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Smarthinking Writer’s Handbook Chapter 3, Lesson 15: Section 2 Documentation: APA Style Contents • Introduction

Smarthinking Writer’s Handbook

Chapter 3, Lesson 15: Section 2

Documentation: APA Style

Contents

Introduction

Formatting Your Document Using APA Guidelines

Quotations

Paraphrases and Summaries

Verb Tense

Citing Your Sources

In-Text Citation and Reference List Examples

Introduction

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (Publication Manual) is the most frequently used style guide for scholars writing papers in the social and behavioral sciences. Although undergraduates are often asked to use the APA guide to format their papers, it is designed primarily for formatting papers published in scholarly journals and does not cover many of the resources students often use. For that reason, your course instructor, not the Publication Manual, is the best resource for formatting a table of contents, PowerPoint slides, or other course-specific content. In this chapter, we will review specific rules for use of APA documentation according to the sixth edition of the Publication Manual as well as the frequently updated APA Style Blog. The APA website offers a tutorial, “The Basics of APA Style,” for anyone who needs an introduction or overview of how to structure and format a written work, avoid plagiarism, and cite references in APA style. For help with MLA, see Documentation: MLA Style.

Formatting Your Document Using APA Guidelines

There are a few conventions to observe when formatting your paper following the APA guidelines. If your school has specific guidelines about format, those guidelines take precedence over anything written here or in the Publication Manual.

Title Page

Double-space the text on the title page. Include the following elements:

a running head at the top left corner of the title page (use your word processor’s header- formatting function);

the page number at the top right corner of the title page—usually, only the number is needed (e.g., page 1 will show up as 1, not pg. 1 or p. 1), but check with your school because some schools require preliminary pages to be numbered using lowercase Roman numerals (e.g., i, ii, iii);

the title of the paper (centered in the middle of the page);

your name (first, middle initial, and last) on a separate line under the title; and

the name of the institution or school on a separate line under your name.

See the example of a title page below:

After the title page, remove the words Running head and the colon on all subsequent

After the title page, remove the words Running head and the colon on all subsequent pages; include only the shortened form of the title in all caps in the upper left corner and the page numbers in the upper right. The top of the second page would look like this:

right. The top of the second page would look like this: Preliminary Pages These pages appear

Preliminary Pages

These pages appear in a paper only when needed; for example, usually only dissertations or books require an acknowledgements page. If you need any of these pages, each one should occupy its own separate page, and they should appear in the following order:

1. approval page (for a thesis or dissertation),

2. acknowledgements page,

3. table of contents (if the report is divided into sections with section headings),

4. list of tables and figures (if tables and figures appear in the paper or report), and

Abstracts.

Follow requirements specific to your school or Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI).

Write between 150 and 250 words.

Be “accurate, nonevaluative, coherent, and concise” (APA, 2010, p. 26).

Summarize the whole paper briefly, focusing on its basic points and characteristics. The abstract is different from an introduction, whose purpose is to state the research problem and its significance, summarize relevant background and related research, and explain what new contribution the paper will offer.

Body of the Text

Running head. Each page should have a running head. The running head is a shortened version of the paper’s title (in all caps, flush left):

Title page only:

All remaining pages:

Running head: EFFECTS OF VIOLENT VIDEO GAMES EFFECTS OF VIOLENT VIDEO GAMES

The running head on the title page is the only header that includes the label Running head. Subsequent pages contain only the shortened version of the paper’s title (still in capital letters) without the words Running head.

First page of the text. Place the title in upper and lowercase letters, centered, at the top of the page. Hit enter/return once to double-space. Begin the first paragraph of the paper.

Spacing and indentations. Double-space throughout the paper. Indent the first line of each new paragraph ½ in., or 5 to 7 spaces. Do not include an extra line of space between paragraphs.

Margins. Use uniform margins of at least 1 in. (2.54 cm) at the top, bottom, left, and right of every page. If you are writing a thesis or dissertation that will be bound, check your school’s requirements for the left margin.

Fonts. Use 12-point Times New Roman font. APA prefers fonts with serifs, such as Times New Roman, because they are easier to read. However, check with your instructor to determine his/her preference for font.

Headings

There are five levels of headings:

Level of

Heading

1

Format

Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading

2 Flush Left, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading

3

Indented, boldface, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period.

4 Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period.

For most papers, three or four levels will be enough. If you’re using headings correctly, you can make an outline of your paper from those headings. Here is an example of the different levels of headings in the paper on the effects of violent video games:

Method of Research

Selection of Participants Children in full-day preschool. Begin text in the same line. Urban children. Begin text in the same line. Children who play video games fewer than four hours per day. Begin text in the same line. Children who play video games more than four hours per day. Begin text in the same line. Rural children. Begin text in the same line. Children who play video games fewer than four hours per day. Begin text in the same line. Children who play video games more than four hours per day. Begin text in the same line. Children in half-day preschool. Begin text in the same line. Urban children. Begin text in the same line. Children who play video games fewer than four hours per day. Begin text in the same line. Children who play video games more than four hours per day. Begin text in the same line. Rural children. Begin text in the same line. Children who play video games fewer than four hours per day. Begin text in the same line. Children who play video games more than four hours per day. Begin text in the same line. Preschool-age children who do not attend preschool. Begin text in the same line. Urban children. Begin text in the same line. Children who play video games fewer than four hours per day. Begin text in the same line. Children who play video games more than four hours per day. Begin text in the same line. Rural children. Begin text in the same line. Begin text in the same line. Children who play video games fewer than four hours per day. Begin text in the same line. Children who play video games more than four hours per day. Begin text in the same line.

Figures and Tables

Short tables or figures are inserted into the body of the text while longer tables or figures (usually more than one page) are included at the end of the paper, following the reference list and within or after any appendices.

Numbers and titles. Use Arabic numerals and normal-style font to number tables or figures consecutively as they are mentioned in the text (e.g., Table 1 and Figure 4). For tables, place the number first and the title at the top of the table, flush left. Double-space the table title, in italics, below the number. Here is an example:

Table 3

Number of Hours Spent Playing Video Games

Remember to follow APA conventions for capitalizing words in a title (this does not apply to titles of books and articles in reference lists):

Capitalize all words that have four or more letters.

Capitalize all other words except articles (a, an, the), conjunctions (and, or, yet, but, etc.), and short prepositions (of, to, by, in, on, etc.).

Capitalize both words when a capitalized word is part of a hyphenated compound (e.g., Gang-Related Violence).

Capitalize the first word after a colon or dash.

Place the figure number and title in line with it at the top of the figure:

Figure 1.2. Flow of Research Survey Participants

Alternately, you can use a figure caption, which should explain the figure and serve as a figure title. If you use a caption, do not include a title. A caption should include a descriptive phrase and any information needed to clarify the figure. Place the figure caption at the bottom of a figure:

Figure 1. Participant flow chart following standard reporting guidelines. This figure illustrates the survey’s sample of research subjects and the participants’ responses throughout the three stages of the screening process.

Always double-check figures and tables to be sure that the label on the figure corresponds to the correct figure reference in the text. When writing text for figures, use a sans-serif font, such as Arial, Futura, or Helvetica, to strengthen the figure’s visual presentation.

Appendices

Place additional materials, such as your survey instrument or other documentation, in appendices following the main part of your document. Check with your school for specific guidelines.

Quotations

A quotation is a sentence or group of sentences that appears in your essay exactly as it appears in the source being quoted. Always introduce a quotation with a signal phrase (According to Smith (2009), “Quotation”) or a complete sentence followed by a colon (Researchers found that the effects were minimal: “Quotation”).

In-Text Quotations

Use double quotation marks to enclose short quotations (fewer than 40 words) in your text. The end quotation mark immediately follows the last word in the quotation; it precedes the opening parenthesis of the citation because the parenthetical citation is not part of the quoted material. Furthermore, the end punctuation mark belongs after the parenthetical citation, which is not part of the quoted material. Here is an example:

Discussing audience traits and tendencies, Gurak and Lannon (2001) have pointed out that members of an

audience “constantly form opinions of the material, learn new information, and consider new points of view”

(pp. 25–26).

Indicate a quotation within a quotation by enclosing the quoted words in single quotation marks inside the double quotation marks:

Smarthinking (2011) linked the success of the company with the launch of a new website: “Smarthinking

improves student success and retention. ‘This rebranding of Smarthinking

reflects the image, dedication,

and commitment of our staff, tutors, students, and others who use and support our services,’ said Dr. Chuck

Kleiner, chief sales and marketing officer of Smarthinking” (para. 2).

Block Quotations

Do not enclose long quotations (40 or more words) with quotation marks. Instead, indent the quoted words ½ in. from the left margin to indicate that those are the words being quoted, but do not change the line spacing of the paper; use double-spacing even in the quotation. Place the final punctuation (a period, question mark, or exclamation point) at the end of the quoted words and before the parenthetical citation. Additional punctuation is not needed after the parenthetical citation. Here is an example of a long quotation:

The press release “Smarthinking Launches New Interactive Website” (2011) highlighted the effectiveness

of their new site:

The new site provides users with a rich, immersive experience that demonstrates the techniques

Smarthinking has honed in order to achieve its track record of over 3 million successful online

student tutoring sessions coupled with an extensive body of research. Based on clear results,

Smarthinking improves student success and retention. (para. 1)

Indicate a quotation within a quotation by enclosing the quoted words in double quotation marks:

Smarthinking has debuted a newly designed website to enhance its role in online education for the twenty-

first century:

“This rebranding of Smarthinking has been a major endeavor for us, and we believe the end result

reflects the image, dedication, and commitment of our staff, tutors, students and others who use

and support our services,” said Dr. Chuck Kleiner, chief sales and marketing officer of

Smarthinking. (Smarthinking, 2011, para. 2)

Changes From the Source That Require No Notation

The following may be changed to fit the grammar and mechanics of your sentence without any special notation:

The first letter of the first word in a quotation may be changed to uppercase or lowercase.

The punctuation mark at the end of a sentence may be changed.

Single quotation marks can be changed to double quotation marks and vice versa.

Changes From the Source That Require Notation

The following changes from the original source of the quoted material must be explained or

noted:

Inserting material. Use brackets [ ], not parentheses ( ), to enclose word or phrases that you have added to the quotation for clarification or to make the quotation fit the grammar of your sentence:

Researchers hoped to determine “the extent to which [teenaged mothers’] educations were affected by

pregnancy and the raising of infants and toddlers” (Heigle & Bryant, 2010, p. 45).

Omitting material. Use three spaced ellipsis points (

.) within a sentence to clarify when

you have left out words from the original source. Use four spaced ellipsis points omitting material between two sentences.

.) when you are

Adding emphasis. If you want to emphasize a word or phrase in a quotation, italicize the word or words, and immediately after the italicized words, insert the words emphasis added within brackets:

Pann (2012) found that “courses offer students the opportunity to learn the theories and practices of

archival preservation while simultaneously working within library and museum environments [emphasis

added]” (p. 29).

Paraphrases and Summaries

When including a paraphrase or summary, the APA encourages you to provide a page or paragraph number(s) in the in-text citation, especially when it would assist readers in locating the original passage in a long or complex source (APA, 2010, p. 171):

According to the editors of the American Heritage Dictionary (2007), language standards are fixed—but

not justified—by everyday use (p. xi).

When the writer includes a summary statement to describe a general body of research that includes several researchers or writers, save the citation for the end of the sentence:

Research indicates that the two most frequently mentioned deterrents to participation in adult education are

lack of money and lack of time (Cross, 1981; Merriam & Caffarella, 1999; Scanlan & Darkenwald, 1984).

Verb Tense

Use the simple past tense to express any actions or conditions that occurred at a specific, definite time in the past, such as when referring to the published writing of another author or reporting the setup or results of your survey or experiment:

Hockney and Bell (2010) stated their reservations (p. 189).

The researchers concluded that 94% of the participants demonstrated improvement (Sanchez, 2000, p. 90).

Use the present perfect tense to express a past action or condition that did not occur at a specific, definite time or to describe an action that began in the past but continues to the present:

Since 2009, the agency has prioritized Internet security and individual privacy (Sherpa, 2012, p. 165).

Use the simple present tense to express implications or conclusions from the results of your current survey or experiment or for actions or conditions that are taking place in the present:

The results of Experiment 4 indicate that

These phenomena occur every three years.

Citing Your Sources

Plagiarism is intentionally or unintentionally claiming the words or ideas of someone else as the writer’s own; rigorous citation helps a writer avoid plagiarism. You will need to cite the sources of all quotations, summaries, or paraphrases. Sources are cited in two ways: parenthetical, in-text citations and complete bibliographic citations in the paper’s reference section.

In-Text Citations

In-text citations help readers differentiate the writer’s original ideas from information taken from outside sources. Citations generally include the author’s (or authors’) last name(s), the year of publication, and the page number(s) from which the quoted, paraphrased, or summarized material is taken. There are two types of parenthetical, in-text citations:

1.

The author’s name in a signal phrase and the year of publication in parentheses immediately after the author’s name with the page number(s) in another set of parentheses after the quoted or paraphrased information:

According to Ravitch (2010), “Tests are necessary and helpful. But tests must be supplemented by

human judgment. When we define what matters in education only by what we can measure, we are

in serious trouble” (p. 166).

As observed by Gerstl-Pepin (2006), social and emotional interventions were more effective in

improving academic outcomes than changes in curriculum and teaching (p. 145).

2. The author’s name, year of publication, and page number(s) in a parenthetical citation immediately following the quote, summary, or paraphrase:

As research has shown, “Tests are necessary and helpful. But tests must be supplemented by human

judgment. When we define what matters in education only by what we can measure, we are in

serious trouble” (Ravitch, 2010, p. 166).

Research has proven that social and emotional interventions were more effective in improving

academic outcomes than changes in curriculum and teaching (Gerstl-Pepin, 2006, p. 145).

General formatting of in-text citations.

Authors. Authors are cited in a signal phrase or in parentheses by their last names only:

(Smith, 2012, p. 4).

Group author. The names of agencies, institutions, and corporations should not be abbreviated in the first citation but abbreviated thereafter:

First citation:

Subsequent citations:

(Centers for Disease Control, 2007, para. 2). (CDC, 2007, para. 8).

No author. A work with no author uses a few words of the title—or the whole title if it is short—in place of the author:

Title of the article:

Citation:

“Research Reveals a Direct Correlation Between Chocolate Intake and Happiness”

(“Research Reveals,” 2012, para. 9).

One work with two authors. Use the names of both authors every time the reference occurs in the text. List the authors in the same order as they are listed in the source. When citing the authors in a signal phrase, use and instead of &:

In-text citation:

(Brown & Hakinns, 2012, p. 3).

Signal phrase:

As Brown and Hakinns (2012) hypothesized,

(p. 3).

One work with three, four, or five authors. List all authors for the first reference in the same order as they are listed in the source. For subsequent citations, use the first author’s name followed by the words et al. [and others]; there is a period following al., and there is no comma between a single last name and et al.:

First

in-text citation:

(Tuttle, Dyer, Dratch, & Blair, 2013, p. 34).

or

First

signal phrase:

According to Tuttle, Dyer, Dratch, and Blair (2013),

(p. 34).

Subsequent in-text citations: (Tuttle et al., 2013, p. 46). and/or

Subsequent signal phrases:

Tuttle et al. (2013) found that

(p. 46).

One work with six or more authors. Use the name of the first author followed by the words et al. in all citations; there is no comma between a single last name and et al.:

First and subsequent in-text citations: (Jones et al., 2002, p. 93).

First and subsequent signal phrases:

Jones et al. (2002) demonstrated that

(p. 93).

Two publications by authors who share the same last name. Distinguish the references by including the two authors’ first-name initials, even if the years of publication are different:

(A.

Smith, 2012, p. 55).

(R.

Smith, 2009, pp. 79–80).

Secondary sources. If the source you are reading cites another author whose work includes a quotation, summary, or paraphrase you’d like to use, make your best effort to access the original source directly. However, if you cannot locate the original, cite the source in front of you (the secondary source) in your reference list, name the original source in a signal phrase, and include the citation information for the secondary source after the words as cited in in your parenthetical citation:

Cowles argued in his letter that

(as cited in Batson, 2005, p. 156).

Here, you are reading Batson (the secondary source) while Cowles is the original source that Batson has quoted but that you cannot access.

Dates. The year of publication follows the author’s name directly and is always in parentheses, whether the author’s name is cited in a signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation:

In-text citation:

(Bristol & Berry, 2011, p. 56).

Signal phrase:

Bristol and Berry (2011) countered that

(p. 56).

Page numbers. The page number comes after the end of the quotation, in parentheses, preceded by the abbreviation p. if it’s a single page number or pp. if the information falls on more than one page. The abbreviations for page and pages are not capitalized. An electronic source may not have page numbers, so use paragraph numbers, chapter numbers, or section headings.

Paragraph number:

(Parrish, 2008, para. 2).

Chapter number:

(Connors & Bligh, 2012, Chapter 3).

Section heading:

(Valenzuela, 2011, Discussion section, para. 3).

The abbreviation for paragraph is not capitalized. Chapter is not abbreviated but is capitalized. Section headings should be brief and capitalized (except the word section). If the document has no page numbers and the headings are too long to cite in full, use a shortened version of the heading enclosed in quotation marks and the number of the paragraph following that heading in the source. For example, if the original section heading is “Chocolate

Production Methods Used by Swiss Chocolatiers in the Middle of the Nineteenth Century” and you are citing from paragraph 5 in that section, the citation would look like this:

(Frederick, Kline, & Barrows, 2009, “Chocolate Production Methods,” para. 5).

Here is a sample paragraph from a paper using APA documentation:

!
!
!
!

How In-Text Citations and the Reference List Are Related

In-text citations briefly acknowledge the sources of the information you used in your paper; they are keyed to fuller bibliographic information in each entry of your reference page, which enables your readers to locate your sources for themselves. Every source cited in the text must appear in the reference list—with the exception of personal communications (e.g., private memos, unarchived emails, personal interviews)—and every entry in the reference list must correspond to an in-text citation. Make sure that spelling, proper names, and dates are consistent between in-text citations and the reference page.

General Guidelines for the Reference List

All of the entries included in the reference section are sources that you’ve actually “used in the research and preparation of the article” (APA, 2010, p. 180). Accurately formatted references aid in establishing your credibility as an author and researcher. Here are some tips for constructing your reference page:

Start the reference list on a new page.

Center the word References (without italics) at the top of the list.

Arrange references in alphabetical order using the first letter of the last name of the author, editor, or (if there is no author) the first letter of the first word in the title.

ach reference on its own line.

Double-space each entry.

Use hanging indent, meaning the first line is flush with the left margin and subsequent lines are indented.

General Formatting of the Reference List

Below, you will find examples of the more commonly used types of entries and citations. If you don’t find the type of source you’ve used, consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, or check the APA website or the APA Style Blog.

The Publication Manual identifies four elements necessary for a complete citation: “Each entry

usually contains the

necessary for unique identification and library search” (p. 180). They are presented in this order:

author, year of publication, title, and publishing data—all the information

Author. (Date). Title. Publication data.

Author. The reference list provides the name of the person who wrote the text, even if the name is a screen name, such as Luvschocolate. The name should appear exactly as it does on the

cover of the book, the first page of the journal article, or the entry on a blog. For sources with multiple authors, list the authors in the same order as they appear in the source.

General format for the author’s name. Cite the author’s last name followed by a comma and then the first initial with a period. If the author’s name includes a middle initial, include a space after the period following the first initial:

Smith, J.

Jones, S. M.

If the reference list includes different authors with the same last name and first initial, place the authors’ full first names in brackets immediately after the initials of the first names:

Smith, H. [Hedrick]. (2012). Who stole the American dream? New York, NY: Random House.

Smith, H. [Huston]. (1991). The world’s religions. New York, NY: Harper Collins.

Locating the author’s name. Here are tips for determining the name(s) of the author(s):

Byline. Look for the author’s name under the title of the article or immediately after the final sentence of the article.

Organization. Name the institution or agency on whose site the article or page appears (use the full, official name of the organization, such as American Psychological Association, not APA). When citing a department within a larger organization, state the name of the parent organization first and then the department:

The White House, Office of the Press Secretary

University of Wisconsin, Department of Psychology

Educated Guess. Make an educated guess about the author from the content on the webpage. Place the author’s name in square brackets to show that the author is “reasonably certain but not stated on the document” (APA, 2010, p. 214):

[Schmidt, R.?] (n.d.) Learn to surf: How to walk on water in 7 easy steps. Surfline.com. Retrieved

from http://www.surfline.com/surfology/surfology_sschool_index.cfm

No author available. Move the title of the entry to the author position (do not use quotation marks around the title) if no author is available:

General flu symptoms. (n.d.). Families Fighting Flu. Retrieved from http://www.familiesfightingflu.org/

resources/flusymptoms/?gclid=CIGqwdfPwrUCFY07OgodVAIALQ

In the in-text citation, a short or shortened title (placed between double quotation marks) takes the place of the author’s name: (“General Flu Symptoms,” para. 2).

Date. Provide the date within parentheses after the author (or after the complete title if no author is available). The type of source determines if you should use just the year; the year and month; the year, month, and day; etc.:

Books

(2011)

Papers and poster sessions presented at meetings/conferences

(2011, May)

Newspaper, newsletter, or magazine articles

(2011, May 26) or (2011, May)

E-mails, blog posts

(2011, May 26)

Periodicals that use a season

(2011, Spring)

Source whose publication year cannot be determined

(n.d.)

Multiple blog or discussion posts made by the same author on the same day or in the same year (if there is no day to differentiate the postings); use a, b, c, etc. after the year to make the distinction

(2011a, May 26)

Reprints. The reference for a reprinted or republished edition uses the date of the version you read with the date of the original work or source of the reprint at the end:

Piaget, J. (2001). The psychology of intelligence. New York, NY: Routledge. (Original work published

1950).

For the in-text citation, cite the author and both dates separated by a slash (original/reprint):

(Piaget, 1950/2001, p. 4).

Determining the date. Especially when working with an online source, look at the beginning or the end of the document. Do not use the date given in “this page was last modified on [date]” or a copyright date that might appear as a running footer throughout the whole website because that date usually refers to most recent (and sometimes rather minor) modification of the site or to the copyright of the entire website—it may not represent the actual publication date for the particular document you are referencing.

No date available. Use (n.d.) to stand for “no date” if no date is available.

Title. Use the complete title of the source, including any subtitles; do not abbreviate. If a URL appears in the title, include it. On the reference page, APA uses “sentence case” as the standard for capitalizing titles of articles, books, chapter titles, and reports. Sentence case entails the following:

Capitalize the first word of the title/heading and of any subtitle/subheading.

Capitalize any proper nouns.

Use lowercase for everything else.

Stand-alone sources (books, reports, dissertations, films, videos, TV series, YouTube videos, artworks) are italicized while sources that are parts of a greater whole (book or dissertation chapters, newspaper or magazine articles, television episodes, webpages, encyclopedia and dictionary entries, blog entries) are not italicized and not framed by quotation marks.

Book title from a reference list, using sentence case:

Psychology, law, and criminal justice: International developments in research and practice.

Book chapter title from a reference list, using sentence case:

Children’s disclosure of secrets: Implications for interviewing.

For the titles of periodicals, such as scholarly journals, newspapers, newsletters, and magazines, use the guidelines for what APA calls “title case”:

Capitalize all words that have four or more letters.

Capitalize all other words except articles (a, an, the), conjunctions (and, or, yet, but, etc.), and short prepositions (of, to, by, in, on, etc.).

Capitalize both words when a capitalized word is part of a hyphenated compound (e.g., Gang-Related Violence).

Capitalize the first word after a colon or dash.

In addition to using title case, italicize the name of the periodical in your reference list:

British Journal of Educational Studies Society for Neuroscience Abstracts

Description of the source’s form. If a description of the source’s form is helpful in identifying and retrieving the source, indicate it in brackets directly following the title with no period separating the title and notation. Capitalize the first letter of the notation:

[Blog] [DVD] [YouTube video] [Audio podcast] [Computer software]

You do not need to indicate the form for a source that can be found in print, even if you read it online.

Publication data. In APA, the reference list includes publication information for each source after the title, helping the reader locate that source. For books, this might include only the city, state, and name of the publisher. For parts of a larger whole source, the publication data might include the title of the larger source, volume or issue numbers, page numbers, ( ), or ( ).

Geographical locations. If the publisher’s city is located in one of the fifty states in the U.S., follow the city with the name of the state using the official two-letter U.S. Postal Service abbreviation (e.g., Topeka, KS). If the city is not located in one of the fifty states in the U.S., follow the city with the name of the country, spelled out in full (e.g., Paris, France).

Electronic sources. For digital resources, use the DOI in your entry; the “DOI is a unique alpha-numeric string assigned by a registration agency to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet” (APA, 2010, p. 189). You can usually find the DOI on the first page of the article or on the landing page for that article in a database (e.g., PsycINFO). Any periodical source that has been assigned a DOI should include the DOI at the end of the references entry, even if the copy you have used is a print version. You should never include a period at the end of a DOI. If the DOI is not available, use Retrieved from followed by the exact URL to provide the Internet address where you located the source. If you are citing an article in an online newspaper or magazine that is easily located by a search feature on the periodical’s home page, “give the URL of the home page” (APA, 2010, p. 201). Again, do not include a period at the end of the URL. You should not include retrieval dates (e.g., Retrieved July 13, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Traumatology) unless the source material may change over time (e.g., wikis).

Here are some examples of publication information from each source that would help a reader locate it:

Print journal

Journal Title, volume(issue if available), inclusive pages with en dash.

Online journal

Journal Title, volume(issue if available), inclusive pages with en dash. doi: ##.xx or Retrieved from URL

Book

City, ST: Publisher.

Print book chapter

In B. Editor (Ed.), Book title: Subtitle (inclusive pages with en dash). City, ST: Publisher.

Online book chapter

In B. Editor (Ed.), Book title: Subtitle (inclusive pages with en dash). City, ST: Publisher. doi: ##.xx or Retrieved from URL

Reference Examples in Which Information Is Missing

Obtaining all of the necessary information to make a complete reference for a source is not always possible, particularly in the case of online sources. Here’s the basic format for a reference:

Basic format. Author, A. (date). Title [Form]. Publication data

Smarthinking. (2011, June 2). Smarthinking launches new interactive website [Press release]. Retrieved

from http://smarthinking.com/about-us/news-events/news-category/press-releases/

If you are missing some information despite your best efforts to locate those details, use the basic structure given above, drop the missing information, and shift over the remaining information, making sure no entry begins with a date. The above entry contains all of the necessary source information, but if any information were missing, follow the formats below:

No author available. Title [Form]. (date). Publication data

Smarthinking launches new interactive website [Press release]. (2011, June 2). Retrieved from

http://smarthinking.com/about-us/news-events/news-category/press-releases/

No date available. Author, A. (n.d.). This is the title [Form]. Publication data

Smarthinking. (n.d.). Smarthinking launches new interactive website [Press release]. Retrieved from

http://smarthinking.com/about-us/news-events/news-category/press-releases/

No title available. Author, A. (date). [Form]. Publication data

Smarthinking. (2011, June 2). [Press release]. Retrieved from http://smarthinking.com/about-us/news-

events/news-category/press-releases/

No author and no date. Title [Form]. (n.d.). Publication data

Smarthinking launches new interactive website [Press release]. (n.d.). Retrieved from

http://smarthinking.com/about-us/news-events/news-category/press-releases/

No author and no title available. [Form]. (date). Publication data

[Press release]. (2011, June 2). Retrieved from http://smarthinking.com/about-us/news-events/news-

category/press-releases/

No date and no title. Author, A. (n.d.). [Form]. Publication data

Smarthinking. (n.d.). [Press release]. Retrieved from http://smarthinking.com/about-us/news-events/news-

category/press-releases/

No author, no date, and no title. [Form]. (n.d.). Publication data

[Press release]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://smarthinking.com/about-us/news-events/news-category/press-

releases/

In-Text Citation and Reference List Examples

Print Books, Reference Books, and Book Chapters

Print Periodicals, Reports, and Legal Documents

Book, One Author Book, Two Authors Book, Three to Five Authors Book, Six or Seven Authors Book, Eight or More Authors Book With Editor Book, Edition Not the First Article From an Encyclopedia Entry From a Dictionary Article or Chapter From an Edited Book or Anthology

Journal Article, One Author Journal Article, Two Authors Journal Article, Three to Five Authors Journal Article, Six or Seven Authors Journal Article, Eight or More Authors Magazine Article Newspaper Article Government Report Professional Organization Report U.S. Constitution Supreme Court Decision

Electronic Books, Reference Books, and Book Chapters

Electronic Documents, Periodicals, and Reports

Electronic Book Chapter in an Edited Electronic Book Dissertation/Thesis Retrieved From a Commercial Database Dissertation/Thesis Retrieved From the Web Article From an Online Encyclopedia Entry From an Online Dictionary

Document From a Website Article From a Journal With DOI Assigned Article From a Journal With No DOI Assigned Online News Article With Author(s) Online News Article With No Author Press Release Online Government Report Online Professional Organization Report

Audiovisual Sources

Miscellaneous Print and Electronic Sources

Artwork Motion Picture Music Recording Episode of a Television or Radio Series YouTube Video Audio Clip/Podcast

Online Lecture Notes Course Pack, Previously Unpublished or Original Material Course Pack, Previously Published Material Email, Interview, or Other Personal Communication Secondary Source Blog Post Message Posted to a Newsgroup, Online Forum, or Discussion Group Facebook Post or Tweet Mobile App

Book, One Author

Reference page:

Jay, M. (2012). The defining decade: Why your twenties matter—and how to make the most of them now. New York,

NY: Hachette Book Group.

In-text citations:

As Jay (2012) stated, “There are fifty million twentysomethings in the United States” (p. xxi).

Jay (2012) discussed how twentysomethings in the United States live with a large amount of uncertainty.

Book, Two Authors

Reference page:

Merriam, S. B., & Brockett, R. G. (2007). The profession and practice of adult education: An introduction. San

Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

In-text citations:

Merriam and Brockett (2007) pointed out that “adulthood is considered to be a sociocultural construction” (p. 4).

Merriam and Brockett (2007) discussed how adulthood is determined by each particular society and culture at a specific time (p. 4).

Book, Three to Five Authors

Reference page:

Rowley, D. J., Lujan, H. D., & Dolence, M. G. (1997). Strategic change in colleges and universities: Planning to

survive and prosper. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

In-text citations:

First citation: Rowley, Lujan, and Dolence (1997) tentatively predicted that the future of higher education could be “an unpredictable and chaotic set of surprises and fallbacks” (pp. 6–7).

Subsequent citations: Rowley et al. (1997) felt this kind of change would drastically restructure the familiar university system that faculty, staff, and students know (p. 8).

Book, Six or Seven Authors

Reference page:

Roeder, K., Howdeshell, J., Fulton, L., Lochhead, M., Craig, K., & Peterson, R. (1967). Nerve cells and insect

behaviour. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

In-text citations:

Roeder et al. (1967) proceeded on the principle that “the behavior of animals is as characteristic of their species as is their form, and the significance of behavior and form can be recognized only in their natural context” (p. 12).

Researchers determined that “the velocity of impulse transmission in various nerves ranges from a few centimeters per second through 10 to 50 meters per second” (Roeder et al., 1967, p. 28).

Book, Eight or More Authors

Reference page:

List the first six authors, omit subsequent authors and replace them with an ellipsis ( the last author:

), and list

LeMone, P., Burke, K. M., Levett-Jones, T., Dwyer, T., Moxham, L., Reid-Searl, K.,

Raymond, D. (2010).

Medical-surgical nursing: Critical thinking in client care (1 st Australian ed.). Frenchs Forest, Australia:

Pearson Australia.

In-text citations:

LeMone et al. (2010) have shown that the nursing profession approaches pain as a product of both physical and psychological factors.

Nurses must now take a more significant role in health education for the public because “hospital stays are shorter, and the number of chronically ill in our society is increasing,” so nurses must teach patients’ family members how to “perform complex skills” (LeMone et al., 2010, p. 13).

Book With Editor

Reference page:

Watkins, C. (Ed.). (2009). Teens at risk. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press.

In-text citations:

As Watkins (2009) pointed out, “obesity is a serious, chronic disease that threatens teens’ lives” (p. 20).

Watkins (2009) emphasized the reality that, for teens, obesity is a life-threatening disease (p. 20).

Book, Edition Not the First

Reference page:

Merriam, S. B., Caffarella, R. S., & Baumgartner, L. M. (2007). Learning in adulthood: A comprehensive guide (3rd

ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

In-text citations:

Merriam, Caffarella, and Baumgartner (2007) have acknowledged that “robotics and automation displace production workers but create other jobs” (p. 2).

Robotics and automation can create jobs even when they seem to take away jobs (Merriam, Caffarella, & Baumgartner, 2007, p. 2).

Article From an Encyclopedia

Reference page:

Author is available:

Ball, S. (1988). Labour party. In S. Mitchell (Ed.), Victorian Britain: An encyclopedia (pp. 428–429). New York,

NY: Garland.

Author is not available:

Goiter. (1989). In C. B. Clayman (Med. ed.), The American Medical Association home medical encyclopedia: A–H

(Vol. 1, pp. 493–494). New York, NY: Random House.

In-text citation:

According to The American Medical Association Home Medical Encyclopedia (1989), the swelling of the thyroid gland, known as goiter, is caused in many parts of the world by “lack of sufficient iodine in the diet” (“Goiter,” p.

494).

Entry From a Dictionary

Reference page:

For substantial reference works with large editorial boards, you may list the lead editor only followed by et al.:

Brain child. (1975). In S. I. Landau et al. (Eds.), Funk & Wagnalls standard desk dictionary: A–M (Vol. 1, p. 75).

New York, NY: Funk & Wagnalls.

When using information from an encyclopedia or dictionary that is not a specific entry in that work, begin the reference with the editors rather than with the title of the entry:

Pickett, J. P. et al. (Eds.). (2007). The American heritage college dictionary (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton

Mifflin.

In-text citation:

The Funk and Wagnalls Standard Desk Dictionary (1975) defined “brain child” as “that which one has created or originated, as an idea, technique, device, etc.” (p. 75).

Article or Chapter From an Edited Book or Anthology

Reference page:

Stake, R. E. (1994). Case studies. In N. K. Denzin & Y. K. Guba (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 236–

247). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

In-text citations:

Grouping a number of different cases into one event forms what Stake (1994) called a collective case study, one in which “researchers may study a number of cases jointly in order to inquire into the phenomenon, population, or general condition” (p. 237).

A collective case study means that researchers come together to explore demographics, welfare, and singularities in a given study group (Stake, 1994, p. 237).

Journal Article, One Author

Reference page:

Hoff, E. (2013). Interpreting the early language trajectories of children from low SES and language minority homes:

Implications for closing achievement gaps. Developmental Psychology, 49(1), 4–14. doi: 10.1037/

a0027238

In-text citations:

After surveying the sample, the study concluded that “the number of children whose language development reflects influences of low SES is likely to be greater than 22% of all children in the United States” (Hoff, 2013, p. 5).

Hoff (2013) determined that more than 22% of all children in the United States have language development that shows the influence of low SES (p. 5).

Journal Article, Two Authors

Reference page:

Bornstein, M. H., & Putnick, D. L. (2012). Stability of language in childhood: A multiage, multidomain,

multimeasure, and multisource study. Developmental Psychology, 48(2), 477–491. doi: 10.1037/a0025889

In-text citations:

Bornstein and Putnick (2012) observed that an in-person approach of “what children themselves naturally and spontaneously say has the undeniable appeal of ecological validity and is direct and objective” (p. 478).

Allowing children the freedom to speak as they normally do is appealing because of its real-world context and unbiased perspective (Bornstein & Putnick, 2012, p. 478).

Journal Article, Three to Five Authors

Reference page:

Chavan, V., Penev, L., & Hobern, D. (2013). Cultural change in data publishing is essential. BioScience, 63(6), 419–

420.

In-text citations:

First citation: Chavan, Peney, and Hobern (2013) insisted that all data, regardless of the venue of publication, “should be documented and included in a stable archival repository” (p. 419).

Subsequent citations: Recently, Chavan et al. (2013) argued that “if the goal of biodiversity science is to support conservation and the sustainable use of biotic resources,” the publication of data papers is an essential “cultural change” (p. 421).

Journal Article, Six or Seven Authors

Reference page:

Munk, C., Rey, G. D., Diergarten, A. K., Nieding, G., Schneider, W., & Ohler, P. (2012). Cognitive processing of

film cuts among 4- to 8-year-old children: An eye tracker experiment. European Psychologist, 17(4), 257–

265. doi:10.1027/1016-9040/a000098

In-text citations:

Munk et al. (2012) compared the eye movement patterns for 6- and 8-year-olds with those of 4-year-olds and found the older group were “a lot more focused” while the younger group tended “to look around on the screen more often” (p. 263).

Munk et al. (2012) noticed a significant difference in the eye movement patterns of 4-year-olds compared with 6- and 8-year-olds because the younger children’s eyes looked around the screen more frequently than the older children’s eyes (p. 263).

Journal Article, Eight or More Authors

Reference page:

Use the names of the first six authors followed by three ellipsis points and the name of the last author:

Wanless, S. B., McClelland, M. M., Acock, A. C., Ponitz, C. C., Son, S., Lan, X.,

Li, S. (2011). Measuring

behavioral regulation in four societies. Psychological Assessment, 23(2), 364–378. doi: 10.1037/a0021768

In-text citations:

In their definition of behavioral regulation, Wanless et al. (2011) proposed that “attention, working memory, and inhibitory control individually and collectively contribute to behavioral regulation and to the school success of young children” (p. 365).

Wanless et al. (2011) identified three attributes—attention, working memory, and inhibitory control—that work on an individual and a collective level to help regulate behavior in young children in the four societies they studied (p.

365).

Magazine Article

Reference page:

Elegant, S. (2006, August 20). The war for China’s soul. Time, 168(9), 40–43.

In-text citations:

Elegant (2006) noted a decidedly new problem facing “China’s ruling class, which pays little more than lip service to communist ideology but still strives to control its restive populace” (p. 41).

The rise of spirituality conflicted with the Chinese government’s inattention to communist philosophies and its methods of governing the masses (Elegant, 2006, p. 41).

Newspaper Article

Reference page:

If an article is not on continuous pages, include all page numbers, separating them with a comma (e.g., pp. A2, A4, A6–A7):

Gentile, C. (2013, January 18). Rural Afghans defy Taliban, odds. USA Today, p. A7.

In-text citations:

As Gentile (2013) reported, “U.S. forces currently based in Andar district are relegated to roles of advising and assisting the Afghan National Security Forces in the region” (p. A7).

Reports indicated that U.S. forces stationed in the Andar district are limited to two roles: advising and assisting the Afghan National Security Forces in that area (Gentile, 2013, p. A7).

Government Report

Reference page:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. (2010).

Talking safety: Teaching young workers about job safety and health (CDC Publication No. 2007-136).

Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

In-text citations:

First citation: Focusing on why we should teach teens about safety on the job, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2010) noted that “many of teens’ most positive traits—energy, enthusiasm, and a need for increased challenge and responsibility—can result in their taking on tasks they are not prepared to do safely” (p. vi).

Subsequent citations: According to the CDC (2010), teen workers may take risks by attempting tasks they are not equipped to do safely (p. vi).

Professional Organization Report

Reference page:

Darling-Hammond, L. (1984, July). Beyond the commission reports: The coming crisis in teaching (Report No. R-

3177-RC). Santa Monica, CA: The Rand Corporation.

In-text citations:

Speaking of the shortage of teachers in the early 1980s, Darling-Hammond (1984) reported, “If public schools are to attract enough highly qualified people to become teachers, working conditions and compensation must change in significant ways” (p. 1).

Addressing the shortage of teachers in the early 1980s, Darling-Hammond (1984) proposed significantly changing working conditions and compensation in order to attract enough qualified candidates to fill vacancies (p. 1).

U.S. Constitution

Reference page:

Article: U.S. Const. art. I, § 7.

Amendment: U.S. Const. amend. XIX.

Repealed amendment: U.S. Const. amend. XVIII (repealed 1933).

In-text citations:

The founding fathers wrote, “All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills” (U.S. Const. art. I, § 7).

The U.S. Constitution gave the House of Representatives the power to introduce legislation designed to raise revenue, but it also gave the Senate the power to amend that legislation (U.S. Const. art. I, § 7).

Passed by Congress on June 4, 1919, and ratified on August 18, 1920, the Nineteenth Amendment stated, “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account

of sex” (U.S. Const. amend. XIX).

A person cannot be denied the opportunity to vote on the basis of his or her sex (U.S. Const. amend. XIX).

Repealed in 1933, the amendment that began Prohibition stopped “the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof” (U.S. Const. amend. XVIII, repealed 1933).

The Eighteenth Amendment stated that alcoholic beverages could not be manufactured, sold, or transported in and out of the United States (U.S. Const. amend. XVIII, repealed 1933).

Supreme Court Decision

Reference page:

If using the Supreme Court Reporter, ignore the “Cite As” at the head of the page because that format is not used in APA style. Instead, use the following as a guide:

Name v. Name, Vol. number U.S. Page number (Year).

Already, LLC v. Nike, Inc., 11-982 U.S. 2 (2012).

In-text citations:

In the dispute between the two athletic shoe manufacturers, “Already argues that as long as Nike is free to assert its

trademark, investors will hesitate to invest in Already” (Already, LLC v. Nike, Inc., 2012, p. 2).

The Supreme Court case between Already and Nike focused on the detrimental effect Nike’s enforcement of its patent had on Already’s ability to attract investors (Already, LLC v. Nike, Inc., 2012).

Electronic Book

Reference page:

Hamilton, G. (2011). Blood, bones & butter: The inadvertent education of a reluctant chef [Kindle version].

Retrieved from Amazon.com

If the book was read or downloaded through an online library, such as Google Books or NetLibrary, and not an e-reader, such as a Kindle, do not include the bracketed information.

In-text citations:

Hamilton (2011) described how her interest in food began in her childhood with a handful of snap peas: “I love how you can snap a pea’s stem and pull the string and how it leaves a perfect seam that opens easily under your thumbnail” (p. 14).

Hamilton (2011) shared the origins of her interest in food through descriptions of childhood memories, such as the way she lovingly opened snap peas one by one, feeling the pull of their strings under her thumbnail (p. 14).

Chapter in an Edited Electronic Book

Reference page:

Williams, A. D. (1993). What is an editor? In G. Gross (Ed.), Editors on editing: What writers need to know about

what editors do [Kindle version] (pp. 3–9). Retrieved from Amazon.com

In-text citations:

Explaining the contradictions in the public’s perception of an editor’s role, Williams (1993) stated, “Editors want books. They are not there to demonstrate condescension to submitted writings, despite the flash of indignation experienced by almost everyone receiving a rejection letter” (p. 4).

Williams (1993) explained that although writers receive rejection letters from editors, editors want to acquire books, not reject them (p. 4).

Dissertation/Thesis Retrieved From a Commercial Database

Reference page:

Apostel, S. P. (2011). An “Army of One” to “Army Strong”: Visual media and U.S. Army recruitment during Bush’s

“War on Terror” (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database.

(UMI no. 3493978)

In-text citations:

As television advertisements lost their effectiveness, Apostel (2011) reported that “the launch of the video game America’s Army enabled the Army to reach and instruct a predominately young male market, but by 2006 the ‘Army of One’ slogan was no longer speaking to America’s youth” (p. 16).

Despite the popularity of the video game America’s Army among young American men, the “Army of One” slogan was becoming ineffective and outdated by 2006 (Apostel, 2011, p. 16).

Dissertation/Thesis Retrieved From the Web

Reference page:

Creed, L. (2001). A case-study of participation and nonparticipation in an employer-provided educational

assistance program (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nebraska–Lincoln). Retrieved from http://

digitalcommons.unl.edu/dissertations/AAI3034372/

In-text citations:

If an adult is already motivated to learn, an external initiative can help him or her get started; however, Creed (2001) professed, “No external initiative can induce voluntary participation if an individual has no internal motivation” (para. 1).

The drive to learn comes from within each adult and cannot be forced from outside sources, but if an individual is self-motivated, external forces can help him or her get started (Creed, 2001, para. 1).

Article From an Online Encyclopedia

Reference page:

Rescher, N. (2008). Process philosophy. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Winter 2009

ed.). Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2012/entries/process-philosophy/

In-text citations:

Rescher (2008) explained, “Process is fundamental: the river is not an object, but an ever-changing flow; the sun is not a thing, but a flaming fire. Everything in nature is a matter of process, of activity, of change” (Historical section, para. 1).

All things in nature use process, which is essential to activity and change, as seen in an endlessly flowing river and the ever-burning ball of fire that is the sun (Rescher, 2008, para. 1).

Entry From an Online Dictionary

Reference page:

Synesthesia. (n.d.). In Dictionary.com. Retrieved from http://dictionary.reference.com

In-text citations:

Synesthesia is “a sensation produced in one modality when a stimulus is applied to another modality, as when the hearing of a certain sound induces the visualization of a certain color” (“Synesthesia,” n.d.).

Synesthesia is the activation of one sense in response to a stimulus applied to a different sense, such as the sound of a bell ringing triggering the image of the color red (“Synesthesia,” n.d.).

Document From a Website

Reference page:

Spadaccini, J. (n.d.). The sweet lure of chocolate. The Exploratorium Magazine Online. Retrieved from http://www.

exploratorium.edu/exploring/exploring_chocolate/

In-text citations:

Spadaccini (n.d.) claimed that chocolate trumps all other sweets because “after all, few people crave caramel, whipped cream, or bubble gum” (para. 1).

In comparison to chocolate, other sweets like caramel, bubble gum, or whipped cream simply do not make the cut when someone is craving a treat (Spadaccini, n.d., para. 1).

Article From a Journal With DOI Assigned

Reference page:

Jones, J. (2008). Patterns of revision in online writing: A study of Wikipedia’s featured articles. Written

Communication, 25(2), 262–289. doi:10.1177/0741088307312940

In-text citations:

If the article is a PDF, the original document contains stable page numbers, which should therefore be cited:

When discussing the unique terms used in editing Wikipedia articles, Jones (2008) noted that the term “disambiguation” is used when “differentiating articles with similar titles or that cover similar topics, and any other move to clear up confusion caused by similar naming” (p. 268).

Disambiguation distinguishes between different articles with titles or topics that share common elements as well as between those with any other confusing wording in the articles’ names (Jones, 2008, p. 268).

Article From a Journal With No DOI Assigned

Reference page:

Mitchell, J., Vella-Brodrick, D., & Klein, B. (2010). Positive psychology and the Internet: A mental health

opportunity. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 6(2), 30–41. Retrieved from http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/

index.php/ejap/article/view/230/216

Since the article is not easily located from the journal’s home page, the URL is a direct link to the article.

In-text citations:

Mitchell, Vella-Brodrick, and Klein (2010) explained, “Computers are immune to fatigue, illness, boredom or other similar human traits” (p. 34).

Researchers reminded readers that computers are not human and do not display human traits such as being tired or bored (Mitchell, Vella-Brodrick, & Klein, 2010, p. 34).

Online News Article With Author(s)

Reference page:

Bogdanich, W., & Rebelo, K. (2011, February 27). X-Rays and unshielded infants. The New York Times. Retrieved

from http://www.nytimes.com

The URL links to the home page of the newspaper because the reader can easily locate the article via the search engine on the newspaper’s home page:

In-text citations:

Bogdanich and Rebelo (2011) explained, “The errors at Downstate raise broader questions about the competence, training and oversight of technologists who operate radiological equipment that is becoming increasingly complex and powerful” (para. 9).

Bogdanich and Rebelo (2011) emphasized that the mistakes made at Downstate extend to questions about the levels of competence, training, and supervision of the technicians who operate increasingly sophisticated x-ray equipment (para. 9).

Online News Article With No Author

Reference page:

Record-breaking heat blamed for 5 deaths. (2011, June 9). Retrieved from http://www.nbcnews.com/id/43336966/

ns/weatherte/#.URE2Qx1fDP4

In-text citations:

News reports of the outdoor temperatures on June 9, 2011, contained accounts like this one: “The heat was so intense in southwestern Michigan that it buckled pavement on an interstate” (“Record-Breaking Heat,” 2011, para.

4).

According to an NBC News report, the temperatures in southwestern Michigan were so high on June 9, 2011, that the pavement on an interstate buckled (“Record-Breaking Heat,” 2011, para. 4).

Press Release

Reference page:

Smarthinking. (2011). Smarthinking launches new interactive website [Press release]. Retrieved from http://

smarthinking.com/about-us/news-events/news-center/smarthinking-launches-new-interactive-website/

In-text citations:

A Smarthinking (2011) press release reported, “The website’s launch coincides with the rollout of Smarthinking’s

new logo” (para. 1).

Smarthinking (2011) announced in a press release that a new website coincided with the unveiling of a new logo (para. 1).

Online Government Report

Reference page:

U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research

Consortium. (2008, July). Effects of preschool curriculum programs on school readiness: Report from the

Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research Initiative (NCER Publication No. NCER 20082009REV).

Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncer/pubs/20082009/pdf/20082009_rev.pdf

In-text citations:

The U.S. Department of Education (2008) reported that “despite decades of federal, state, and local programs intended to support young children’s preparation for schooling, children from low-income families continue to begin formal schooling at a disadvantage” (p. 1).

Children from families with lower incomes consistently start school at a disadvantage even though federal, state, and local programs have been supporting them for decades (U.S. Department of Education, 2008, p. 1).

Online Professional Organization Report

Reference page:

RAND Corporation. (2013). Financial statements: Fiscal year ended September 30, 2012 (Document No. CP-665).

Retrieved from http://www.rand.org/pubs/corporate_pubs/CP665.html

In-text citations:

In

its year-end report for 2012, the RAND Corporation (2013) claimed that they “derived 83 percent and 82 percent

of

its contracts and grants revenues in fiscal years 2012 and 2011, respectively, from contracts and grants with

agencies of the federal government” (p. 4).

The company generated 83% of its income from contracts and grants with federal government agencies (RAND Corporation, 2013, p. 4).

Artwork

Reference page:

Museum:

Wyeth, A. (1970). Siri [Painting]. Atlanta, GA: High Museum of Art.

Online:

Wyeth, A. (1970). Siri [Painting]. Retrieved from http://www.andrewwyeth.com/images.html#5

In-text citation:

Andrew Wyeth (1970) employed his characteristic brushwork with tempera on gessoed board to create a luminous portrait of a young girl, Siri, in which every wisp of hair can be seen in the soft light.

Motion Picture

Reference page:

Producer, A. A. (Producer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year). Title of motion picture [Motion

picture]. City, State: Studio.

Anderson, W. (Producer & Director), & Dawson, J., Rales, S. M., & Rudin, S. (Producers). (2012). Moonrise

kingdom [Motion picture]. New York, NY: Indian Paintbrush.

In-text citation:

Sharing the plan to run away, Sam writes Suzy a letter telling her to “walk 400 yards due north from your house on the dirt path which has not got any name on it. Turn right and follow to the end. I will meet you in the meadow” (Anderson, Dawson, Rales, & Rudin, 2012).

Music Recording

Reference page:

Writer, A. (Copyright year). Title of song [Recorded by B.B. Artist, if different from writer]. On Title of

album [Medium of recording: CD, Vinyl record, Audio cassette, etc.]. City, State: Label. (Date

of recording if different from song copyright date)

Dean, E., Eriksen, M., Hermansen, T. E., Perry, K., & Wilhelm, S. J. (2012). Firework [Recorded by K. Perry]. On

Teenage dream [MP3]. New York, NY: Warner Music Group.

If the music was obtained online, remove the location and label information, and add Retrieved from and the complete URL at the end of the reference.

In-text citation:

Perry’s song “Firework” begins by asking listeners, “Do you ever feel like a plastic bag / Drifting through the wind, wanting to start again?” (Dean, Eriksen, Hermansen, Perry, & Wilhelm, 2012).

Episode of a Television or Radio Series

Reference Page:

Writer, A. (Writer), & Director, B. (Director). (Year). Title of the episode [Television series episode;

Radio series episode]. In C. Producer (Producer), Title of the series. City, State: Broadcasting

Company.

Fellowes, J. (Writer & Producer), & Goddard, A. (Director). (2012). Season 3, Episode 4 [Television series episode].

In R. Eaton & G. Neame (Producers), Downton Abbey. London, UK, & Boston, MA: Carnival Films &

or

WGBH.

Fellowes, J. (Writer & Producer), & Goddard, A. (Director). (2012). Season 3, Episode 4 [Television series episode].

In R. Eaton & G. Neame (Producers), Downton Abbey. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/

wgbh/masterpiece/watch-online/full-episodes/downton-abbey-season-3-episode-4/

In this example, the individual episodes of the series do not have titles, so they are identified by season and episode number. Both words in the title of the series are capitalized only because they constitute a proper noun (a place name).

In-text citation:

At the breakfast table, Matthew Crawley announces that his sister-in-law, Lady Edith, “has had an invitation to write a newspaper column,” much to the dismay of her father, Sir Robert (Fellowes & Goddard, 2012).

YouTube Video

Reference page:

Author, A. A. [Screen name]. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://

DaRin, K. [monkeyseevideos]. (2009, March 31). Essay writing – Thesis, research and outline [Video file].

Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sXeizyuj8PA

Use the following formula when the author’s name is not available (preserve the screen name as it appears in the original source):

Screen name. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://

In-text citations:

In order to construct a strong essay, “It’s important to write your thesis first so you know what your essay will accomplish” (DaRin, 2009).

DaRin (2009) stated that one of the important steps in writing a strong essay is to construct the thesis first in order to discover the purpose of the essay.

Audio Clip/Podcast

Reference page:

Identify the role of the person whose name you place in the author position. For example, Meyer, J. is the writer of this podcast. You can also cite (Producer) or (Speaker):

Meyer, J. (Writer). (2011, May 31). Basic math [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.insidehighered.com

In-text citations:

In discussing how students need to use math every day, Meyer (2011) stated, “You’d better understand compound interest.”

Compound interest is a term that every student needs to know in order to understand how math is used in everyday life (Meyer, 2011).

Online Lecture Notes

Reference page:

Dourmashkin, P. (2010). 8.01SC Physics I: Classical Mechanics [Lecture notes]. Retrieved from http://ocw.mit.edu/

courses/physics/8-01sc-physics-i-classical-mechanics-fall-2010/introduction-to-mechanics/units-and-

dimensional-analysis/MIT8_01SC_coursenotes01.pdf

In-text citations:

Dourmashkin (2010) encouraged students to “try to assign numbers to the physical quantities with as much accuracy as we can possibly obtain from our measuring equipment” (para. 1).

Students in this class tried to use measuring instruments as accurately as possible when assigning numbers to the physical characteristics of phenomena in the world (Dourmashkin, 2010, para. 1).

Course Pack, Previously Unpublished or Original Material

Reference page:

Dennis, C. (2013). Study Guide #2. POSC 100 – Coursepack (pp. 11-57). Long Beach, CA: California

State University Long Beach.

In-text citations:

Discussing political parties, income inequality, and public policy, Dennis (2013) stated, “One of the most important issues facing our nation is the dramatic increase in income inequality over the past 40 years” (p. 12).

Dennis (2013) discussed the impact of political parties, income inequality, and public policy but singled out income inequality as one of the most important issues because the gap between rich and poor has grown dramatically over 40 years (p. 12).

Course Pack, Previously Published Material

Reference page:

If your course pack includes previously published articles and your professor does not provide the reference information for an article, find the original reference information and construct the reference as if reading it in the original source; do not reference the course pack:

Beecher, C. C. (2011). Response to intervention: A socio-cultural perspective of the problems and the

possibilities. Journal of Education, 191(3), 1–8. Retrieved from www.ebscohost.com

In-text citations:

Discussing the New London Group’s approach to childhood literacy, Beecher (2011) concurred that the “way teachers view literacy affects the determination of the literacy level of every student in the classroom” (para. 8).

Beecher (2011) supported the New London Group’s assertion of a correlation between the teacher’s view of literacy and the way that teacher evaluates the literacy level of each student in the class (para. 8).

Email, Interview, or Other Personal Communication

Reference page:

There is no entry for the reference list because readers cannot access the writer’s personal communications, such as phone conversations, interviews, letters, and emails.

In-text citations:

My guidance counselor noted, “There are additional factors that should be considered when deciding what school will best suit your needs” (S. Jones, personal communication, September 12, 2008).

My guidance counselor gave me good advice when she told me that I should think about other factors when I decide what school will be the best fit for me (S. Jones, personal communication, September 12, 2008).

Secondary Source (When the Primary, Original Source is Unavailable)

Reference page:

Batson, D. C. (2005). Seven possible social-psychological wisdoms. Psychological Inquiry, 16(4), 152–157.

Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20447282

In-text citations:

The success of many experiments originated with Kurt Lewin’s “famous dictum: ‘There is nothing so practical as a good theory’” (as cited in Batson, 2005, p. 156).

Kurt Lewin’s famous dictum about a good theory being the most practical thing is the key to many successful experiments (as cited in Batson, 2005, p. 156).

Blog Post

Reference page:

Lee, C. (2010, November 18). How to cite something you found on a website in APA style [Blog post]. Retrieved

from http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2010/11/how-to-cite-something-you-found-on-a-website-in-apa-

style.html

If the screen name of the individual or group who made the post is available instead, place it in the author position, preserving the capitalization and spacing from the original source:

Domesticated Academic. (2013, February 28). Purple sweet potato hash browns [Blog post]. Retrieved from

http://domesticatedacademic.wordpress.com/2013/02/28/purple-sweet-potato-hash-browns/

In-text citations:

Lee (2010) clarifies part of APA reference style: “That format description in brackets is used only when the format is something out of the ordinary, such as a blog post or lecture notes; otherwise, it’s not necessary” (para. 6).

When compiling an APA reference, use the bracketed format description only when the format of the source is unusual, such as a blog post or lecture notes (Lee, 2010, para. 6).

Message Posted to a Newsgroup, Online Forum, or Discussion Group

Reference page:

ACMH-Admin. (2010, February 5). Information, rules and FAQ forum rules [Online forum comment]. Retrieved

from http://www.acmh-mi.org/forum/viewtopic.php?f=6&t=3

In-text citations:

The administration of The Association for Children’s Mental Health of Michigan explained why it established rules for posting to its online discussion forums: “Ultimately, the rules are here to enhance everyone’s experience” (ACMH-Admin, 2010, para. 1).

To facilitate the best user experience possible, the administration of The Association for Children’s Mental Health of Michigan devised rules for posting to its online discussion forums (ACMH-Admin, 2010).

Facebook Post or Tweet

Since citing social media is a new topic and isn’t covered in the Publication Manual, the APA Style Blog is an excellent resource to consult on latest citation formats for Facebook and Twitter posts.

Mobile App

Reference page:

Entry from a mobile app:

Title of entry. (Year). In Title of Software or Program (Version number) [Mobile application software].

Retrieved from http://

Alton Brown. (2013). In Food Network on TV (Version 2.1.38) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from

http://www.foodnetwork.com/mobile/package/index.html

Mobile app as a whole:

Rightsholder, A. A. (Year). Title of Software or Program (Version number) [Mobile application

software]. Retrieved from http://

Television Food Network, G.P. (2013). Food Network on TV (Version 2.1.38) [Mobile application software].

Retrieved from http://www.foodnetwork.com/mobile/package/index.html

In-text citations:

Food Network posted the following information about one of its celebrity chefs: “Alton Brown, host of Good Eats, appears regularly on Food Network Star, Iron Chef America, and Next Iron Chef” (“Alton Brown,” 2013).

Alton Brown hosts the television show Good Eats and also appears regularly on three other shows: Food Network Star, Iron Chef America, and Next Iron Chef (“Alton Brown,” 2013).