Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 14

International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE)

Issue 6, Volume 2 (June 2015)

ISSN: 2349-2163
www.ijirae.com

Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Fluid Flow Rate on


the Performance of a Parallel Flow Heat Exchanger
Christian O. Osueke,
Department of Mechanical
Engineering Landmark University
Omu-Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria

Anthony O. Onokwai
Department of Mechanical
Engineering Landmark University
Omu-Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria

Adeyinka O. Adeoye
Department of Mechatronics
Engineering Afe Babalola University,
Ado-Ekiti,Ekiti State, Nigeria

Abstract -- The pervading industrial importance of Heat exchanger in heat transfer is one of the major motivations to carry
out this work. A plate heat exchanger is a type of heat exchanger that uses metal plates to exchange heat between two liquids
with high density fluid. This research focused on the use of an extended plate heat exchanger using water as working fluid.
This research work deals with an experimental Investigation on the effect of Fluid Flow Rate on the Performance of a Parallel
Flow Heat Exchanger. The extended plate heat exchanger consists of plates overall dimensions: 75mm by 115mm. Effective
diameter: 3.0mm, plate thickness: 0.5mm, wetted perimeter: 153.0mm and Projected heat transmission area: 0.008m2 per plate.
The study was limited to the physical characteristics and thermal performance of a parallel flow heat exchanger stationed at
the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory of landmark University. Experimental results in the form temperature distribution
and flow rates were analyzed to generate the thermal performance measures of the heat exchanger. The study was limited to
the physical characteristics and thermal performance of a parallel flow heat exchanger stationed at the Mechanical
Engineering Laboratory of landmark University. Experimental results in the form temperature distribution and flow rates were
analyzed to generate the thermal performance measures of the heat exchanger. Experimental results in the form temperature
distribution, velocity and flow rates, were analyzed to generate the Reynolds numbers, Nusselt numbers, Prandtl numbers,
thermal performance, logarithmic mean temperature difference convective and overall heat transfer coefficient of the heat
exchanger. It was deducted that rise in efficiency requires faster increase in flow rate of the hot stream than of the cold stream.
Also the heat transfer coefficient increases with Reynolds Number/Nusselt number. Increase in Reynolds and nusselt number
is an indication that flow is becoming more turbulent and results into higher heat transfer rates.With this work as foundation,
recommendations for future research included more advanced study that would involve determination of temperature
distribution by solving heat/mass transfer equation. This level of analysis will require knowledge of thermal properties and
boundary conditions. It was also recommended that counter-current flow of same facility be investigated for instructive
comparison with the studied parallel flow under the background of theoretical result that given mass flows and temperature
differences, the counter-flow heat exchanger requires less surface area (thus less length) than its parallel flow equivalent
Keywords- Extended plate heat exchanger, thermal efficiency, flow rate, Convective heat transfer coefficient, Overall heat
transfer coefficient, Reynolds number, nusselt number.

Introduction

Heat exchanger is a device in which transfer of thermal energy takes place between two of more fluids across a solid surface.
These exchangers are classified according to construction, flow arrangement; number of fluids, compactness, etc. The use of heat
exchanger gives higher thermal efficiency to the system. In many applications like power plants, petrochemical industries, air
conditioning etc. heat exchangers are used. Plate heat exchanger is generally used in dairy industry due to its ease of cleaning and
thermal control. The plate heat exchangers are built of thin metal heat transfer plates and pipe work is used to carry streams of
fluid. Plate heat exchangers are widely used in liquid to liquid heat transfer and not suitable for gas to gas heat transfer due to high
pressure drop [1]. A plate heat exchanger is a type of heat exchanger that uses metal plates to exchange heat between two liquids.
This has a noteworthy favorable position more than a conventional heat exchanger in that the liquids are presented to a much
bigger surface range in light of the fact that the liquids spread out over the plates. This encourages the exchange of heat, and
enormously builds the pace of the temperature change. Plate heat exchanger consists of parallel metal plates that are corrugated
both to increase turbulence and to provide mechanical rigidity. These normally have four flow parts, one in each corner, and are
sealed at their outer edges and around the ports by gaskets, which are shaped to prevent external leakages and to direct the two
liquid through the relatively narrow passages between alternate pairs of heat transfer plates. The plates are clamped together in a
frame that includes connections for the fluid. All wetted parts are accessible for inspection by removing the clamping bolts and
rolling back the removable cover [2].
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2014-15, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved
Page -10

International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE)


Issue 6, Volume 2 (June 2015)

ISSN: 2349-2163
www.ijirae.com

R. K. Shah and S. G. Kandilkar [3], have experimentally investigated the influence of number of thermal plates on effectiveness of
heat exchanger for 1 pass 1, 2 pass 1, 3 pass 1 flow arrangements and number of plates up to 41. Results were plotted for number
of plates and F, NTU and F, for 4 different pass arrangements. They concluded, for 1pass1 flow arrangement with an even number
of thermal plates, fluid in the outermost channels is same. The heat transfer rate of multi pass arrangement may be higher or lower
than that of 1pass1 for same N and R which depends upon heat transfer characteristics of plate material. For N < 40, end effect is
considerable. When there is significant imbalance in flow rates, R < 2, 1pass1 arrangement is desirable. For (R=2, 3) 2pass1
arrangement is desirable and for R > 4, 3 pass 1 arrangement is desirable and for 1 pass 1 exchanger with an even number of
thermal plates the fluid in outermost channel is same. The exchanger effectiveness is slightly higher if outer fluid has higher heat
capacity as compared to other fluid having one less flow channel. [4]
H. Dardour, S. Mazouz, and A. Bellagi [5] had done numerical analysis of the thermal performance of a plate type heat exchanger
with parallel flow configuration. The computation is based on the effectiveness- NTU model. The numerical results illustrate the
evolution of the most important parameters of the plate heat exchanger. A parametric analysis is presented which brings out the
effect of NTU and the R parameter, the heat capacity rate ratio, on the performance of the plate heat exchanger (PHE). To check
the validity of the presented simplified model established to describe the energy balances in the PHE and the numerical scheme
adopted, simulated performance has been compared to the performance evaluated by theoretical relations. Comparison shows an
excellent agreement between them. The temperature gradients through each channel and heat fluxes through each active plate are
also evaluated. [6]
Murugesan M.P. and Balasubramani [7] Performed test for the investigation of milk adhesion and the stability of the coatings on
corrugated plates. A number of coatings and surface treatments were tested. Heat exchanger plates coated with different nanocomposites as well as electro polished plates installed in the heating section of the pasteurizer were tested. Significant differences
were observed between coated and uncoated plates. The coated plates showed that reduced deposit buildup in comparison with the
uncoated stainless steel plates. The time required for cleaning place with the coated plates was reduced by 75% compared to
standard stainless steel plates [8]. They also investigate heat transfer performance of plate type heat exchanger experimentally by
varying operating parameters and design parameters. Heat transfer coefficient was studied for various fluids like water and
ethylene glycol. The increase mass flow rate with subsequently increase in the flow velocity has led to an increased overall heat
transfer coefficient as well as individual heat transfer coefficient. [9]
T K S Sai Krishna, S G Rajasekhar, C Pravarakhya [10] modeled the plate type heat exchanger in solid works and the fluid flow
analysis is done on the modeled fluid part. The analysis stated that when the thickness of the plates decreases then the heat flow is
higher and if the number of plates increases then the outlet temperature difference of the fluids increased and the pressure contour
stated that, there is little pressure drop in the entry and outlet of the fluid, From the turbulent contour it is interfered that there is
very high turbulence in the entry and outlets due to sudden change in cross section along the plates. [11]
This paper focuses on an experimental investigation of the performance of a parallel flow heat exchanger as well as the effect of
fluid flow rate with respect to overall heat transfer coefficient.
II METHODOLOGY
A. Experimental Set Up
1) Test Procedure: The plate heat exchanger with flat plates is used for trials.The fluids used are hot and cold water. Two
flow arrangements implemented which are parallel flow and counter flow. Trials conducted with different mass flow rate of
hot and cold water and also hot water inlet flow rate was kept constant while cold water inlet flow rate varied. Procedure
repeated for getting more accurate results and results plotted

Fig.1 Hydraulic bench

Fig.2 Extented plate heat exchanger

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2014-15, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved
Page -11

International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE)


Issue 6, Volume 2 (June 2015)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

ISSN: 2349-2163
www.ijirae.com

Base Plate
Fixed endplate
Heat exchanger plates
Moving end plate
Frame
Central bolt
Intermediate plate

Fig. 3 Extended plate heat exchanger mounted on service unit

Fig. 4 Hydraulic bench containing the fluid and extended plate heat exchanger mounted on a services unit.

B. Equipment details
TABLE 1
EXTENDED PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER

Plates overall dimensions

75mm by 115mm

Effective diameter
Plate thickness

3.0mm
0.5mm

Wetted Perimeter

153.0mm
0.008m 2 per plate.

Projected heat transmission area


TABLE 2
HYDRAULIC BENCH

Circulating Pump

Pump Motor Rating


Sump Tank Capacity
High-Flow Volumetric Tank Capacity
High-Flow Volumetric Tank Capacity

Type: Centrifugal
Max. Head: 21m Water
Max. Flow: 80litres/min(Using Volumetric tank)
Max. Flow: 100litres/min(Using appropriate accessory)
0.37Kw
250litres
40litres
6litres

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2014-15, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved
Page -12

International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE)


Issue 6, Volume 2 (June 2015)

ISSN: 2349-2163
www.ijirae.com

TABLE 3
SERVICE UNIT

HeightLengthDepthHot Water Vessel Capacity

C.

430mm
1000mm
500mm
1.5litres.

Assumptions
1) The plate heat exchanger operates under steady state conditions,
2) No phase change occurs; both fluids are single phase and are unmixed,
3) Heat losses to surrounding are negligible,
4) The temperature in the fluid streams is uniform,
5) The fluids have constant specific heats,
6) The fouling resistance is negligible,
7) Pressure drop across heat exchanger is negligible.
TABLE 4
PROPERTIES OF WATER AT MEAN TEMPERATURE.

Property

Unit(Metric)

Heat Capacity(Cp)
Thermal Conductivity(K)
Dynamic Viscosity
Density()
Specific Volume(v)
Absolute Pressure
Specific Entropy

KJ/KgK
W/mK
Ns/m 2
Kg/m 3
M3/Kg
KN/m2
KJ/KgK

Hot Water
(Mean Temperature)
4.178
0.6526
0.0006284
994.1
1.01
5.6
0.505

Cold Water
(Mean Temperature)
4.181
0.6174
0.0006312
997.1
1.00
3.2
0.367

The two integrated forms of heat transfer equation of 100% efficient parallel-flow and counter-flow (with hot fluid being the
reversed flow) heat exchanger are
=

(1)

= ln

(2)

where and are the mass flow rate of the cold and hot fluids respectively,
and
are the specific heat capacities of the
cold and hot fluids respectively, is the total heat exchange between the hot and cold fluid steams, and are the
temperature differences between the hot and cold fluid steams at the outlet and inlet of the heat exchanger respectively, is the
overall heat transfer coefficient and is the heat exchange area. Dividing equation (2) with equation (1) and rearranging gives

=
(3)
(
)

It is seen from equation (3) that the logarithmic mean temperature difference
is

= ( )
(4)
When is viewed as
. At 100% efficiency all the heat emitted by the hot stream is absorbed by the cold stream.
When the heat exchange between the hot and cold fluid steams is not 100% efficient, the following nomenclature are
introduced; rate of emission of heat or heat power emitted by the hot stream , rate of absorption of heat or heat power absorbed
by the cold stream and overall efficiency . These are respectively given by
=

(5)
=

(6)
=

(7)

Where and are magnitude of the temperature differences between the outlet and inlet of the hot and cold streams
respectively. The overall heat transfer coefficient should have been given as = ( ) if not for physical construction that
sometimes causes a deviation from either 100% parallel flow or 100% counter flow. This is taken care of by introduction of
correction factor such that
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2014-15, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved
Page -13

International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE)


Issue 6, Volume 2 (June 2015)

=
The value stipulated for

ISSN: 2349-2163
www.ijirae.com
(8a)

in the user manual of the extended plate heat exchanger is 0.95 then
=

D. Qualitative and Tabular Analysis of Experimental Results


The studied system is in parallel flow meaning that = and

( )(
ln[( )(

(8b)

(see figure 5) then

)
)]
(2.9)

This is better understood by a simplified diagram of the studied mode of flow as given in fig. 5 below

T2

T1

T3

T4

T5

T9

T10

hot
cold

T6

T7

T8

Fig. 5 A simplified diagram of the experimental parallel flow heat exchanger

The deduction is that


is only realistic when
>
and
> and > then the denominator of equation (9) gives

>

. For mathematical justification of this point suppose

ln[ ] = ln[1 ] = ln[1] + ln[ ] =


)( )|=-(
)( )=(
Where the positive real number
is given by = |(
Equation is rewritten based on the complex number theory as
( )] + ln[ ] = + ln[ ] =
ln[ ] = ln[

) (

(10)
).
(11)

where is the unit magnitude complex number 1. The deduction from equation (11) is that the condition
> and >
causes the denominator to have a complex value and hence causes
to have a complex value which is not supposed to be so.
The conclusion is that the realistic condition for there to be real and positive value for
is
> and
>
. These are
conditions that are consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The experimental results from the extended plate
heat exchanger are given in table 5. The experimental runs that do not meet with the necessary condition
>
are put in red
in table 5. This experimental runs are considered invalid and are not analyzed further in what follows. Table 5 is re-presented as
table 6 containing only the relevant experimental runs. Also in table 6 are presented the volumetric flow rates in m3s-1 and the
computed values of the flow capacities
and
. This value make computations easier as will be seen in what follows.
1) Area of the flow : = 3 where 3 is the number of active plates per pack for the studied heat exchanger, = 4 is the
number of packs utilized in the experiment and = 0.008 is the projected heat transfer area of every plate then
= 3 4 0.008 = 0.096
2) Hydraulic Diameter: It is the ratio of cross sectional area of the channel to the wetted perimeter of the channel

DH

4A
P

Where, A= Area of Flow in m2, P= wetted Perimeter of the plate in m and DH = Hydraulic Diameter

4 x 0.096
2.5098m
0.153

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2014-15, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved
Page -14

International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE)


Issue 6, Volume 2 (June 2015)

ISSN: 2349-2163
www.ijirae.com

3) Velocity of flow:

m
A

Where, A= Area of flow in m2, = Density in Kg/m3 and m = mass flow rate in Kg/sec.

Velocity for Cold Water

0.0215
0.00022461m / s
0.096x 997.1

Velocity for Hot Water

0.0333
0.000348934m / s
0.096x994.1

4) Reynolds Number: It is the ratio of inertia forces to viscous forces.


Re = inertial forces/viscous forces

Re

D H VD H

Where, V= mean velocity of the object relative to the fluid in m/s


D H =Hydraulic Diameter in m
=dynamic viscosity of the fluid in Ns/m3

=Kinematic viscosity (

) in m2/s

=density of the fluid in Kg/m3

Reynolds Number for Cold Water

Re

cVc DH 997.1x0.00022461x 2.5098

890.5123
c
0.0006312

Reynolds Number for Hot Water

Re

hVh DH 994.1x0.0003489x 2.5098

1385.2686
h
0.0006284

5) Prandtl Number: It is the ratio of momentum diffusivity (kinematic viscosity) to thermal conductivity.
P r = Viscous diffusion rate/thermal diffusion rate

Pr

V C p

V= Kinematic viscosity, V

2
(m /s)

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2014-15, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved
Page -15

International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE)


Issue 6, Volume 2 (June 2015)

= Thermal diffusivity, =

ISSN: 2349-2163
www.ijirae.com

K
(m2/s)
C p

=Dynamic viscosity (Ns/m2)


C p =Specific heat (J/Kgk)
K = Thermal Conductivity (W/mk)

=Density (Kg/m3)

Prandtl Number for Cold Water

Vc c C pc

c
Kc
0.0006312x 4.181
rc
0.0004274
0.6174
Prc

Prandtl Number for Hot Water

rh

0.0006284x 4.181
0.0004027
0.6525

6) Nusselt Number: It is the ratio of convective to conductive heat transfer across the boundary.

Nu

hDH
K

Where, h = Heat transfer coefficient


DH = Hydraulic viscosity in m
K = Thermal conductivity in W/mK
Nu = Nusselt Number

Nusselt Number for Cold Water:

Nuc

hc DHc
Kc

Nuc 0.662 Rec

0.5

Prc

0.33

Nuc 0.662 x890.51230.5 x 0.00042740.33 1.5271

Nusselt Number for Hot Water

Nuh

Nuh 0.662 Re h

hh Dh
Kh

0.5

Prh

0.33

Nuh 0.662 x1385.26860.5 x 0.00040270.33 1.8676

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2014-15, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved
Page -16

International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE)


Issue 6, Volume 2 (June 2015)

ISSN: 2349-2163
www.ijirae.com

TABLE 5
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS OBTAINED FROM THE EXTENDED PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER

NO
of
Exp
1

T1
/0 c

T2
/0 c

T3

40.6

2
3

T5

T6

T7

/ c

T4
/0 c

/ c

/ c

/ c

39.8

38.2

36.7

34.5

26.5

29.2

40.5

39.6

36.9

36.3

31.3

26.8

40.1

39.2

37.4

35.3

31.9

26.3

4
5

39.5
40.2

38.3
38.3

35.4
36.1

32.1
33.5

32.2
32.7

40.5

37.6

34.3

34.3

40.2

36.3

35.3

39.8

39.3

37.4

40.2

38.3

10

40.7

38.6

T8

T9

T10

/ c

/ c

32.8

33.6

28.9

Liters
per sec
2

30.1

31.4

33.7

30.4

27.4

31.9

32.9

31.3

26.8
26.1

27.3
28.5

30.7
31.1

31.7
31.8

33.5
36.1

31.5

26.3

28.6

30.8

31.9

35.3

30.8

26.7

30.3

32.6

32.8

31.9

26.2

27.3

31.3

35.3

33.9

32.7

26.3

27.9

36.4

32.8

31.8

26.5

28.4

Liters
per sec
1.68

T2 T4 / 0 T1 - T5
/0 c

T10 - T6
/0 c

6.1

6.1

2.4

1.52

9.2

9.2

3.6

1.31

8.2

8.2

2
2

0.99
1.92

6.1
7.5

6.1
7.5

6.7
10

34.2

1.62

7.9

32.7

33.1

1.31

9.4

9.4

6.4

28.6

28.3

0.63

7.9

7.9

2.1

30.4

33.6

36.8

0.81

7.5

7.5

10.5

30.8

29.4

35.1

0.8

8.9

8.9

8.6

TABLE 6
RESULTS OF HOT AND COLD FLOW RATES AND THERMAL CAPACITY

NO
of
Exp

T1
/0 c

T2
/0 c

40.6

mh c ph

m c c pc

mc c pc

/0 c

T4
/0 c

39.8

38.2

36.7

34.5

26.5

29.2

32.8

33.6

28.9

3.33333x10-5

2.150x10-5

139.394

89.956

0.6453

40.5

39.6

36.9

36.3

31.3

26.8

30.1

31.4

33.7

30.4

3.33333x10-5

1.603x10-5

139.394

67.07

0.481

40.1

39.2

37.4

35.3

31.9

26.3

27.4

31.9

32.9

31.3

3.33333x10-5

2.59x10-5

139.394

108.366

0.777

39.5

38.3

35.4

32.1

32.2

26.8

27.3

30.7

31.7

33.5

3.33333x10-5

3.121x10-5

139.394

130.583

0.9367

40.2

38.3

36.1

33.5

32.7

26.1

28.5

31.1

31.8

36.1

3.33333x10-5

1.25x10-5

139.394

52.3

0.3751

40.5

37.6

34.3

34.3

31.5

26.3

28.6

30.8

31.9

34.2

1.66667x10-5

2.79x10-5

69.78

116.734

1.729

40.2

36.3

35.3

35.3

30.8

26.7

30.3

32.6

32.7

33.1

1.66667x10-5

3.29x10-5

69.78

137.654

1.9727

39.8

39.3

37.4

32.8

31.9

26.2

27.3

31.3

28.6

28.3

1.66667x10-5

2.01x10-5

69.78

84.098

1.2052

40.2

38.3

35.3

33.9

32.7

26.3

27.9

30.4

33.6

36.8

1.66667x10-5

2.029x10-5

69.78

84.893

1.2166

10

40.7

38.6

36.4

32.8

31.8

26.5

28.4

30.8

29.4

35.1

1.66667x10-5

3.011x10-5

69.78

125.98

1.8053

T3

T5

T6

T7

T8

T9

T10

q hot

q cold

/0 c

/0 c

/0 c

/0 c

/0 c

/0 c

(m 3 / s )

(m 3 / s )

m h c ph

TABLE 7
RESULTS OF THERMAL EFFICIENCY AND OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT

EXP

U
(W / m 2 K )

3.966

0.253

3145.687

3.6

6.559

0.247

5636.15

8.2

6.47

0.474

3322.069

0.9367

6.1

6.7

6.97

0.862

2270.65

36.1

0.3751

7.5

10

8.711

0.499

4688.35

34.2

1.729

7.9

6.624

0.875

828.497

32.7

33.1

1.9727

9.4

6.4

7.813

0.677

1234.457

31.3

28.6

28.3

1.2052

7.9

2.1

4.377

0.321

1527.178

30.4
30.8

33.6
29.4

36.8
35.1

1.2166
1.8053

7.5
8.9

10.5
8.6

5.411
5.019

0.609
0.503

1161.159
999.646

T5

T6

T7

T8

T9

T10

mc c pc

/ c

/ c

/ c

/ c

/ c

/ c

36.7

34.5

26.5

29.2

32.8

33.6

36.9

36.3

31.3

26.8

30.1

31.4

39.2

37.4

35.3

31.9

26.3

27.4

39.5

38.3

35.4

32.1

32.2

26.8

40.2

38.3

36.1

33.5

32.7

40.5

37.6

34.3

34.3

31.5

40.2

36.3

35.3

35.3

39.8

39.3

37.4

9
10

40.2
40.7

38.3
38.6

35.3
36.4

T1
/0 c

T2
/0 c

/ c

T4
/0 c

40.6

39.8

38.2

40.5

39.6

40.1

T3
0

mh c ph

T1 T5

- T6

28.9

0.6453

6.1

2.4

33.7

30.4

0.481

9.2

31.9

32.9

31.3

0.777

27.3

30.7

31.7

33.5

26.1

28.5

31.1

31.8

26.3

28.6

30.8

31.9

30.8

26.7

30.3

32.6

32.8

31.9

26.2

27.3

33.9
32.8

32.7
31.8

26.3
26.5

27.9
28.4

T10

T in

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2014-15, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved
Page -17

International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE)


Issue 6, Volume 2 (June 2015)

ISSN: 2349-2163
www.ijirae.com

TABLE 8
RESULTS OF REYNOLDS NUMBER, PRANDTL NUMBER, NUSSELT NUMBER, HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT AND OVERALL
HEAT TRANSFER COEFFIECIENT.

Re c

Re h

Prc

Prh

Nu c

Nu h

Hc

Hh

866.1608

1004.45

4.222012

5.714589

31.33853

37.29299

0.007983

0.00938

3145.69

864.6954

1010.221

4.229995

5.68148

31.33154

37.32833

0.00798

0.00939

5636.15

858.1992

1001.025

4.257356

5.734454

31.28011

37.27201

0.007976

0.00937

3322.07

808.7602

1010.221

4.525615

5.68148

30.98429

37.32833

0.007889

0.00939

2270.65

859.4837

997.623

4.256147

5.754319

31.30057

37.25111

0.007972

0.00937

4688.35

858.1655

1001.025

4.262018

5.734454

31.29079

37.27201

0.00797

0.00937

828.497

858.1655

1007.899

4.262018

5.694723

31.29079

37.31406

0.00797

0.00938

1234.46

850.5794

998.7453

4.305279

5.747698

31.25618

37.2579

0.007954

0.00937

1527.18

858.1655

1001.025

4.262018

5.734454

31.29079

37.27201

0.00797

0.00937

1161.16

866.6366

1004.45

4.221509

5.714589

31.34591

37.29299

0.007981

0.00938

999.646

Fig. 6 Graph of the ratio of cold to hot thermal capacity against overall heat transfer coefficient

From fig. 6 above the overall heat transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger approximately falls with rise in the ratio of thermal
capacities

Fig. 7 Graph of the ratio of cold to hot thermal capacity against thermal efficiency

Fig. 7 above, efficiency of the heat exchanger approximately increases with rise in the cold stream flow rate. This is achieved
by making sure that the hot stream flow rate is stationary.
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2014-15, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved
Page -18

International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE)


Issue 6, Volume 2 (June 2015)

ISSN: 2349-2163
www.ijirae.com

Graph of the flowrate ratio for cold/hot fluid against


intermidiate temperature
12
10
9.4
9.2
9
8.9
10
8.2
7.9
7.5
7.5
7.3
6.7
6.4
8
6.1
5.7
5.5
5
4.7
4.4
4.4
6
3.75
3.6
3.3
3.3
2.48
2.47
2.4
2.4
4
2.1
1.3
1
2 8.40E-067.60E-066.55E-064.95E-069.60E-062.79E-053.29E-052.01E-052.03E-053.01E-05
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
T7-T9

T1-T5

T1-T6

Qcold/Qhot

Fig. 8 Flow rate ratio for cold/hot fluid against intermediate temperature

One important observation from fig. 8 above is that intermediate temperatures for the extended plate heat exchanger increase as
the flow rate ratio for cold/Hot fluid increases; this is as a result of increase in the cold water flow rate while the hot water flow
rate is kept constant at a low temperature. The first intermediate temperature for the heat exchanger has the maximum temperature
that is 10o, thus possesses higher thermal efficiency. The intermediates temperatures decrease as the flow rate ratio between the
cold to hot stream increases, while that of the third intermediate temperature increase gradually. This is due to the increase in the
pressure from the hydraulic bench. The first and second intermediate temperatures are equal when the flow rate is 6.55E-06 and
2.01E-5 respectively. While that of first and second intermediate temperature are the same, when the flow rate is 4.95E-06.

1.00E+01
8.00E+00
6.00E+00

Qcold/Qhot

4.00E+00

Tin

2.00E+00
0.00E+00
1

9 10

Fig. 9 Graph of Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference against Ratio of Cold to Hot flow rate

Overall Heat
Transfer
Coefficient(U) in
W/m2K)

From fig. 9, the temperature driving force for heat transfer increases as the flow rate increases until it get to the maximum point
when the flow rate is 5.5m3/s, after that, it decreases gradually as the flow rate continue to increases at 8m3/s.

6000
4000
2000
0

Reynolds Number (Reh)


Fig. 10 Graph of cold reynolds number against overall heat transfer coefficient

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2014-15, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved
Page -19

Overall Heat Transfer


Coefficient(U) in
W/m2K)

International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE)


Issue 6, Volume 2 (June 2015)

6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0

ISSN: 2349-2163
www.ijirae.com

Reynolds Number (Rec)

Fig. 11 Graph of hot reynolds number against overall heat transfer coefficient

Overall Heat Transfer


Coefficient (W/m2K)

Fig. 10-11 Shows the variation of Reynolds against convective heat transfer coefficient. From the figure, it is deduce that the
convective heat transfer coefficient increases/decreases with an increase in Reynolds number. This is due to the increase/decrease
in the ratio of inertia to viscous forces in the fluid.

6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0

Nusselt Number(Nuc)

Overall Heat Transfer


Coefficient (U)
(W/m2K)

Fig. 12 Graph of cold nusselt number against overall heat transfer coefficient

6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0

Nusselt Number(Nuh)
Fig. 13 Graph of hot nusselt number against overall heat transfer coefficient

Fig. 12-13 Shows a gradual increase and decrease in overall heat transfer coefficient with an increase in Nusselt number. The
increase in overall heat transfer coefficient is as a result the corresponding increase/decrease in the ratio of convective to
conductive heat transfer across the boundary.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2014-15, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved
Page -20

Convective Heat
Transfer Coefficient
(Hc) (W/m2K)

International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE)


Issue 6, Volume 2 (June 2015)

ISSN: 2349-2163
www.ijirae.com

0.008
0.00795
0.0079
0.00785
0.0078

Cold Reynolds Number(Rec)

Convective Heat
Transfer Coefficient
(Hh) W/m2)

Fig. 14 Graph of cold reynolds number against heat transfer coefficient

0.00939
0.00938
0.00937
0.00936
0.00935

Hot Reynolds Number (Reh)


Fig. 15 Graph of hot reynolds number against heat transfer coefficient

Convective Heat
Transfer
Coefficient(Hc)

Fig. 14-15 Shows the graph of convective heat transfer coefficient against Reynolds number. From the figure, it is deduce that
the convective heat transfer coefficient increases with an increase in Reynolds number due to increase in the variation of the
inertia forces applied to the heat exchanger, while the decreases is as a results of decrease in the inertia to viscous forces in the
heat exchanger. Increase in Reynolds number shows that the flow is turbulent and lead to a high rate of heat transfer.

0.008
0.00795
0.0079
0.00785
0.0078

Nusselt Number (Nuc)


Fig. 16 Graph of cold nusselt number against heat transfer coefficient

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2014-15, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved
Page -21

Convective Heat
Transfer
Coefficient(Hh)

International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE)


Issue 6, Volume 2 (June 2015)

ISSN: 2349-2163
www.ijirae.com

0.00939
0.00938
0.00937
0.00936
0.00935

Hot Nusselt Number (NUh)


Fig. 17 Graph of hot nusselt number against heat transfer coefficient

Overall Heat transfer


Coefficient (W/m2K)

Fig. 16-17 Shows the graph of convective heat transfer coefficient against Nusselt number. From the figure, it is deduce that the
convective heat transfer coefficient slightly increase with an increase in Nusselt Number, leading to a more active convective, with
turbulent flow. The decrease in convective heat transfer coefficient is as a result of decrease in convective heat transfer across the
boundary.

6000
4000
2000
0
0.0215 0.016 0.0259 0.0312 0.0125 0.0279 0.0329 0.0201 0.0203 0.0301
Mass Flow Rate (Kg/s)
Fig. 18 Graph of mass flow rate against overall heat transfer coefficient

Fig. 18 above shows the variation of overall heat transfer coefficient against mass flow rate. From the figure, it is deduce that
the overall heat transfer coefficient increases with an increase in mass flow rate. This is due to the increase in the flow velocity
which can also lead to increase in the heat transfer rate.

III CONCLUSION
This research focuses on an experimental investigation of the effect of fluid flow rate on the performance of a parallel flow heat
exchangers in an extended plate with regard to thermal efficiency, overall heat transfer coefficient, convective heat transfer
coefficient, flow rate, and Reynolds number. Physical characteristics and thermal performance of a real heat exchanger were
studied in this work. The heat exchanger was supplied to the Mechanical Engineering laboratory of Landmark University with the
model name HT30XC Heat exchanger Service Unit. The detailed description of the unit is given in is as given in the previous
section. Even though the Unit can be configured for either parallel or counter-current flow by changing the direction of the pump
controlling the hot water flow, only the co-current flow was studied in this work. The experimental results that violet the laws of
thermodynamics were considered experimental outliers and discarded. Using the experimental results the thermal performance
characteristics of the heat exchanger which include; efficiency, overall heat transfer coefficient and logarithmic mean temperature
difference were calculated for all the experimental runs. The relationship between the first two and the ratio of thermal capacities

was presented graphically.It was seen from the graph that efficiency of the heat exchanger falls with rise in

. In other

words it can be stated that rise in efficiency requires faster increase in flow rate of the hot stream than of the cold stream. Also, It
was seen that the overall heat transfer coefficient approximately falls with rise in

. It can also be stated that rise in overall heat

transfer coefficient requires faster increase in flow rate of the hot stream than of the cold stream. There is variation of convective
heat transfer coefficient with respect to mass flow rate. Also the convective heat transfer coefficient increases with both Reynolds
and nusselt numbers, which increases the overall heat transfer coefficient.
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2014-15, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved
Page -22

International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE)


Issue 6, Volume 2 (June 2015)

ISSN: 2349-2163
www.ijirae.com

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
We wish to acknowledge the efforts and contributions of the chancellors of Landmark University Omu-Aran, Kwara State,
Bishop David Oyedepo (Ph.D) and Afe-Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Afe Babalola (SAN) for their commitment in
human capital development via procurement of laboratory equipment and training of their staffs which is evidence in this work.
We will forever remain indebted to them. To God alone be all the glory.
REFERENCES

[1]. Chi-Chuan W, Chang-Tsair C. (2012): Heat and mass transfer for plate fin-and-tube heat exchangers, with and without

hydrophilic coating. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Volume 41, Issue 20, Pages 3109-3120.Retrieved 6 th
September,2014.
[2]. Shah R.K and Kandilkar S. G (1989): The influence of the number of thermal plates on plate
heat exchanger
performance, Journal of Heat Transfer, vol.111, pp.300-313.
[3]. Ho-Ming Yeh, (2010)Effect of External Recycle on the Performance in Parallel-Flow Rectangular Heat-Exchangers,
Tamkang Journal of Science and Engineering, 13 ( 4) 405-412
[4]. Kevin M. L (1998): Increasing Heat Exchanger Performance, Bryan Research and Engineering, Inc. - Technical Papers
(March 1998), Vol 2.
[5]. Dardour, S. Mazouz, and Bellagi A( 2009): Numerical Analysis of Plate Heat Exchanger Performance in CoCurrent Fluid
Flow Configuration, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol: 3, 2009-03-29.
[6]. Murugesan M.P. and Balasubramanian R.(2013): To Study the Fouling of Corrugated Plate Type Heat Exchanger in the
Dairy Industry, Research Journal of Engineering Sciences, Vol. 2(1), 5-10,
[7]. Murugesan M.P. and Balasubramanian R., The Experimental Study on Enhanged heat Transfer Performance in Plate Type
Heat Exchanger, Research Journal of Engineering Sciences, Vol. 2(2), 16-22,
[8]. Sachdeva R.C (2008): Fundamentals of Engineering Heat and Mass Transfer, New age International Publishers, pp.491528.
[9]. Sanvicente E. et al (2012): Transitional Natural Convection Flow and Heat Transfer in an Open Channel: International
Journal of Thermal Science, Pg.87-104. Doi.10.1016/j.ijlhermalsci.2012.07.004.
[10]. Sai K T., Rajasekhar S. G and Pravarakhya G (2013): Design and Analysis of Plate Heat Exchanger with CO and R134a
as Working Fluids, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering And Technology, Volume 4, Issue4
[11]. Yunus A.C (2003): Heat Transfer: A practical Approach. 2 nd Ed. McGrawHill, New York.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2014-15, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved
Page -23