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75(i

KEPOKT

OF

NATIONAL,

MUSEUM,

1894.

had been,

bored

slightly over

a.

fourth

of an inch a

thin tube of mer

cantile copper was

tool for boring stone, and would to-day

substituted, which,

hardest

may

miiieral were

with

the

sand,

made an ideal

bore a hole

with absolute pre

used

instead of

cision

through the

emery sand

ordinary quart/ sand.

and the

implement

The motion of (his drill is easy to the workman,

be

kept going with

slight fatigue.

Were

it

necessary,

for people to stand around it

as

many cords could be tied to the .shafts

and pull.

as there was room

A distinguished American

"Sam"

were a

Every illustration of this

all

answers

in

drill ; t he

as

savant

tool,

and

Egyptologist has

one intended

suggested

that if this

poses, and could not be used for boring.

it was

for digging pur

under

the writer's

"Sam" which has come

its parts to a drill.

human figures are

observation

lar to a pump

The implement is simi

are

those of women, and

Bound prisoners arc com

almost invariably upon the bases of statues.

monly represented

being tied back to back to the implements,

and

For these rea that the people

the so-called gods are goddesses

and 201 represent

they are generally of another race than the Egyptians.

sons the writer claims

standing at i t are not worshipping, that

of work, thafc the "Sam"

the implement, and fig. 4'2 shows all the characteristics

of Egyptian bored stones.

seats, were tied, and we may imagine

that the ''Sam" is not an altar,

is a tool, and that figs. 200

The slaves were placed

that,

mies

should perform

the work but should

of the drill cores

under their masters'

said,

"their

ene

as Vishnu

not participate in the fruits

of their labor."

THE EARLIEST

ON

THE

KNOWN

MIGRATION

Curator,

THE

SWASTIKA,

SYMBOL, AND

OF

ITS

MIGRATIONS;

WITH

OBSERVATIONS

CER'MIN INDUSTRIES

IX PREHISTORIC THIES.

TIIOXAS

AVTT.SOX,

Jlfpartmeni of 1'reltMoric AnlliTopoloyy,

V. S. Satiomt] Museum.

TABLE

OF CONTENTS.

I'ugc.

Preface

703

 

I. DEFINITIONS, DESCRIPTION, AXD OIIKJIN.

 

Different forma of the cross

 

765

Namea and

7(>8

definitions of the Swastika and interpretation --

---

Symbolism

Origin and habitat.-

-

-

---.-.---

 

770

791

 

II. DlM'KRWIOX

OF

THE

SWASTIKA.

Extreme Orient

-

---.------

 

799

Japan

79SJ

Korea

799

China

799

Tibet India

---.--------

---.-

802

802

Classical Orient

 

800

Babylonia, Assyria, Chaldea, aud Persia

8(K!

Phonieia

---.---.----

-----

807

------.---.----.---------.----.

807

Lyeaouia Armenia-

----

-.-.----

-

----.---.-

-

----

807

Caneasus

 

808

Asia Minor Troy (lliasarlik)

809

First and Second. C itioa

810

Tlio Third or Burnt C ity

811

The Fourth City

813

The Fifth City

818

The Sixth and Seventh Cities

81'J

Loadoii idol of llisaarlik

821)

Owl-shaped vases

830

The ago of Trojan cities.-

832

Africa

----------.-----.---.

'

833

Kgyft

833

Nankratia

831

Coptos ( \chmiiu-PanopoKs}

831

Algeria

838

Aalumtee

838

839

839

Claasical Occident Mediterranean Greece, Cyprus, Khodos, Melos, and Thera

Greek fret aud Egytiau meander not the same as the Swastika

839

Swastika in pauela

815

Swastikas with four arma crossing at right angles, cuda bout to the right

810

Swaatikas with four arma crossing at right angles, ends bent to the left.

ends ogco and to the left

847

Swastikas with four arms crossing at other than right angles, the ^

848

Meander pattern, with euds beut to the right and left. ---------------

849

Swastikas of different kinds on the same object

--- --.-

849

759

760 REPORT

OV

NATIONAL

Europe Bronze age Etruria and Italy

-

-

Swiss lako dwellings Germany and Austria

Belgium

Scandinavia

---

--

-

Scotland and Ireland

Galld-Roman period

France ----.--.---

----

-----

Anglo-Saxon period Britain

Swastika on ancient coins

MUSKUM,

-_

-

-

-

,

1894.

Triskelion, Lyeia Triskelion, Sicily Triskelion, Ihlo of Man Punch marks on Corinthian coins mistaken for
Triskelion,
Lyeia
Triskelion,
Sicily
Triskelion,
Ihlo
of Man
Punch marks on Corinthian coins mistaken for Swastikas
Swastika on ancient Hindu coins
--.--
-.-
-- -.-
--
Swastika on coins in Alesembria and Gaza
-.-
---
-
---
-.-
Swastika on Danish gold liracteatea
-
"
United States of America
Pro-Columbian times
Fains Island and Toco
--
--
--.--
-
-
mounds,
Hopewell Mound,
Chillieotbe,
Tennessee
Ifoss County, Ohio
Mounds in Arkansas
North American Indians
Kansas
Sacs
\
Pueldos.--.-
-----.---
---
-
-
--.--
--
-
--
Navajoes
Piuiaa
Colonial patchwork-.-
-.--
-_-
---
-
-
Central
America
--
-.-
-
--
Nicaragua ---.---
Yucatan
Costa If iea
---.-.-.--.-
---
---
--.-
-
\
South
America
Brazil
Paraguay
III.
FOUMS
ALLIED
TO THE
SWASTIKA.
Meanders, ogees,
and spirals,
bent lo
the left as well as to the right.-
------
.Aoorijfiiial American engravings
and
pain! iuga
Designs on shell
Ivory-billed
The trihkelr,
woodpecker
triskclion, or triquetrum
-
The spider
The rattlesnake
The human face
and form
Designs on pottery
Designs
on basketry
IV. Tim
CROSS
AJioNi;
THE AMERICAN
INDIANS.
Different forms
The cross on objects of shell and copper
The cross on pottery
-
-.-
--
--.--
-.-

Pago.

854

854

855

861

862

863

804

867

809

869

870

870

871

871

873

874

875

877

878

878

879

879

879

888

893

894

894

895

890

897

901

901

902

902

902

903

903

903

905

905

906

90G

907

908

HIS

911

914

920

924

926

926

931

THE

SWASTIKA.

Symbolic meanings of the cross

The four winds

Sun and star symbols.---

Dwellings

Dragon fly

Midi-', or Shamans.---.---.--- Flocks of birds

-----

(Snaboca)

-

-

--.--

--

--

--

---.

.--. ----

------

-----------.-------------

-------.------

------------

---------

Human forms

-

-

-

-

-.------.------.--

Maidenhood

Shaman's spirit

Divers

-

significations

--

--

-

--

---

-

-

---------

----

-.--------

Introduction of the cross into America

Decorative forms not of the cross, hut allied to the Swastika

--.-

----

--

---.-------.-.-------

Color stamps from Mexico and Venezuela - ---- -.-----------.---- V. SIGNIFICANCE of THE SWASTIKA VI.
Color stamps from Mexico
and Venezuela
-
----
-.-----------.----
V. SIGNIFICANCE
of THE SWASTIKA
VI.
THK MIGRATION'
or
SYMBOLS.
Migration of the Swastika
--
-
Migration of classic symbols
The sacred tree of the
-
-
--
-.
The sacred cone of Mesopotamia
.
The Cntjc ansatu,
the key of life
The winged globe
The cadnceus
The trisula
--,.- -- .
-
.- .-.
-.
The double-headed eagle on tlio escutcheon The lion rampant of Belgium of Austria and Kussia.
The double-headed eagle on tlio escutcheon
The lion rampant of Belgium
of Austria and Kussia.
.-----
-
Creek art and architecture
The Greek fret
VII.
PREHISTORIC;
OBJECTS
ASSOCIATED
WITH
Tiir.
SWASTIKA,
I-OUVD
I
BOTH
HEMISPHERES,
AND
BELIEVED
TO
HAVE
i>\ssi:i> UY MIUKATIOV.
Spindle whorls
Europe
-
--.-.----
--
-.--
Switzerland
Lake dwellings
Italy
--
-
--------.-
---
---
-*
Wurtemburg---.
-
France.---.-
North America
pre-Columbian times
Mexico
Central America
.
.
.
.
Nicaragua
South America
f hiriqni
Colombia
Peru.--
--
--.-----
--.
]5obbins
.
.
------. ---.
.--
Europe
United States.
VIII.
SIMILAR
PI;EHISTOUIO
ARTS,
INDUSTUIES,
AND
IMPLEMENTS
i>r
EUROPE
AND
AMERICA
AS
EVIDENTCE
OF
THE MIGRATION
or
CCLTUHE.
CONCLUSION

BllSLIOIJHAI'IIY

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

761

Page.

933

934

936

936

936

937

937

938

939

939

939

944

9J6

946

918

952

960

960

960

961

961

962

902

963

9fi3

964

965

96G

907

907

968

968

968

969

1)70

971

971

972

972

972

972

975

975

975

977

981

981

997

\

THK

KARMKST

KNOH'X

MIGRATION"

THE

SWASTIKA,

SYWROI,,

AMI

OF

rERTAI\

ITS

IIIORITIOXS; WITH

ORSEUVATlOXSi

IXDFSTRIES

I>

PREHISTORIC

TIMES.

OX

TIIK

Curator,

By

TnoMis "\ViLSOv,

Department of Prehistoric Anthropology,

I'.

S. National Museum.

PREFACE.

An English gentleman, vorsed in prehistoric,

in tho summer of 1894,

and

during

archeology, V'sited me

asked if we had

our conversation

the Swastika

in

America.

I

answered,

" Yes,'1 and showed him two

or threo specimens of it.

lie demanded if we had

any literature on tho

subject.

I cited him De

Mortillet,

De

Morgan,

and Zmigrodzki, and

he said,

" Xo, I mean

English or American."

I began a search which

proved almost futile, as even the word Swastika

did not appear in snch

works as Worcester's or Webster's dictionaries, the Encyclopedic Dic

tionary,

paedia, the People's Cyclopaedia, Roman Autiqnities, his Greek and

or his Classical Dictionary.

Mollett's Dictionary of Art and Archaeology, Fairholt's

the Encyclopaedia

Britanniea, Johnson's

I

nor

also

Universal

Cyclo

Smith's Dictionary of Greek and

Roman Biography and

Mythology,

searched,

with

the

same

results,

Dictionary of

Terms in Art,

"L'Art Gothique," by Gonza, Perrot and Ohipiez's exten

sive histories

of Art in

Egypt, in

Ghaldea and

Assyria, and in Phe-

nicia;

Ilistory of the Cross,'' by John Ash ton;

by Wildener.

also "The Gross,

while

all

Ancient

and Modern," by W. W.

Blake,

"The

and a reprint of a Dutch work

In the American Encyclopedia the description is errone

the

Ceutury Dictionary says

fylfot," and

1 thereupon concluded, that

is,

" Saints

as

ous,

"Compare Clrux Amtata and ffamumilinn."

this would be a good subject for presentation to the Smithsonian Insti

r

"diffusion

of K- n »«-i-»««

«

,

comPact

tika, leaving to

o

T

\

in a

** S

and

their

763

764 REPORT

OP

NATIONAL

MUSEUM, 1891.

arrangement into

to bo deduced from the facts

prehistoric times of the Swastika and similar objects.

an

harmonious theory.

stated

is

as

The only conclusion

to the

sought

possible migration in

is

primitive meaning of the Swastika,

lost in antiquity.

are simple

No conclusion

attempted

The

as

to

the time or place of origin,

or the

because these are considered to be

straight line, the eirele, the cross, the triangle,

made,

and

might

have

been

invented

and

forms, easily

re-invented in every age (if primitive

globe,

little, meaning different

each

time

being

times among

definite meaning.

the same

an

man

and in every quarter of the '

invention,

meaning

much

or

peoples or at different

had

no

settled

or

independent

things among

people;

different

or they may

have

But the Swastika was probably

the first to be made

with a definite intention

knowledge of which passed from person

and a continuous or consecutive meaning, the

to person, from

until,

from nation to

nation,

tribe to tribe,

with possibly

from people to people, and

changed meanings, it has finally circled the globe.

There are many disputable

author is

men,

and

aware of the

he has

not

sentences

questions

broached

in

this

paper.

The

differences

attempted

to

in

their

of opinion

dispose

thereon

of these

among

learned

questions

in

He has

been

the

eon-

of controverted

few

servative and lias sought to avoid dogmatic decisions

employed

announcement.

questions.

The

antiquity of man,

the

locality of his origin,

of which

may

be

the

time

of his dispersion and the course

and

the

course

in

of its

a discussion

of his migration, the origin of bronze

less

be

migration, all

of

more or

involved

settled by the dogmatic assertions of

the Swastika,

are questions not to

any individual.

Much of the information in this paper is original,

discoverers;

been

therefore,

all books, travels,

writers,

laid

under contribution without scruple.

Due

is hereby made for all quotations

giving

any sufficient marshaling of the

former

the

substance.

The justification

been

deductions

have

is

and relates to pre

and

students

historic more than to modern times, and extends to nearly all the coun

tries of the globe.

It is evident that the author must depend on other

have

acknowledgment

of text or figures wherever they occur.

Quotations have been freely made, instead of sifting the evidence and

that there has

never been

and

that the

quotations

of

evidence on the subject,

inconclusive;

therefore,

before them.

antiquity, origin,

many times these

authors are given in their own words, to the

who propose to deal with the origin, meaning,

the Swastika will have all the evidence

Assumptions may appear

as to

the Swastika, but it

the opinion of the writers who are quoted, hypotheses.

is explained

that

end that the philosophers

and cause of migration of

and

migration

of

only reflect

working-

or are put forth as

The indulgence

to

of the reader is asked, and

conflicting

statements

it is-, hoped

upon

that lie will

disputed

endeavor

questions rather than antagonize them.

harmonixe

these

THE

SWASTIKA.

7G5

I.

DEFINITIONS, DESCRIPTION,

AN»

OIJIOIN.

DIFFERENT

FORMS

OF

THE CROSS.

The simple cross made with two sticks

times.

theorize as to

either in epoch or by country or people.

or marks belongs to prehistoric

One may

historical identification of it

The

sign is itself so simple that

and in

given to the earliest cross is

Its first appearance among men is lost in antiquity.

its origin, but

there

is no

it might have originated among any people, however primitive,

any age, however remote.

The meaning

equally unknown.

of speculation.

nations by which certain forms of the cross have been known under cer

Everything concerning its beginning is in the realm

a differentiation grew

up in

early

times

among

But

tain names and with specific significations.

Some of these, such

Maltese cross,

are historic and can be well identified.

as the

The principal forms of the cross, known as symbols or ornaments,

be reduced to a few classes, though when combined

extends to 385 varieties. 1

can

with heraldry its use

I:,,.,.

LATIN

Fig. 1.

CROSS (Cntx trnmts.ta).

Fig- 2.

(.RECK

CROSS.

bT.

ANDRKW'ti

Fig. 3.

CKOSS

( CrUX

It is not the purpose of this paper to give a history the principal forms are shown by way of introduction Swastika.

of the cross, but to a study of the

The Latin cross,

Crux immwait,

(lig. 1)

is found on coins, medals, and

ornaments

Christ is said

the Christian cross.

anterior to the

Christian

era.

It

to have been crucified, and thus

was on this cross

that

it became accepted

as

Ill

The Greek cross (fig. '2) with

arms of equal length crossing

at right

angles,

is

found on

Assyrian

and

Persian

monuments and

tablets,

Greek aoins and statues.

 

'The

St. Andrew's, cross,

Crux

dccussata,

(fig.

3)

is

the same as the

Greek cross, but turned to stand on two legs.

,

i William

Berry, Encyclopedia Heraldica,

1828-1840.

766 REPOKT

The

Crux

OF

NATIONAL

according

MUSEUM,

to

1894.

ansata (fig. 4)

Egyptian

mythology,

was

It was also said

Aukh, the emblem of Ka, the spiritual

double of man.

to indicate a union of Osiris and Isis.

the generative principle of nature.

and was regarded as a symbol of

The

Tau

cross

(fig.

5),

so called from

its

resemblance

to

the Greek

Kg. 4.

EGYPTIAN

CROSS

(Crux ansata).

TlioKeyof Life.

letter of that name, is of uncertain,

In

of " Thor's hammer,"

Scandinavian mythology

being

Swastika.

It was

also

Egyptian

hermit

blue.

racists

C. W.

Clarksou

011 their

though ancient, origin-

under

the

name

confounded with the

St. Anthony's cross for the

and was

says this mark was received by the Mith-

always colored

it passed

therein

called

of that

name,

foreheads at the time of their initiation.

Numis

King, in his work entitled "Early Christian

matics" (p. 214), expresses the opinion that the Tau cross

was placed on the foreheads

nations.

emblem.

(Ezekiel

ix,

4.)

of men who cry

after abomi

It ia

spoken

of as

a- phallic

Another

variety

first two

of

the

cross

appeared

about

word

the

second

century,

composed of a union of the St. Andrew's cross

being the

This, with

and the letter I* (fig. 6),

X PI2T02

(Christus).

foregoing letters, passed

letters

of the Greek

another variety containing all the

G).

as the monogram of Christ (fig.

As an

instrument

of two beams

of execution, the

with

four

on which

cross,

besides

arms,

being

was

the inter

of

section

compound forms as Y,

projecting

frequently

the convicted person was fastened by

Another form r~~|, whereon he was

the feet and hung head downward.

MS-5.

TAU

CKOSS,

moil's n VMMEII,

OR ST. ANTHONY'S

CROSS.

Fig. 0.

UONOCKUI

OF

CHRIST.

LiilKiruui of Constaiiliiie.

MVLTKSE CBOSS.

fastened by one foot and one hand at each

form I 1, whereon his body was

I

still

upper corner;

on

another

suspended

the central upright with

his jirms outstretched upon the cross beams.

Fig. 7

Malta.

represents

the sign

of the

military

order

of the

Knights

of

It is of medieval origin.

i

These belong

and frequently

Fig. 8 (a and b) represents two styles of Celtic crosses.

chiefly

set up at marked places on the road side.

to

Ireland and Scotland,

are usually of stone,

Jl

767

Higgins, in his "Anacalypsis," a rare and costly work, almost an ency-

THE

SWASTIKA.

elopedia

the official name of the governor of Tibet, Lama, comes from the ancient

Tibetan word

This

of knowledge,'

for the

says, concerning the origin

of the cross, that

cross.

The original spelling was L-a-in-li.

is cited with

"Aphrodisiacs"

approval in Davenport's

(p. 13).

Of

the many

Swastika

is

forms

the

of

most

the

cross,

ancient.

the

Despite the theories and

speculations

It

of students, its origin is unknown.

began before history, and

classed

as prehistoric.

is properly

Its

descrip

tion

is

as

follows:

The bars

of the

normal

fig.

throughout,

right angles, making four arms of equal size, length,

peculiarity is that all the ends are bent at right angles and in the same

direction,

Miillcr makes

according as the arms are bent to the

That bent to the

right or to the left.

right he denominates the true Swas

different

Swastika

(frontispiece

and

Fig. 8.

9)

are straight, of equal thickness

and

cross

each other

at

CELTIC CUOSSE'i.

and style.

or

left.

Prof.

the symbol

Their

Max

right

Fig. 9.

NORMAL

3WA8TIKA.

tika,

that

bent

to

the

left

he calls

Suavastika (tig.

10), but

he

gives no

Fig. 10.

SDAVASTIKA.

for

authority

ment, and the author has

been unable to

the

state

ex

find,

ra

cept in IJurnouf, any justification for a difference of names.

Professor Goodyear

the title of "Meander" to that

form of Swastika which bends two or more times (fig. 11).

or

gives

The Swastika is

sometimes represented

with

dots

Fig. 11.

SWASTIKA.

points in

the same when without bent ends (fig.

the corners

of the

intersections

(fig. 12«),

and occasionally

12/<), to

which Zmigrodzki gives

L

1.

CHOIX

Fi a'. 12.

SWA-1TICALF

(/MIC.ROD7KI)

the name of Groix Sirasticale.

equidistant around each of the four ends (fig. V2,c).

Some Swastikas have three dots placed

'lliggiua, -

sia,'' London, lS:ili,

i,p. 230.

'

7G8

REPORT

OF

NATIONAL

MUSEUM,

1894.

There are several varieties possibly related to

been found in almost every part of the

may

its

appear slight,

and

intimate as the

at first

sight

appear more or less

ramifications.

As

this paper

upon facts rather than conclusions

wise to

tika.

give those forms

Certain

of them

to

the

Swastika, while

the Swastika which have

globe, and though the relation

will

difficult to

trace,

yet

it

examination

is pursued

through

is

an investigation

into

and report

to be drawn from them,

it is deemed

possible

relations to the Swas

by the

rejected;

author

as

but this

related

rejection

bearing even

have

been

others

have

accepted

been

W.RtL

\ VH

PPIKAL

SiVASTIKAS.

TetTiiakoliim

(fimr-nrmul).

Fig. K it. Sl'IRAL AN'tt V01ATTK.

Trirtkrlioii

(tlireo-jinncdj.

Fi£. 13c.

SPIRAL AND VOLUTE.

(Five or many armed.)

PECULIAR

FORMS

OF

SWASTIKA.

OliEE

Fi;;. 13rf.

KW \S1IKA,

CHICLE.

WITH

lias

been

confined

to

cases where the

known

facts

seemed

to justify

another origin for the symbol.

Speculation has been avoided.

NAMES

AND

DEFINITIONS

OF

THE

SWASTIKA.

The Swastika has been

called

by different

names

in different coun

tries, though nearly all countries have

Sanskrit name of Swastika;

in later years accepted the ancient

and this name is recommended as the most

definite and certain,

later spelling,

being

now the

most

general

and,

indeed, almost

universal.

the

definition and etymology of the word is

Dictionary:

It was formerly spelled s-v-a-s-t-i-c-a

both

English

and

French,

is

and s-u-a-s-t-i-k-a, but

The

French

s-w-a-s-t-i-k-a.

thus given in Littre's

Svaslika, or Swastika,

known

to

loi."

Paris, 1852, p. 025.;

and Etruria.

It was

tlie rock

inscriptions in the Buddhist caverns in the west of India are preceded or followed by

the lioly (saaramcnteUe) sign of the Swastika.

equally well

a mystic figure used

the Itrahnuns

as

by several (East) Indian

to

tue

Buddhists.

sects.

Most of

(Eug. Buniouf, " Le Lotus de la bonne

and

pottery of Rhodes (Cyprus)

It is com-

It was seen on the vases

(F. Delauuay, Jour. Off., Nov.

18,1873, p. 7024,3d Col.)

Etymology: A Sanskrit word signifying

posedof fin (equivalent of Greek s u),

the suffix l-a ( Greek x a, L atin ao).

happiness, pleasure, good luck.

" being,"

" good," and asti,

"good being," with

THE

SWASTIKA.

7fi9

Iii

the

"TCevue d'Ethnographie"

(iv,

JSSu,

p.

329), Mr.

gives the following analysis of the Sanskrit sirastiku :

J)nmoutier

Su,

jt»1l,

r.-idical, signifying good,

well,

Mcfllfiil,

or snridax, prosperity.

verb an,

t hird person, singular, indicative present of the

<o bo, which

in Latin. Kn, suffix forming the substantive.

in

sum

Professor WJiitncy in the Century

Dictionary says, Swastika [San

welfare.]

skrit, lit., "of good fortune."

Same as fylfot.

Compare

Svasti (.S"«. well, + «*//, being),

Crux misnin and yammtidioH.

In "Ilios'' (]>. 347), Max Miiller says:

Ethnologic;il]y, \ rtu1ika is derived

"to l>e."

and as an

I'l'eeirtj.

ftrasli occurs frequently

adverl)

in tho

sense

of

from

m mli,

and

srai,ii from nt, " well,"

It corresponds

to

and a s.

in tho Voda, both as a i.oim

"well 1' or

"hail!"

in :i senso of happiness,

the Greek

T ho derivation ilraxti-ku i sof later date, and it always means an auspicious

among I'.nddhists and Jainns.

sign, such as are found most frequently

M. Eugene Burnonf 1 defines

the mark Swastika as follows:

A

monogram mat! n

sign

of four

branches, of which the ends

are

curved

at right

angle?, the name signifying,

literally, tho sign of benediction or good augury.

The foregoing explanations relate only to the present accepted

The

name was given to it.

Buddhist religion or the Sanskrit

"Swastika."

sif/n

S wastika

It

must

must liavo

in

have been

language.

existed

long

name

before the

existence long before the

from Anglo-

In Great Britain the common name given to the Swastika

Saxon times by those who apparently had

or that it came from any other

to have

footed, or many-footed.*

been

derived from

no knowledge whence it came,

than their own country, was Fylfot, said

four-

the Anglo-Saxon foicer f»t, meaning

George Waring, in his work entitled

(p. 10),

says:

"Ceramic Art in l?cmote Ages"

The word [Fylfot]

is Scandinavian and is compoiinitO_ of

German r id,

many,

Old Norso fiel,

equivalent

ligniv.

to the Anglo-Saxon J'ela,

*

*

and f air, foot, the many-looted

* It is desirable to have some settled nanin by whk'h to describe it- wo will

"Fylfot."

take tho simplest and most descriptive, the

He

thus transgresses

one of the oldest and soundest rules of

scien

tific nomenclature, and ignores the fact that the name Swastika has been

employed for

this sign in the Sanskrit language

sr

(the etymology of the

good

or well, arti

to

word

or it is)

Asia and Europe had sanctioned

be

naturally gave

it tho

and

name Svastika,

or being,

that two

thousand and more years of use in

The

few persons in Great Britain

and sanctified that as its name.

use of Fylfot is confined to comparatively

1

2R.

"I>es

Sciences ct Religion," p. 256.

"The Fylfot

P. Grog,

and Swastika," Archa'ologia,

Goblet d'Alvtella,

"Migration di>.« Symboles," p. 50.

II.

Mis.

!»0,

pt.

2 40

XLVIII,

part 2,1885, p. 298;

770 REPORT

OF

NATIONAL

MTTSEITU, /804.

and, i>ossil)ly, Scandinavia.

Outside

of these

countries

it

is "scarcely

known, used,

or understood.

The,

Swastika was

occasionally

called

in

the

Trench

language

in

Croix yamnu'e

combination of four of the

named by Count Goblet d'Alviclla in his late work,

Symboles."

croclict.

earlier times,

or Gammaflioti, from

Greek letters of that

its

resemblance to a

so

iiaiiie,

and

it

is

" La Migration des

Croix «

It was B ut the

also called Croix

consensus

cramponnt'c, Croix pattee,

etymologists

even of French

favors

the

naiuc Swastika.

Some foreign authors have called it Thor's hammer, or Thor's hammer-

mark, but the correctness of this

elaborate work, "Ceramic Art in Remote Ages," 2 says:

has

been disputed. 1

Waring,

in his

The p^ used to be vulgarly called hi

Scandinavia the hammer of Tlior, and Thor'a

hammer-mark, or the hammer-mark, but thia name properly belongs to the mark V.

Luil wig Miiller gives it as his opinion that the Swastikahas

no connec

tion with the Thor hammer.

The best Scandinavian authors report the

"Thor hammer" to bo the same as the Greek tan (fig. 5), the same form

The Scandinavian name is Mio'l-

as the Roman and English capital T.

ner or Mjolner, the crusher or mallet.

The Greek, Latin, and Tan crosses are represented

in Egyptian hiero

glyphics by a hammer or mallet, giving the idea of crushing,

pounding,

or

hence standing for Horns and other gods.4

have

striking,

and so

an

instrument

crosses

of justice,

in

an

avenger

of wrong,3

Similar symbolic meanings

countries of the

been given

to these

ancient classic

Orient.5

SYMBOLISM AND INTERPRETATION.

Many theories have been presented concerning

the symbolism of the

- Swastika, its relation to ancient deities and its representation

of certain

qualities.

In the estimation of certain writers it has been respectively

the

emblem

of Zens,

of Baal,

sun,

of Indra the rain-god,

of the

of the

sim-god,

God,

sun-

of the sky, the sky-

of the

chariot of Agni the fire-god,

god,

Ruler 'of the Universe.

god of light,

some

others it

and finally the deity of all deities, the great

of the forked lightning,

the

and of water.

symbol.

to have been

oldest Aryan

In

represents

Brahma,

Vishnu,

and

Siva,

the Maker and

It is believed

the estimation of

Preserver,

It has also been held to symbolize light or the

by

Creator,

Destroyer.

It appears in the footprints of Buddha, engraved upon the

'Stephens,

"Old

Northern

of this

Runic

Monuments,"

d'Alviella,

part

II,

p. 509;

Lndwig

Miiller,

Symliolcs,"

quoted on

p. 4."i; Haddon,

p. 778

paper;

"Evolution in Art, 1' p. 288.

Goblet

"La Migration dea

""La Migration dea Symholos, 1' pp.

21,

22.

"'Lo Culto de la Croix avaiit J^Mis-Christ,'' in the Correapondaut, October 2.~>,

and in Science Catholiqne,

5Same

authorities.

I'cbrnary 15,

18flO,

p.

103.

1S8!),

THE

SWASTIKA.

771

solid rock 011 the mountains of India (fig. 32).

It stood for the Jupiter

Toiians and Tluvius of the Latins, and the Thor of the Scandinavians.

In the hitter case it has been considered

erroneously, however

a vari

ety of the Thor hammer.

mi

intimate relation to

In the opinion of at least one author it

the

Lotus

sign

of Egypt and

Persia.

had

Some

authors have attributed

a phallic meaning to it.

Others have recog-

ui/ed

it the symbol of the female.

goddesses, Artemis,

the leaxleii goddess from Hissarlik (fig. 125), has caused it to bo claimed

as a sign of fecundity.

it

as

representing the

generative principle of mankind, making

Its

appearance

on

the

person

of certain

the Chaldean Xana,

Ilera, Demcter, Astarte, and

In

forming

controlled

by

the foregoing

the

alleged

theories their

fact

of

the

aiithors have

and

substitution

been

largely

permutation

of the

Swastika

sign

on various

objects

with recognized

symbols

of

these

different deities.

The

claims

of these

theorists are

somewhat

clouded

seems

in

obscurity and

to

have been tit all

lost in the

times

What

an a sign of benediction, blessing, long

Swastika is its

antiquity of the subject.

attribute

of the

character as a charm or amulet, as

life,

good fortune,

good

luck.

This character has continued into mod

ern times,

and while the Swastika is recognized as

a

holy and

sacred

symbol by at least one Buddhistic religions

common people of India,

wishes, and good fortune.

still used by the

China, and Japan as a sign of long life, good

sect, it is

Whatever else

the sign

Swastika may have

it was

stood

for,

and however

It

may

it was

many meanings it may have had,

with

any

or

always

ornamental.

but

have been used

always ornamental as well. The Swastika sign had great extension and

over the world, largely,

use in some countries has continued into modern times.

all the

above

significations,

spread itself practically

if not entirely, in prehistoric times, though its

The

elaboration

of the

meanings

of the

Swastika

indicated

above

and its dispersion or migrations form the subject of this paper.

Dr.

Sehlieinanu

found

many

specimens

of Swastika in

his

excava

tions

at

the site

of ancient Troy on

the

hill of Hissarlik.

They were

mostly

on

spindle

whorls,

and

will

be described in

due course.

Ho

reply, wrote

appealed to Prof. Max

Miiller for an explanation, who, in

aii elaborate description,

which Dr.

Schliemann published in "Ilios. 1"

He

commences

with a

the

protest against

the word

being

it may prejudice the

Swastika

applied generally to

sign Swastika, because

reader or the public in favor of its Indian origin.

He says:

I

do

not

like

the

use

of

tho

word

araalika outside

of India.

It

is

a irurd

of

Indian origin and has its history and definite

meaning in India.

»

*

*

Tho occur

rence of such crosses in different parts of tho world may or may not point to

mon origin, but if they

a com

arc

once

called Sraxlika

tho rulgus jirafanmn w ill at once

'Fage31G,

ct seij.

772 ItEPOltT

OF

NATIONAL

MUSEUM,

18114.

jump to the conclusion that they all oouio from India, aud it will weed out such prejudice.

take some time to

Very little is known of Indian art before the third century

the I'.uddhist sovereigns began their public buildings.

1

11. C., tho period when

The name

Svastika, however, can

be

traced (in

India) a little

farther

back.

It

occuis as the name of a particular sign iu the old grammar of Panani,

tury

about

last

a cen

word

is

earlier.

" ear."

Pertain

*

*

compounds

*

One

of tho

mentioned there signs for marking

are

in which tho

cattle was tho

karna,

11],

Svastika [Ilg.

ia formed,

and what I'dnani teaches in his grammar ia that when the compound

sraxtil-n-larna,

a

such aa datra-karna,

i . e., "ha\ ing the ear marked

uot

to

be

i .

e.,

with, the

sign of a Svastika," the final

in

other compounds,

o f Svastika is

lengthened, flhilo it

is lengthened

"haviug the ear marked with the sign of a sickle.'1

I)'A Iviella 2reinforces Max Milllcr's statement that Panini lived during

Thus it is shown that the word

the middle of tbe fourth century, B. G.

Swastika had been in

use at that

early period

long enough to form an

iutegral

illustrate the particular sounds of the letter a i u its grammar.

part

of the

Sanskrit language

and that

it was

employed

to

Max Miiller continues his explanation: 3

It [the Swastika]

Buddhist

coins,

and

oecnra

often at tho

beginning of tho Buddhist inscriptions,

on.

in

Buddhist

manuscripts.

Historically, tlio

Svastika is

first

attested on

a coin of Krananda,

supposing Krauauda

to

be the same

king as Xan-

drames, tho

predecessor of Sandrokyptos,

whose reign

came to an end in

315

B.

G.

(See Thomas on the Identity of Xandiarnes and Krananda.)

The paleographic

evi

dence, however, seema rather against so

early a date.

In tho footprints of Buddha

tho Buddhista recognize no less that sixty-(ivo auspicious signs,

the first of them being

tho

SrastiJat

[See

fig.

32],

(Eugene Burnoiif,

"Lotus

de

la bonno

loi," p.

62.r>);

tho

fourth ia

third, the

tlio

Jainas

the Suarastika,

or that with

the

arms

turned to the left

[see iig.

10]; the

\ anilydrarta [see fig. 14], is a mere development of the fteastika.

A mong

tlio

Frastika

w as

the 5>ign of their

Supaisva (Colebrookc

133).

auspicious

p. ,'J18) that IJharata selects

Varahamihira iu tho Brihat-samhita

Svaatika and Naudyavarta

seventh .Tina,

vol.

2,'

p .

p. 188; Indian Antiquary,

iScastila

retains

Gorresio, n,

the moaning of an

not

correspond ^ cry exactly with

tho

form

of

"Miscellaneous Essays." II,

In

mark;

the

later

thus

wo

(53.H4,

scq.),

Sanskrit literature,

see iu

but

their

the

outline

IMmfiyaua (ed.

sign of the Svastika.

a ahip marked with tho

(Mod. S.-ee

vi, p. Ch.) mentions curtain buildings called

does

the signs.

Some

Sthnpas, how ever,

are said to havo

been built 011

tho

plan of tho

Svastika.

*

*

*

Originally,

avastika m ay have been intended for

no

more than

two lines missing each other,

ring to

ntulikti-alani,

or a cross.

Thus we find it used

iu

lator times

75.10),

refer

a womau cohering her breast with crossed arms (lUilarAin,

and likowiso with reference to poisons

srtihastas-

sitting crosslegged.

Dr.

Max Ohnel'alsch-lMchter 4 speaking

of

the

Swastika

position,

either of crossed legs

or arms,

among the

Hindus,5

suggests

as

a pos

sible

explanation

that these

women

bore

the

Swastikas

upon their

'The

native Buddhist

Alexander, 15. 0

"30.

See

monarchs

ruled from about

1!.

C.

500

to

tho

conquest

of

" The Swastika on ancient ooius," Chapter II of thia paper,

and Waring,

"Ceramic Art iu Komote Ages," p.

83.

2 "La,

Migration des symboles," p.

104.

'"IluVpp.347,318.

'Bulletins do la Societe d'Anthropologie,

1888,

p.

078.

Mr. Gandhi

makes tho same remark iu his lelter on the Buddha

ju pi.

10 of this paper.

shell slatuo shown

THE

SWASTIKA.

773

arms as did the goddess Aphrodite, in fig. 8 of his wrUiugs, (see fig. ISO

of arms

in

tho present

paper),

and when

they

assumed

the position

crossed over their breast, the Swastikas being brought into prominent

view, possibly gave the, name to the position

as

being a representative

of the sign.

Max Miiller continues 1:

H

Quile another Miie.stion is,

and

why iu

Sanskrit

it

why tho

sign I

Cj should have had

auspicious me.iii- The similariry be

an

tho sign

of SvastiUa

iug,

tween tbe group of lelteis si-ill tho ancient Indian alphabet and

ia not very striking, A remark of yours

in motion, tho direction of the

useful hin t, which has been confirmed by some important

the distinguished Oriental

should have

been called Svastika.

and seems purely accidental.

[Schliemann]

(Troy, p. r>8)

that the ,Sv;«,tika resembles a wheel

crampons,

motion being indicated by the

contains a

observations of Mr. Thomas,

numismatist,

who has called attention to the fact that in

the

long

list of tho

recognized

sun is absent, but that while tho

devices

tho

eighth Tirthaukara has tho sign of the half-moon,

of the twenty-four

.laina Tirthankaras

the

seventh

Tirthankara

is

marked with

tho Svastika,

i.

e.,

the

sun.

Here,

then,

wo

have

clear

indications that tho Svastika,

with (ho

hands

pointing

in the

right

direction,

was originally a symbol of tho

sun, perhaps of the vernal

sun as opposed

to the autumnal

sun, the Suarastika,

and,

therefore,

a natural

symbol of light,

life,

Iwalth,

and wealth.

But,

while

from

these

indications we

are justified in

supposing

that among

the

Arj-an nations tho Svastika may have been

an old emblem of the sun,

there arc other

indications

to

show that in other

parts of tho world tho

same or a similar emblem

was

used

to

indicate the earth.

Mr. Beal

*

*

»

h ;ls shown

*

*

*

that the

simple cross

(+) occurs as a

sign for

earth

in certain ideographic groups.

It was

probably intended to indicate the Jour quarters

north,

south, east,

west or, it may

bo,

more generally,

extension in length and breadth.

 

That

the

cross

is

used

as a sign for

"four" iu

the Uactro-l'ali

inscriptions (Max

Miiller,

" Chips from a German Workshop," Vol. II, p. 2flS) is well known;

but the fact

that tho samo

numerals,

other.

in other places; and tho more we extend our researches, the chapter of accidents is larger than we imagine.

sign

has tho same power

elsewhere,

as, for

in tho Hieratic

from the

also

the more we shall learn that

instance,

does

We

not prove by any means that

tho one

possible

figure was derived

iu

one place was

forget too easily that what was

possible

which Max Miiller names and believes was applied

to the Swastika sign,

to be reported with that meaning by any other author except Burnouf.2

The

"Suavastika"

with the ends bent to the left (fig.

10), seems not

Therefore

the

normal

Swastika would

seem

to

be

that with

the

eiids

bent to the right.

Burnouf says the word Suavastika

may be a deriva

tive or development of the

and ought to signify "he who,

that which, bears or carries tho Swastika or a species of Swastika."

Svastikaya,

or,

dreg, 3 under the title

no difference between it aud the Swastika.