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CHAPTER 5

TWO WAY SLAB


(DIRECT DESIGN METHOD)

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

Engr. ALBERTO C. CAETE

Two Way Slab


Copyright 2013

CHAPTER 5

DIRECT DESIGN METHOD FOR TWO WAY SLAB


In designing two-way slab method, the loads of the floor must be distributed in both directions
such that the spans shall be equal or the difference between 2 adjacent panels shall not be greater than
4/3. The only difference between the design approaches of two-way slab in one-way slab is that the floor
slab should be divided into a series of slab strips across both directions of the floor panel. The direct design
method gives rules for the determination of the total static design moment and its distribution between
negative and positive moment sections.

Fig. 1-1

In two-way design, as close as slab strips to the column support, it will carry a much higher
moment than that of the mid-span. This two-way design helps you attain an exact amount of force
distribution among the slab strip. After obtaining the moment in slab strips, the design of reinforcement
will follow.

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

Engr. ALBERTO C. CAETE

Two Way Slab


Copyright 2013

CHAPTER 5

The slab thickness is the most important part of the dead load structure such that the weight of
the slab can be determined already. The minimum slab thickness must be thick enough to provide the
sufficient shear strength.
The following are the direct design method limitations according to NSCP 2010 code sec. 413.7:
1) There shall be a minimum of three continuous spans in each direction.
2) Panels shall be rectangular, with a ratio of shorter to longer span center-to-center supports
within a panel not greater than 2.
3) Successive span lengths center-to-center supports in each direction shall not differ by more
than one-third the longer span.
4) Offset of columns by a maximum of 10% of the span in direction of offset from either axis
between center lines of successive columns shall be permitted.
5) All loads shall be due to gravity only and uniformly distributed over an entire panel. Live load
shall not exceed two times dead load.
6) For a panel with beams between supports on all sides, the relative stiffness of beams in two
perpendicular directions
1 2 2
Eq. 1-1
2 1 2
Shall not be less than 0.2 nor greater than 5.0, where 1 and 2 are calculated in accordance
with equation (1-3).

Eq. 1-2

7) Moment redistribution as permitted by section 408.5 shall not be applied for slab systems
designed by the direct design method.
8) Variations from the limitations of section 413.7.1 shall be permitted if demonstrated by
analysis as long as requirements of section 413.6.1 are satisfied.
Fig.1-2

The figure shows the factored static moment Mo.

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

Engr. ALBERTO C. CAETE

Two Way Slab


Copyright 2013

CHAPTER 5

ACCORDING TO NATIONAL STRUCTURAL CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES


(NSCP) 2010 6TH EDITION,
409.6.3.2
For slabs without interior beams spanning between the supports and having a ratio of long to
short span not greater than 2, the minimum thickness shall be in accordance with the provisions of table
1-1 and shall not be less than the following values:
1. Slabs without drop panels as defined in Sections 413.3.5.125mm
2. Slabs with drop panels as defined in Sections 413.3.5 100mm
Table 1-1

409.6.3.3
For slabs with beams spanning between the supports on all sides, the minimum thickness shall be
as follows:
1. For fm equal to or less than 0.2, the provisions of section 409.6.3.2 shall apply.
2. For fm greater than 0.2 but not greater than 2.0, the thickness shall not be less than:

36+5( 0.2)

(0.8 +

1400

Eq.1-3

and not less than 125mm;


3. For fm greater than 2.0, the thickness shall not be less than:

(0.8+

)
1400

Eq.1-4

36+9

and not less than 90mm.

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

Engr. ALBERTO C. CAETE

Two Way Slab


Copyright 2013

CHAPTER 5

4. At discontinuous edges, an edge beam shall be provided with a stiffness ratio fm not less than
0.8; or the minimum thickness required by Eq. 1-3 or 1-4 shall be increased by at least 10% in the
panel with a discontinuous edge.
413.3.5
When used to reduce the amount of negative moment reinforcement over a column or minimum
required slab thickness, a drop panel shall:
1. Project below the slab at least one quarter of the adjacent slab thickness; and
2. Extend in each direction from the centerline of support a distance not less than one-sixth the span
length measured from center-to-center of supports in that direction.
413.7.3.3
In an end span, total factored static moment Mo shall be distributed as follows:

413.7.4 Factored Moments in column strip


413.7.4.1
Column strips shall be proportioned to resist the following percentage of interior negative
factored moments:

Linear interpolation shall be made between values shown.

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

Engr. ALBERTO C. CAETE

Two Way Slab


Copyright 2013

CHAPTER 5

413.7.4.2
Column strips shall be proportioned to resist the following percentage of exterior negative
factored moments:

Linear interpolation shall be made between values shown, where t is calculated in Eq. 413-5 and C is
calculated in Eq. 413-6


Eq. 1-5

2
3

= (1 0.63 )

Eq. 1-6

The constant C or T or L-sections shall be permitted to be evaluated be dividing the section into separate
rectangular parts, as defined in sec. 413.3.4, and summing the values of C for each part.
413.7.4.3
Where supports consists of columns or walls extending for a distance equal to or greater than
three-fourths the span length l2 used to compute Mo, negative moments shall be considered to be
uniformly distributed across l2.
413.7.4.4
Column strips shall be proportioned to resist the following percentage of positive factored
moment:

Linear interpolations shall be made between values shown


413.7.4.5
For slabs with beams between supports, the slab portion of column strips shall be proportioned
to resist that portion of column strip moment not resisted by beams.

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

Engr. ALBERTO C. CAETE

Two Way Slab


Copyright 2013

CHAPTER 5

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

Engr. ALBERTO C. CAETE

Two Way Slab


Copyright 2013