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EN 614-1:2006+A1

EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPENNE
EUROPISCHE NORM

February 2009

ICS 13.110; 13.180

English Version

Safety of machinery - Ergonomic design principles - Part 1:


Terminology and general principles
Scurit des machines - Principes ergonomiques de
conception - Partie 1: Terminologie et principes gnraux

Sicherheit von Maschinen - Ergonomische


Gestaltungsgrundstze - Teil 1: Begriffe und allgemeine
Leitstze

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 13 December 2008.


CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European
Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national
standards may be obtained on application to the CEN Management Centre or to any CEN member.
This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation
under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as the
official versions.
CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,
France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,
Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION


COMIT EUROPEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPISCHES KOMITEE FR NORMUNG

Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

2009 CEN

All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved


worldwide for CEN national Members.

Ref. No. EN 614-1:2006+A1:2009: E

EN 614-1:2006+A1:2009 (E)

Contents

Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3
Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................4
1

Scope ......................................................................................................................................................5

Normative references ............................................................................................................................6

Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................6

4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5

General principles..................................................................................................................................9
General ....................................................................................................................................................9
Accessible design for people with special requirements .................................................................9
Taking account of people's body dimensions, postures, body movements, and physical
strength ................................................................................................................................................ 10
Taking account of people's mental abilities .................................................................................... 13
Taking account of the influence of the physical work environment on people ........................... 14

5
5.1
5.2

Incorporating ergonomic principles into the design process of machinery ................................ 15


General ................................................................................................................................................. 15
Ergonomics tasks to be performed during the design process of machinery ............................ 16

Annex A (informative) Guidelines for the use of the 3-zone rating system.............................................. 20
A.1
Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 20
A.2
Definition and use of the 3-zone rating system ............................................................................... 20
Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential
Requirements of EU Directive 98/37/EC, amended by 98/79/EC .................................................... 22
Annex ZB (informative) !Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential
Requirements of EU Directive 2006/42/EC"
" .................................................................................. 23
Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 24

EN 614-1:2006+A1:2009 (E)

Foreword
This document (EN 614-1:2006+A1:2009) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 122
Ergonomics, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.
This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical
text or by endorsement, at the latest by July 2009, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the
latest by December 2009.
This document includes Amendment 1, approved by CEN on 2008-12-13.
This European Standard supersedes !EN 614-1:2006".
The start and finish of text introduced or altered by amendment is indicated in the text by tags ! ".
This European Standard has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission
and the European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EC Directive(s).
!For relationship with EC Directive(s), see informative Annexes ZA and ZB, which are integral parts of this
European Standard.
EN 614 consists of the following Parts, under the general title Safety of machinery Ergonomic design
principles:
Part 1: Terminology and general principles
Part 2: Interactions between the design of machinery and work tasks."
According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following
countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,
Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,
Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EN 614-1:2006+A1:2009 (E)

Introduction
Ergonomically designed work systems enhance safety, improve human working and living conditions and
counteract adverse effects on human health. Also they usually improve the operator-machine system
performance and reliability. In this European Standard the term "ergonomics" refers to a multidisciplinary field
of science and its application. Applying ergonomics to the design of work systems, especially where the
design of machinery is concerned, ensures that human capabilities, skills, limitations and needs are taken into
account.
The work system includes operators, job design, work equipment (e.g. machinery), work space, work
environment, work process and the interactions between them. It can vary in complexity from a workshop with
a single operator using hand held equipment to a process plant and its operators. Good design takes into
account how the operator is expected to interact with the work equipment and how the work equipment fits
into the system as a whole. This is particularly important the more the work equipment is interdependent on
other components of the system. In its whole complexity, the working system is described in generic
standards (e.g. EN ISO 6385).
Compliance with harmonised standards prepared by CEN/CENELEC enables manufacturers and suppliers to
meet requirements of European legislation. EN ISO 12100-1 and EN ISO 12100-2 contain the concepts and
general principles to guide designers in achieving safety for machinery for occupational and private purposes.
Ergonomic principles can be incorporated into the design process by following this standard. In this way both
the technical design and ergonomic principles are considered at the same time. The aim to enhance the
health, safety and well-being of workers is reached by systematically minimising the risks according to !EN
ISO 12100". EN 13861 provides information concerning applicable ergonomic B-type standards related to
specific hazards.
This standard is one of the European Standards covering specific topics identified in EN ISO 12100-1 and EN
ISO 12100-2 as important to the safety of machinery.

EN 614-1:2006+A1:2009 (E)

Scope

This European Standard establishes the ergonomic principles to be followed during the process of design of
machinery.
This European Standard applies to the interactions between operators and machinery when installing,
operating, adjusting, maintaining, cleaning, dismantling, repairing or transporting equipment, and outlines the
principles to be followed in taking the health, safety and well-being of the operator into account. This
European Standard provides a framework within which the range of more specific ergonomics standards and
other related standards relevant to machinery design should be applied.
The ergonomic principles given in this European Standard apply to all ranges of human abilities and
characteristics to ensure safety, health and well-being and overall system performance. Information will need
to be interpreted to suit the intended use.
NOTE
Although the principles in this European Standard are orientated towards machinery for occupational use, they
are also applicable to equipment and machinery for private use.

EN 614-1:2006+A1:2009 (E)

Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this European Standard. For
dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced
document (including any amendments) applies.
EN 894-3, Safety of machinery Ergonomics requirements for the design of displays and control actuators
Part 3: Control actuators
!deleted text"
EN ISO 12100-1, Safety of machinery Basic concepts, general principles for design Part 1: Basic
terminology, methodology (ISO 12100-1:2003)
EN ISO 12100-2:2003, Safety of machinery Basic concepts, general principles for design Part 2:
Technical principles (ISO 12100-2:2003)
!EN ISO 14121-1, Safety of machinery Risk assessment Part 1: Principles (ISO 14121-1:2007)"

Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this European Standard, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
allocation of functions
process of deciding how system functions shall be implemented, by humans, by equipment and/or hardware
and/or software
[EN ISO 6385:2004, 2.1]
3.2
design population
designated group of workers delimited as a percentile range of the general population, defined according to
relevant characteristics, e.g. gender, age, skill level, etc.
[EN ISO 6385:2004, 2.2]
3.3
ergonomics
study of human factors
scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among human and other elements of a
system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize
human well-being and overall system performance
[EN ISO 6385:2004, 2.3]
3.4
job
organization and sequence in time and space of an individual's work tasks or the combination of all human
performance by one worker within a work system
[EN ISO 6385:2004, 2.4]
3.5
system function
broad category of activity performed by a system

EN 614-1:2006+A1:2009 (E)

[EN ISO 6385:2004, 2.5]


3.6
well-being
condition perceived by the operator when using the machine as intended by reducing discomfort, fatigue and
psychological stress to the minimum possible due to ergonomic principles
NOTE

Well-being is a part of good health according to the WHO.

3.7
work environment
physical, chemical, biological, organizational, social and cultural factors surrounding a worker
[EN ISO 6385:2004, 2.6]
3.8
work equipment
tools, including hardware and software, machines, vehicles, devices, furniture, installations and other
components used in the work system
[EN ISO 6385:2004, 2.7]
3.9
operator
worker
person or persons given the task of installing, operating, adjusting, maintaining, cleaning, repairing or
transporting, machinery
rd

[EU Directive 98/37/EC, Annex 1, 1.1.1, 3 subclause]


3.10
work fatigue
mental or physical, local or general non-pathological manifestation of excessive strain, completely reversible
with rest
[EN ISO 6385:2004, 2.9]
3.11
work organization
sequence and interaction of work systems fitted together to produce a specific result
[EN ISO 6385:2004, 2.10]
3.12
work process
sequence in time and space of the interaction of workers, work equipment, materials, energy and information
within a work system
[EN ISO 6385:2004, 2.11]
3.13
workstation
combination and spatial arrangement of work equipment, surrounded by the work environment under the
conditions imposed by the work tasks
[EN ISO 6385:2004, 2.12]

EN 614-1:2006+A1:2009 (E)

3.14
work strain
internal response of the worker to being exposed to work stress depending on his/her individual
characteristics (e.g. size, age, capacities, abilities, skills, etc.)
[EN ISO 6385:2004, 2.13]
3.15
work stress
external load
sum of those external conditions and demands in the work system which act to disturb a person's
physiological and/or psychological state
[EN ISO 6385:2004, 2.14]
3.16
workspace
volume allocated to one or more persons in the work system to complete the work task
[EN ISO 6385:2004, 2.15]
3.17
work system
system comprising one or more workers and work equipment acting together to perform the system function,
in the workspace, in the work environment, under the conditions imposed by the work tasks
[EN ISO 6385:2004, 2.16]
3.18
work task
activity or set of activities required by the worker to achieve an intended outcome
[EN ISO 6385:2004, 2.17]
3.19
accessible design
design focussed on principles of extending standard design to people with some type of performance
limitation to maximize the number of potential customers who can readily use a product, building or service
which may be achieved by
-

designing products, services and environments that are readily usable by most users without any
modification,

by making products or services adaptable to different users (adapting user interfaces), and

by having standardized interfaces to be compatible with special products for persons with disabilities.

NOTE 1
Terms such as design for all, barrier-free design, inclusive design and transgenerational design are used
similarly but in different contexts.
NOTE 2
Accessible design is a subset of universal design where products and environments are usable by all people,
to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialised design.

[CEN/CENELEC Guide 6, 3.2]

EN 614-1:2006+A1:2009 (E)

4
4.1

General principles
General

Safety of machinery requires that ergonomic aspects are addressed. !Risk reduction by inherently safe
design measures is required by EN ISO 12100 which includes the need to follow ergonomic principles."
This European Standard describes these ergonomic principles and gives a framework for incorporating them
into the design process.
The observance of ergonomic principles applies to the intended use of machinery including its installation,
adjustment, maintenance, cleaning, repair, dismantling and transport.
The objective is to design the machinery in its context with the work system to be consistent with human
capabilities, limitations and needs. This requires an analysis of the work tasks that operators have to carry out
and the effect of any constraints that the design and its influence to the environment (e.g. noise, vibration) is
likely to have on the operators' health, safety and well-being.
Machinery shall be designed to take account of the variability in operators' characteristics. These include:

body dimensions (see 4.3.2),

posture (see 4.3.3),

body movements (see 4.3.4),

physical strength (see 4.3.5),

mental abilities (see 4.4).

The effects of the combination of factors (for example the combined effects of frequency, body postures and
movements, the duration of operation and the total work duration) have to be taken into account.
The physical work environment will have an effect on the operator. This should be taken into account by
avoiding impairing effects and promoting facilitating effects as far as possible (see 4.5).
All elements of the operator-machine-system such as displays, signals and control actuators shall be
designed in such a way that clear and unambiguous interaction between the operator and the machine is
possible.
In particular, maintenance operators shall be taken into account because they may have to access specific
areas in which risk to health are particularly high.
Consideration of the above aspects allows the designer to identify and evaluate ergonomics related risk
factors and to ensure that the machinery design incorporates means for adequately controlling them. This will
improve health, safety, well-being and reliability of the operation and hence reduce the probability of errors at
all stages of machinery use.

4.2

Accessible design for people with special requirements

Where it is required, the designer should take account of people with special requirements and apply
ergonomic principles to accessible design and assistive technology in order to enable the use of machinery by
people with special requirements.
NOTE
Special needs includes sensory abilities like vision, tactile and acoustic input, physical abilities like dexterity,
manipulation, movement, voice, strength and endurance, cognitive abilities like intellect, memory, language and literacy
and allergies like contact allergy and respiratory allergy. For further see CEN/CENELEC Guide 6.

EN 614-1:2006+A1:2009 (E)

4.3 Taking account of people's body dimensions, postures, body movements, and physical
strength
4.3.1

General

Peoples ability to safely use machinery is very much dependent on their proportional and geometric
relationship to it. Information on population body dimensions allows the designer to take account of the
ergonomic relevant design of a machine (e.g. ensuring adequate reach or sufficient clearance for the
operator).
4.3.2

Body dimensions

Machinery shall be designed with proper regard to the body dimensions of the expected population of
operators, taking into account:

body dimensions (both static and dynamic with appropriate clothing and/or personal protective
equipment) of adults and people with special needs,

ranges of body dimensions and joint movements,

safety distances, and

dimensions for access (for use, installation, adjustment, maintenance, cleaning, repair, removal
and transport).

To help to avoid stressful postures and movements, the dimensions of machinery need to be compatible with
those of the operator. This can require providing facilities so that each operator can optimize his working
positions. The following principles shall be taken into account:
a)

working height or other functional dimensions of machinery shall fit the operator and the type of work
being performed, for example by being adjustable;

b)

type, location and adjustability of any seating provided shall be appropriate by considering the dimensions
of the operator, and to the tasks the operator performs;

c)

sufficient space shall be provided for all the body parts, to allow the task to be performed with good
working postures and movements and to facilitate access and changes in posture;

d)

handles and pedals of machinery shall suit the functional anatomy of the hand or foot and the dimensions
of the operator population. For hand held equipment, handles shall be designed to ensure that the
operator is able to grip the equipment correctly by adopting good postures and to perform the expected
movements;

e)

frequently used control actuators, grips and pedals shall be placed within easy reach of the hands and/or
feet when the operator is in appropriate operating positions. Other important control actuators, e.g.
emergency stops, shall be within easy reach of the operator, whereas less frequently used control
actuators shall merely be within reach.
th

th

When designing machinery to conform to the expected operator population, at least the 5 to 95 percentiles
shall be used. Where health and safety aspects are important, wider percentile ranges shall be used,
st
th
according to the risk assessment, at least to the 1 and/or 99 percentiles. Since machinery is designed for
use by both men and women, the relevant percentiles of the combined operator population shall be used.
th

When determining clearance (e.g. leg room), 95 or greater percentile values shall be used. For reach (e.g.
th
operator reach), 5 or lower percentile values shall be used. Where the dimensions of machinery are
th
th
adjustable, the range available shall cover the 5 to the 95 percentile.

10

EN 614-1:2006+A1:2009 (E)

NOTE
EN 547-1, EN 547-2 and EN ISO 14738 provide fuller information on using anthropometric data for workspace
design, EN ISO 15537 gives information on methods for assessing dimensions using test persons.
EN ISO 15536-1 gives information on computer manikins and body templates which can be used for assessing designs.
Also see EN ISO 3411 and EN ISO 6682 provide information for minimum space envelope and operating zone for comfort
and reach.

4.3.3

Postures

Working postures shall be comfortable as far as possible and such that they promote easy working
movements and do not have any injurious effects on the individual.
In the design of machinery, the following principles shall be taken into account:
a)

awkward postures, e.g. twisted, bent or inclined postures in prolonged activities leading to body fatigue
shall be avoided. Changes in posture shall be promoted;

b)

machinery should enable occasional alterations in the operators working position between sitting and
standing. Sitting shall generally be preferred to standing as a main working position;

c)

need for lying, kneeling and squatting positions should be restricted as far as possible (even in
maintenance work);

d)

suitable body posture and appropriate support for the body shall be ensured. Supports shall be
dimensioned and positioned in order to avoid unbalanced postures;

e)

force requirements shall be consistent with the body posture available. Technical aids shall be provided to
achieve sufficient leverage and prevent physical overload. To satisfy this requirement for hand-held
equipment, it is important that risky or unsuitable changes in grip during use are avoided by correct
positioning of the handles;

f)

design of the working area at the machine should take into account the following factors:

viewing angles,

viewing distances,

ease of visual discrimination,

duration and frequency of task,

any special limitation of the user group, e.g. wearing multifocal spectacles, and

restrictions caused when wearing personal protective equipment (PPE).

NOTE
EN ISO 14738 describes ergonomic principles for deriving dimensions of workstations. EN 1005-4 gives
guidance on assessing and controlling health risks due to machinery related postures and movements. EN ISO 6682
describes zones of comfort and reach for controls for earth-moving machinery.

4.3.4

Body movements

Machinery shall be designed with regard to the work process to allow the body or parts of the body to move in
accordance with their natural paths and rhythms of motion. In particular it should be considered that the
operator is not required to make very frequent movements involving extreme joint angles, over a prolonged
period of time.
In the design of machinery, the following principles shall be taken into account:
a)

machinery shall allow sufficient freedom of movement (to avoid static postures);

11

EN 614-1:2006+A1:2009 (E)

b)

machinery shall be designed so that repetitive body movements that may lead to impairment, illness or
injury are avoided;

c)

where there is an occasional need for working outside the normal arm reach the workstation shall allow
the body to bend forward or sideways; to reduce risk it should be possible for the worker to lean and
support their weight;

d)

movements requiring high precision and accuracy shall require low force for their execution (see also
4.4);

e)

where aids (such as hoists, rails, stops, jigs etc. to avoid excessive muscle activity) are needed the work
space shall have adequate dimensions to allow the movements necessary to use these aids;

f)

twisting movements or extreme joint positions of the hand/arm involving the application of forces shall be
avoided.

NOTE
EN ISO 14738 describes ergonomic principles for deriving dimensions of workstations. EN 1005-4 gives
guidance on assessing and controlling health risks due to machinery related postures and movements.

4.3.5

Physical strength

Actions during machinery operation which require the application of high force can cause strain to the
musculo-skeletal system. Unfavourable musculo-skeletal strain increases the risk of fatigue, discomfort and
musculo-skeletal disorders.
In the design of machinery, the following principles shall be taken into account:
a)

mechanical aids shall be provided, where the necessary physical force to be applied cannot be kept to a
safe level;

b)

prolonged static muscle tension (such as caused by arms and hands being held or lifted) shall be avoided.
The weight of hand-held equipment may be an important cause of muscle fatigue when prolonged
periods of use are required and its effects should be reduced, e.g. by supporting the equipment on a
suspension system;

c)

application of physical force shall be minimised wherever possible by utilising measures such as balance
weights;

d)

control actuators, grips, handles and pedals of machinery shall be designed, selected and arranged to
meet the requirements of EN 894-3;

e)

depending on the force demands, size, shape and position of control actuators, uneven loading of the
body and limbs shall be avoided;

f)

weight distribution of hand held and portable equipment shall ensure proper balance in relation to their
handles and support areas.

NOTE
EN 1005-2 and EN 1005-3 describe how the designer of machinery can keep the required forces to
acceptable levels. They give methods for considering the weight, shape, size, weight distribution and position of the
objects being handled. The duration and frequency of force application, the operators posture (sitting or standing), the
rules and methods of working and the specific characteristics of the intended operator population (e.g. age, health) are
also addressed.

12

EN 614-1:2006+A1:2009 (E)

4.4

Taking account of people's mental abilities

4.4.1

General

The machine and its associated elements (displays, signals, control actuators, instructions etc.) shall be
designed to suit not only the physical but also the mental abilities of the expected population of operators. The
term mental in this sense refers to cognitive, informational and emotional processes of the human being, as
specified in EN ISO 100751. Mental ability is associated with the operators ability to control the machinery
and perform the required tasks.
NOTE
Poor compatibility between the operators mental abilities and the requirements for use results in unsafe
operation and leads to impairing effects on the operators health and well-being. Poor compatibility is also an obstacle to
learning and training.

4.4.2

Requirements for interaction between operator and machinery

Requirements and guidelines for ensuring controlled and safe operation of the machinery are given in EN ISO
7731, EN 842, EN 894-1, EN 894-2 and EN 981. Guidelines to help the designer avoid impairing effects on
the operator (over- or underload, fatigue, monotony, reduced vigilance, satiation; see EN ISO 100751) are
described in !EN ISO 9241-110" and EN ISO 10075-2 in detail. Principles for designing suitable
operators work tasks are described in EN 614-2:2000, 4.1. The following ergonomic principles shall be taken
into account:
a)

machinery shall support the operator when performing recurrent tasks. The operator should be supported
in such a way that the operation does not overload nor underload the mental abilities (principle of
suitability for the task);

b)

underlying process and the functioning of the machinery shall be easily understandable for the operator
(principle of self-descriptiveness);

c)

operator shall have control over the machine and its components (principle of controllability);

d)

machinery shall be, as far as possible, compatible with the operators expectations based on previous
work experience and training (principle of conformity with user expectations);

e)

machinery shall be error tolerant and provide the operator with the means for handling errors (error
should not lead to a hazardous situation; principle of error tolerance);

f)

machinery shall allow the operators an appropriate degree of autonomy with regard to decisions on
priorities and procedures (principle of suitability for individualisation);

g)

machinery shall allow the development of existing abilities and the attainment of new skills (principle of
suitability for learning);

h)

machinery shall be flexible enough to be adapted to the variation of the skills within the operator
population (see EN 614-2) and, if necessary to special needs (see 4.2).

4.4.3

Signals and controls

In the design of the interaction between the operator and the machine special account shall be paid to the
following aspects:
a)

any information required for performing the work task shall be made readily available to the operator. This
information shall be presented in such a way that the operator can readily understand and act on it, e.g.
by providing a rapid overview of the whole work system as well as providing information on detailed
aspects;

13

EN 614-1:2006+A1:2009 (E)

b)

displays and signals shall be designed in a manner compatible with the characteristics of human
perception and the task to be performed;

c)

where an interactive system is used, icons, symbols and commands shall be consistent in appearance
and function;

d)

when designing machinery, visual deficiencies shall be taken into account. Hence, colour should not be
the only sort of coding, but shape, position or text should also be used;

e)

when designing machinery, auditory abilities shall be taken into consideration. In noisy environments,
other signals than acoustical ones should be considered).
NOTE 1

The inclusion of people with hearing impairments should be taken as well into consideration.

Control actuators and displays and their functions shall be designed, selected and arranged to ensure their
recognition and controlled operation. The direction of movement of controls to activate the functions and
indicators shall be compatible with the intended effect or correspond to common practice whenever possible.
NOTE 2

For detailed design of displays and control actuators see EN 894-1 and prEN 894-4.

NOTE 3

For detailed design of displays and signals see EN 894-2.

NOTE 4

For detailed design of control actuators see EN 894-3.

4.5

Taking account of the influence of the physical work environment on people

4.5.1

General

The design of machinery shall take into account the effects any emissions from the machinery may have on
the operator, or on the work environment, in accordance with the principles set out in EN ISO 12100-1 and
EN ISO 12100-2.
4.5.2

Noise and vibration

Exposure of noise and vibration produced during the operation of the machinery shall be minimised. This will
help to avoid health and safety hazards and discomfort of the operator (for detailed guidelines on noise
exposure see EN ISO 11688-1 and EN ISO 11688-2).
NOTE
Vibration can be distinguished into hand-arm vibration (see ISO 5349-1 and EN ISO 5349-2), and whole body
vibration (see ISO 2631-1).

4.5.3

Thermal emissions

Thermal emissions produced during the operation of work equipment shall be minimised, to avoid health and
safety hazards, and to ensure the thermal comfort of the operator.
In particular, the following items shall be taken into account:
a)

required physical workload;

b)

thermal properties of any necessary clothing and personal protective equipment (PPE);

c)

expected heat load on the operator;

d)

temperature of any touchable surface.

NOTE

14

See also !EN ISO 13732-1" and EN ISO 13732-3.

EN 614-1:2006+A1:2009 (E)

4.5.4

Illumination

The illumination shall meet the requirements necessary for the operator to perform the work task. The
manufacturer shall describe in the information for use which minimum illumination within the operating area of
the machine is required for safe operation. Sufficient illumination of the control- and monitoring equipment of
the machine shall be provided with the machine. Adjustable lighting shall be easy to handle.
In particular, the following items shall be taken into account:
a)

flicker shall be avoided;

b)

dazzle or glare shall be avoided;

c)

confusing shadows shall be avoided;

d)

stroboscopic effects shall be avoided;

e)

contrasts shall be adequate for the task;

f)

colour rendering shall be preserved.

NOTE

5
5.1

For criteria for illumination see EN 1837.

Incorporating ergonomic principles into the design process of machinery


General

When designing machinery the ergonomic principles as defined in this European Standard shall be
incorporated in the functional specifications. Ergonomic requirements shall also be complied with at all
relevant stages of the design process. This process can be described as an iterative engineering process into
which ergonomics tasks are incorporated (see Table 1).
The engineering design process can be considered to occur in four main stages:
1)

development of design requirements,

2)

preparation of a design outline (or outlines),

3)

preparation of the detailed design, and

4)

implementation of the design.

However actual design processes are not distinctly divided into the stages described above. The stages may
overlap, and they may need to be repeated until acceptable results have been reached.
The experience of operators, health and safety personnel and ergonomics experts shall be incorporated in the
design process.
The execution of the stages described in these procedures shall be documented. The documents will be used
to verify the compliance with this European Standard, to make the design decisions and the reasons for them
visible for the groups concerned and to document the established criteria and requirements for later design
stages.
Within this design process a risk assessment according to !EN ISO 14121-1" and risk reduction as
described in EN ISO 12100-1 and EN ISO 12100-2 shall be carried out from the ergonomics point of view.

15

EN 614-1:2006+A1:2009 (E)

5.2

Ergonomics tasks to be performed during the design process of machinery

5.2.1

General framework

The ergonomics tasks to be performed during the design process are described in 5.2.2 to 5.2.5 and
illustrated in Table 1.
Table 1 Ergonomics tasks to be performed during the design process of machinery
see
subclause

Stages of design process

5.2.2

Development of design
requirements

Ergonomics tasks

Establishing ergonomic
criteria for the design of
machinery

Description of tasks (subdivided in stages)

a) Specification of relevant ergonomic evaluation


criteria based on general ergonomics principles;
b) gathering
machinery;

of

experience

with

existing

c) description of the characteristics of the


expected operator population;
d) risk assessment.
5.2.3

Preparation
outlines

of

design Preparation of the outline of a) Allocation of the functions and tasks to the
the work tasks and the operators and the machinery;
interface of the machinery
b) description of the tasks and activities to be
performed by the operators;
c) proposal of outline(s) of the interface;
d) evaluation of the operator-machine interface
against the established criteria.

5.2.4

Preparation
design

of

detailed Specification of the work tasks a) Evaluation of the operator-machine interface in


and the interface of the detail using relevant ergonomics standards and
machinery
task simulation if needed;
b) determination and implementation
necessary corrections to the interface;

of

the

c) production of the design documentation.


5.2.5

Implementation
design

of

the Evaluation of the usage of the a) Performing


machinery
personnel);

trials

with

operators

b) determination and implementation


necessary modifications;

(test
of

the

c) gathering feedback from the actual use of the


machinery;
d) specification of the instructions for use and
level of qualification of the operator.

As a general rule, all hazards associated with the machine throughout its foreseeable lifetime shall be
identified and, as far as possible, eliminated or minimised.
5.2.2

Establish ergonomic criteria for the design of machinery

To develop the functional specification in accordance with ergonomic principles, the designer shall:
a)

16

specify relevant ergonomic evaluation criteria for the design of machinery. These shall be based on the
general ergonomic principles set out in Clause 4, considering machine-specific standards;

EN 614-1:2006+A1:2009 (E)

b)

gather experience with existing machinery. This can be done by analysis of the tasks and work activity at
similar machinery to that being designed;

c)

describe the characteristics of the expected operator population. Consideration should be paid to people
with special requirements (see 4.2);

d)

perform a risk assessment according to !EN ISO 14121-1" and risk reduction as described in
EN ISO 12100-1 and EN ISO 12100-2 from the ergonomics point of view as early as possible and update
and refine it in appropriate stages of the design process when necessary.

5.2.3

Prepare the outline of the work tasks and the interface of the machinery

The preparation of design outlines shall include preparation of the outline of the work tasks and the interface
of the machinery. In order to achieve this, the designer shall:
a)

make an analysis of the functions and tasks to be performed by the operators and by the machine.
Special consideration shall be paid to appropriate allocation of the functions and tasks between the
operator and the machinery.
The functions and tasks which are less suitable for the operators' capabilities should be identified, and
allocated to the machinery in the outline design.
NOTE 1
'Function' is a concept describing what has to be achieved by or within the system. An example of a
function: to move a work piece from the buffer storage to the machine.
NOTE 2
'Task' is a concept describing concrete actions and means given to operators to accomplish functions.
For moving functions (see Note 1) three examples of corresponding tasks can be: to lift the work piece manually, or,
to lift it with the help of a mechanical lifting device, or an automatic transfer operation of the work piece.
NOTE 3
The analysis of functions and tasks comprises a hierarchical description of the entire activity, breaking
it into ever smaller units (sub-functions and sub-tasks).

For a more detailed description of function analysis and task analysis, see EN 614-2;
b)

describe and analyse the work tasks to be performed by the operator(s).


The description of work tasks should be based on the analysis of actual activities at the machine(s) to be
designed. Such descriptions and analyses of work tasks will help the designer assess the workload, to
determine what will be required of the operator and to decide what information should be provided for the
operator. The task description is also needed for the evaluation of the operator-machine system as a
whole (see 5.2.3 d);

c)

propose outline(s) for the interface of the machinery.


The generation of alternative solutions can be performed in interaction with the function and task analysis
and with the description of work tasks.

d)

evaluate the outline(s) of the operator-machine interface against the specific criteria established
in !5.2.2". and against the general principles set out in Clause 4 (see EN 894-1).
If the outline of the machine-operator interface is not found acceptable in the evaluation, it shall be
revised and the process repeated.

As a result of the outline design, one (or more) proposal(s) is chosen to be developed further.
NOTE 4
The design of machinery should allow jobs which are satisfactory as a whole for the operator and for the work
organisation. Therefore, attention should also be given to such factors as job satisfaction and organisational issues
(e.g. job content, partitioning of tasks, work process, and division of labour). For more details see EN 614-2.

17

EN 614-1:2006+A1:2009 (E)

NOTE 5
For evaluating workload and the interface of the machinery, the description of work tasks may need to be
limited to continuous, repeated and periodic tasks of the operator(s). When this is done, rarely or incidentally performed
tasks such as installing or dismantling the machinery still need to be analysed (see Clause 1).

5.2.4

Specify the work tasks and the interface of the machinery

In the preparation of detailed design, the interface of the machinery and the work tasks of the operator shall
be developed to meet the ergonomic requirements in detail. At this stage, the designer shall:
a)

evaluate the operator-machine interface in detail against the relevant ergonomics standards.
The evaluation can be carried out with the guidance and methods described in the relevant standards. In
general, the evaluation methods consist of:

direct observation of the fulfilment of the requirement,

measurement of the values for the requirements given in measurable units (e.g. dimensions of the
workstation or displayed characters, force limits, intensity of the lighting or noise),

intended operators' subjective assessment of the design,

observation of the functioning of the operator-machine system (e.g. fluency, errors, misuse,
disturbances), and

measurement of physiological/psychological responses during the performance.

The result of the evaluation indicates whether the design meets the specified ergonomic criteria
established in 5.2.2, the general principles set out in Clause 4 and the relevant requirements set out in
relevant ergonomics standards. If the design is not found acceptable, it shall be revised.
The results of the evaluation can be classified according to their degree of acceptability. In the informative
Annex A, a 3-zone rating system is described for this purpose. Also other suitable methods which classify
acceptability can be used (see A.1).
b)

determine and implement the necessary corrections to the interface.

c)

produce the design documentation.


When the design solution has been finalised, the necessary documentation for the machinery shall be
produced. This documentation shall include information for the operator on how to use the machinery in a
safe way (e.g. without excessive loading or risk of errors).

The application of the above methods requires the description of the design and the planned activity in
appropriate ways: verbal descriptions, diagrams, drawings, scale models, virtual reality, mock-ups or
prototypes. The processes and tasks should be demonstrated by e.g. a walkthrough or simulation. The work
tasks should be evaluated with the help of trials and task simulation as early as possible.
If it is impossible to reach an ergonomically acceptable design by construction, other complementary
measures shall be taken (see EN ISO 12100-1).
5.2.5

Evaluation of the usage of the machinery

In the implementation of the design stage the operating conditions of the machinery are finalised. At this stage,
during installation, trial runs and actual use, the usage of the machinery shall be evaluated, and the necessary
adjustments and corrections shall be made. The designer shall follow the implementation process, and in
appropriate phases he/she shall:

18

EN 614-1:2006+A1:2009 (E)

a)

perform trials with operators as intended for the use (test personnel). For the identification of any
shortcomings, clause 4 shall be considered.
For the trials, the methods described in 5.2.4 a), can be applied.
The arrangements for the operations associated with e.g. maintenance, changing of tools, removal of
work pieces, removal of waste material, and cleaning shall be considered in detail at this stage;

b)

determine and implement the necessary corrections, adjustments and modifications to the machinery.
The design documentation (including any instructions) shall also be revised in accordance with any
corrections and modifications.
The necessary corrections typically include changes in the operators work tasks, adjustment of the
dimensions of the machinery, and consideration of installing assisting work equipment, furniture and
environmental factors (e.g. local lighting);

c)

gather feedback from the use of the machinery.


For the assessment of ergonomics requirements and criteria a careful analysis of feedback from the use
of the machinery (e.g. end users' complaints, near-miss accident reports, accident reports) is strongly
recommended. Feedback helps to identify measures and improvements for future design;

d)

finalise the instructions for use and level of qualification of the operator.
The documentation may consist of operating instructions displayed in the machinery, user manuals,
maintenance manuals, training manuals etc.

NOTE
The implementation may take place on the premises of the manufacturer and/or, in the case of customised
machinery, at the final worksite.

19

EN 614-1:2006+A1:2009 (E)

Annex A
(informative)
Guidelines for the use of the 3-zone rating system

A.1 Introduction
The purpose of this annex is to establish a system of design evaluation that will help designers and others to
fulfil a risk evaluation in a structured and straightforward way. !A rating system like the 3-zone-model will
aid risk reduction for the operator by inherently safe design measures, considering factors like frequency and
durations of the task as set out in EN ISO 12100-2:2003, Clause 4."It is one method of classifying
ergonomics hazards in order to simplify the determination of appropriate actions in the design process.
A 3-zone rating system is a method to make ergonomic risk assessment, due to the fact that ergonomics
hazards often are ambiguous, depending on the wide range of operator characteristics, abilities and needs
and also to the fact that they very seldom are related to only one single factor. It is the multi-factorial
complexity behind ergonomics hazards which makes it almost impossible to come up with a straight yes-orno-answer for a given situation. Another advantage is that it is a very comprehensible and pedagogical way of
presenting complex ergonomic data, considering factors like safe operation, compatibility, frequency and
duration of the task.
It should be noted that many ergonomics requirements (e.g. those associated with mental abilities) cannot be
expressed as measurable units or concrete measures. Therefore, at the present stage, the 3-zone model can
be mainly applied to the physical aspects of the human machine interaction.
Rating systems help the designer to arrange observations according to set criteria.
The 3-zone rating system is defined due to the current knowledge of human abilities (e.g. freedom of
movement).

A.2 Definition and use of the 3-zone rating system


As a result of the risk assessment, the following zone criteria should be taken into account:
Zone 1 (Green zone):
This zone is represented by:

an inherent safe approach;

safe operation;

ergonomic principles fulfilled:

20

for tasks of frequent use,

for tasks of longer duration,

with comfort (well-being), e.g. zone of comfort reach.

EN 614-1:2006+A1:2009 (E)

Zone 2 (Yellow zone):


This zone is represented by:

ergonomic principles fulfilled for tasks of

temporary use,

short duration.

Zone 3 (Red zone):


This zone is represented by:

ergonomic principles not fulfilled;

conditions, which can lead to unsafe operation.

Zone 1 is used for those tasks, which are required for the safe operation of the machine to ensure health and
well-being for the operator. Zone 2 can be used for other tasks
NOTE

Those tasks being performed very seldom can be located in zone 3.

21

EN 614-1:2006+A1:2009 (E)

Annex ZA
(informative)
Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential
Requirements of EU Directive 98/37/EC, amended by 98/79/EC

This European Standard has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission
and the European Free Trade Association to provide a means of conforming to Essential Requirements of the
New Approach Directive 98/37/EC, amended by 98/79/EC.
Once this standard is cited in the Official Journal of the European Communities under that Directive and has
been implemented as a national standard in at least one Member State, compliance with the clauses of this
standard given in Table ZA.1 confers, within the limits of the scope of this standard, a presumption of
conformity with the corresponding Essential Requirements of that Directive and associated EFTA regulations.
Table ZA.1 Correspondence between this European Standard and Directive 98/37/EC, amended by
98/79/EC
Clause(s)/sub-clause(s) of this Essential Requirements (ERs) of Qualifying remarks/Notes
EN
Directive 98/37/EC, amended by
98/79/EC
4, 5

Annex 1: 1.1.2, 1.2.2, 1.2.8,


1.5.5, 1.5.8, 1.5.9, 1.7.0, 1.7.1

WARNING Other requirements and other EU Directives may be applicable to the product(s) falling
within the scope of this standard.

22

EN 614-1:2006+A1:2009 (E)

Annex ZB
(informative)
!Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential
Requirements of EU Directive 2006/42/EC

This European Standard has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission
and the European Free Trade Association to provide a means of conforming to Essential Requirements of the
New Approach Directive 2006/42/EC on machinery.
Once this standard is cited in the Official Journal of the European Communities under that Directive and has
been implemented as a national standard in at least one Member State, compliance with the normative
clauses of this standard given in Table ZB.1 confers, within the limits of the scope of this standard, a
presumption of conformity with the relevant Essential Requirements of that Directive and associated EFTA
regulations.
Table ZB.A.1 Correspondence between this European Standard and Directive 2006/42/EC
Clause(s)/sub-clause(s) of this EN

Essential Requirements (ERs)


of Directive 2006/42/EC

Qualifying remarks/Notes

All clauses

Annex I: 1.1.2, 1.1.6, 1.1.7, 1.1.8,


1.2.2, 1.5.5, 1.5.8, 1.5.9, 1.7.1,
1.7.1.2, 1.7.2

WARNING Other requirements and other EU Directives may be applicable to the product(s) falling within
the scope of this standard."

23

EN 614-1:2006+A1:2009 (E)

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24

EN 614-1:2006+A1:2009 (E)

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25
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