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CHAPTER 6

SHEAR

Engr. ALBERTO C. CAETE

Shear

CHAPTER 6

When the shear strength of concrete is not sufficient to resist the factored design loads, shear
reinforcement to concrete is needed. The shear reinforcement is typically detailed vertically in beams.
The main objective of this topic in Reinforced Concrete is to resist the development of shear crack due to
diagonal tension (SEE figure below).
Also, shear reinforcement is detailed such that any potential shear crack due to diagonal tension
will have to pass at least 2 stirrups. Spacing of shear reinforcement placed perpendicular to axis of
member shall not exceed d/2 in nonprestressed members and 0.75h in prestressed members, nor 600
mm. Since the shear force varies along different distance from support of the beam, the spacing of the
reinforcement also varies. Usually, the design of spacing of reinforcements near the support is minimal
because the shear force in this area is greater.

Additionally, concrete has a relatively high compressive strength, but much lower tensile strength.
For this reason, concrete is usually reinforced with steel that are strong in tension. This topic about shear
reinforcement is important in the design of a structure to resist cracking in members.

Engr. ALBERTO C. CAETE

Shear

CHAPTER 6

The value of Qmax is derived based on the figure is bh2/8 and tmax derived is 3V/2A. Also, is equals to VQ/Ib
and is equals to My/I.

Tension capacity of concrete

(Cracking stress)

f r = modulus of rupture
= 0.7

f t f r 0.7 f' c

= 0.62 f' c (2010) Code

(Eqn. 409-10)
Based from the Code (Eqn. 409-10) the tension capacity of concrete is solved by computing the
modulus of rupture, f r , for normal-weight concrete is equals to 0.62 f' c (2010) Code.

SHEAR STRENGTH
Shear Strength based on Section 411.2, is used to describe the strength of a component against
the type of failure where the component fails in shear. A shear load is a force that tends to produce a
sliding failure on a material along a plane that is parallel to the direction of the force.
The design of cross sections subject to shear shall be based on the ultimate capacity of shear
based on section 411.2.1.
Vu Vn

(ultimate shear capacity) (411 - 1)

where:
Vn = nominal shear strength, N
From Section 411.2.1.1, I in determining shear strength Vn, the effect of any openings in members shall
be considered.
Vu = factored shear force at section considered, N

= strength reduction factor

The design strength provided by a member, its connections to other members and its cross sections shall
be taken as nominal strength calculated, multiplied by a strength reduction factor . The strength
reduction factor based on section 409.4 is 0.75.

Engr. ALBERTO C. CAETE

Shear

CHAPTER 6

Recall that if the section is subject to axial tension it may be advisable to carry all of Vu with the
shear reinforcement, or at least take into consideration the effect of the axial tension on Vc.

NOMINAL SHEAR (Vn )

The value of Vn is acquired from the equation 411-2 of the code where Vc in accordance with
Section 411.4 or Section 411.5, and Vs in accordance with Section 441.6.6.
Vn = Vs + Vc

Eqn. (411-2)

where:
Vc = concrete shear capacity (dependent on tensile strength)
From Section 411.2.1.2, in determining Vc, whenever applicable, effects of axial tension due to creep and
shrinkage in restrained members shall be considered and effects of inclined flexural compression in
valuable-depth members shall be permitted to be included.
Vs = shear capacity of reinforcement / stirrups

SHEAR STRENGTH PROVIDED BY CONCRETE FOR NONPRESTRESSED MEMBERS

From the code 411.4.1 Simplified Calculation for Vc, the shear strength shall be computed by
provisions of Sections 411.1.1.1 through 411.4.1.3 unless a more detailed calculation is made in
accordance with Section 411.4.2. Throughout this Section, except in Section 411.8, , shall be as defined
in Section 408.7.1
Vc = 0.17 f' c bwd

(411-3)

The formula for Vc to be used is defined in 411.4.1.1, For members subject to shear and flexure
only, while for members subject to axial compression is defined in 411.4.1.2.
where:
bw = web thickness or width of concrete section
fc = compressive strength of concrete, MPa
d = distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of longitudinal tension reinforcement,
mm
= 1 for normal wt. of concrete
< 1 for lightweight concrete
(Section 408.7.1)
The or the modification factor reflecting the reduced mechanical properties of lightweight
concrete, all relative to normalweight concrete of the same compressive strength. We usually use the
value for as 1, because we assume for normal weight of the concrete.

Shear

CHAPTER 6

DETAILED CALCULATION FOR VC

From 411.4.2, Vc shall be permitted to be computed by the more detailed calculation of Sections
411.4.2.1 through 411.4.2.3.

Vc = 0.17 f' c 17 W

VU d
b W d
M u

(Eqn. 411-5)

: use Vu & Mu from same load case

The formula for Vc to be used is defined in 411.4.2.1, For members subject to shear and flexure only, but
not greater than 0.29 f' c bwd
When computing Vc by Eq. 411-5, Vu d /Mu shall not be greater than 1.0, where Mu occurs
simultaneously with Vu at section considered.
where:
bw = web thickness or width of concrete section
fc = compressive strength of concrete, MPa
d = distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of longitudinal tension reinforcement,
mm
= 1 for normal wt. of concrete
< 1 for lightweight concrete
(Section 408.7.1)

Vu & Mu at the
same point, X

The value for Vu is computed from the shear diagram, where Vu is found from distance x from the
support while Mu is found in the moment diagram at the same point.

Shear

CHAPTER 6

DESIGN OF SHEAR REINFORCEMENT

From 411.6.7.1, where factored shear force Vu exceeds shear strength Vc, shear reinforcement
shall be provided to satisfy equations 411-1 and 411-2, where shear strength Vs shall be computed
accordance with Sections 4111.6.7.2 through 411.6.7.9.

VS

A Vf yd

(411-15)

The formula to be used for Vs according to 411.6.7.2 where shear reinforcement perpendicular to axis of
member is used.
where:
Av = the cross sectional area of shear reinforcement
= Absn
Abs = area of one stirrup
n = no. of legs
s = stirrup spacing
fy = the specified yield strength of the shear reinforcement,
d = the effective depth,
SAMPLE OF NUMBER OF LEGS (n)

To get the number of legs to be used, you must count the vertical reinforcement of the cross- section
of the member.

Shear

CHAPTER 6

SPACING LIMITS FOR SHEAR REINFORCEMENT

As mentioned, stirrups shall be spaced so that any potential diagonal tension crack will pass
through at least two stirrups.
Spacing of shear reinforcement placed perpendicular to axis of member shall not exceed d/2 in
nonprestressed members and 0.75h in prestressed members, nor 600 mm.

Shear reinforcement is not required when VU 1

VC

(or optional)

= 0.75 (shear)
Vc = concrete shear capacity
Vu = factored shear force at section considered, N

Section 411.2.3.1 says, for non-prestressed members, sections located less than a distance d from face of
support shall be permitted to be designed for the same shear Vu as that computed at a distance d.
* if compressed, shear capacity will increase

The figure above shows the diagonal crack and the distance d created from the interior face of
the column where the Vmax of the beam is located. The computed Vu at distance d shall be permitted to
be designed for the same shear Vu for nonprestressed member until the interior face of the column
(411.2.3.1). Stirrups are required if value of Vu is greater than 0.5Vc, if the value is lesser than, stirrups
will be optional or the design of the stirrups will be spaced at d/2 in nonprestressed members and 0.75h
in prestressed members, nor 600 mm.

Shear

CHAPTER 6

MINIMUM SHEAR REINFORCEMENT

The design for minimum shear reinforcement is tackled in 411.6.6 of the code, Av min shall be
provided in all reinforced concrete flexural members where Vu exceeds 0.5 Vc, except in members
satisfying one or more of (1) through (6) of Section 411.6.6.1.
Where shear reinforcement is required and allows torsion to be neglected, minimum area of shear
reinforcement for members shall be computed by:

A V min 0.062 f' c

bws
f yt

>

0.35 bws
fyt

(411-13)

where:
fyt = yield stress at transverse reinforcement
fc = compressive strength of concrete, MPa
bw = thickness, mm
s = stirrup spacing, mm
The value of Av min should be greater than or equal to 0.35bws /fyt.

MAXIMUM SHEAR
The design for maximum value of shear is tackled in Section 411.6.7.9 of Code, where:

max. Vs 2

3
when Vs 2

f' cb W d
3

f' cb W d increase the section b w or d

Where Vs exceeds 0.33 f' cb W d , maximum spacing given in Sections 411.6.5.1 and 411.6.5.2 shall be
reduced by half (411.6.5.3).

These latter requirements make sure that we don't have so much steel that we end up obliterating
the concrete. Plus, at some point things start getting pretty congested. And, in lightly loaded beams the
above conditions are sometimes quite nicely satisfied using single leg bars or deformed wire.

Shear

CHAPTER 6

SHEAR REINFORCEMENT SPACING

To determine if stirrups are required or not if (-) means no need for stirrups use s = smax
s

AVf y t d
VS

AVf y t d
VU
- VC

(CANETE FORMULA)

If s < 0, use smax

If s > 0, proceed
where:
Av = area of shear reinforcement within spacing s.
Fyt = yield stress at transverse reinforcement
Vc = concrete shear capacity
Vu = factored shear force at section considered, N
s = stirrup spacing
d = the effective depth,

A V fyt
0.062 f' c bw
A fyt
s max V
0.35 bw

s max

Shear

CHAPTER 6

3A V f y
f' cb W

* when : s

3A V f y
2 f' cb W

then s max

3A V f y
bw
d

2
600 mm

then, smax = min ( C.F., d/2, 600mm )

2. If smin < s < 2smin , use min (s, smax)

3A V f y
f' cb W

3A V f y
2 f' cb W

4
3. If s < smin

3A V f y
2 f' cb W

s min

Shear

CHAPTER 6

a.) Req' d. s

Av f yd
Vu
Vc

b.) compare; s

if

Vu
Vc

(2 cases);
V
() if u Vc

() if

3A v f y
s max
bw

3A v f y
f ' c bw
3A v f y

if s

f ' c bw

3A v f y
2 f ' c bw

3A v f y
2 f ' c bw

if (-) use s s max (no need for stirrups)

d
or or (600 mm) lowest value governs!
2

d
s max or (300 mm) lowest value governs!
4

Shear

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