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INTERNAL

COMBUSTION
ENGINES

SECTION 2

CONSTRUCTION OF INTERNAL
COMBUSTION ENGINES

CONSTRUCTION OF INTERNAL
COMBUSTION ENGINES
The Camshaft:1.

An IC Engine produces power by burning fuel.


In a 4-cycle engine, the change is introduced into the cylinder through
the intake
Valve

2.

In order for the four combustion events to occur at exactly the


same time, the valves must open and close in relation to the
position of the in the cylinder.
Piston

3.

In the (2-cycle / 4-cycle) engine, combustion events are timed by


the piston instead of by the valves.
2-cycle

4. The intake and exhaust valves in a 4-cycle engine are operated by a


camshaft.

Cams are mounted on this


Camshaft
5.

The cams are oval shaped metal pieces which are (centered / offcenter) on the shaft.
Off-center

6.

There are two cams for each cylinder: one cam for the intake valve
and one for the exhaust valve.
An 8-cylinder engine has . cams on its camshaft.
16
7.

The camshaft is rotated by the crankshaft through the set of gears


at the shaft ends.

The gear on the camshaft is (twice / one-half) as large as the gear on the
crankshaft.
Twice
8.

Thus the camshaft gear turns at one-half the speed of the


crankshaft.
Each valve opens (once / twice) for each two turns of the crankshaft.
Once
9.

As the camshaft rotates, a cam lifts and moves a push rod.

The push rod lifts and drops a


Rocker area
10.

As the push rod lifts one end of the rocker arm, the other end
forces the valve stem down.
The valve spring is compressed and the valve .
Opens

11.

In a 4-cycle engine, each valve must open once each time the
crankshaft makes two revolutions.
Each valve opens once every the camshaft makes revolution.
One
12.

The camshaft makes (one-half as many / twice as many)


revolutions as the crankshaft.
One-half as many

13.

With the camshaft gear turning at one half the speed of the
crankshaft gear, the camshaft rotates only once every time the
crankshaft rotates ..
Twice

14.

The which operates an intake valve opens the valve at the


beginning of intake and . it at the end of intake.
Closes

15.

The cam which operates an exhaust valve . the exhaust


valve at the beginning of the exhaust stroke and closes at the end
of the exhaust.
Opens

16.

Intake and exhaust valves remain closed during the . power


events.
Compression

17.

Look at the drawing.

During compression and power, the cam (lifts/ does not lift) the push rod.
Does not lift

18.

19.

This happens because of the (shape / size) of the cam.


Shape
Lets review
The camshaft is turned by the (crankshaft / connecting rod).
Crankshaft
There is one cam for each .. in the engine.
Valve

If the valves do not open and close at right time, the cylinders (fire /
do not fire) properly.
Do not fire
Both the intake and exhaust valves are (open / closed) during the
compression and power strokes.
Closed

The Carburetor:20.

For smooth and efficient burning, air and fuel must be mixed in
just the right amounts.
To get the proper air fuel ratio, it is necessary to .. the amount of
fuel and air being combined.
Control/Regulate
21.

In order to be mixed with air and burned, liquid fuel is broken up


into a fine mist.
When liquid fuel is sprayed into
a combustible mixture is produced.
Air
22.

The carburetor makes liquid fuel . by breaking it into a fine


mist and mixing it with air.
Combustible/Burnible

23 .The carburetor is positioned so that it can atomize fuel, mix it with


air, and feed the mixture to the ..
Cylinders

24.

The carburetor is normally (near the top / near the bottom) of the
cylinder.
Near the top

25.

The drawing shows a simplified model of a carburetion system.

The downward motion of the piston creates a . pressure area in


the cylinder.
Low
26.

This low pressure pulls into the carburetor from the


atmosphere.
Air

27. The narrow air passage inside the carburetor is called the venturi.
As air rushes past the venture, it picks up particles of .
Fuel
28.

At this point the drops of fuel and the air


Mix

29.

The fine air-fuel mist is fed to the cylinders through the


Manifold

30.

The .. in the manifold is adjustable to control the amount of


charge being distributed to the cylinders.
Throttle

31.

When the throttle is turned wider, more charge is fed to the


cylinders.
The engine turns faster and delivers more .
Power

Gas Admission System:32.

Spark ignition engines using natural gas or any other gas as a fuel
do not need a carburetor to mix air with fuel.

Instead, gas is piped under pressure to a . line, or it may be run


through a mixing valve.
Header
33.

When the head line is used, gas pressure is maintained in this


header line up to each individual .........head.
Cylinder

34.

The header line distributes the gas evenly through inlet pipes to the
cylinders.
To distribute the mixture evenly, the gas may be put into the air at the
entrance to the
Cylinder
35.

Using a mixing valve or putting exactly the same amount of gas


into the air passage at each cylinder gives an .. distribution
of the air-fuel mixture.
Even

36. The proportion of air to natural gas must be closely controlled.


When the fuel air proportion is right, the mixture .. smoothly and
evenly.
Burns
37. Too rich a mixture explodes (detonates / knocks),. Too lean a mixture
may not even..
Ignite/Burn

38.

As the load on an engine increases, the speed of the engine


(increases / decreases).
Decreases

39.

To maintain speed, the fuel supply must be ..


Increased

40.

To take care of changes in load, a throttle in the intake air passage


adjusts the amount of air entering the cylinder.
A throttle in the gas header line adjusts the supply to the cylinder
to compensate changes in load.
Gas
41.

As the load changes, combustion is maintained by adjusting the


supply of . and the supply of . with throttles which
are separate but linked together.
Gas, Air

Governors:-

Types: Mechanical Governor


Hydraulic Governor
42.

When the charge is ignited, combustion occurs, heated gases


expand, and power is produced.
The amount of produced depends upon the . of fuel burnt.
Amount
43.

When the load on the engine is changed, the amount of power


produced must be changed to maintain a . speed.
Constant/Steady

Most stationary internal combustion engines use a governor to


make the changes necessary when the engine load is changed.
The governor maintains the desired speed by adjusting the amount of
. furnished to the engine.
Fuel
44.

45.

When we change the proportions of fuel to air in a charge we


change the amount of fuel in the charge.
When we change the amount of fuel in the charge, we the amount
of power produced.
Change
46. Where the proportion of fuel to air is to be changed, the fuel intake
system is metered by the .
Governor
47. If the proportion of fuel to air in the charge is kept constant, then the
power produced by the engine is changed by changing the . of the
charge.
Amount/Charge
47.

The amount of charge admitted to the cylinder is controlled by the


throttle.
Where the amount of charge is to be changed, the governor adjusts the
.to give enough fuel.
Throttle
48.

Before the governor can maintain a constant speed, it must be set


for that speed.
Otherwise the engine may slow down too much when the load increases
or over speed if the load .
Decreases
49.

Once the governor is set at the desired engine speed, it maintains


that speed.
When the load on the engine is increased, the amount of fuel admitted to
the engine is ..
When the load on the engine is decreased, the amount of fuel admitted to
the engine is
Increased , Decreased
50.

Each type of internal combustion engine has a governor


specifically adapted to the capabilities of the engine.
Most governors are connected to the throttle to control the amount of the
to be admitted to the engine.
Charge

51.

Two basic types of governors are used to control the amount of


charge admitted to the engine by opening and .the throttle.
Closing

52.

The mechanical governor is connected to the engine crankshaft


through gears.
It is connected directly to the throttle so that any movement in the control
elements of the governor causes a corresponding movement in the ..
Throttle
53.

The hydraulic governor is also connected to the engine crankshaft


through gears.
But the control elements of the governor transmit their motion to a pilot
valve which controls a flow of oil in and out of a hydraulic power
cylinder. The power piston in this hydraulic cylinder is connected to the
.
Throttle
54.

In either type of governor the three elements which control


movements of the throttle are the flyweights, the speeder spring
and the speeder rod.
The flyweights receive in direct relation to the engine crankshaft and
translate engine speed into (torque / centrifugal force).
Centrifugal force
55.

The centrifugal force of the revolving flyweights is applied against


the speeder spring to move the speeder rod.

An increase in engine ..causes an increase in forces to be applied


against the speeder spring, compressing it.
Speed

56.

The speeder rod is connected to the speeder spring in such a way


that when the speeder spring is compressed it causes the to
move in the direction of spring compression.
Speeder rod

57.

When the engine speed decreases, the centrifugal force of the


flyweights decreases and the speeder spring expands.
When the speeder spring expands it causes the speeder rod to move in the
direction.
Opposite/ Other
58.

The speeder rod is connected to the engine throttle so that when the
flyweights compress the speeder spring, the speeder rod causes the
throttle to close.
Thus engine speed is increased, the ..of charge admitted to the
engine is decreased.
Amount
59.

When engine speed decreases, the governor flyweights cause the


speeder spring to expand.
This expansion of the speeder spring causes the speeder to open the
throttle to the amount of the charge admitted to the engine.
Increase
60.

Mechanical governors usually respond slowly when the speed is


changed.
This slow acting governors allows engine speed to change much before
the amount of ..is changed.
Charge
61.

To correct the first error, the governor may make as a change in the
opposite direction.
This hunting effect is a major fault of.governors.
Mechanical/Centrifugal

Hydraulic Governors:62.

In the hydraulic governor, the control elements are the same and
operate the same as in the mechanical governor.

But the speeder rod is connected to a pilot valve instead of being


connected directly to the .
Throttle
63. Any movement by the pilot valve is transmitted immediately by
hydraulic pressure to the power piston in a hydraulic cylinder.
The hydraulic power piston moves instantly as a result of the transmitted
force, and because the throttle is connected directly to this piston it
..instantly too.
Moves
64.

In the hydraulic governor, too, an increase in engine speed is


translated into movement of the throttle to decrease the amount of
charge to the engine.
A decrease in engine speed is translated into a movement of the throttle
to the amount of charge to the engine.
Increase
65.

66.

Because hydraulic fluid transmits change far more rapidly than


mechanical linkage, the hydraulic governor is more sensitive, it
can maintain a more nearly..engine speed.
Constant/ Steady

When it is possible to maintain a more constant speed, the danger


of the engine surging is eliminated.
When engine speed is constant, the transmission of power to the driven
unit is more.
Even/ Constant

When power from the engine is transmitted at a nearly constant rate, the
effectiveness of the driving and driven units is (greater / less).
Greater

Overspeed Trip Mechanism:67.

The governor controls the engine speed under normal conditions,


but sometimes emergency conditions occur.
When the engine is fully loaded and the load is suddenly removed, the
engine may run away or
Overspeed
68.

When the load is suddenly removed from a fully loaded engine, the
governor may react too slowly, or may stick and nor react at all.
If the fuel is not shut off, speed continues to .until the engine flies
apart.
Increase
69.

A trip pin is used to cut off the ignition or the.supply in an


emergency.
Fuel

70.

The trip pin consists of an unbalanced weight held in place in the


governor shaft by a spring.

If the engine over speeds, centrifugal force pushes a ..out of the


shaft.
Unbalanced weight/ Trip pin

71.

When the engine over speed, the trip pin moves out against the
over speed latch.

The latch releases a trip lever which is pulled down and held by a
Spring
72. The trip lever spring pulls the fuel shutoff lever down.
This fuel shutoff lever cuts off the.supply to the engine.
Fuel
73. To restart the engine, the over speed trip must be reset by hand.
The over speed trip is not like the governor, because the over speed trip
cannot..itself automatically.
Reset/ Adjust
74.

There are other types of over speed trip devices, including over
speed governors.
Overspeed governors are emergency controls which take over and slow
the engine down by reducing its fuel supply if the regular
governor
Fails
75.

Lets Review
Carburetors are needed with (liquid / gaseous) fuels.
Liquid
The Carburetor .. the fuel and the air.
Mixes

In a gas fuel engine, fuel may be fed directly to the cylinders through
a ..line.
Header
It may also be run through a valve.
Mixing

A.controls the amount of charge fed into a cylinder.


Throttle
The throttle can be automatically controlled by a .
Governor
The of the engine is controlled by a throttle governor system.
A (Centrifugal / Hydraulic) governor is more powerful.
Hydraulic

Electrical System:76.

An IC engine takes chemical energy stored in the fuel and changes


this chemical energy to heat energy.
This heat energy is then changed to the.energy of the shafts
rotation.
Mechanical
77.

To start this whole reaction the fuel must first be mixed with air
and burnt.
To burn, the air fuel must be .
Ignited
78. A spark plug is usually used to ignite the air-fuel charge.
The spark plug needs (Electrical / Mechanical) energy.
Electrical

79.

Energy to ignite the charge is provided by the system.


Electrical

80.

Material which can carry electrical energy from one place to


another is called a conductor.
A conductor is a pipeline for carrying energy.
Electrical
81.

Most metals are good conductors. (Copper / Rubber) is a good


electrical conductor.
Copper

82.

For electricity to flow, it must have an uninterrupted path, called a


circuit.
The circuit is made out of a (Conducting / Non-conducting) material.
Conducting
83.

The components of the engines electrical system are connected in


a ..
Circuit

84.

Electricity flows from a source, through the components of a


system, to the user of the electricity and then back to the source.

In this system, the is the source of power and the ..is the
user.
Battery, Light/Bulb
85.

The drawings show two electrical circuits.

No electricity is reaching bulb A because the circuit is .


Open / Broken
86.

Electricity flows only through (Closed / Open) circuits.


Closed

87.

An electric light switch turns light


anda circuit.
Opening / Closing

88.

An ..switch for an engine turns on the electrical system by


closing a circuit.
Ignition

on

and

off

by

Lets say current flows in a copper wire, like water flowing


through a pipe.
The electricity, like the water, does not flow unless there is
something..it through the line.
Forcing
89.

90.

Voltage is the .which electricity through a wire.


Force

91.

The force which moves electricity through the circuit is called


..
Voltage

Battery:92. All electrical systems need a primary source of electricity.


In a battery system, the battery is the (Primary source / User) of the
electricity.
Primary Source
93.

The battery releases energy which is stored in chemical


form.
Electrical energy

94.

A battery uses ..energy to produce electrical energy.


Chemical energy

95.

Remember, we said that electricity must be forced through the


circuit.
The battery is the source of electricity and the source of ..
Voltage
96.

We know that the spark is produced at the spark plug.

A spark is formed when the electricity is forced to jump across a


between the two electrodes of a spark plug.
Gap

97.

It takes a tremendous amount of force to make the electricity jump


across this gap.
The voltage must be very (High / Low).
High
98. A battery produces electricity at 6 to 12 volts.
This (Is / Is not) enough voltage to produce a spark at a spark plug.
Is not
99.

An ignition coil may be used to increase battery voltage.

An ignition coil consists of two coils of wire wound around a


Core
100. It uses low voltage current in one coil to generate (Low / Higher)
voltage current in the other.
Higher
101. Both the magneto and pulse generator generate current directly.
They (Need / Do not need) a battery ot other source of low voltage
current.
Do not need
102. The relatively low voltage current (but higher than battery voltage)
produced by the low voltage magneto and the pulse generator
passes through the distributor into a high tension coil at each
cylinder.
This coil (Increases / Decreases) the voltage even more.
Increases
103. The high voltage magneto uses a built in distributor and high
tension coil to increase voltage. The high voltage current pulse
from this high tension coil is used by the
Spark plug

Distributor:104. In an IC engine, the fuel-air mixture must ignite only at the


beginning of the stroke.
Power
105. The spark (Must / Must not) occur during the other three events.
Must not
106. The device which times the spark for each cylinder is the
Distributor.

The distributor allows current into a spark plug only to start the .
stroke of that particular cylinder.
Power
107. The distributor acts like a moving switch.
When electricity is needed by the spark plug, the distributor (Opens /
Closes) a circuit to that spark plug.
Closes
108. When electricity is not needed by the cylinder, the circuit to that
cylinder must be
Opened
109. The distributor opens and closes each circuit in relation to the
power stroke of each cylinder.

When the switch is at point 1, cylinder..fires.


1
110. Cylinders 2, 4 and 3 follow cylinder 1.
This is the order that the .stroke comes in the cylinders.
Power
111. The distributor shaft is turned, through a gear train, by the
crankshaft.

Just as the camshaft times the valves, the ..shaft times the
distributor.
Distributor
112. Unlike magnetos and batteries, . produce electric current in
spurts, rather than in a steady stream.
Pulse generators
113. In engines equipped with a pulse generator, the electrical spurts
can be timed so that one spurt occurs for a power event in each
cylinder.
Engines with a pulse generator (Need / Do not need) a separate
distributor.
Do not need

114. Lets Review:


Batteries produce (High / Low) voltage.
Low
Most large industrial engines (need / Do not need) a battery.
Do not need
Usually, large engines use a ..or a .to produce current.
Magneto, Pulse Generator
Low voltage magnetos (Need / Do not need) an ignition coil.
Do not need
Current from the low voltage magneto or pulse generator is (Increased /
Decreased) by the high tension coil at each cylinder.
Increased
Current from high voltage magneto is increased by a single ignition coil
built into the
Magneto
The times the spark for both low and high voltage magnetos.
Distributor
With a (Magneto / Pulse generator / Battery), the distributor is not
needed.
Pulse generator

Diesel Engines:115. All IC engines burn fuel inside a cylinder to produce power.
This power is used to drive the .
Pistons
116. IC engines are separated into two general classes.
They are classified according to the way the is ignited.
Fuel / Charge
117. The gas or gasoline fueled engine uses a ..to ignite the
charge.
Spark / Spark plug
118. Diesel engines do not need a spark to ignite the charge. When air is
compressed, its temperature increases, even if heat is not added.
If the air is compressed enough, its temperature increases enough to
..a jet of fuel sprayed into the air.
Ignite
119. Diesel engines are (Spark ignition / compression ignition) engines.
Compression ignition
120. Diesel engines compress air inside the cylinder to a very high
pressure.
The air gets very hot, and when the fuel mist is injected into it, the
fuel.. immediately.
Ignites
121. A diesel engine, by compressing air in the cylinder and then
injecting fuel into the cylinders, eliminates the need to mix fuel
and air separately.
It needs no (Carburetor / fuel).
Carburetor
122. It uses the heat of compression to ignite the fuel and thus needs no
system.
Ignition

123. High pressure fuel is pumped into the cylinders at, or slightly
before, the end of the compression stroke.
The fuel .and the power stroke begins.
Ignites
124. Diesel fuel oil is thicker than most other IC engine fuels.
Fuel injector nozzles are used to break this fuel oil into very small
particles so that it can..
Burn
125. The drawing shows a high pressure fuel injection nozzle.

When high pressure fuel enters the engine through the nozzle tip, it is
broken into a ..mist.
Fine / Small
127.

The fuel is to the fuel injection nozzle by a fuel pump.


Pumped

128.

The speed of the diesel engine is controlled by adjusting the


.of fuel injected into the cylinder.
Amount

129.

Diesel engines may be either 2-cycle or 4-cycle engines.

Engine (A / B) is a 4-cycle engine.


A
130.

Engine B has replaced intake and exhaust valves in the cylinder


head with two .in the cylinder wall.
Ports

131.
In the diesel engine, fuel injection starts the power event.
Fuel must be injected into the compressed air at the ...time to give
maximum power output.
Proper
132.
The camshaft times the combustion cycle.
Gears relate the camshaft to the .so that the camshaft and the
cams can time the combustion events.
Crankshaft
133.
The fuel injection pump is sometimes run off a separate shaft
driven by the crankshaft.
A gear also times this fuel injection.
Pump
133.

134.

A diesel engine may also have a .to control engine speed


automatically.
Governor

The compression ratio in the diesel engine is much higher than a


gasoline engine.
They build up much (More / Less) pressure.
More

135.

Thus, the pistons, crankshaft, and connecting rods are built much
stronger in a (Diesel / Gasoline) engine.
Diesel

Review and Summary


136.

The drawing shows a simplified IC engine. Name the lettered


parts.

A.
Carburetor
B.
Valve
C.
Spark plug
D.
Cylinder
E.
Piston
F.
Camshaft
G.
Connecting rod
H.
Crankshaft
I.
137.
The engine (Is / Is not) a diesel.
Is not
138.

It operates on a (2 / 4)-stroke cycle.


4