10 views

Uploaded by Tushar Gupta

Orthogonal Complements

- sp-ktu-2015.pdf
- HWStrang4thEd
- 10.1.1.12
- Digital Communication
- Bootcamp 2011 Algebra
- Basis And Dimension
- sec4_2.pdf
- Shadows.of.Complex.bodies
- diffeqdim
- commsys-2-2012-6
- Chapter16 Slides
- Mit18 06scf11 Ses1.6sum
- Ufc User Manual
- UT Dallas Syllabus for ee2300.0u1.08u taught by Yi Hu (yihuyxy)
- Linear Spaces
- laboratorio-matlab-01.pdf
- 11 1A
- Commands Without CP12
- Sergei Winitzki-Linear Algebra via Exterior Products-lulu.com (2010)
- Metric Projections to Identify Critical Points in Electric Power Systems

You are on page 1of 15

in

if and only if

Example

1.

The vectors

in

are

not.

2.

We can define an inner product on the vector space of all polynomials of degree at most

3 by setting

.

(There is nothing special about integrating over [0,1]; This interval was chosen

arbitrarily.)

two polynomials

are orthogonal in

provided

that

Example

Consider the

matrix

we have that

is given by

null space of A,

. By consideration of

.

Lets consider vectors in

and

, say,

and

and so

is orthogonal to an element of

Since

vector in

is a basis for

can be written as

and

?

.

so that every

Similarly, since

vector in

is a basis for

so that every

can be written as

Now,

We conclude that if

Definition

and

, then

and so

. (Think

and

)

1.

The subspaces

of

for all

2.

, if

vectors in V given by

.

The set

Examples

1.

2.

Let A be any

, then

with

. However,

if and only if

of the matrix A. Hence, the null space of A is the set of all vectors

orthogonal to the rows of A and, hence, the row space of A. (Why?) We conclude that

.

given a subspace W of

1.

2.

3.

Suppose that

and

Thus,

. Since

and

. Then

it follows that

? Let

can be shown to be

for

and a vector in

4.

forms a basis

with basis

.

Solution

Let

. Then

the function

for all

. Hence, in particular,

and

.

Solving the linear system

and

with

for some

span

. Since these two polynomials are not multiples of each other, they are linearly

Theorem

Suppose that W is a subspace of

1.

is a subspace of

.

.

2.

3.

4.

Each vector in

and

where

Definition

Let V and W be two subspaces of

the form

and we write

Example

1.

where

.

. If each vector

and

, the we say

is the direct sum of V and W

2.

Let A be an

= row space of A

= null space of A

= column space of A

= null space of

Example

Let

. Since

, it follows that

has a basis of

and that

has a basis of

Because

, we have that

has a basis of

and that

Let A be an

1.

2.

matrix.

is the orthogonal complement of

in

in

.

.

3.

4.

Example

Let

vector in

. Write

and a vector in

. It is sufficient to

so that

.

to

Set

and

.

Then

a vector from

as a sum of

Definition

Let

, then we call

. If

where

and

.

Example

1. Suppose

. Then, by the previous example,

.

2. Find

if

and

Solution

We note that

So, we find a basis for

by finding the null space for

or, equivalently,

.

We see that

. We now seek

so that

(*)

( Of course,

. )

To solve the equation (*) it is sufficient to row reduce the augmented matrix

obtaining

.

Thus,

matrix P given by

so that

.

We call P the projection matrix. The projection matrix given by

(where

the rows of A form a basis for W) is expensive computationally but if one is computing several

projections onto W it may very well be worth the effort as the above formula is valid for all

vectors b.

3. Find the projection of

in

matrix.

Solution

We seek a set of basis vectors for the plane

and

.

Then

and

.

that are

Hence,

So,

.

We note that

and, hence,

Properties of a Projection Matrix:

(1)

(2)

- sp-ktu-2015.pdfUploaded byManu Eldho
- HWStrang4thEdUploaded byShazia Ahmed
- 10.1.1.12Uploaded byAlonso Botero
- Digital CommunicationUploaded byshivasthuti2
- Bootcamp 2011 AlgebraUploaded bypetere056
- Basis And DimensionUploaded bynikhil9666
- sec4_2.pdfUploaded bySceptic Granny
- Shadows.of.Complex.bodiesUploaded byRicardo Borriquero
- diffeqdimUploaded byDeep Light
- commsys-2-2012-6Uploaded byRajesh Bathija
- Chapter16 SlidesUploaded byParth Rajesh Sheth
- Mit18 06scf11 Ses1.6sumUploaded bysreedeviish
- Ufc User ManualUploaded byleafarsg
- UT Dallas Syllabus for ee2300.0u1.08u taught by Yi Hu (yihuyxy)Uploaded byUT Dallas Provost's Technology Group
- Linear SpacesUploaded bymchis687905
- laboratorio-matlab-01.pdfUploaded byJhon Jesús
- 11 1AUploaded byAbdul Rawoof
- Commands Without CP12Uploaded byS Kiong Ting
- Sergei Winitzki-Linear Algebra via Exterior Products-lulu.com (2010)Uploaded byValdir Mendes
- Metric Projections to Identify Critical Points in Electric Power SystemsUploaded bytheijes
- CagUploaded byWillimSmith
- Smoothed particle idrodynamicsUploaded byAntonio Marcegaglia
- Vectors and its RepresentationsUploaded byFranklyn Frank
- DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY OF CURVES AND SURFACES Minkowski-Rafael Lopes.pdfUploaded byAlex Inchicaque Ramirez
- Robot-assisted perception augmentation for online detection of insertion failure during cochlear implant surgeryUploaded byjohn roe
- 216743552810893787_karnataka_2nd_puc_maths_board_exam_question_paper_eng_ve(1).pdfUploaded byDev Joshi
- Qm EngineersUploaded byAnonymous PKVCsG
- Homework 2Uploaded byAnette Wendy Quipo Kancha
- s07-printableUploaded byGustavo G Borzellino C
- Lundholm - Clifford Algebra & ApplUploaded bybdefelis

- PoissonIntegralTheorem.1Uploaded byTushar Gupta
- hw5Uploaded byTushar Gupta
- Mat187 Textbook Ch16Uploaded byTushar Gupta
- SimpsonUploaded bySabir Ali
- SimpsonUploaded bySabir Ali
- Cubic Spline p2Uploaded byHarshang Shah
- MIT18_03S10_supUploaded byChaitanya Kapila
- MIT18 03S10 Reading Lec29Uploaded byTushar Gupta
- quiz03Uploaded byTushar Gupta
- Complex Prelim PracticeUploaded byant314159265
- FrobeniusUploaded byTushar Gupta
- Fall 2012 Assignment 2Uploaded byTushar Gupta
- Trees Good sourceUploaded byashodhiya14
- final-solUploaded byTushar Gupta
- Surface IntegralsUploaded byTushar Gupta
- Double IntegralsUploaded bydreambr
- forcedVibrationsUndamped2008.pdfUploaded byTushar Gupta
- GT-Lec1Uploaded byTushar Gupta
- Max FlowUploaded byTushar Gupta
- Stokes GaussUploaded byAkmal Amin ⋈
- Solution of the State Equations - MITUploaded byUjjwal Karki
- changeintUploaded byTushar Gupta
- How to Use Poisson's FormulasUploaded byTushar Gupta
- Chapter_7_SG.pdfUploaded byTushar Gupta
- The Rank-Nullity TheoremUploaded bysdfsdf
- 9781402086656-t1.pdfUploaded byTushar Gupta
- Jacobian IntegralUploaded bybraindammage
- Euler Lagrange ProblemsUploaded byTushar Gupta
- graphtheoryUploaded byKhoa Pham
- Lab 02Uploaded byRa'aed Sadoon

- COMP 122 Lab 5 Lab Report and Source CodeUploaded bystephanievillalvazoab
- L2V4bGlicmlzL2R0bC9kM18xL2FwYWNoZV9tZWRpYS82MTg4MjE=Uploaded byvkeylin
- Drillmec Hh Drilling RigsUploaded bysjarguelle
- Modeling Energy-related CO2 Emissions From Office Buildings Using GeneralUploaded byED DK KA
- KAM TheoryUploaded bymbuyiselwa
- Language ProductionUploaded bySri Rahayu
- Technical Analysis - Moving AveragesUploaded byChitra
- Wireless Speed Control of Dc Motor Using PWM and UARTUploaded byElins Journal
- Gardner Denver - ESM30Uploaded bynamnt11
- Analysis of the File Transfer ProtocolUploaded byparkega3
- Com Asprise Util PDFUploaded byTim
- ISO 12944 Coatings System GuideUploaded byCostas Aggelidis
- ts16 Future of HistoryUploaded bysiu_thailand
- English Mental Health Recovery MeasureUploaded byHuang Chun Fat Tony
- graphic organizer grading rubricUploaded byapi-450888838
- A Puzzle is a Problem or Enigma That Challenges IngenuityUploaded byapi-3805518
- GpsUploaded byNguyen Ngoc Anh
- Stedman Consise Medical Dictionary 3rd Edition User GuideUploaded byTatianaGutu
- nihms264132.pdfUploaded bySusi Rutmalem
- eseji engUploaded byMartina Lažnjak
- Oracle 11g RAC Student Guide Volume 2Uploaded byshklifo
- Questionario on Corporate Social Responsibility EnUploaded bysargunkaur
- CNC Programming.pdfUploaded byGooftilaaAniJiraachuunkooYesusiin
- Computer science project on TUTION MANIA(class 12th)Uploaded bySahil Kumar
- Field Kit to Characterize Physical, Chemical and Spatial Aspects of Potential Primate FoodsUploaded byfmpm018
- hysysUploaded byDaniel Segura
- daniel yu math achievements 2Uploaded byapi-436716194
- english linksUploaded byapi-272535166
- Multiple Linear Regression.ipynbUploaded byOlzhas Bolatbaev
- Lesson 4 Word Processing Skills - Mail MergeUploaded byVince