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.. ,

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31.12.1982 . ,
( )
[1] ( - )
[2] . , , ?
, , ,

( ) . [3]. , , , ,
.
1984 [4]. ( )
, ,
. , , [5].
. . ,
[6], , [7], , , , , [8,9]. ,
[6] [10].
-, -

, () ,
,

SE

[11,12],

. -

, ,
, , ..
N

D Q (t ) = qi

i =1

dQ (t ) d


+ div j d V = I 0 ,
= ( x, t ) d V =
dt
dt

(1)

I = dQ dt - D, Q (t ) (.1).

1. : ) ; b)
.1 ( ), , : N

Q (t ) = qi ( ) i =1

E = Q / r 2
Q ; b) ( ) ,
E = Q (t ) / r 2 [11,12]

SE =

1 Q
.
rc t

( 2)

, (2) , .
[13]. (2), . , - . , . , . , .
. . ,
, (2)

. . . . .2, - 23 1921 , .
, 1931 . . .
75- :

.2 . . . 1921 .
. !
, 75- ,
, . .
.
. , . , 80 , , ,
(2), Pierce-Arrow, .
, . ,
150 /,
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2. , ()
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1.
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1872 . .
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.
Scientific American [13]. . ,
.
.
1889 .,
. , 1892 ., . .
, .
(.3).

.3.

, , . .

.4.
. ,
. ,
(2-6
). .
(.4).
5

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, [13]:
1. ,
, - () .
2. ,
.
3. .

4. ,
.
5.
, .
6. .
7. , , . , , , .
8. 100 .
9. 100
.

2. .
,
. , (2).
1.1. S E
10
, . 5. 12-50 . L2 (
)
5000 .

.5. , S E
.4 .5, ,
. 4 -
. 5. . 4 .5,
, 7

L1 . Q = Q0 sin t ,

SE =

1 Q V
=
4 0 R cos t ,
rc t
rc

(3)

R - , V - , -
, 0 - ().
(3) (. . 6), ,
,
V , R . (3), . ,
R , V .

.6. S E
S E
1919 [14], (3) . . 7 ,
(3).

.7. S E
.8 , , . ,
, . , .6 )
, .
8

.8. ) 220 40 S E ; ) , S E ,
5 ,
- . . , . , S E . S E ,
.
(3)
-71 (.9.). . , S E (3). , : )

.9.
; ) . , , 9

.
. ,
.
, .
1.2. S E
. 10. , . 1897 .[10].

.10. S E
.11 ) , 2 , . 10. S E
, S E , .. , .

.11. ) ; )
1000 ,
5
. , S E ,
, 10

.
, , . , ,
[15]. . 12 , .

.12. S E : ) ; )
, 80 ,
,
. ,
,
.. [16].

2. S E
. , () ,
, 1931 .
Pierce-Arrow
. (1929 .), . , , -
, , , , ( ). , , ,
[17].

.13. .
11


[18], 1980- (.13). ,
200 . 30 .
750 .
, , , , , .

.14. S E : =2.1; =29.4


. 14 30 ,
2 , 64 .
. , () . . 14
=2.1. . 14
1.7 . S E 2
, 50 . , : =29.4.

. 15. : -
; , S E 20

12

. 15. , S E . 20 . , . , , ( ),
, , . ( ) , .
, , , ,
. ,
, , - .

3.

[5,19-22].
, , (2). ,
[11,12,23]

dp

= eE + {[v H ] + S E v } = K ,
dt
c

( 4)

F = S E v e

v . , ,
(4) , , . (4) ,

S E H , , ,

S E F1 = S E + iE ,

E - . ( Kdx ) dt ,

e

K 0 = e ( Ev ) + S E ( v ) 2 .
(5)
c
,
. (.16). . ,
AR300+ 32~ +400
. . , D =
90 (. . 16).
90o +351o C (.
.15). , ( ) , 4-6 .
. ,
, [24], . ,
13

, (
) .

.16. 90o +351o C


, S E
. [23]

e
+ div j = S E ,

1
div 0
+ div 0 .
c t

( 6)

4.

, 10- , 4 (6) [24].

--
( A)
[ k e a m ] + e b [ k T a |b | m ] = 0 ,

1
gik R = Tik ,
2
C i jkm + 2[ k T ij m ] + 2Tsi[ k T sj m ] = J i jkm ,
Rik

i, j, k ... = 0,1,2,3,

( B.1)
( B.2)

a, b, c... = 0,1,2,3 ,

T jki ,
[25]. (),() [26], [27-30] .
[1] [2]
, , .
(.1) -
14

T jm =

2
pn
i
s
i
i
i
s
[iT j m ] + Ts[iT| j | m ] g jm g [iT p n ] + Ts[iT p n ] ,
n
2

(7)

1
J ijkm = 2 g[ k ( iT j ) m ] Tgi [ m g k ] j
3

T
c2

g jmT
c2

jm

2 g jm

Ti +Ti Ts

[i j m ]
s[ i j m ]

c2

(8)

T jki .
(),() ,
(),() (7),(8) . , , (),()
. :
1. (),() , , [31,32].
2. (), () () , ( !) .
2 4 (6) , , (7) (8) [32]
1
1

T( jm ) = ..i ..s g . ji ..s ,


(9)
sm ji 2 jm s ji

1 ..i .. s
1
s
sm ji = 2 T ji sT ji ,
2

(10)

Tijk = T jik = T jki = ijk - .


- (7)
*[ p P i jk ]m = 0, P i jkm = 2[ k T i | j | m ] + 2T i s [ k T s | j | m ]
(7)
*iT ik = 0 .

(11)

(12)

(11) (12) i - ijk

*i - i jk
, ..i jm = i[ jk ] 4 (6) 24 [32]. ()
, h j , h j ,m hm , j = 0 (9)
1
1

i
h j hm g jm h hi .


hm = , m
T jm =

h j

- (13)
1
1

T jm = j m g jm i i .

(13)

(14)

15

(14) -
. hm ,

hm = ,m = ( x i )um ,
(15)
um u m = 1 ( x i ) . (15) (14),
1
1

T jm = j 2 ( x i ) u j um g jm = 2 u j um + pg jm ,

(16)

1 2 i
1
( x ) > 0, p = c 2 .
(17)
2

2
(16) - ,
(17).

4.1 -

1 (), (),

() [32]
1

2 0 (t )
c 2 dt 2 1 2 (t ) dr 2 r 2 ( d 2 + sin 2 d 2 ) ,
ds = 1

r
r

(18)

0 (t ) - . - (16)
(18) [32]
T

jm

= r c 2l l =
j m

0 (t )
2

r2

l l ,
j m

0 <0 ,

l l m = 0,
m

r ( r, t ) =

0 (t )
2

c2r2

>0 .

(19)

(18) M (t )
Ze(t ) , Z = 1, 2, 3...
2 Ze(t )
2 MG
( 20)
, Z = 1, 2, 3... ,
2 0 (t ) = rg (t ) + re (t ) = 2 + k
c2
c
rg (t ) - , re (t ) - [1, 31] k = e / - .
rg > > re (), ()

0 (t ) 0 = const (18)
rg
ds 2 = 1

r
c 2 dt 2 1 g

dr 2 r 2 ( d 2 + sin 2 d 2 ) ,

r =
g

2 MG
.
c2

( 21)

re > > rg , (), () (18)


r
r

ds = 1 e c 2 dt 2 1 e

r
r

dr 2 r 2 ( d 2 + sin 2 d 2 ) ,

r =k
e

2 Ze
c2

( 22)

16

[1]. (17)

0 (t ) 0 = const

r = M (r ) ,

( 23)

v (.1)

8 G
= 4 ,
( 24)
g
c
(.1) ()
.

r = Ze ( r ) ,
Z = 1,2,3... ,
( 25)
e

v (.1)
8 e
=
.
e
c4

( 26)

(17) , , [11,12]
1/ 2

2
( x ) =
8pGM

2
( x ) =
2
8pZe

exp(ik x n ) , * ( g )1 / 2 V = 1,
n

= M ( ) M * ,

( 27)

1/ 2

exp(ik x n ), * ( g )1 / 2V = 1,
n

= Ze ( ) Ze * .
e

( 28)

(27) (28) ,
,
4.2 . ()

(17) (12),
(27) (28):
1.

*i ( u i ) = i ( u i ) + u n j nj + u nT j nj = 0 .
(29)
2. ,
du k
+ k mn u m u n + T k mn u m u n = 0 .
ds
3.
*i = i = 0 .

(30)

(31)
17

= * = W

(32)

- ( ) x
t . (29)-(31).
(29) (30) ,
( ) (27), (28). () T k mn , (29) (30) ()
i ( u i ) = i ( u i ) + u n j nj = 0 ,
(33)

du k
+ k mn u m u n = 0 .
ds

(34)

0 (t ) 0 = const (.1) [11,12]

1
8e
8e
8e
8e
Rik g ik R = 4 Tik = 4 r e c 2ui uk = 4 Ze ( r )c 2ui uk = 4 Ze *c 2ui uk ,
c
c
c
c
2
R jm E i jk

i jk =

e i
e c 2 im
=
E
g ( a jm , k + akm , j a jk , m ) ,
jk
mc 2
mc 2 2

gik ( x i , k ) = ik +

(35)

aik

(36)

e
e2
i
(37)
R jm = 2 2 [i E | j | m ] + 2 2 4 E i s [ i E s | j | m ] .
mc
m c
(35) , ,

e 2 C 2 2
e 2 C 2
c dt 1
dx + d 2 + dz 2 ,
(38)

2
2

c
c

C = Ze / r , Z = 1, 2 , 3... - .
, . ,

v , (38) [33]

ds 2 = 1 +

e 2 C
ds 2 = 1 +
2
c

2
2 2
c dt 1 e C
2

dx 2 + d 2 + dz 2

8e

(A dx + A dy + A dz )dt.

2
3
2 1
, v /
2
2
4
2
2
00 = 2 = 2 A0 ,
0 = 2 A = A0 v ,
= 2 = 2 A0 .
c
c

c
c

(39)

( 40)

(35) (34)

dx i dx k
a
<< 1 ,
( 41)
ik ds ds
,
,
e

18


1 2
4 i
F ik
2 2 Ai = k =
j ,
x
c t
c

j i = ( e c , e v ) = e

Ak Ai E x
Fi k = Ak ,i Ai , k =

=
xi xk E y

E
z

Ex
0
Hz
Hy

dx i
, =1, 2 , 3, i = 0,1, 2, 3,
dt

Ey
Hz
0
Hx

Ez

Hy
,
Hx

( 42)

( 44)

. (33) (34) (32)

+ div v = 0 ,
t

du i
e
= 2 F ik uk ,

ds0
c

= 1, 2 , 3 , = * 0,
ds0 = dt 1 v 2 / c 2 ,

i = 0, 1, 2, 3.

(45)

( 46)

, , 4D

du i
e
= 2 F ik uk ,
ds0 c

i = 0, 1, 2, 3,

( 47)

, , ()
. , (45) (46)
(28)

= Ze ( ) Ze * , . e

(45) (46)
(47). (38) ( (39)) 3D
(46)
C
dv
C
= U C ,
( 48)
dt

U C = e

= Ze

/ r - (

). , (48) () ,
,
Tijk = T jik = T jki = ijk . ,
e , (48) ,
W
C
C
dv
C
( 49)
= U C W ,
dt

W - . , (45) (49) (
(32)) .

2 2
U = 0 ,
(50)
i +
t
2
,

19

px Et
( x , t ) = 0 exp i = ( x , t ) exp(iS ( x , t ) / ) ,
(51)

- , E = , p = k
, (51), S ( x , t ) - .
, (51) (50)

v = S ,
(52)
(50) (45) [28]

dv
= U C V ,

dt

(53)

2
2 2
2 ( ) 2
2
2

V=
=


2 2
2
2
2 2
2
4

(54)

V - , [34].

4.3

()
(34), , (36),
d 2 xi
dx j dx k
e i dx j dx k
i
= jk
= 2 E jk
.
c
ds 2
ds ds
ds ds

(55)

(47), ,
, [12]. (55) (38) e Ze :
1) e ()
1/ 2

1/ 2

1 / 2

2 Ze 2 1 dx 0
2 Ze 2 1 v 2
2

1
(56)
E = c 1
= c 1
= const ;
c 2 r ds
c 2 r c 2

2)
d
L = r 2
= const ,
(57)
ds
- . (56) (57) , ,
.. . : (55),
. .
, ( ). , (30)
d 2 xi
e i dx j dx k
dx j dx k
i
= 2 E jk
T jk
.
(58)
c
ds 2
ds ds
ds ds
(38), 3D (58)
20
2

d 2 x e
Ze 2
Ze 2
2
(59)
2 = E 00 c T 00 = 3 x 3 x = F e We = 0.
r
dt
c
r
, ... = 1.2.3.

Ze 2
x ,
(60)
r3
,

Ze 2

F iner = 3 x = We ,
(61)
r
(58), .
(59) , , .
.
( ) [1]. ,
,
.
U = Ze 2 / r [35]
Fe =

n = m 2 2 / 2 m r 2 Ze 2 / r + V = mZ 2 e 4 / 2 2 n 2 = const ,
m = 0, 1, 2,... , n + 1, = 0,1,2 .

(62)

m = 0 ,

(63)
n = Ze 2 / r + V = Z 2 e 4 / 2 2 n 2 = const ,
, V
Ze2 / r (. 17).

.17.


2
U = Ze / r V
(59)

21

C
C
dv
= (U C + U in ) = 0,
dt

U in = ( r We ) -

Ze 2
We =
x.
r3
(64)
U C + U in = const

(64)

(65)

(66)

( ) (63),
. V U in , (63)

n = Ze 2 / r + U in = Z 2 e 4 / 2 2 n 2 = const .

(67)

[36],
,



(68)
U in = ( r W ) ([ r ]) 2 .
2
V U in
W , (63)-(67) , , (50), ,
(68) .
,
1
1

(69)
n = n + = V + 2 x 2 = V + U , n = 0, 1, 2...
2
2

, n = 0 , .. x = 0 ,
V = / 2 .

n = un ( x )e iE t / .
(70)
,

n

( x, t ) = n un ( x )e iE t /

(71)

[35]

n =0

n = ( ) n / 2 a n ( 2 n n! ) 1 / 2 e a

/ 4

(72)

t = 0 , x = a ,

22

1
2

( x, t ) = ( / p)1 / 4 exp ( / 2)( x a cos t ) 2 (i / 2)[t + ( / )( 2 xa sin t a 2 sin 2t )]

( x, t ) = 0 ( x a cos t )
2

(73)

x = a
(. 18).

.18.
x = a
S , V
[35]

1
1
1
S( x, t ) = t ( 2 xa sin t a 2 sin 2 t ) ,
2
2
2
1
1
( x (t ), t ) = + 2 a 2 + 2 ( x0 a ) cos t .
2
2

(74)
(75)

1
1
(76)
2 ( x a cos t ) 2 .
2
2
x0 - . (70)-(76)
V ( x, t ) =

(69), U = 2 x 2 / 2 - .
(69) n = 0 ( ),
1
V = ,
(77)
2
.. .

dv
= (U + U in ) = 0,
dt
U + U in = 0

(78)
(79)
23

U in = U = 2 x 2 / 2 ,

(80)

(68). (77)
(80) ( (68)).

5.
(18) , 0 (t ) , 0 (t ) 0 = const . , . , , (38), (39)

e 2 (t ) 2 2
e 2 (t )
2

ds = 1 +

c dt 1

e 2 (t )
C

e 2 C (t ) 2 2
ds 2 = 1 +
c dt 1

c 2

C
2

dx 2 + d 2 + dz 2

dx 2 + d 2 + dz 2 ,

8e

(81)

(A (t )dx + A (t )dy + A (t )dz )dt.


1

(82)

(45), (46) ,

r
e
e
+ div r v = r 2 u 0 E0,00 (t ) = r S E ,
t
c

SE =

1 Q
,
rc t

Q (t ) = Ze(t ),

2
dx 0
d 2 x
e
dx dx 0
dx 0 dx 0 dx

+ 2 E , 0
= 2 E ,00

+ E0,00
.
2
ds0
ds0 ds0
ds0 ds0 ds0
c
ds0

0
dx / ds0 1 , (84)

(83)

(84)

dv
e
e
= E + {[v H ] + S E v } ,
(85)

dt

c
S E - , . (83) , Q (
). (85)

dv
= eE + e{[v H ] + S E v } ,

(86)
dt
S E .

FS = S E v ,

(87)
24

S E ,

, FS
, , [37].
0 (t )
(18)
eZe(t )
0 (t ) =
,
(88)
c 2
(19) ( (26))
0 (t )
1
1 1 Q (t )
2
(89)
S ( r, t ) .
r ( r, t ) =
=
=
e
4r E
4r rc t
c2r 2
, ( , t ) = Q ( , t ) * , (89)
e

S ( , t ) = 4 ( , t ) 4Q ( , t ) * .
E

(90)

, S E

, S ,
() .

, . , . ,
. , , ,
. -.
,
-, . S E

.
, . ( ), . , ()
, , . .
24.05.2015

1. .. // . .: , 2007,
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1970.
37. .., ,
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eUvgOOSOCw8 .

27