folder.
3. Delete student_details_file.
4. Delete mba folder

Output

Excel

QUES 1: List & explain any 20 Excel functions.

1. AVERAGE function
Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of the arguments. For example, if the range
A1:A20 contains numbers, the formula =AVERAGE(A1:A20) returns the average
of those numbers.
Syntax:- AVERAGE(number1, [number2], ...)
The AVERAGE function syntax has the following arguments:
Number1: Required. The first number, cell reference, or range for which you
want the average.
Number2: Optional. Additional numbers, cell references or ranges for which
you want the average, up to a maximum of 255.

2. COUNT function

The COUNT function counts the number of cells that contain numbers, and
counts numbers within the list of arguments. Use the COUNT function to get the
number of entries in a number field that is in a range or array of numbers.
Syntax COUNT(value1, [value2], ...)
The COUNT function syntax has the following arguments:
value: Required. The first item, cell reference, or range within which you want to
count numbers.
value2: Optional. Up to 255 additional items, cell references, or ranges within
which you want to count numbers.

3. SUM function

The SUM function adds all the numbers that you specify as arguments. Each
argument can be a range, a cell reference, an array, a constant, a formula, or the
result from another function.
Syntax SUM(number1,[number2],...])
The SUM function syntax has the following arguments:
number1: Required. The first number argument that you want to add. number2:
Optional. Number arguments 2 to 255 that you want to add.
Example:- SUM(A1:A5) adds all the numbers that are contained in cells A1
through A5. For another example, SUM(A1, A3, A5) adds the numbers that are
contained in cells A1, A3, and A5.

4. PRODUCT function

The PRODUCT function multiplies all the numbers given as arguments and
returns the product. For example, if cells A1 and A2 contain numbers, you
can use the formula =PRODUCT(A1, A2) to multiply those two numbers
together. You can also perform the same operation by using the multiply (*)
mathematical operator; for example, =A1 * A2.
The PRODUCT function is useful when you need to multiply many cells
together. For example, the formula =PRODUCT(A1:A3, C1:C3) is equivalent
to =A1 * A2 * A3 * C1 * C2 * C3.
Syntax PRODUCT(number1, [number2], ...)
The PRODUCT function syntax has the following arguments:
number1: Required. The first number or range that you want to multiply.
number2: Optional. Additional numbers or ranges that you want to multiply, up
to a maximum of 255 arguments.

5. MEDIAN function

Returns the median of the given numbers. The median is the number in the
middle of a set of numbers.
Syntax MEDIAN(number1, [number2], ...)
The MEDIAN function syntax has the following arguments:
Number1, number2: Number1 is required, subsequent numbers are optional. 1
to 255 numbers for which you want the median.

6. MODE function

This function is used to calculate the statistical mode of the given numbers. It
returns the element that is occurring maximum number of times.
Syntax MODE(number1,[number2],...])
The MODE function syntax has the following arguments:
Number1: Required. The first number argument for which you want to calculate
the mode.
Number2: Optional. Number arguments 2 to 255 for which you want to
calculate the mode. You can also use a single array or a reference to an array
instead of arguments separated by commas.

7. MAX function

Returns the largest value in a set of values.


Syntax MAX(number1, [number2], ...)
The MAX function syntax has the following arguments:
Number1, number2: Number1 is required, subsequent numbers are optional. 1
to 255 numbers for which you want to find the maximum value.

8. MOD function
Returns the remainder after number is divided by divisor. The result has the
same sign as divisor.
Syntax MOD(number, divisor)
The MOD function syntax has the following arguments:
Number: Required. The number for which you want to find the remainder. Divisor:
Required. The number by which you want to divide number.

9. MIN function
Returns the smallest number in a set of values.
Syntax MIN(number1, [number2], ...)
The MIN function syntax has the following arguments:
Number1, number2: Number1 is optional, subsequent numbers are optional. 1
to 255 numbers for which you want to find the minimum value.

OUTPUT

10. IF function
The IF function returns one value if a condition you specify evaluates to TRUE,
and another value if that condition evaluates to FALSE. For example, the formula
=IF(A1>10,"Over 10","10 or less") returns "Over 10" if A1 is greater than 10, and
"10 or less" if A1 is less than or equal to 10.
Syntax IF(logical_test, [value_if_true], [value_if_false])

The IF function syntax has the following arguments:


logical_test: Required. Any value or expression that can be evaluated to TRUE
or FALSE.
value_if_true: Optional. The value that you want to be returned if the
logical_test argument evaluates to TRUE.
value_if_false: Optional. The v a l u e t h a t y o u w a n t t o b e r e t u r n e d i f
the logical_test argument evaluates to FALSE

11. SQRT function


Returns a positive square root.
Syntax SQRT(number)
The SQRT function syntax has the following arguments:
Number: Required. The number for which you want the square root.

12. LEN function


LEN returns the number of characters in a text string.
Syntax LEN(text)
The LEN(text) function syntax has the following arguments:
Text: Required. The text whose length you want to find. Spaces count as
characters.

13. POWER function


Returns the result of a number raised to a power.
Syntax POWER(number, power)
The POWER function syntax has the following arguments: Number:
Required. The base number. It can be any real number. Power:
Required. The exponent to which the base number is raised.

14. TODAY function


Returns the serial number of the current date. The serial number is the datetime code used by Excel for date and time calculations. If the cell format was
General before the function was entered, Excel changes the cell format to Date. If
you want to view the serial number, you must change the cell format to General or
Number.

The TODAY function is useful when you need to have the current date
displayed on a worksheet, regardless of when you open the workbook. It is also
useful for calculating intervals. For example, if you know that someone was
born in 1963, you might use the following formula to find that person's age as of
this year's birthday: =YEAR(TODAY())-1963
This formula uses the TODAY function as an argument for the YEAR function to
obtain the current year, and then subtracts 1963, returning the person's age.
Syntax
TODAY()
The TODAY function syntax has no arguments.

15. NOW function


Returns the serial number of the current date and time. If the cell format was
General before the function was entered, Excel changes the cell format so that it
matches the date and time format of your regional settings. You can change the date
and time format for the cell by using the commands in the Number group of the
Home tab on the Ribbon.

The NOW function is useful when you need to display the current date and
time on a worksheet or calculate a value based on the current date and time, and
have that value updated each time you open the worksheet.
Syntax NOW()
The NOW function syntax has no arguments.

16. SUMIF function


You use the SUMIF function to sum the values in a range that meet criteria that
you specify. For example, suppose that in a column that contains numbers, you
want to sum only the values that are larger than 5. You can use the following
formula: =SUMIF(B2:B25,">5")
Syntax SUMIF(range, criteria, [sum_range])

The SUMIF function syntax has the following arguments:


Range: Required. The range of cells that you want evaluated by criteria. Cells
in each range must be numbers or names, arrays, or references that contain
numbers. Blank and text values are ignored.
Criteria: Required. The criteria in the form of a number, expression, a cell
reference, text, or a function that defines which cells will be added.
sum_range: Optional. The actual cells to add, if you want to add cells other than
those specified in the range argument. If the sum_range argument is omitted,
Excel adds the cells that are specified in the range argument (the same cells to
which the criteria is applied).

17. COUNTIF function


The COUNTIF function counts the number of cells within a range that meet a
single criterion that you specify. For example, you can count all the cells that start
with a certain letter, or you can count all the cells that contain a number that is
larger or smaller than a number you specify. For example, suppose you have a
worksheet that contains a list of tasks in column A, and the first name of the
person assigned to each task in column B. You can use the COUNTIF function to

count how many times a person's name appears in column B and, in that way,
determine how many tasks are assigned to that person. For example:
=COUNTIF(B2:B25,"Nancy")
Syntax COUNTIF(range, criteria)
The COUNTIF function syntax has the following arguments:
Range: Required. One or more cells to count, including numbers or names,
arrays, or references that contain numbers. Blank and text values are ignored.
Criteria: Required. A number, expression, cell reference, or text string that
defines which cells will be counted.
For example, criteria can be expressed as
32, ">32", B4, "apples", or "32".

18. COUNTBLANK function


Counts empty cells in a specified range of cells.
Syntax COUNTBLANK(range)
The COUNTBLANK function syntax has the following arguments:
Range: Required. The range from which you want to count the blank cells.

19. LN function
Returns the natural logarithm of a number. Natural logarithms are based on the
constant e (2.71828182845904).
Syntax LN(number)
The LN function syntax has the following arguments:

Number: Required. The positive real number for which you want the natural
logarithm.

20. PI function
Returns the number 3.14159265358979, the mathematical constant pi, accurate to
15 digits.
Syntax PI()
The PI function syntax has no arguments.

QUESTION: Give the result of the following functions:1. Round(1.234,2) The result is 1.23

2. Abs(-2.369)
The result is 2.369.

3. Sqrt(-16)
The result is invalid as the number is negative.

4. Rounddown(3.29763,3)
The result is 3.297

5. oundup(7.86945,1) The
result is -7.9.

QUES 3: Differentiate between Absolute & relative


cell referencing with the help of suitable
assignment.
Absolute cell referencing
In absolute cell referencing, when you copy a formula to different cells, the
cell address in the formula remains the same irrespective of where the formula in
being copied.To make a cell address absolute, add a $ sign before the row and
column address of the cell in the formula. For example the cell address $E$2 will
remain the same in any of the cells, wherever it is copied.

Relative cell referencing


Relative cell referencing, when you copy a formula to different cells, the cell
addresses in the formula change accordingly to the rows where the formula is
being copied.

QUESTION-4 Type the following data in MS_Excel:

A
Name of employee

B
Basic Salary(Rs)

C
DA

D
HRA

E
Total
salary

2
3
4
5

Ankit
Ashima
Raman
Aman

18000
9000
6500
11000

The employees are paid Dearness Allowance(DA) as per the following rules:If Basic Salary<10,000 then DA is paid @ 10% of Basic Salary

If Basic Salary>10,000 then DA is paid @ 12% of Basic Salary


The employees are paid House Rent Allowance(HRA) as per the following rules:All employess are paid House Rent Allowance(HRA) @12%subject to minimum
amount of Rs. 5000.
Write an appropriate formula in cell C2 to compute the DA,HRA in cell D2 and
total salary (Basic salary+DA+HRA) in cell E2.

QUESTION 5 Type the following data in MS_Excel:

1
2
3

A
Income
500
1000

B
No of employees
5
7

C
Total

D
Values
?

income
Average

income
4
5
i)

1500
2000

3
2

Write formula in D2 to find out total income

ii)

Write formula in D3 to find out average income of group.

iii)

Insert a pie chart in the worksheet.

QUESTION-6 Given the following worksheet in MS-Excel:


1

A
Roll

B
Marks

C
Marks

D
Total

E
Averag

No

in

in

mark

Maths

Eng.

marks

(out of

(out

100)

of

100)
2
700
98
87
3
701
87
79
4
702
70
80
5
703
65
69
6
704
56
55
Compute the following using appropriate functions & formulas:

i)

Calculate the total marks of each roll number in cell D2 to D6.

ii)

Calculate the average marks of each student in cell E2 to E6.

iii)

Also calculate the highest marks in maths in cell G4.

iv)

Calculate the lowest marks in English in cell G3.

HTML

1. Define HTML.
HTML, which stands for HyperText Markup Language, is a markup language used to
create web pages. The web developer uses "HTML tags" to format different parts of the

document. For example, you use HTML tags to specify headings, paragraphs, lists,
tables, images and much more.
HTML is a subset of Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) and is specified
by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).

2. .List Basic HTML Tags. Explain each tag with syntax.


<HTML> Tag: HTML tags contain HTML elements, and give a command to browsers
to
read
the
document
as
an
HTML
document.
<TITLE> Tag: TITLE tag declares a title of an HTML document.
<HEAD> Tag: Head tags define general information about the document, page title,
meta-tags, scripts and links to follow, and other commands to browsers.
<BODY> Tag:Body tags identify the content of a web page.
<B> Tag: BOLD tag is specifying <b>bold section</b> within the text document.
<BR> Tag: Line Break tag is specifying<br>a new line
<CENTER> Tag: <center>CENTER tags center text, images, etc.</center>
<FONT> Tag: FONT tags attribute text <font face="cursive, serif">font</font>, <font
color="#0000ff">color</font>, and <font size="4">size</font>
<H1> - <H6> Tag: H1 - H6 define level 1-6 headers.
<HR> Tag: HR tag draws a horizontal break line.
<P> Tag: <P> tag is specifying a paragraph and creates a new line.
<U> Tag: U tag makes an underlined text.
<I> Tag: <I> tag is specifying <i>italic text</i>.

3. Create a webpage with title as your name, and also insert an image and also
write some content on the webpage in red color in italics.

<HTML>
<TITLE> MANISH BISHT </TITLE>
<HEAD>
HYPER TEXT MARKUP LANGUAGE
</HEAD>
<CENTER>
<IMG SRC="RDIAS.JPG" HEIGHT="80" WIDTH="80">
</CENTER>
<FONT COLOR=RED>
<CENTER>
<I>
RUKMANI DEVI INSTITUTE OF ADVANCE STUDIES
</I>
</CENTER>
</FONT>
</BODY>
</HTML>

4. Create a webpage with title as your name, and also insert a table of three
columns with some data and also write some content on the webpage in blue
color in bold and underlined and in different sizes.

<HTML>
<TITLE> MANISH BISHT</TITLE>
<HEAD><CENTER>
TABLE
</CENTER></HEAD>
<CENTER>
<TABLE BORDER=6>
<TR>
<TH>DAYS</TH>
<TH>1</TH>
<TH>2</TH>
<TH>3</TH>
<TH>4</TH>
<TH>5</TH>
<TH>6</TH>
</TR>
<TR>
<TH>MONDAY</TH>
<TD>ME</TD>
<TD>AFM</TD>
<TD>DS</TD>
<TD>MPOB</TD>
<TD>ITM</TD>
<TD>BC</TD>
</TR>
<TR>
<TH>TUESDAY</TH>
<TD>ME</TD>
<TD>DS</TD>
<TD>BLE</TD>
<TD>LIB</TD>
<TD>AFM</TD>
<TD>MPOB</TD>
</TR>
<TR>

<TH>WEDNESDAY</TH>
<TD>BLE</TD>
<TD>DS</TD>
<TD>AFM</TD>
<TD>ITM</TD>
<TD>BC</TD>
<TD>MPOB</TD>
</TR>
<TR>
<TH>THURSDAY</TH>
<TD>LIB</TD>
<TD>BLE</TD>
<TD>ITM LAB</TD>
<TD>ITM</TD>
<TD>MPOB</TD>
<TD>ME</TD>
</TR>
<TR>
<TH>FRIDAY</TH>
<TD>BLE</TD>
<TD>DS</TD>
<TD>MSD</TD>
<TD>BC</TD>
<TD>AFM</TD>
<TD>ME</TD>
</TR>
</TABLE>
</CENTER>
</BODY>
</HTML>

5. What are frames? How do they help in organizing contents of a web page?
HTML frames allow authors to present documents in multiple views, which may be
independent windows or sub windows. Multiple views offer designers a way to keep
certain information visible, while other views are scrolled or replaced. For example,
within the same window, one frame might display a static banner, a second a navigation
menu, and a third the main document that can be scrolled through or replaced by
navigating in the second frame.
Using tables and frames on your Web page helps you present information to your site
visitors in an organized manner. Tables are a layout tool for data tables on Web pages, but
the table capability for Web pages has long been used to control the layout of the entire
page.
Designers make the cells of a table very large, and put large graphics or whole blocks of
text in them. You can even resize tables automatically to accommodate various sizes of
Web-browser windows at least up to a point.
Whether and how to use tables was, for a long time, one of the most controversial topics
in Web-page design.
Frames are more powerful layout devices than tables, but they have fallen into disfavour.
They allow separate parts of the Web-browser window to be updated and scrolled
separately. However, they produce odd effects; users seem to prefer one unified window
to separate panes within a window.
When designing your own Web page, there are so many different elements that you have
to adjust in table-based page design that you need to invest a lot of time and energy to
learn how to use tables effectively for layout purposes. And then a whole other set of
issues arises about making sure your table-based page design works well on most or all
current computer systems and Web-browser setups that are in use.
To create your own tables, you can get started by using the InsertTable command in
Coffee Cup. However, you really need a more advanced tool to work effectively with
tables in your Web pages something like Microsoft FrontPage or Dreamweaver, both
of which give you more direct control over specific options. Of course, your other option
is to start doing a lot of experimenting in HTML until you learn how to get things just
how you want them.
Frames divide a Web page into separate areas which you can then update individually.
For example, you can click a link in a frame in the bottom half of a Web page and update
it with new content while the other frame stays unchanged. This seems like a powerful

capability. However, frames are less popular than tables because frames are hard to create
and manage. But advanced With frames, the trouble comes with the useful part; users
have a hard time using framed Web pages.
For example, when browsing a framed page, users sometimes have difficulty finding
where the cursor is. If the user moves the scroll bar, which frame scrolls? Also, going
forward and backward in a frame is different from going forward and backward in the
overall Web page, so users may get lost easily. And printing a framed page properly
requires extra steps.
Finally, frames create a functional problem or two. When users resize a browser window,
framed pages dont always resize correctly. And designing a framed page to work well for
various monitor sizes is even harder than correctly designing pages with tables embedded
in them.

6. An HTML code to generate a webpage.


<HTML><TITLE>HTML LIST </TITLE>
<HEAD><CENTER>
HTML LIST</CENTER>
</HEAD><BODY BGCOLOR = PINK TEXT= RED>
<CENTER>
UNORDERED LIST
</CENTER
<UL>DAYS IN A WEEK<BR>
<LI>MONDAY</LI>
<LI>TUESDAY</LI>
<LI>WEDNESDAY</LI>
<LI>THURSDAY</LI>
<LI>FRIDAY</LI>
<LI>SATURDAY</LI>
<LI>SUNDAY</LI>
</UL><HR>
<CENTER>
ORDERED LIST
</CENTER>
<OL>THERE ARE 7 DAYS IN A WEEK<BR>
<LI>MONDAY</LI>
<LI>TUESDAY</LI>
<LI>WEDNESDAY</LI>
<LI>THURSDAY</LI>
<LI>FRIDAY</LI>

<LI>SATURDAY</LI>
<LI>SUNDAY</LI>
</OL><HR>
<CENTER>
DEFINED LIST
</CENTER><DL>
<DT>MONDAY</DT>
<DD> - 1ST DAY </DD>
<DT>TUESDAY</DT>
<DD> - 2ND DAY </DD>
<DT>WEDNESDAY</DT>
<DD> - 3RD DAY </DD>
<DT>THURSDAY</DT>
<DD> - 4TH DAY </DD>
<DT>FRIDAY</DT>
<DD> - 5TH DAY </DD>
<DT>SATURDAY</DT>
<DD> - 6TH DAY </DD>
<DT>SUNDAY</DT>
<DD> - 7TH DAY </DD></DL></BODY></HTML>

SQL

Q1. Create a table named Customer (C_id, C_name,Address, city,


pincode,Country). Insert atleast 6 values. Apply constraints on columns and
check the validity of each column:

C_id should be Primary key

C_name must not be null.

Q2. Create table named Employee containing columns (emp_id,


emp_name, emp_desig, DOB, emp_sal, emp_dept). Insert atleast 10 values.
Constraints applied on Employee table:

emp_id should be primary key

Write SQL commands to perform following operation:


Display Emp_name, DOB and emp_dept for all employees.

Find the name of all employees working in Accounts Department.

Find the names of all departments.

Find the names of all employees whose salary is greater than 5000.

Find the names and salary of those employees who does not belongs to
Account department.

Find id, name and designation of employees in the ascending order of their
names.

Q3.

Create Employee table: -

EID

ENAME

DESG

BRANCH SALARY

ADDRESS

Perform various SQL commands


Add column in above table date of joining, Experience.

Find out details of employee whose salary is above 25000.

Find out details of employee order by salary.

Calculate total no. of records in employee table.

Q4. Perform SQL commands: Student (roll-no, name, age, course, marks)

List all those students who are greater than 18 years of age and have opted
for MBA course.

Display all details of student.

List name of student whose name end with i.

Find out total number of records in table.

Find out the name, course, marks and sort in the order of marks.

Display name and course of student.