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BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

CONTENTS - DIVISION I - DESIGN


Section 1 - General Provisions
1.1
1.1.1
1.1.2

DESIGN ANALYSIS AND GENERAL STRUCTURAL ..........................................................


INTEGRITY FOR BRIDGES ....................................................... April 2000 ................... 1-1
Design Analysis ....................................................................... April 2000 ................... 1-1
Structural Integrity ................................................................. April 2000 ................... 1-1

1.2

BRIDGE LOCATION ................................................................... April 2000 ................... 1-1

1.3
WATERWAYS .............................................................................. April 2000
1.3.1
General ..................................................................................... April 2000
1.3.2
Hydraulic Studies .................................................................... April 2000
1.3.2.1
Site Data ............................................................................. April 2000
1.3.2.2
Hydrologic Analysis ............................................................ April 2000
1.3.2.3
Hydraulic Analysis ............................................................. April 2000

................... 1-1
................... 1-1
................... 1-2
................... 1-2
................... 1-2
................... 1-2

1.4

CULVERT LOCATION, LENGTH, AND .................................................................................


WATERWAY OPENINGS ........................................................... April 2000 ................... 1-2

1.5

ROADWAY DRAINAGE .............................................................. April 2000 ................... 1-2

1.6
1.6.1
1.6.2

RAILROAD OVERPASSES ......................................................... April 2000 ................... 1-2


Clearances ................................................................................ April 2000 ................... 1-2
Blast Protection ....................................................................... April 2000 ................... 1-3

1.7

SUPERELEVATION .................................................................... April 2000 ................... 1-3

1.8

FLOOR SURFACES ..................................................................... April 2000 ................... 1-3

1.9

UTILITIES .................................................................................... April 2000 ................... 1-3

Section 2 - General Features of Design


2.1
2.1.1
2.1.2

GENERAL ..................................................................................... April 2000 ................... 2-1


Notations .................................................................................. April 2000 ................... 2-1
Width of Roadway and Sidewalk .......................................... April 2000 ................... 2-1

2.2
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3
2.2.4
2.2.5

STANDARD HIGHWAY CLEARANCES - GENERAL .............. April 2000


Navigational ............................................................................. April 2000
Roadway Width ....................................................................... April 2000
Vertical Clearance ................................................................... April 2000
Other ........................................................................................ April 2000
Curbs and Sidewalks ............................................................... April 2000

2.3
2.3.1
2.3.2

HIGHWAY CLEARANCES FOR BRIDGES .............................. April 2000 ................... 2-2


Width ....................................................................................... April 2000 ................... 2-2
Vertical Clearance ................................................................... April 2000 ................... 2-2

CONTENTS

................... 2-1
................... 2-1
................... 2-1
................... 2-1
................... 2-1
................... 2-2

BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

2.4
2.4.1
2.4.2
2.4.3

HIGHWAY CLEARANCES FOR UNDERPASSES .................... April 2000


Width ....................................................................................... April 2000
Vertical Clearances .................................................................. April 2000
Curbs ........................................................................................ April 2000

2.5
2.5.1

HIGHWAY CLEARANCES FOR TUNNELS ............................. April 2000 ................... 2-2


Roadway Width ....................................................................... April 2000 ................... 2-2

2.7
RAILINGS ..................................................................................... April 2000
2.7.1
Vehicular Railing ..................................................................... April 2000
2.7.1.1
General ................................................................................ April 2000
2.7.1.2
Geometry ............................................................................. April 2000
2.7.1.3
Loads ................................................................................... April 2000
2.7.2
Bicycle Railing ......................................................................... April 2000
2.7.2.1
General ................................................................................ April 2000
2.7.2.2
Geometry and Loads .......................................................... April 2000
2.7.3
Pedestrian Railing .................................................................. April 2000
2.7.3.1
General ................................................................................ April 2000
2.7.3.2
Geometry and Loads .......................................................... April 2000
2.7.4
Structural Specifications and Guidelines ............................. April 2000

................... 2-2
................... 2-2
................... 2-2
................... 2-2

................... 2-2
................... 2-3
................... 2-3
................... 2-3
................... 2-3
................... 2-4
................... 2-4
................... 2-4
................... 2-6
................... 2-6
................... 2-6
................... 2-7

Section 3 - Loads
Part A - Types of Loads

II

3.1

NOTATIONS ................................................................................. February 2004 ............ 3-1

3.2

GENERAL ..................................................................................... February 2004 ............ 3-2

3.3

DEAD LOAD ................................................................................ February 2004 ............ 3-3

3.4

LIVE LOAD .................................................................................. February 2004 ............ 3-3

3.5

OVERLOAD PROVISIONS ......................................................... February 2004 ............ 3-3

3.6

TRAFFIC LANES ......................................................................... February 2004 ............ 3-3

3.7
3.7.1
3.7.2
3.7.3
3.7.4
3.7.5
3.7.6
3.7.7

HIGHWAY LOADS ...................................................................... February 2004


Standard Truck and Lane Loads ........................................... February 2004
Classes of Loading .................................................................. February 2004
Designation of Loadings ......................................................... February 2004
Minimum Loading .................................................................. February 2004
H Loading ................................................................................ February 2004
HS Loading .............................................................................. February 2004
P Loading ................................................................................ February 2004

............ 3-4
............ 3-4
............ 3-4
............ 3-4
............ 3-4
............ 3-4
............ 3-4
............ 3-6

3.8
IMPACT ........................................................................................ February 2004
3.8.1
Application ............................................................................... February 2004
3.8.1.1
Group A-Impact Shall be Included ................................... February 2004
3.8.1.2
Group B-Impact Shall Not be Included ............................ February 2004
3.8.2
Impact Formula ....................................................................... February 2004
3.8.2.3
For Culverts see "Section 6, Culverts" .............................. February 2004

............ 3-6
............ 3-6
............ 3-6
............ 3-6
............ 3-9
............ 3-9

3.9

LONGITUDINAL FORCES ......................................................... February 2004 ............ 3-9

3.10

CENTRIFUGAL FORCES ........................................................... February 2004 ............ 3-9

CONTENTS

BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

3.11
APPLICATION OF LIVE LOAD ................................................ February 2004
3.11.1
Traffic Lane Units ................................................................... February 2004
3.11.2
Number and Position of Traffic Lane Units ......................... February 2004
3.11.3
Lane Loads on Continuous Spans ......................................... February 2004
3.11.4
Loading for Maximum Stress ................................................ February 2004
3.11.4.3
Loading for Load Factor Design ...................................... February 2004

.......... 3-10
.......... 3-10
.......... 3-10
.......... 3-10
.......... 3-10
.......... 3-10

3.12

REDUCTION IN LOAD INTENSITY ......................................... February 2004 .......... 3-10

3.13

ELECTRIC RAILWAY LOADS ................................................... February 2004 .......... 3-10

3.14
3.14.1
3.14.2
3.14.3

SIDEWALK, CURB, AND RAILING LOADING ...................... February 2004


Sidewalk Loading .................................................................... February 2004
Curb Loading ........................................................................... February 2004
Railing Loading ....................................................................... February 2004

.......... 3-10
.......... 3-10
.......... 3-11
.......... 3-11

3.15
WIND LOADS .............................................................................. February 2004
3.15.1
Superstructure Design ............................................................ February 2004
3.15.1.1
Group II and Group V Loadings ...................................... February 2004
3.15.1.2
Group III and Group VI Loadings ................................... February 2004
3.15.2
Substructure Design ................................................................ February 2004
3.15.2.1
Forces from Superstructure .............................................. February 2004
3.15.2.2
Forces Applied Directly to the Substructure ................... February 2004
3.15.3
Overturing Forces ................................................................... February 2004

.......... 3-11
.......... 3-11
.......... 3-11
.......... 3-12
.......... 3-12
.......... 3-12
.......... 3-12
.......... 3-13

3.16

THERMAL FORCES .................................................................... February 2004 .......... 3-13

3.17

UPLIFT ......................................................................................... February 2004 .......... 3-13

3.18

FORCE FROM STREAM CURRENT, .....................................................................................


FLOATING ICE AND DRIFT ..................................................... February 2004 .......... 3-13
3.18.1
Force of Stream Current on Piers ......................................... February 2004 .......... 3-13
3.18.1.1
Steam Pressure .................................................................. February 2004 .......... 3-13
3.18.1.2
Pressure Components ........................................................ February 2004 .......... 3-14
3.18.1.3
Drift Lodged Against Pier ................................................ February 2004 .......... 3-14
3.18.2
Force of Ice on Piers .............................................................. February 2004 .......... 3-14
3.19

BUOYANCY .................................................................................. February 2004 .......... 3-14

3.20

EARTH PRESSURE ..................................................................... February 2004 .......... 3-14

3.21

EARTHQUAKES ........................................................................... February 2004 .......... 3-15

Part B - Combinations of Loads


3.22

COMBINATIONS OF LOADS .................................................... February 2004 .......... 3-15

Part C - Distribution of Loads


3.23

DISTRIBUTION OF LOADS TO STRINGERS, ......................................................................


LONGITUDINAL BEAMS, AND FLOOR BEAMS ................... February 2004 .......... 3-18
3.23.1
Position of Loads for Shear ................................................... February 2004 .......... 3-18
3.23.2
Bending Moments in Stringers and Longitudinal Beams ... February 2004 .......... 3-18
3.23.2.1
General ................................................................................ February 2004 .......... 3-18
3.23.2.2
Interior Stringers and Beams ........................................... February 2004 .......... 3-18

CONTENTS

III

BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

3.23.2.3
3.23.3
3.23.4
3.24
3.24.1
3.24.2
3.24.3
3.24.3.1
3.24.3.2
3.24.4
3.24.5
3.24.5.1
3.24.5.2
3.24.6
3.24.7
3.24.8
3.24.9
3.24.10
3.25
3.25.1
3.25.2
3.25.3
3.25.3.1
3.25.3.2
3.25.3.3
3.25.3.4
3.25.4
3.26
3.26.1
3.26.2
3.26.3
3.27
3.27.1
3.27.2
3.27.3
3.28

IV

Outside Roadway Stringers and Beams ........................... February 2004 ..........3-19


Bending Moments in Floor Beams (Transverse) .................. February 2004 ..........3-19
Precast Concrete Beams Used in Multi-Beam Decks ........... February 2004 ..........3-20
DISTRIBUTION OF LOADS AND DESIGN OF ...................................................................
CONCRETE SLABS ..................................................................... February 2004 ..........3-22
Span Lengths ........................................................................... February 2004 ..........3-22
Edge Distance of Wheel Loads .............................................. February 2004 ..........3-22
Bending Moment ..................................................................... February 2004 ..........3-22
Case A-Main Reinforcement Perpendicular to Traffic .................................................
(Spans 2 to 24 Feet Inclusive) ......................................... February 2004 ..........3-23
Case B-Main Reinforcement Parallel to Traffic ............... February 2004 ..........3-23
Shear ........................................................................................ February 2004 ..........3-23
Cantilever Slabs ....................................................................... February 2004 ..........3-23
Truck Loads ........................................................................ February 2004 ..........3-23
Railing Loads ...................................................................... February 2004 ..........3-23
Slabs Supported on Four Sides ............................................. February 2004 ..........3-23
Median Slabs ........................................................................... February 2004 ..........3-24
Longitudinal Edge Beams ...................................................... February 2004 ..........3-24
Unsupported Transverse Edges ............................................. February 2004 ..........3-24
Distribution Reinforcement ................................................... February 2004 ..........3-24
DISTRIBUTION OF WHEEL LOADS ON .............................................................................
TIMBER FLOORING .................................................................. February 2004 ..........3-24
Transverse Flooring ................................................................ February 2004 ..........3-25
Plank and Nail Laminated Longitudinal Flooring ............... February 2004 ..........3-26
Longitudinal Glued Laminate Timber Deck ......................... February 2004 ..........3-27
Bending Moment ................................................................ February 2004 ..........3-27
Shear ................................................................................... February 2004 ..........3-27
Deflections .......................................................................... February 2004 ..........3-27
Stiffener Arrangement ....................................................... February 2004 ..........3-27
Continuous Flooring ............................................................... February 2004 ..........3-27
DISTRIBUTION OF WHEEL LOADS AND DESIGN OF ....................................................
COMPOSITE WOOD-CONCRETE MEMBERS ......................... February 2004 ..........3-27
Distribution of Concentrated Loads for .............................................................................
Bending Moment and Shear .................................................. February 2004 ..........3-27
Distribution of Bending Moments in Continuous Spans .... February 2004 ..........3-28
Design ...................................................................................... February 2004 ..........3-28
DISTRIBUTION OF WHEEL LOADS ON .............................................................................
STEEL GRID FLOORS ............................................................... February 2004 ..........3-28
General ..................................................................................... February 2004 ..........3-28
Floors Filled with Concrete ................................................... February 2004 ..........3-28
Open Floors ............................................................................. February 2004 ..........3-28

3.28.1
3.28.2

DISTRIBUTION OF LOADS FOR BENDING MOMENT ....................................................


IN SPREAD BOX GIRDERS ....................................................... February 2004 ..........3-29
Interior Beams ........................................................................ February 2004 ..........3-29
Exterior Beams ........................................................................ February 2004 ..........3-29

3.29

MOMENTS, SHEARS, AND REACTIONS ................................. February 2004 ..........3-29

3.30

TIRE CONTACT AREA ................................................................ February 2004 ..........3-29

CONTENTS

BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

Section 3 Commentary - Loads


3.10.4

Centrifugal Forces ................................................................... February 2004 .......... 3-30

Section 4 - Foundations
Part A - General Requirements and Materials
4.1

GENERAL ..................................................................................... November 2003 ........... 4-1

4.2
FOUNDATION TYPE AND CAPACITY .................................... November 2003 ........... 4-1
4.2.1
Selection of Foundation Type ................................................ November 2003 ........... 4-1
4.2.2
Foundation Capacity ............................................................... November 2003 ........... 4-1
4.2.2.1
Bearing Capacity ................................................................ November 2003 ........... 4-1
4.2.2.2
Settlement ........................................................................... November 2003 ........... 4-1
4.2.2.3
Overall Stability .................................................................. November 2003 ........... 4-1
4.2.3
Soil, Rock, and Other Problem Conditions ........................... November 2003 ........... 4-1
4.3
4.3.1
4.3.2
4.3.3
4.3.4
4.3.5

SUBSURFACE EXPLORATION AND .....................................................................................


TESTING PROGRAMS ................................................................ November 2003 ........... 4-1
General Requirements ............................................................ November 2003 ........... 4-2
Minimum Depth ...................................................................... November 2003 ........... 4-3
Minimum Coverage ................................................................. November 2003 ........... 4-3
Laboratory Testing .................................................................. November 2003 ........... 4-3
Scour ......................................................................................... November 2003 ........... 4-3

Part B - Service Load Design Method Allowable Stress Design


4.4
SPREAD FOOTING ..................................................................... November 2003 ........... 4-4
4.4.1
General ..................................................................................... November 2003 ........... 4-4
4.4.1.1
Applicability ........................................................................ November 2003 ........... 4-4
4.4.1.2
Footings Supporting Non-Rectangular Columns ..........................................................
or Piers ................................................................................ November 2003 ........... 4-4
4.4.1.3
Footings in Fill ................................................................... November 2003 ........... 4-4
4.4.1.4
Footings in Sloped Portions of Embankments ................ November 2003 ........... 4-4
4.4.1.5
Distribution of Bearing Pressure ..................................... November 2003 ........... 4-4
4.4.2
Notations .................................................................................. November 2003 ........... 4-4
4.4.3
Design Terminology ................................................................ November 2003 ........... 4-6
4.4.4
Soil and Rock Property Selection .......................................... November 2003 ........... 4-6
4.4.5
Depth ........................................................................................ November 2003 ........... 4-7
4.4.5.1
Minimum Embedment and Bench Width ........................ November 2003 ........... 4-7
4.4.5.2
Scour Protection ................................................................. November 2003 ........... 4-7
4.4.5.3
Footing Excavations ........................................................... November 2003 ........... 4-8
4.4.5.4
Piping .................................................................................. November 2003 ........... 4-8
4.4.6
Anchorage ................................................................................ November 2003 ........... 4-8
4.4.7
Geotechnical Design on Soil .................................................. November 2003 ........... 4-8
4.4.7.1
Bearing Capacity ................................................................ November 2003 ........... 4-8
4.4.7.2
Settlement ........................................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-17
4.4.7.3
Deleted ................................................................................. November 2003 ......... 4-21
4.4.8
Geotechnical Design on Rock ................................................. November 2003 ......... 4-21
4.4.8.1
Bearing Capacity ................................................................ November 2003 ......... 4-22

CONTENTS

BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

4.4.8.2
4.4.9
4.4.10
4.4.11
4.4.11.1
4.4.11.2
4.4.11.3
4.4.11.4
4.4.11.5
4.4.11.6

Settlement ........................................................................... November 2003 .........4-23


Overall Stability ....................................................................... November 2003 .........4-26
Deleted ...................................................................................... November 2003 .........4-27
Structural Design .................................................................... November 2003 .........4-27
Loads and Reactions .......................................................... November 2003 .........4-27
Moments .............................................................................. November 2003 .........4-27
Shear ................................................................................... November 2003 .........4-27
Development of Reinforcement......................................... November 2003 .........4-28
Transfer of Force at Base of Column ............................... November 2003 .........4-28
Unreinforced Concrete Footings ....................................... November 2003 .........4-29

4.5
DRIVEN PILES............................................................................ November 2003 .........4-29
4.5.1
General ..................................................................................... November 2003 .........4-29
4.5.1.1
Application .......................................................................... November 2003 .........4-29
4.5.1.2
Materials ............................................................................. November 2003 .........4-29
4.5.1.3
Deleted ................................................................................. November 2003 .........4-29
4.5.1.4
Lateral Tip Restraint ......................................................... November 2003 .........4-29
4.5.1.5
Estimated Lengths ............................................................. November 2003 .........4-29
4.5.1.6
Estimated and Minimum Tip Elevation .......................... November 2003 .........4-29
4.5.1.7
Deleted ................................................................................. November 2003 .........4-29
4.5.1.8
Test Piles ............................................................................ November 2003 .........4-29
4.5.2
Pile Types ................................................................................ November 2003 .........4-29
4.5.2.1
Friction Piles ...................................................................... November 2003 .........4-30
4.5.2.2
End Bearing Piles .............................................................. November 2003 .........4-30
4.5.2.3
Combination Friction and End Bearing Piles ................. November 2003 .........4-30
4.5.2.4
Batter Piles ......................................................................... November 2003 .........4-30
4.5.3
Notations .................................................................................. November 2003 .........4-30
4.5.4
Design Terminology ................................................................ November 2003 .........4-30
4.5.5
Selection of Soil and Rock Properties ................................... November 2003 .........4-30
4.5.6
Selection of Design Pile Capacity .......................................... November 2003 .........4-30
4.5.6.1
Ultimate Geotechnical Capacity ........................................ November 2003 .........4-30
4.5.6.2
Factor of Safety Selection .................................................. November 2003 .........4-32
4.5.6.3
Deleted ................................................................................. November 2003 .........4-32
4.5.6.4
Group Pile Loading ........................................................... November 2003 .........4-32
4.5.6.5
Lateral Loads on Piles ....................................................... November 2003 .........4-32
4.5.6.6
Uplift Loads on Pile ........................................................... November 2003 .........4-33
4.5.6.7
Vertical Ground Movement ............................................... November 2003 .........4-33
4.5.6.8
Deleted ................................................................................. November 2003 .........4-33
4.5.7
Structural Capacity of Pile Section ........................................ November 2003 .........4-34
4.5.7.1
Load Capacity Requirements ............................................ November 2003 .........4-33
4.5.7.2
Piles Extending Above Ground Surface ........................... November 2003 .........4-34
4.5.7.3
Allowable Stresses in Piles ................................................ November 2003 .........4-34
4.5.7.4
Deleted ................................................................................. November 2003 .........4-35
4.5.7.5
Scour .................................................................................... November 2003 .........4-35
4.5.8
Protection Against Corrosion and Abrasion ......................... November 2003 .........4-35
4.5.9
Wave Equation Analysis ......................................................... November 2003 .........4-35
4.5.10
Dynamic Monitoring ............................................................... November 2003 .........4-35
4.5.11
Maximum Allowable Driving Stresses ................................... November 2003 .........4-35
4.5.12
Tolerable Movement ................................................................ November 2003 .........4-35
4.5.13
Buoyancy .................................................................................. November 2003 .........4-35
4.5.14
Protection Against Deterioration ........................................... November 2003 .........4-35

VI

CONTENTS

BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

4.5.14.1
4.5.14.2
4.5.14.3
4.5.15
4.5.15.1
4.5.15.2
4.5.16
4.5.16.1
4.5.16.2
4.5.16.3
4.5.16.4
4.5.16.5
4.5.16.6
4.5.16.7
4.5.16.8
4.5.16.9
4.5.17
4.5.17.1
4.5.17.2
4.5.17.3
4.5.17.4
4.5.17.5
4.5.17.6
4.5.17.7
4.5.17.8
4.5.17.9
4.5.18
4.5.18.1
4.5.18.2
4.5.18.3
4.5.18.4
4.5.18.5
4.5.19
4.5.19.1
4.5.19.2
4.5.19.3
4.5.19.4
4.5.20
4.5.20.1
4.5.20.2
4.5.20.3
4.5.20.4
4.5.20.5
4.5.21
4.5.21.1
4.5.21.2
4.5.21.3

Steel Piles ........................................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-35


Concrete Piles ..................................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-36
Timber Piles ....................................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-36
Spacing, Clearances, and Embedment ................................... November 2003 ......... 4-36
Pile Footings ...................................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-36
Bent Caps ........................................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-36
Precast Concrete Piles ............................................................ November 2003 ......... 4-36
Size and Shape ................................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-36
Minimum Area ................................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-36
Minimum Diameter of Tapered Piles .............................. November 2003 ......... 4-36
Driving Points .................................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-36
Vertical Reinforcement ...................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-36
Spiral Reinforcement ......................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-37
Reinforcement Cover ......................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-37
Splices ................................................................................. November 2003 ......... 4-37
Handling Stresses ............................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-37
Cast-In-Place Concrete Piles .................................................. November 2003 ......... 4-37
Materials ............................................................................. November 2003 ......... 4-37
Shape................................................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-37
Minimum Area ................................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-37
General Reinforcement Requirements ............................. November 2003 ......... 4-37
Reinforcement into Superstructure .................................. November 2003 ......... 4-37
Shell Requirements ............................................................ November 2003 ......... 4-37
Splices ................................................................................. November 2003 ......... 4-37
Reinforcement Cover ......................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-38
Spacing Limitations ........................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-38
Steel H-Piles ............................................................................ November 2003 ......... 4-38
Metal Thickness .................................................................. November 2003 ......... 4-38
Splices ................................................................................. November 2003 ......... 4-38
Caps ..................................................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-38
Lugs, Scabs, and Core-Stoppers ........................................ November 2003 ......... 4-38
Point Attachments .............................................................. November 2003 ......... 4-38
Unfilled Tubular Steel Piles ................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-38
Metal Thickness .................................................................. November 2003 ......... 4-38
Splices ................................................................................. November 2003 ......... 4-38
Driving ................................................................................ November 2003 ......... 4-38
Column Action .................................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-38
Prestressed Concrete Piles ..................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-38
Size and Shape ................................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-38
Main Reinforcement .......................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-39
Vertical Reinforcement ...................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-39
Hollow Cylinder Piles ........................................................ November 2003 ......... 4-39
Splices ................................................................................. November 2003 ......... 4-39
Timber Piles ............................................................................ November 2003 ......... 4-39
Materials ............................................................................. November 2003 ......... 4-39
Limitations on Untreated Timber Pile Use ..................... November 2003 ......... 4-39
Limitations on Treated Timber Pile Use ......................... November 2003 ......... 4-39

4.6
DRILLED SHAFTS ...................................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-39
4.6.1
General ..................................................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-39
4.6.1.1
Application .......................................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-39

CONTENTS

VII

BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

4.6.1.2
4.6.1.3
4.6.1.4
4.6.1.5
4.6.1.6
4.6.1.7
4.6.2
4.6.3
4.6.4
4.6.4.1
4.6.4.2
4.6.5
4.6.5.1
4.6.5.2
4.6.5.3
4.6.5.4
4.6.5.5
4.6.5.6
4.6.5.7
4.6.6
4.6.6.1
4.6.6.2
4.6.6.3
4.6.6.4
4.6.7
4.6.7.1
4.6.7.2
4.6.7.3

Materials ............................................................................. November 2003 .........4-40


Construction ....................................................................... November 2003 .........4-40
Embedment ......................................................................... November 2003 .........4-40
Shaft Diameter ................................................................... November 2003 .........4-40
Batter Shafts ....................................................................... November 2003 .........4-40
Shafts Through Embankment Fill ..................................... November 2003 .........4-40
Notations .................................................................................. November 2003 .........4-40
Design Terminology ................................................................ November 2003 .........4-41
Seletion of Soil and Rock Properties ..................................... November 2003 .........4-41
Presumptive Values ........................................................... November 2003 .........4-41
Measured Values ................................................................ November 2003 .........4-42
Geotechnical Design ................................................................ November 2003 .........4-42
Axial Capacity in Soil ........................................................ November 2003 .........4-42
Factors Affecting Axial Capacity in Soil .......................... November 2003 .........4-45
Axial Capacity in Rock ....................................................... November 2003 .........4-47
Factors of Safety ................................................................. November 2003 .........4-48
Deformation of Axially Loaded Shafts ............................. November 2003 .........4-48
Lateral Loading .................................................................. November 2003 .........4-50
Deleted ................................................................................. November 2003 .........4-52
Structural Design and General Shaft Dimensions ............... November 2003 .........4-52
General ................................................................................ November 2003 .........4-52
Reinforcement .................................................................... November 2003 .........4-52
Enlarged Bases ................................................................... November 2003 .........4-53
Center-to-Center Shaft Spacing......................................... November 2003 .........4-53
Load Testing ............................................................................ November 2003 .........4-53
General ................................................................................ November 2003 .........4-53
Load Testing Procedures ................................................... November 2003 .........4-53
Load Test Method Selection.............................................. November 2003 .........4-54

Part C - Strength Design Method Load Factor Design


4.8

SCOPE........................................................................................... November 2003 .........4-54

4.9

DEFINITIONS ............................................................................. November 2003 .........4-54

4.10

LIMIT STATES, LOAD FACTORS, AND ................................................................................


RESISTANCE FACTORS ............................................................. November 2003 .........4-55
General ..................................................................................... November 2003 .........4-55
Serviceability Limit States ..................................................... November 2003 .........4-55
Strength Limit States ............................................................. November 2003 .........4-55
Strength Requirement............................................................. November 2003 .........4-55
Load Combinations and Load Factors .................................. November 2003 .........4-55
Performance Factors ............................................................... November 2003 .........4-56

4.10.1
4.10.2
4.10.3
4.10.4
4.10.5
4.10.6

4.11
SPREAD FOOTINGS ................................................................... November 2003 .........4-56
4.11.1
General Considerations .......................................................... November 2003 .........4-56
4.11.1.1
General ................................................................................ November 2003 .........4-56
4.11.1.2
Depth ................................................................................... November 2003 .........4-56
4.11.1.3
Scour Protection ................................................................. November 2003 .........4-56
4.11.1.4
Frost Action ........................................................................ November 2003 .........4-56
4.11.1.5
Anchorage ........................................................................... November 2003 .........4-56
4.11.1.6
Groundwater....................................................................... November 2003 .........4-56

VIII

CONTENTS

BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

4.11.1.7
4.11.1.8
4.11.1.9
4.11.2
4.11.3
4.11.3.1
4.11.3.2
4.11.3.3
4.11.3.4
4.11.4
4.11.4.1
4.11.4.2
4.11.4.3
4.11.4.4
4.11.5
4.11.6
4.11.6.1
4.11.6.2
4.11.6.3

Uplift ................................................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-57


Deterioration ...................................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-57
Nearby Structures .............................................................. November 2003 ......... 4-57
Notations .................................................................................. November 2003 ......... 4-57
Movement Under Serviceability Limit States ...................... November 2003 ......... 4-57
General ................................................................................ November 2003 ......... 4-57
Loads ................................................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-57
Movement Criteria ............................................................. November 2003 ......... 4-58
Settlement Analyses ........................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-58
Safety Against Soil Failure .................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-58
Bearing Capacity of Foundation Soils .............................. November 2003 ......... 4-58
Bearing Capacity of Foundations on Rock....................... November 2003 ......... 4-59
Failure by Sliding .............................................................. November 2003 ......... 4-61
Loss of Overall Stability .................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-61
Structural Capacity ................................................................. November 2003 ......... 4-61
Construction Considerations for Shallow Foundations ....... November 2003 ......... 4-61
General ................................................................................ November 2003 ......... 4-61
Excavation Monitoring ....................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-61
Compaction Monitoring ..................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-61

4.12
DRIVEN PILES ........................................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-61
4.12.1
General ..................................................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-61
4.12.2
Notations .................................................................................. November 2003 ......... 4-61
4.12.3
Selection of Design Pile Capacity .......................................... November 2003 ......... 4-63
4.12.3.1
Factors Affecting Axial Capacity ....................................... November 2003 ......... 4-63
4.12.3.2
Movement Under Serviceability Limit State ................... November 2003 ......... 4-64
4.12.3.3
Resistance at Strength Limit States ................................. November 2003 ......... 4-64
4.12.4
Structural Design .................................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-67
4.12.4.1
Buckling of Piles ................................................................. November 2003 ......... 4-67
4.12.5
Deleted ...................................................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-67
4.13
DRILLED SHAFTS ...................................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-67
4.13.1
General ..................................................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-67
4.13.2
Notations .................................................................................. November 2003 ......... 4-67
4.13.3
Geotechnical Design ................................................................ November 2003 ......... 4-68
4.13.3.1
Factors Affecting Axial Capacity ....................................... November 2003 ......... 4-68
4.13.3.2
Movement Under Serviceability Limit State ................... November 2003 ......... 4-69
4.13.3.3
Resistance at Strength Limit States ................................. November 2003 ......... 4-69
4.13.4
Structural Design .................................................................... November 2003 ......... 4-70
4.13.4.1
Buckling of Drilled Shafts ................................................. November 2003 ......... 4-70

Section 5 - Retaining Walls


Part A - General Requirements and Materials
5.1

GENERAL ..................................................................................... August 2003 ................ 5-1

5.2
WALL TYPES .............................................................................. August 2003 ................ 5-1
5.2.1
Selection of Wall Type ............................................................ August 2003 ................ 5-1
5.2.1.1
Rigid Gravity and Semi-Gravity Walls ............................. August 2003 ................ 5-1
5.2.1.2
Non-Gravity Cantilevered Walls ....................................... August 2003 ................ 5-2
5.2.1.3
Anchored Walls .................................................................. August 2003 ................ 5-3

CONTENTS

IX

BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

5.2.1.4
5.2.1.5
5.2.2
5.2.2.1
5.2.2.2
5.2.2.3
5.2.2.4
5.2.3
5.3

Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls ................................ August 2003 ................ 5-4


Prefabricated Modular Walls ............................................ August 2003 ................ 5-5
Wall Capacity ........................................................................... August 2003 ................ 5-6
Bearing Capacity ................................................................ August 2003 ................ 5-6
Settlement ........................................................................... August 2003 ................ 5-6
Overall Stability .................................................................. August 2003 ................ 5-6
Tolerable Deformations ...................................................... August 2003 ................ 5-6
Soil, Rock, and Other Problem Conditions ........................... August 2003 ................ 5-7

5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4
5.3.5

SUBSURFACE EXPLORATION AND TESTING


PROGRAMS .................................................................................. August 2003 ................ 5-7
General Requirements ............................................................ August 2003 ................ 5-7
Minimum Depth ...................................................................... August 2003 ................ 5-8
Minimum Coverage ................................................................. August 2003 ................ 5-8
Laboratory Testing .................................................................. August 2003 ................ 5-8
Scour ......................................................................................... August 2003 ................ 5-8

5.4

NOTATIONS ................................................................................. August 2003 ................ 5-8

Part B - Service Load Design Method Allowable Stress Design


5.5
EARTH PRESSURE ..................................................................... August 2003 ..............5-15
5.5.1
General ..................................................................................... August 2003 ..............5-15
5.5.2
Compaction .............................................................................. August 2003 ..............5-16
5.5.3
Presence of Water ................................................................... August 2003 ..............5-16
5.5.4
Effect of Earthquake ............................................................... August 2003 ..............5-17
5.5.5
Earth Pressure ........................................................................ August 2003 ..............5-17
5.5.5.1
Basic Lateral Earth Pressure ............................................ August 2003 ..............5-17
5.5.5.2
At-Rest Lateral Earth Pressure Coefficient, ko ..................... August 2003 ..............5-18
5.5.5.3
Active Lateral Earth Pressure Coefficient, ka ....................... August 2003 ..............5-18
5.5.5.4
Passive Lateral Earth Pressure Coefficient, kp .................... August 2003 ..............5-23
5.5.5.5
Trial Wedge Method of Analysis for the Determination
of the Resultant Lateral Earth Pressure .......................... August 2003 ..............5-25
5.5.5.6
Lateral Earth Pressures for Non-Gravity
Cantilevered Walls ............................................................. August 2003 ..............5-28
5.5.5.7
Lateral Earth Pressures for Anchored Walls ................... August 2003 ..............5-33
5.5.5.8
Lateral Earth Pressures for Mechanically Stabilized
Earth Walls ......................................................................... August 2003 ..............5-36
5.5.5.9
LateralEarthPressuresforPrefabricatedModularW alls.August2003..............
5-39

5.5.5.10
5.5.5.11
5.5.5.12
5.6

SurchargeLoads..............................................................
August
...
2003..............
5-39
LateralEarthPressuresforRestrainedAbutments........August2003..............
5-44
ReductionDuetoEarthPressure...................................
August
.
2003..............
5-45

RIGID GRAVITY AND SEMI-GRAVITY W ALL


DESIGN ...................................................................................
August
..... 2003..............
5-46
5.6.1
DesignTerminology.............................................................
August
...
2003..............
5-46
5.6.2
FootingEmbedment.............................................................
August
...
2003..............
5-46
5.6.3
EarthPressure,W aterPressureandSurchargeLoadings.August2003..............
5-47
5.6.4
StructureDimensionsandExternalStability.......................
August2003..............
5-47
5.6.4.1
SlidingStability...............................................................
August
...
2003..............
5-47
5.6.4.2
Overturning....................................................................August
.... 2003..............
5-49
5.6.4.3
W allFoundations............................................................
August
...
2003..............
5-51
X

CONTENTS

BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

5.6.5
5.6.5.1
5.6.5.2
5.6.5.3
5.6.5.4
5.6.5.5
5.6.5.6
5.6.5.7
5.6.5.8

Structure Design ..................................................................... August 2003 .............. 5-51


Wall Footings ...................................................................... August 2003 .............. 5-51
Rooting Keys ...................................................................... August 2003 .............. 5-52
Wall Stems .......................................................................... August 2003 .............. 5-52
Counterforts and Buttresses ............................................. August 2003 .............. 5-52
Reinforcement .................................................................... August 2003 .............. 5-52
Expansion and Contraction Joints ................................... August 2003 .............. 5-52
Backfill ................................................................................. August 2003 .............. 5-52
Overall Stability .................................................................. August 2003 .............. 5-52

5.7
5.7.1
5.7.2
5.7.3
5.7.4
5.7.5
5.7.6
5.7.7
5.7.8
5.7.9
5.7.10

NONGRAVITY CANTILEVERED WALL DESIGN .................. August 2003 .............. 5-52


Design Terminology ................................................................ August 2003 .............. 5-52
Loading .................................................................................... August 2003 .............. 5-54
Wall Movement ....................................................................... August 2003 .............. 5-54
Water Pressure and Drainage ............................................... August 2003 .............. 5-54
Passive Resistance .................................................................. August 2003 .............. 5-54
Structure Dimensions and External Stability ....................... August 2003 .............. 5-54
Structure Design ..................................................................... August 2003 .............. 5-55
Traffic Barrier ......................................................................... August 2003 .............. 5-55
Overall Stability ....................................................................... August 2003 .............. 5-55
Corrosion Protection ............................................................... August 2003 .............. 5-56

5.8
ANCHORED WALL DESIGN ..................................................... August 2003 .............. 5-56
5.8.1
Design Terminology ................................................................ August 2003 .............. 5-56
5.8.2
Loading .................................................................................... August 2003 .............. 5-60
5.8.2.1
Walls with Structural Anchors .......................................... August 2003 .............. 5-60
5.8.2.2
Walls with Ground Anchors .............................................. August 2003 .............. 5-60
5.8.3
Wall Movement ....................................................................... August 2003 .............. 5-60
5.8.4
Water Pressure and Drainage ............................................... August 2003 .............. 5-60
5.8.5
Passive Resistance .................................................................. August 2003 .............. 5-60
5.8.6.1
General ................................................................................ August 2003 .............. 5-60
5.8.6.2
Walls with Structural Anchors .......................................... August 2003 .............. 5-61
5.8.6.3
Wall with Ground Anchors ................................................ August 2003 .............. 5-69
5.8.7
Structure Design ..................................................................... August 2003 .............. 5-76
5.8.8
Traffic Barrier ......................................................................... August 2003 .............. 5-76
5.8.9
Overall Stability ....................................................................... August 2003 .............. 5-76
5.8.10
Corrosion Protection ............................................................... August 2003 .............. 5-76
5.8.10.1
Tie Rods .............................................................................. August 2003 .............. 5-76
5.8.10.2
Ground Anchors ................................................................. August 2003 .............. 5-76
5.8.10.3
Wall Members ..................................................................... August 2003 .............. 5-76
5.8.11
Load Testing and Lock Off .................................................... August 2003 .............. 5-76
5.8.11.1
Structural Anchors ............................................................. August 2003 .............. 5-76
5.8.11.2
Ground Anchors ................................................................. August 2003 .............. 5-76
5.9
MECHANICALLY STABILIZED EARTH WALL ...................... August 2003 .............. 5-77
5.9.1
Structure Dimensions ............................................................. August 2003 .............. 5-78
5.9.2
External Stability ..................................................................... August 2003 .............. 5-78
5.9.2.1
Sliding Stability .................................................................. August 2003 .............. 5-79
5.9.2.2
Overturning Stability ......................................................... August 2003 .............. 5-79
5.9.2.3
Bearing Capacity ................................................................ August 2003 .............. 5-79
5.9.2.4
Overall Stability .................................................................. August 2003 .............. 5-79
5.9.3
Internal Stability ..................................................................... August 2003 .............. 5-80

CONTENTS

XI

BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

5.9.3.1
5.9.3.2

Determination of Maximum Soil Reinforcement Loads . August 2003 ..............5-81


Determination of Maximum Soil Reinforcement Load
at the Wall Face ................................................................. August 2003 ..............5-82
Determination of Soil Reinforcement Length for
Internal Stability ................................................................ August 2003 ..............5-82
Reinforcement Strength Design ........................................ August 2003 ..............5-86
Soil Reinforcement/Facing Connection Strength
Design ................................................................................. August 2003 ..............5-91
Design of Facing Elements ............................................... August 2003 ..............5-92
Drainage .............................................................................. August 2003 ..............5-94
Special Loading Conditions .............................................. August 2003 ..............5-94
Placement of Soil Reinforcement ...................................... August 2003 ..............5-95

5.9.3.3
5.9.3.4
5.9.3.5
5.9.3.6
5.9.3.7
5.9.3.8
5.9.3.9

5.10
PREFABRICATED MODULAR WALL DESIGN ...................... August 2003 ..............5-95
5.10.1
Structure Dimensions ............................................................. August 2003 ..............5-95
5.10.2
External Stability ..................................................................... August 2003 ..............5-95
5.10.2.1
Sliding Stability .................................................................. August 2003 ..............5-97
5.10.2.2
Overturning Stability ......................................................... August 2003 ..............5-97
5.10.2.3
Tiered Walls ....................................................................... August 2003 ..............5-98
5.10.2.4
Bearing Capacity ................................................................ August 2003 ..............5-98
5.10.2.5
Overall Stability .................................................................. August 2003 ..............5-98
5.10.2.6
Prefabricated Modular Walls with "T" Shaped Modules August 2003 ..............5-98
5.10.3
Internal Security ..................................................................... August 2003 ..............5-98
5.10.4
Module Design ........................................................................ August 2003 ..............5-99
5.10.4.1
Crib Member Design .......................................................... August 2003 ..............5-99

Section 6 - Culverts
6.1

CULVERT LOCATION, LENGTH, ..........................................................................................


AND WATERWAY OPENINGS .................................................. April 2000 ................... 6-1

6.2
6.2.1
6.2.2

DEAD LOADS .............................................................................. April 2000 ................... 6-1


Culvert in Trench, or Culvert Untrenched on ...................................................................
Yielding Foundation ............................................................... April 2000 ................... 6-1
Culvert Untrenched on Unyielding Foundation .................. April 2000 ................... 6-1

6.3

LIVE LOADS ................................................................................ April 2000 ................... 6-1

6.4

FOOTINGS ................................................................................... April 2000 ................... 6-1

6.5

DISTRIBUTION OF WHEEL LOADS ....................................................................................


THROUGH EARTH FILLS .......................................................... April 2000 ................... 6-1

6.6

DESIGN ........................................................................................ April 2000 ................... 6-2

Section 7 - Substructures
Part A - General Requirements and Materials
7.1
7.1.1
7.1.2

XII

GENERAL ..................................................................................... April 2000 ................... 7-1


Definition................................................................................. April 2000 ................... 7-1
Loads ........................................................................................ April 2000 ................... 7-1

CONTENTS

BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

7.1.3
7.1.4
7.2

Settlement ................................................................................ April 2000 ................... 7-1


Foundation and Retaining Wall Design ............................... April 2000 ................... 7-1
NOTATIONS ................................................................................. April 2000 ................... 7-1

Part B - Service Load Design Method Allowable Stress Design


7.3
PIERS ............................................................................................ April 2000 ................... 7-1
7.3.1
Pier Types ................................................................................ April 2000 ................... 7-1
7.3.1.1
Pier Walls ........................................................................... April 2000 ................... 7-1
7.3.1.2
Double Wall Piers .............................................................. April 2000 ................... 7-1
7.3.1.3
Bents .................................................................................... April 2000 ................... 7-1
7.3.1.4
Deleted ................................................................................. April 2000 ................... 7-2
7.3.2
Pier Protection ........................................................................ April 2000 ................... 7-2
7.3.2.1
Collision .............................................................................. April 2000 ................... 7-2
7.3.2.2
Collision Walls .................................................................... April 2000 ................... 7-2
7.3.2.3
Scour .................................................................................... April 2000 ................... 7-2
7.3.2.4
Facing .................................................................................. April 2000 ................... 7-2
7.4
7.4.1
7.4.2

TUBULAR PIERS ........................................................................ April 2000 ................... 7-2


Materials .................................................................................. April 2000 ................... 7-2
Configuration ........................................................................... April 2000 ................... 7-2

7.5
ABUTMENTS ................................................................................ April 2000 ................... 7-2
7.5.1
Abutment Types ...................................................................... April 2000 ................... 7-2
7.5.1.1
Seat Type Abutment ........................................................... April 2000 ................... 7-2
7.5.1.2
Partial-Depth Abutment ..................................................... April 2000 ................... 7-2
7.5.1.3
Full-Depth Abutment ......................................................... April 2000 ................... 7-2
7.5.1.4
Diaphragm Abutment ........................................................ April 2000 ................... 7-2
7.5.2
Loading .................................................................................... April 2000 ................... 7-2
7.5.2.1
Stability ............................................................................... April 2000 ................... 7-3
7.5.2.2
Reinforcement for Temperature ....................................... April 2000 ................... 7-3
7.5.2.3
Drainage and Backfilling ................................................... April 2000 ................... 7-3
7.5.3
Diaphragm Abutments ............................................................ April 2000 ................... 7-3
7.5.4
Deleted ...................................................................................... April 2000 ................... 7-3
7.5.5
Deleted ...................................................................................... April 2000 ................... 7-3
7.5.6
Wingwalls ................................................................................ April 2000 ................... 7-3
7.5.6.1
Length ................................................................................. April 2000 ................... 7-3
7.5.6.2
Reinforcement .................................................................... April 2000 ................... 7-3

Part C - Strength Design Method Load Factor Design


7.6

Deleted ........................................................................................... April 2000 ................... 7-3

Section 8 - Reinforced Concrete


Part A - General Requirements and Materials
8.1
8.1.1
8.1.2
8.1.3

APPLICATION ............................................................................. September 2003 .......... 8-1


General ..................................................................................... September 2003 .......... 8-1
Notations .................................................................................. September 2003 .......... 8-1
Definitions ............................................................................... September 2003 .......... 8-4

CONTENTS

XIII

BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

8.2

CONCRETE ................................................................................... September 2003 .......... 8-5

8.3

REINFORCEMENT ...................................................................... September 2003 .......... 8-5

Part B - Analysis
8.4

GENERAL ..................................................................................... September 2003 .......... 8-6

8.5

EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION .......................................... September 2003 .......... 8-6

8.6

STIFFNESS .................................................................................. September 2003 .......... 8-6

8.7

MODULUS OF ELASTICITY AND POISSON'S RATIO .......... September 2003 .......... 8-6

8.8

SPAN LENGTH ............................................................................ September 2003 .......... 8-6

8.9
8.9.1
8.9.2
8.9.3

CONTROL OF DEFLECTIONS .................................................. September 2003 .......... 8-7


General ..................................................................................... September 2003 .......... 8-7
Superstructure Depth Limitations ........................................ September 2003 .......... 8-7
Superstructure Deflection Limitations .................................. September 2003 .......... 8-7

8.10
8.10.1
8.10.2

COMPRESSION FLANGE WIDTH ............................................ September 2003 .......... 8-7


T-Girder .................................................................................... September 2003 .......... 8-7
Box Girders ............................................................................. September 2003 .......... 8-7

8.11

SLABS AND WEB THICKNESS ................................................. September 2003 .......... 8-8

8.12

DIAPHRAGMS ............................................................................. September 2003 .......... 8-8

8.13

COMPUTATION OF DEFLECTIONS ........................................ September 2003 .......... 8-8

Part C - Design
8.14
8.14.1
8.14.2
8.14.3

GENERAL ..................................................................................... September 2003 .......... 8-9


Design Methods....................................................................... September 2003 .......... 8-9
Composite Flexural Members ................................................ September 2003 .......... 8-9
Concrete Arches ....................................................................... September 2003 .......... 8-9

8.15

SERVICE LOAD DESIGN METHOD......................................................................................


(ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN) ............................................. September 2003 ........8-10
General Requirements ............................................................ September 2003 ........8-10
Allowable Stresses ................................................................... September 2003 ........8-10
Concrete .............................................................................. September 2003 ........8-10
Reinforcement .................................................................... September 2003 ........8-11
Flexure ..................................................................................... September 2003 ........8-11
Compression Members ............................................................ September 2003 ........8-11
Shear ........................................................................................ September 2003 ........8-11
Shear Stress ........................................................................ September 2003 ........8-11
Shear Stress Carried by Concrete .................................... September 2003 ........8-12
Shear Stress Carried by Shear Reinforcement................ September 2003 ........8-12
Shear Friction .................................................................... September 2003 ........8-13
Horizontal Shear Design for Composite Concrete........................................................
Flexural Members .............................................................. September 2003 ........8-14
Special Provisions for Slabs and Footings ....................... September 2003 ........8-15
Deleted ................................................................................. September 2003 ........8-15
Special Provisions for Brackets and Corbels ................... September 2003 ........8-15

8.15.1
8.15.2
8.15.2.1
8.15.2.2
8.15.3
8.15.4
8.15.5
8.15.5.1
8.15.5.2
8.15.5.3
8.15.5.4
8.15.5.5
8.15.5.6
8.15.5.7
8.15.5.8

XIV

CONTENTS

BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

8.16

STRENGTH DESIGN METHOD ..............................................................................................


(LOAD FACTOR DESIGN) ......................................................... September 2003 ........ 8-16
8.16.1
Strength Requirements ........................................................... September 2003 ........ 8-16
8.16.1.1
Required Strength .............................................................. September 2003 ........ 8-16
8.16.1.2
Design Strength ................................................................. September 2003 ........ 8-16
8.16.2
Design Assumptions ................................................................ September 2003 ........ 8-17
8.16.3
Flexure ..................................................................................... September 2003 ........ 8-17
8.16.3.1
Maximum Reinforcement of Flexural Members .............. September 2003 ........ 8-17
8.16.3.2
Rectangular Sections with ..............................................................................................
Tension Reinforcement Only ............................................. September 2003 ........ 8-17
8.16.3.3
Flanged Sections with Tension Reinforcement Only ...... September 2003 ........ 8-18
8.16.3.4
Rectangular Sections with Compression .......................................................................
Reinforcement .................................................................... September 2003 ........ 8-18
8.16.3.5
Flanged Sections with Compression Reinforcement ...... September 2003 ........ 8-19
8.16.3.6
Other Cross Sections .......................................................... September 2003 ........ 8-19
8.16.4
Compression Members ............................................................ September 2003 ........ 8-19
8.16.4.1
General Requirements ....................................................... September 2003 ........ 8-19
8.16.4.2
Compression Member Strengths ....................................... September 2003 ........ 8-20
8.16.4.3
Biaxial Loading .................................................................. September 2003 ........ 8-20
8.16.4.4
Hollow Rectangular Compression Members ..................... September 2003 ........ 8-20
8.16.4.5
Probable Plastic Moment ................................................... September 2003 ........ 8-21
8.16.4.6
Special Provisions for Column and Pier Wall Hinges .... September 2003 ........ 8-21
8.16.5
Slenderness Effects in Compression Members .................... September 2003 ........ 8-22
8.16.5.1
General Requirements ....................................................... September 2003 ........ 8-22
8.16.5.2
Approximate Evaluation of Slenderness Effects ............. September 2003 ........ 8-22
8.16.6
Shear ........................................................................................ September 2003 ........ 8-24
8.16.6.1
Shear Strength ................................................................... September 2003 ........ 8-24
8.16.6.2
Shear Strength Provided by Concrete .............................. September 2003 ........ 8-24
8.16.6.3
Shear Strength Provided by Shear Reinforcement ......... September 2003 ........ 8-25
8.16.6.4
Shear Friction .................................................................... September 2003 ........ 8-25
8.16.6.5
Horizontal Shear Strength for Composite Concrete .....................................................
Flexural Members .............................................................. September 2003 ........ 8-26
8.16.6.6
Special Provisions for Slabs and Footings ....................... September 2003 ........ 8-27
8.16.6.7
Special Provisions for Box Culverts ................................. September 2003 ........ 8-28
8.16.6.8
Special Provisions for Brackets and Corbels ................... September 2003 ........ 8-28
8.16.6.9
Special Provision for Pier Walls ....................................... September 2003 ........ 8-29
8.16.6.10
Compression Member Connection to Caps ...................... September 2003 ........ 8-29
8.16.6.11
Special Seismic Provisions for Columns, ......................................................................
Pier Walls and Piles .......................................................... September 2003 ........ 8-29
8.16.7
Bearing Strength ..................................................................... September 2003 ........ 8-30
8.16.8
Serviceability Requirements .................................................. September 2003 ........ 8-30
8.16.8.1
Application .......................................................................... September 2003 ........ 8-30
8.16.8.2
Service Load Stresses ........................................................ September 2003 ........ 8-30
8.16.8.3
Fatique Stress Limits ........................................................ September 2003 ........ 8-30
8.16.8.4
Distribution of Flexural Reinforcement ........................... September 2003 ........ 8-31

Part D - Reinforcement
8.17
8.17.1

REINFORCEMENT OF FLEXURAL MEMBERS ..................... September 2003 ........ 8-31


Minimum Reinforcement ....................................................... September 2003 ........ 8-31

CONTENTS

XV

BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

8.17.2
8.17.2.1

Distribution of Reinforcement ............................................... September 2003 ........8-31


Flexural Tension Reinforcement in Zones of ...............................................................
Maximum Tension ............................................................. September 2003 ........8-31
Transverse Deck Slab Reinforcement in T-Girders and ..............................................
Box Girders ........................................................................ September 2003 ........8-32
Bottom Slab Reinforcement for Box Girders ................... September 2003 ........8-32
Lateral Reinforcement of Flexural Members ........................ September 2003 ........8-32
Reinforcement for Hollow Rectangular ...............................................................................
Compression Members ............................................................ September 2003 ........8-33

8.17.2.2
8.17.2.3
8.17.3
8.17.4

8.18
REINFORCEMENT OF COMPRESSION MEMBERS ............. September 2003 ........8-33
8.18.1
Maximum and Minimum Longitudinal Reinforcement ...... September 2003 ........8-33
8.18.2
Lateral Reinforcement ............................................................ September 2003 ........8-34
8.18.2.1
General ................................................................................ September 2003 ........8-34
8.18.2.2
Spiral or Hoops .................................................................. September 2003 ........8-34
8.18.2.3
Ties ...................................................................................... September 2003 ........8-35
8.18.2.4
Deleted ................................................................................. September 2003 ........8-36
8.19
8.19.1
8.19.2
8.19.3

LIMITS FOR SHEAR REINFORCEMENT ................................ September 2003 ........8-36


Minimum Shear Reinforcement ............................................ September 2003 ........8-36
Types of Shear Reinforcement ............................................... September 2003 ........8-36
Spacing of Shear Reinforcement ........................................... September 2003 ........8-36

8.20

SHRINKAGE AND TEMPERATURE REINFORCEMENT ....... September 2003 ........8-36

8.21

SPACING LIMITS FOR REINFORCEMENT ........................... September 2003 ........8-36

8.22

PROTECTION AGAINST CORROSION .................................... September 2003 ........8-37

8.23
8.23.1
8.23.2

HOOKS AND BENDS .................................................................. September 2003 ........8-40


Standard Hooks ....................................................................... September 2003 ........8-40
Minimum Bend Diameters ..................................................... September 2003 ........8-40

8.24
8.24.1
8.24.2
8.24.3

DEVELOPMENT OF FLEXURAL REINFORCEMENT ........... September 2003 ........8-40


General ..................................................................................... September 2003 ........8-40
Postitive Moment Reinforcement .......................................... September 2003 ........8-41
Negative Moment Reinforcement .......................................... September 2003 ........8-41

8.25

DEVELOPMENT OF DEFORMED BARS ..............................................................................


AND DEFORMED WIRE IN TENSION .................................... September 2003 ........8-41

8.26

DEVELOPMENT OF DEFORMED BARS ..............................................................................


IN COMPRESSION ..................................................................... September 2003 ........8-42

8.27

DEVELOPMENT OF SHEAR REINFORCEMENT ................... September 2003 ........8-43

8.28

DEVELOPMENT OF BUNDLED BARS .................................... September 2003 ........8-43

8.29
DEVELOPMENT OF STANDARD HOOKS IN TENSION ...... September 2003 ........8-43
8.29.3.1
Bar Yield Strength ............................................................. September 2003 ........8-44
8.29.3.2
Concrete Cover ................................................................... September 2003 ........8-44
8.29.3.3
Ties or Stirrups .................................................................. September 2003 ........8-44
8.29.3.4
Excess Reinforcement ........................................................ September 2003 ........8-44
8.30
8.30.1

XVI

DEVELOPMENT OF WELDED WIRE FABRIC ...................................................................


IN TENSION ................................................................................ September 2003 ........8-45
Deformed Wire Fabric ............................................................ September 2003 ........8-45

CONTENTS

BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

8.30.2
8.31

Smooth Wire Fabric ................................................................ September 2003 ........ 8-45


MECHANICAL ANCHORAGE .................................................... September 2003 ........ 8-45

8.32
SPLICES OF REINFORCEMENT .............................................. September 2003 ........ 8-46
8.32.1
Lap Splices .............................................................................. September 2003 ........ 8-46
8.32.2
Welded Splices and Mechanical Connections ...................... September 2003 ........ 8-46
8.32.2.2
Deleted ................................................................................. September 2003 ........ 8-46
8.32 2.3
Deleted ................................................................................. September 2003 ........ 8-46
8.32.2.4
Deleted ................................................................................. September 2003 ........ 8-46
8.32.3
Splices of Deformed Bars and Deformed Wire in Tension September 2003 ........ 8-46
8.32.3.3
Deleted ................................................................................. September 2003 ........ 8-46
8.32.3.4
Deleted ................................................................................. September 2003 ........ 8-46
8.32.4
Splices of Bars in Compression ............................................. September 2003 ........ 8-46
8.32.4.1
Lap Splices in Compression ............................................. September 2003 ........ 8-46
8.32.4.2
Deleted ................................................................................. September 2003 ........ 8-47
8.32.4.3
Deleted ................................................................................. September 2003 ........ 8-47
8.32.5
Splices of Welded Deformed Wire Fabric in Tension ......... September 2003 ........ 8-47
8.32.6
Splices of Welded Smooth Wire Fabric in Tension ............. September 2003 ........ 8-47
8.32.6.1
Deleted ................................................................................. September 2003 ........ 8-47
8.32.6.2
Deleted ................................................................................. September 2003 ........ 8-47

Section 8 Commentary - Reinforced Concrete


8.15.5.6
8.16.1.2
8.16.3.5
8.16.4.5
8.16.4.5
8.16.6.6
8.16.6.7
8.16.8.4
8.16.6.9
8.16.6.10
8.16.6.11
8.16.8.4
8.18.1.4
8.18.2.2
8.18.2.3

Special Provisions for Slabs and Footings ....................... September 2003 ........ 8-48
Design Strength ................................................................. September 2003 ........ 8-49
Flanged Sections with Compression Reinforcement ...... September 2003 ........ 8-49
Probable Plastic Moment ................................................... September 2003 ........ 8-49
Special Provisions for Column and Pier Wall Hinges .... September 2003 ........ 8-52
Special Provisions for Slabs and Footings ....................... September 2003 ........ 8-52
Special Provisions for Box Culverts ................................. September 2003 ........ 8-52
Distribution of Flexural Reinforcement ........................... September 2003 ........ 8-52
Special Provision for Pier Walls ....................................... September 2003 ........ 8-52
Compression Member Connection to Caps ...................... September 2003 ........ 8-53
Special Seismic Provision for Columns, ........................................................................
Pier Walls and Piles .......................................................... September 2003 ........ 8-53
Distribution of Flexural Reinforcement ........................... September 2003 ........ 8-53
Interlocking Spirals ............................................................ September 2003 ........ 8-54
Spiral Reinforcement ......................................................... September 2003 ........ 8-54
Ties ...................................................................................... September 2003 ........ 8-56

8.21

SPACING LIMITS FOR REINFORCEMENT ........................... September 2003 ........ 8-57

8.22

PROTECTION AGAINST CORRISION ...................................... September 2003 ........ 8-57

Section 9 - Prestressed Concrete


Part A - General Requirements and Materials
9.1
9.1.1

APPLICATION ............................................................................. April 2000 ................... 9-1


General ..................................................................................... April 2000 ................... 9-1

CONTENTS

XVII

BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

9.1.2
9.1.3

Notations .................................................................................. April 2000 ................... 9-1


Definitions ............................................................................... April 2000 ................... 9-3

9.2

CONCRETE ................................................................................... April 2000 ................... 9-4

9.3
9.3.1
9.3.2

REINFORCEMENT ...................................................................... April 2000 ................... 9-4


Prestressing Steel .................................................................... April 2000 ................... 9-4
Non-Prestressed Reinforcement ............................................. April 2000 ................... 9-4

Part B - Analysis
9.4

GENERAL ..................................................................................... April 2000 ................... 9-5

9.5

EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION .......................................... April 2000 ................... 9-5

9.6

SPAN LENGTH ............................................................................ April 2000 ................... 9-5

9.7
9.7.1
9.7.2

FRAMES AND CONTINUOUS CONSTRUCTION .................... April 2000 ................... 9-5


Cast-in-Place Post-Tensioned Bridges .................................... April 2000 ................... 9-5
Bridges Composed of Simple-Span Precast .......................................................................
Prestressed Girders Made Continuous ................................. April 2000 ................... 9-5
General ................................................................................ April 2000 ................... 9-5
Positive Moment Connection at Piers .............................. April 2000 ................... 9-5
Negative Moments ............................................................. April 2000 ................... 9-5
Segmental Box Girders ........................................................... April 2000 ................... 9-5
General ................................................................................ April 2000 ................... 9-5
Flexure ................................................................................ April 2000 ................... 9-6
Torsion................................................................................. April 2000 ................... 9-6

9.7.2.1
9.7.2.2
9.7.2.3
9.7.3
9.7.3.1
9.7.3.2
9.7.3.3

XVIII

9.8
9.8.1
9.8.2
9.8.3

EFFECTIVE FLANGE WIDTH .................................................. April 2000 ................... 9-6


T-Beams .................................................................................... April 2000 ................... 9-6
Box Girders ............................................................................. April 2000 ................... 9-6
Precast/Prestressed Concrete Beams with ........................................................................
Wide Top Flanges ................................................................... April 2000 ................... 9-6

9.9
9.9.1
9.9.2
9.9.3

FLANGE AND WEB THICKNESS - BOX GIRDERS ............... April 2000


Top Flange ............................................................................... April 2000
Bottom Flange ......................................................................... April 2000
Web........................................................................................... April 2000

................... 9-6
................... 9-6
................... 9-7
................... 9-7

9.10
9.10.1
9.10.2
9.10.3

DIAPHRAGMS ............................................................................. April 2000


General ..................................................................................... April 2000
T-Beams, Precast I and Bulb-tee Girders .............................. April 2000
Box Girders ............................................................................. April 2000

................... 9-7
................... 9-7
................... 9-7
................... 9-7

9.11
9.11.1
9.11.2
9.11.3

DEFLECTIONS ............................................................................ April 2000


General ..................................................................................... April 2000
Segmental Box Girders ........................................................... April 2000
Superstructure Deflection Limitations .................................. April 2000

................... 9-7
................... 9-7
................... 9-7
................... 9-7

9.12
9.12.1
9.12.2

DECK PANELS ............................................................................ April 2000 ................... 9-7


General ..................................................................................... April 2000 ................... 9-7
Bending Moment ..................................................................... April 2000 ................... 9-8

CONTENTS

BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

Part C - Design
9.13
9.13.1
9.13.2
9.13.3

GENERAL ..................................................................................... April 2000


Design Theory and General Considerations ......................... April 2000
Basic Assumptions .................................................................. April 2000
Composite Flexural Members ................................................ April 2000

................... 9-9
................... 9-9
................... 9-9
................... 9-9

9.14

LOAD FACTORS .......................................................................... April 2000 ................... 9-9

9.15
ALLOWABLE STRESSES ........................................................... April 2000 ................... 9-9
9.15.1
Prestressing Steel .................................................................... April 2000 ................. 9-10
9.15.2
Concrete ................................................................................... April 2000 ................. 9-10
9.15.2.1
Temporary Stresses Before Losses Due to ....................................................................
Creep and Shrinkage ......................................................... April 2000 ................. 9-10
9.15.2.2
Stress at Service Load After Losses Have Occurred ...... April 2000 ................. 9-10
9.15.2.3
Cracking Stress (Refer to Article 9.18) ............................ April 2000 ................. 9-10
9.15.2.4
Anchorage Bearing Stress .................................................. April 2000 ................. 9-11
9.16
LOSS OF PRESTRESS ................................................................ April 2000
9.16.1
Friction Losses ........................................................................ April 2000
9.16.2
Prestress Losses ...................................................................... April 2000
9.16.2.1
General ................................................................................ April 2000
9.16.2.2
Estimated Losses ................................................................ April 2000

................. 9-11
................. 9-11
................. 9-11
................. 9-11
................. 9-14

9.17
9.17.1
9.17.2
9.17.3
9.17.4

FLEXURAL STRENGTH ............................................................. April 2000


General ..................................................................................... April 2000
Rectangular Sections ............................................................... April 2000
Flanged Sections ..................................................................... April 2000
Steel Stress .............................................................................. April 2000

................. 9-14
................. 9-14
................. 9-14
................. 9-15
................. 9-15

9.18
9.18.1
9.18.2

DUCTILITY LIMITS ................................................................... April 2000 ................. 9-16


Maximum Prestressing Steel ................................................. April 2000 ................. 9-16
Minimum Steel ........................................................................ April 2000 ................. 9-16

9.19

NON-PRESTRESSED REINFORCEMENT ................................ April 2000 ................. 9-16

9.20
9.20.1
9.20.2
9.20.3
9.20.4

SHEAR .......................................................................................... April 2000 ................. 9-17


General ..................................................................................... April 2000 ................. 9-17
Shear Strength Provided by Concrete ................................... April 2000 ................. 9-17
Shear Strength Provided by Web Reinforcement ................ April 2000 ................. 9-18
Horizontal Shear Design - ...................................................................................................
Composite Flexural Members ................................................ April 2000 ................. 9-18

9.21
POST-TENSIONED ANCHORAGE ZONES ............................... April 2000 ................. 9-19
9.21.1
Geometry of the Anchorage Zone ......................................... April 2000 ................. 9-19
9.21.2
General Zone and Local Zone ................................................ April 2000 ................. 9-19
9.21.2.1
General Zone ...................................................................... April 2000 ................. 9-19
9.21.2.2
Local Zone ........................................................................... April 2000 ................. 9-19
9.21.2.3
Responsibilities .................................................................. April 2000 ................. 9-19
9.21.3
General Zone and Local Zone ................................................ April 2000 ................. 9-20
9.21.3.1
Design Methods ................................................................. April 2000 ................. 9-20
9.21.3.2
Nominal Material Strengths .............................................. April 2000 ................. 9-20
9.21.3.3
Use of Special Anchorage Devices .................................... April 2000 ................. 9-20
9.21.3.4
General Design Principles and Detailing Requirements April 2000 ................. 9-20
9.21.3.5
Intermediate Anchorages .................................................. April 2000 ................. 9-21

CONTENTS

XIX

BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

9.21.3.6
9.21.3.7
9.21.4

Diaphragms ........................................................................ April 2000 .................9-22


Multiple Slab Anchorages .................................................. April 2000 .................9-22
Application to Strut-and-Tie Models to the Design of ......................................................
Anchorage Zones ..................................................................... April 2000 .................9-23
General ................................................................................ April 2000 .................9-23
Nodes ................................................................................... April 2000 .................9-23
Struts ................................................................................... April 2000 .................9-23
Ties ...................................................................................... April 2000 .................9-24
Elastic Stress Analysis............................................................. April 2000 .................9-24
Approximate Methods............................................................. April 2000 .................9-24
Limitations ......................................................................... April 2000 .................9-24
Compressive Stresses ......................................................... April 2000 .................9-24
Bursting Forces .................................................................. April 2000 .................9-25
Edge-Tension Forces .......................................................... April 2000 .................9-25
Design of the Local Zone ........................................................ April 2000 .................9-25
Dimensions of the Local Zone .......................................... April 2000 .................9-25
Bearing Strength ................................................................ April 2000 .................9-26
Deleted ................................................................................. April 2000 .................9-27

9.21.4.1
9.21.4.2
9.21.4.3
9.21.4.4
9.21.5
9.21.6
9.21.6.1
9.21.6.2
9.21.6.3
9.21.6.4
9.21.7
9.21.7.1
9.21.7.2
9.21.7.3
9.22

PRETENSIONED ANCHORAGE ZONES .................................. April 2000 .................9-27

9.23

CONCRETE STRENGTH AT STRESS TRANSFER ................... April 2000 .................9-27

9.24

DECK PANELS ............................................................................ April 2000 .................9-27

Part D - Detailing
9.25

FLANGE REINFORCEMENT ..................................................... April 2000 .................9-28

9.26
9.26.1
9.26.2
9.26.3
9.26.4

COVER AND SPACING OF STEEL .......................................... April 2000


Minimum Cover ...................................................................... April 2000
Minimum Spacing ................................................................... April 2000
Bundling ................................................................................... April 2000
Size of Ducts ............................................................................ April 2000

9.27

POST-TENSIONING ANCHORAGES AND COUPLERS .......... April 2000 .................9-28

9.28

EMBEDMENT OF PRESTRESSED STRAND ........................... April 2000 .................9-29

9.29

BEARINGS .................................................................................... April 2000 .................9-29

.................9-28
.................9-28
.................9-28
.................9-28
.................9-28

Section 10 - Structural Steel


Part A - General Requirements and Materials

XX

10.1
10.1.1
10.1.2
10.1.3

APPLICATION ............................................................................. February 2004


General ..................................................................................... February 2004
Notations .................................................................................. February 2004
Definition................................................................................. February 2004

..........10-1
..........10-1
..........10-1
..........10-8

10.2
10.2.1
10.2.2
10.2.3
10.2.4

MATERIALS ................................................................................. February 2004


General ..................................................................................... February 2004
Structural Steels ...................................................................... February 2004
Steels for Pins, Rollers, and Expansion Rockers .................. February 2004
Fasteners ................................................................................. February 2004

........10-10
........10-10
........10-10
........10-10
........10-10

CONTENTS

BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

10.2.5
10.2.6
10.2.6.1
10.2.6.2
10.2.6.3

Weld Metal .............................................................................. February 2004 ........10-10


Cast Steel, Ductile Iron Castings, Malleable Castings .......................................................
and Cast Iron ........................................................................... February 2004 ........10-13
Cast Steel and Ductile Iron ............................................... February 2004 ........10-13
Malleable Castings .............................................................. February 2004 ........10-13
Cast Iron ............................................................................. February 2004 ........10-13

Part B - Design Details


10.3
10.3.1
10.3.2
10.3.3
10.3.4
10.3.5

REPETITIVE LOADING AND TOUGHNESS ........................................................................


CONSIDERATIONS ..................................................................... February 2004 ........10-14
Allowable Fatigue Stress Range ............................................. February 2004 ........10-14
Load Cycles .............................................................................. February 2004 ........10-20
Charpy V-Notch Impact Requirements .................................. February 2004 ........10-20
Shear ........................................................................................ February 2004 ........10-20
Loading .................................................................................... February 2004 ........10-20

10.4

EFFECTIVE LENGTH OF SPAN ............................................... February 2004 ........10-20

10.5

DEPTH RATIOS ........................................................................... February 2004 ........10-20

10.6

DEFLECTION .............................................................................. February 2004 ........10-21

10.7

LIMITING LENGTHS OF MEMBERS ...................................... February 2004 ........10-21

10.8

MINIMUM THICKNESS OF METAL........................................ February 2004 ........10-22

10.9

EFFECTIVE NET AREA FOR TENSION MEMBERS .............. February 2004 ........10-22

10.10

OUTSTANDING LEGS OF ANGLES ........................................ February 2004 ........10-23

10.11

EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION .......................................... February 2004 ........10-23

10.12 MEMBERS .................................................................................... February 2004


10.12.1
Flexural Members ................................................................... February 2004
10.12.2
Compression Members ............................................................ February 2004
10.12.3
Tension Members .................................................................... February 2004

........10-23
........10-23
........10-23
........10-23

10.13

COVER PLATES .......................................................................... February 2004 ........10-23

10.14

CAMBER ....................................................................................... February 2004 ........10-24

10.15

HEAT-CURVED ROLLED BEAMS AND ................................................................................


WELDED PLATE GIRDERS ...................................................... February 2004 ........10-24
10.15.1
Scope ........................................................................................ February 2004 ........10-24
10.15.2
Minimum Radius of Curvature ............................................. February 2004 ........10-24
10.15.3
Camber ..................................................................................... February 2004 ........10-25
10.16 TRUSSES ...................................................................................... February 2004 ........10-25
10.16.1
General ..................................................................................... February 2004 ........10-25
10.16.2
Truss Members ........................................................................ February 2004 ........10-25
10.16.3
Secondary Stresses .................................................................. February 2004 ........10-26
10.16.4
Diaphragms ............................................................................. February 2004 ........10-26
10.16.5
Camber ..................................................................................... February 2004 ........10-26
10.16.6
Working Lines and Gravity Axes .......................................... February 2004 ........10-26
10.16.7
Portal and Sway Bracing ........................................................ February 2004 ........10-26
10.16.8
Perforated Cover Plates .......................................................... February 2004 ........10-27

CONTENTS

XXI

BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

10.16.9
10.16.10
10.16.11
10.16.12
10.16.13
10.16.14

Stay Plates ............................................................................... February 2004 ........10-27


Lacing Bars .............................................................................. February 2004 ........10-27
Gusset Plates ........................................................................... February 2004 ........10-28
Half-Through Truss Spans ...................................................... February 2004 ........10-28
Fastener Pitch in Ends of Compression Members .............. February 2004 ........10-28
Net Section of Riveted or High-Strength ...........................................................................
Bolted Tension Members ........................................................ February 2004 ........10-28

10.17 BENTS AND TOWERS ................................................................ February 2004


10.17.1
General ..................................................................................... February 2004
10.17.2
Single Bents ............................................................................. February 2004
10.17.3
Batter ........................................................................................ February 2004
10.17.4
Bracing ..................................................................................... February 2004
10.17.5
Bottom Struts ........................................................................... February 2004

........10-29
........10-29
........10-29
........10-29
........10-29
........10-29

10.18 SPLICES ....................................................................................... February 2004


10.18.1
General ..................................................................................... February 2004
10.18.1.1
Design Strength.................................................................. February 2004
10.18.1.2
Fillers .................................................................................. February 2004
10.18.1.3
Design Force for Flange Splice Plates ............................. February 2004
10.18.1.4
Truss Chords and Column ................................................. February 2004
10.18.2
Flexural Members ................................................................... February 2004
10.18.2.1
General ................................................................................ February 2004
10.18.2.2
Flange Splices ..................................................................... February 2004
10.18.2.3
Web Splices ........................................................................ February 2004
10.18.3
Compression Members ............................................................ February 2004
10.18.4
Tension Members .................................................................... February 2004
10.18.5
Welding Splices ....................................................................... February 2004

........10-29
........10-29
........10-29
........10-30
........10-30
........10-30
........10-30
........10-30
........10-31
........10-32
........10-34
........10-34
........10-35

10.19 CONNECTIONS ........................................................................... February 2004


10.19.1
General ..................................................................................... February 2004
10.19.2
End Connections of Floor Beams and Stringers .................. February 2004
10.19.3
End Connections of Diaphragms and Cross Frames ........... February 2004
10.19.4
Block Shear Rupture Strength ............................................... February 2004
10.19.4.1
General ................................................................................ February 2004
10.19.4.2
Allowable Block Shear Rupture Stress .............................. February 2004
10.19.4.3
Design Block Shear Rupture Strength ............................. February 2004

........10-35
........10-35
........10-35
........10-35
........10-36
........10-36
........10-36
........10-36

10.20 DIAPHRAGMS AND CROSS FRAMES ..................................... February 2004 ........10-36


10.20.1
General ..................................................................................... February 2004 ........10-36
10.20.2
Horizontal Force ...................................................................... February 2004 ........10-37
10.21

LATERAL BRACING ................................................................... February 2004 ........10-37

10.22

CLOSED SECTIONS AND POCKETS ....................................... February 2004 ........10-37

10.23 WELDING .................................................................................... February 2004


10.23.1
General ..................................................................................... February 2004
10.23.2
Effective Size of Fillet Welds ................................................. February 2004
10.23.2.1
Maximum Size of Fillet Welds ......................................... February 2004
10.23.2.2
Minimum Size of Fillet Welds .......................................... February 2004
10.23.3
Minimum Effective Length of Fillet Welds.......................... February 2004
10.23.4
Fillet Weld End Returns ........................................................ February 2004
10.23.5
Seal Welds ............................................................................... February 2004

XXII

CONTENTS

........10-38
........10-38
........10-38
........10-38
........10-38
........10-38
........10-38
........10-38

BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

10.24 FASTENERS ................................................................................. February 2004


10.24.1
General ..................................................................................... February 2004
10.24.2
Hole Types ............................................................................... February 2004
10.24.3
Washer Requirements ............................................................ February 2004
10.24.4
Size of Fasteners (Rivets or High-Strength Bolts) ............... February 2004
10.24.5
Spacing of Fasteners ............................................................... February 2004
10.24.5.1
Pitch and Gage of Fasteners ............................................. February 2004
10.24.5.2
Minimum Spacing of Fasteners ........................................ February 2004
10.24.5.3
Minimum Clear Distance Between Holes ........................ February 2004
10.24.5.4
Maximum Spacing of Fasteners ....................................... February 2004
10.24.6
Maximum Spacing of Sealing and Stitch Fasteners ............ February 2004
10.24.6.1
Sealing Fasteners ............................................................... February 2004
10.24.6.2
Stitch Fasteners ................................................................. February 2004
10.24.7
Edge Distance of Fasteners ................................................... February 2004
10.24.7.1
General ................................................................................ February 2004
10.24.8
Long Rivets .............................................................................. February 2004

........10-39
........10-39
........10-40
........10-40
........10-41
........10-41
........10-41
........10-41
........10-41
........10-41
........10-42
........10-42
........10-42
........10-42
........10-42
........10-42

10.25 LINKS AND HANGERS .............................................................. February 2004


10.25.1
Net Section .............................................................................. February 2004
10.25.2
Location of Pins ...................................................................... February 2004
10.25.3
Size of Pins .............................................................................. February 2004
10.25.4
Pin Plates ................................................................................ February 2004
10.25.5
Pins and Pin Nuts .................................................................. February 2004

........10-42
........10-42
........10-43
........10-43
........10-43
........10-43

10.26

UPSET ENDS ............................................................................... February 2004 ........10-43

10.27 EYEBARS ...................................................................................... February 2004 ........10-43


10.27.1
Thickness and Net Section ..................................................... February 2004 ........10-43
10.27.2
Packing of Eyebars .................................................................. February 2004 ........10-43
10.28

FORKED ENDS ........................................................................... February 2004 ........10-43

10.29 FIXED AND EXPANSION BEARINGS ..................................... February 2004


10.29.1
General ..................................................................................... February 2004
10.29.2
Deleted ...................................................................................... February 2004
10.29.3
Deleted ...................................................................................... February 2004
10.29.4
Sole Plate and Masonry Plates .............................................. February 2004
10.29.5
Masonry Bearings ................................................................... February 2004
10.29.6
Anchor Rods ............................................................................ February 2004
10.29.7
Pedestals and Shoes ................................................................ February 2004

........10-44
........10-44
........10-44
........10-44
........10-44
........10-44
........10-44
........10-44

10.30 FLOOR SYSTEM ......................................................................... February 2004


10.30.1
Stringers .................................................................................. February 2004
10.30.2
Floor Beams ............................................................................. February 2004
10.30.3
Cross Frames ........................................................................... February 2004
10.30.4
Expansion Joints ..................................................................... February 2004
10.30.5
End Floor Beams ..................................................................... February 2004
10.30.6
End Panel of Skewed Bridges ............................................... February 2004
10.30.7
Sidewalk Brackets ................................................................... February 2004
10.30.8
Stay-in-Place Deck Forms ....................................................... February 2004
10.30.8.1
Concrete Deck Panels ........................................................ February 2004
10.30.8.2
Metal Stay-in-Place Forms ................................................. February 2004

........10-45
........10-45
........10-45
........10-45
........10-45
........10-45
........10-45
........10-45
........10-45
........10-45
........10-45

CONTENTS

XXIII

BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

Part C - Service Load Design Method - Allowable Stress Design


10.31

SCOPE........................................................................................... February 2004 ........10-46

10.32 ALLOWABLE STRESSES ........................................................... February 2004 ........10-46


10.32.1
Steel .......................................................................................... February 2004 ........10-46
10.32.2
Weld Metal .............................................................................. February 2004 ........10-46
10.32.3
Fasteners ................................................................................. February 2004 ........10-46
10.32.3.1
General ................................................................................ February 2004 ........10-46
10.32.3.3
Applied Tension, Combined Tension and Shear ............. February 2004 ........10-52
10.32.3.4
Fatigue ................................................................................ February 2004 ........10-53
10.32.4
Pins, Rollers, and Expansion Rockers ................................... February 2004 ........10-53
10.32.5
Cast Steel, Ductile Iron Castings, Malleable Castings,......................................................
and Cast Iron ........................................................................... February 2004 ........10-54
10.32.5.1
Cast Steel and Ductile Iron ............................................... February 2004 ........10-54
10.32.5.2
Malleable Castings .............................................................. February 2004 ........10-54
10.32.5.3
Cast Iron ............................................................................. February 2004 ........10-54
10.32.5.4
Deleted ................................................................................. February 2004 ........10-54
10.32.5.6
Bearing on Masonry ........................................................... February 2004 ........10-55
10.33 ROLLED BEAMS ......................................................................... February 2004 ........10-55
10.33.1
General ..................................................................................... February 2004 ........10-55
10.33.2
Bearing Stiffeners ................................................................... February 2004 ........10-55
10.34 PLATE GIRDERS ........................................................................ February 2004
10.34.1
General ..................................................................................... February 2004
10.34.2
Flanges ..................................................................................... February 2004
10.34.2.1
Welded Girders .................................................................. February 2004
10.34.2.2
Riveted or Bolted Girders ................................................. February 2004
10.34.3
Web Plates ............................................................................... February 2004
10.34.3.1
Girders Not Stiffened Longitudinally .............................. February 2004
10.34.3.2
Girders Stiffened Longitudinally ..................................... February 2004
10.34.4
Transverse Intermediate Stiffeners ....................................... February 2004
10.34.5
Longitudinal Stiffeners ........................................................... February 2004
10.34.6
Bearing Stiffeners ................................................................... February 2004
10.34.6.1
Welded Girders .................................................................. February 2004
10.34.6.2
Riveted or Bolted Girders ................................................. February 2004

........10-55
........10-55
........10-56
........10-56
........10-58
........10-58
........10-58
........10-58
........10-60
........10-62
........10-63
........10-63
........10-64

10.35 TRUSSES ...................................................................................... February 2004 ........10-64


10.35.1
Perforated Cover Plates and Lacing Bars ............................. February 2004 ........10-64
10.35.2
Compression Members ............................................................ February 2004 ........10-64
10.36

XXIV

COMBINED STRESSES .............................................................. February 2004 ........10-66

10.37 SOLID RIB ARCHES ................................................................... February 2004


10.37.1
Moment Amplification and Allowable Stress ........................ February 2004
10.37.2
Web Plates ............................................................................... February 2004
10.37.3
Flange Plates ........................................................................... February 2004

........10-67
........10-67
........10-68
........10-68

10.38 COMPOSITE BEAMS AND GIRDERS ...................................... February 2004


10.38.1
General ..................................................................................... February 2004
10.38.2
Shear Conectors ....................................................................... February 2004
10.38.3
Effective Flange Width ........................................................... February 2004
10.38.4
Stresses ..................................................................................... February 2004

........10-70
........10-70
........10-70
........10-71
........10-71

CONTENTS

BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

10.38.5
Shear ........................................................................................ February 2004
10.38.5.1
Horizontal Shear ................................................................. February 2004
10.38.5.2
Vertical Shear ..................................................................... February 2004
10.38.6
Deflection ................................................................................. February 2004

........10-71
........10-71
........10-74
........10-74

10.39 COMPOSITE BOX GIRDERS ..................................................... February 2004 ........10-74


10.39.1
General ..................................................................................... February 2004 ........10-74
10.39.2
Lateral Distribution of Loads for Bending Moment ............ February 2004 ........10-74
10.39.3
Web Plates ............................................................................... February 2004 ........10-75
10.39.3.1
Vertical Shear ..................................................................... February 2004 ........10-75
10.39.3.2
Secondary Bending Stresses ............................................. February 2004 ........10-75
10.39.4
Bottom Flange Plates .............................................................. February 2004 ........10-75
10.39.4.1
General ................................................................................ February 2004 ........10-75
10.39.4.2
Compression Flanges Unstiffened .................................... February 2004 ........10-75
10.39.4.3
Compression Flanges Stiffened Longitudinally .............. February 2004 ........10-76
10.39.4.4
Compression Flanges Stiffened Longitudinally ...........................................................
and Transversely ................................................................ February 2004 ........10-79
10.39.4.5
Compression Flange Stiffeners, General ......................... February 2004 ........10-80
10.39.5
Flange to Web Welds .............................................................. February 2004 ........10-80
10.39.6
Diaphragms ............................................................................. February 2004 ........10-80
10.39.7
Lateral Bracing ........................................................................ February 2004 ........10-80
10.39.8
Access and Drainage ............................................................... February 2004 ........10-80
10.40 HYBRID GIRDERS ...................................................................... February 2004
10.40.1
General ..................................................................................... February 2004
10.40.2
Allowable Stresses ................................................................... February 2004
10.40.2.1
Bending ............................................................................... February 2004
10.40.2.2
Shear ................................................................................... February 2004
10.40.2.3
Fatigue ................................................................................ February 2004
10.40.3
Plate Thickness Requirements ............................................... February 2004
10.40.4
Bearing Stiffener Requirements ............................................ February 2004

........10-80
........10-80
........10-80
........10-80
........10-81
........10-81
........10-81
........10-81

10.41 ORTHOTROPIC-DECK SUPERSTRUCTURES ......................... February 2004


10.41.1
General ..................................................................................... February 2004
10.41.2
Wheel Load Contact Area ....................................................... February 2004
10.41.3
Effective Width of Deck Plate ............................................... February 2004
10.41.3.1
Ribs and Beams .................................................................. February 2004
10.41.3.2
Girders ................................................................................ February 2004
10.41.4
Allowable Stresses ................................................................... February 2004
10.41.4.1
Local Bending Stresses in Deck Plate .............................. February 2004
10.41.4.2
Bending Stresses in Longitudinal Ribs ............................ February 2004
10.41.4.3
Bending Stresses in Transverse Beams ........................... February 2004
10.41.4.4
Intersections of Ribs, Beams, and Girders ...................... February 2004
10.41.4.5
Thickness of Plate Elements ............................................. February 2004
10.41.4.6
Maximum Slenderness of Longitudinal Ribs .................. February 2004
10.41.4.7
Diaphragms ........................................................................ February 2004
10.41.4.8
Stiffness Requirements ...................................................... February 2004
10.41.4.9
Wearing Surface................................................................. February 2004
10.41.4.10
Closed Ribs ......................................................................... February 2004

........10-82
........10-82
........10-82
........10-82
........10-82
........10-82
........10-82
........10-82
........10-83
........10-83
........10-83
........10-83
........10-83
........10-83
........10-83
........10-84
........10-84

CONTENTS

XXV

BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

Part D - Strength Design Method - Load Factor Design


10.42

SCOPE........................................................................................... February 2004 ........10-85

10.43

LOADS .......................................................................................... February 2004 ........10-85

10.44

DESIGN THEORY ....................................................................... February 2004 ........10-85

10.45

ASSUMPTIONS............................................................................ February 2004 ........10-85

10.46

DESIGN STRESS FOR STRUCTURAL STEEL ......................... February 2004 ........10-85

10.47

MAXIMUM DESIGN LOADS ..................................................... February 2004 ........10-85

10.48 FLEXURAL MEMBERS .............................................................. February 2004


10.48.1
Compact Sections .................................................................... February 2004
10.48.2
Braced Members with Non-Compact Sections ...................... February 2004
10.48.3
Transitions ............................................................................... February 2004
10.48.4
Partially Braced Sections Members ....................................... February 2004
10.48.5
Transversely Stiffened Girders .............................................. February 2004
10.48.6
Longitudinally Stiffened Girders .......................................... February 2004
10.48.7
Bearing Stiffeners ................................................................... February 2004
10.48.8
Shear ........................................................................................ February 2004
10.49
10.49.1
10.49.2
10.49.3
10.49.4
10.49.5

........10-85
........10-86
........10-87
........10-88
........10-88
........10-90
........10-91
........10-92
........10-92

FLEXURAL MEMBERS WITH SINGLY SYMMETRIC........................................................


SECTIONS .................................................................................... February 2004 ........10-93
General ..................................................................................... February 2004 ........10-93
Transversly Stiffened Sections ............................................... February 2004 ........10-93
Longitudinally Stiffened Sections ......................................... February 2004 ........10-94
Braced Non-Compact Sections ............................................... February 2004 ........10-94
Partially Braced Sections ........................................................ February 2004 ........10-94

10.50 COMPOSITE SECTIONS ............................................................ February 2004


10.50.1
Positive Moment Sections ...................................................... February 2004
10.50.1.1
Compact Sections ............................................................... February 2004
10.50.1.2
Non-Compact Sections ........................................................ February 2004
10.50.2
Negative Moment Sections ..................................................... February 2004
10.50.2.1
Compact Sections ............................................................... February 2004
10.50.2.2
Non-Compact Sections ........................................................ February 2004

........10-94
........10-95
........10-95
........10-97
........10-97
........10-97
........10-98

10.51 COMPOSITE BOX GIRDERS ..................................................... February 2004 ........10-98


10.51.1
Design Bending Strength ....................................................... February 2004 ........10-98
10.51.2
Live Load Moment Distribution ............................................ February 2004 ........10-98
10.51.3
Web Plates ............................................................................... February 2004 ........10-98
10.51.4
Tension Flanges ....................................................................... February 2004 ........10-99
10.51.5
Compression Flanges .............................................................. February 2004 ........10-99
10.51.6
Diaphragms ............................................................................. February 2004 ..... 10-100
10.51.7
Flange to Web Welds .............................................................. February 2004 ..... 10-100
10.52 SHEAR CONNECTORS ............................................................... February 2004
10.52.1
General ..................................................................................... February 2004
10.52.2
Number of Connectors ............................................................ February 2004
10.52.3
Maximum Spacing .................................................................. February 2004

..... 10-100
..... 10-100
..... 10-100
..... 10-100

10.53 HYBRID GIRDERS ...................................................................... February 2004 ..... 10-100


10.53.1
Non-Composite Sections ......................................................... February 2004 ..... 10-101

XXVI

CONTENTS

BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

10.53.1.1
Compact Sections ............................................................... February 2004
10.53.1.2
Braced Non-Compact Sections .......................................... February 2004
10.53.1.3
Partially Braced Sections .................................................. February 2004
10.53.1.4
Transversely Stiffened Girders ......................................... February 2004
10.53.2
Composite Sections ................................................................. February 2004

..... 10-101
..... 10-101
..... 10-101
..... 10-102
..... 10-102

10.54 COMPRESSION MEMBERS ....................................................... February 2004


10.54.1
Axial Loading .......................................................................... February 2004
10.54.1.1
Design Axial Strength ........................................................ February 2004
10.54.1.2
Effective Length ................................................................. February 2004
10.54.2
Combined Axial Load and Bending ...................................... February 2004
10.54.2.1
Deleted ................................................................................. February 2004
10.54.2.2
Deleted ................................................................................. February 2004

..... 10-102
..... 10-102
..... 10-102
..... 10-103
..... 10-103
..... 10-103
..... 10-103

10.55 SOLID RIB ARCHES ................................................................... February 2004


10.55.1
Moment Amplification and Allowable Stresses .................... February 2004
10.55.2
Web Plates ............................................................................... February 2004
10.55.3
Flange Plates ........................................................................... February 2004

..... 10-103
..... 10-103
..... 10-103
..... 10-105

10.56 SPLICES, CONNECTIONS, AND DETAILS ............................ February 2004


10.56.1
Connectors ............................................................................... February 2004
10.56.1.1
General ................................................................................ February 2004
10.56.1.2
Welds ................................................................................... February 2004
10.56.1.3
Fasteners ............................................................................ February 2004
10.56.1.4
Slip-Critical Joints .............................................................. February 2004
10.56.2
Bolts Subjected to Prying Action by Connected Parts ......... February 2004
10.56.3
Rigid Connections ................................................................... February 2004

..... 10-105
..... 10-105
..... 10-105
..... 10-105
..... 10-105
..... 10-107
..... 10-107
..... 10-107

10.57 OVERLOAD .................................................................................. February 2004


10.57.1
Non-Composite Sections ......................................................... February 2004
10.57.2
Composited Sections ............................................................... February 2004
10.57.3
Slip-Critical Joints ................................................................... February 2004

..... 10-107
..... 10-108
..... 10-108
..... 10-108

10.58 FATIGUE ...................................................................................... February 2004


10.58.1
General ..................................................................................... February 2004
10.58.2
Composite Construction .......................................................... February 2004
10.58.2.1
Slab Reinforcement ............................................................ February 2004
10.58.2.2
Shear Connectors ............................................................... February 2004
10.58.3
Hybrid Beams and Girders .................................................... February 2004

..... 10-109
..... 10-109
..... 10-109
..... 10-109
..... 10-109
..... 10-109

10.59

DEFLECTION .............................................................................. February 2004 ..... 10-109

10.60

ORTHOTROPIC SUPERSTRUCTURES ..................................... February 2004 ..... 10-109

10.61 CONSTRUCTIBILITY .................................................................. February 2004


10.61.1
Web .......................................................................................... February 2004
10.61.2
Deleted ...................................................................................... February 2004
10.61.3
Cross Section ........................................................................... February 2004
10.61.4
Compression Flange ................................................................ February 2004

..... 10-109
..... 10-109
..... 10-110
..... 10-110
..... 10-110

Section 11 - Aluminum Design


11.1

GENERAL ..................................................................................... April 2000 ................. 11-1

11.2

BRIDGES ...................................................................................... April 2000 ................. 11-1

CONTENTS

XXVII

BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

11.3

SOIL-METAL PLATE INTERACTION SYSTEMS .................... April 2000 .................11-1

11.4

STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, ...........................................................


LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS ................................ April 2000 .................11-1

11.5

BRIDGE RAILING....................................................................... April 2000 .................11-1

Section 12 - Soil-Corrugated Metal Structure Interaction Systems


12.1
GENERAL ..................................................................................... April 2000 .................12-1
12.1.1
Scope ........................................................................................ April 2000 .................12-1
12.1.2
Notations .................................................................................. April 2000 .................12-1
12.1.3
Loads ........................................................................................ April 2000 .................12-1
12.1.4
Design ...................................................................................... April 2000 .................12-1
12.1.5
Materials .................................................................................. April 2000 .................12.1
12.1.6
Soil Design ............................................................................... April 2000 .................12-1
12.1.6.1
Soil Parameters .................................................................. April 2000 .................12-1
12.1.6.2
Pipe Arch Design ............................................................... April 2000 ............... 12-2
12.1.6.3
Arch Design ........................................................................ April 2000 .................12-2
12.1.7
Abrasive or Corrosive Conditions .......................................... April 2000 .................12-2
12.1.8
Minimum Spacing ................................................................... April 2000 .................12-2
12.1.9
End Treatment ........................................................................ April 2000 .................12-2
12.1.10
Deleted ...................................................................................... April 2000 .................12-2
12.2

SERVICE LOAD DESIGN ........................................................... April 2000 .................12-2

12.3
12.3.1
12.3.2
12.3.3
12.3.4

LOAD FACTOR DESIGN ............................................................ April 2000


Wall Area ................................................................................. April 2000
Buckling .................................................................................... April 2000
Seam Strength ......................................................................... April 2000
Handling and Installation Strength ....................................... April 2000

.................12-2
.................12-3
.................12-3
.................12-3
.................12-3

12.4
CORRUGATED METAL PIPE .................................................... April 2000
12.4.1
General ..................................................................................... April 2000
12.4.1.2
Service Load Design- Safety Factor, SF:.......................... April 2000
12.4.1.3
Load Factor Design - Capacity Modification Factor, .. April 2000
12.4.1.4
Flexibility Factor ................................................................ April 2000
12.4.1.5
Minimum Cover ................................................................. April 2000
12.4.2
Seam Strength ......................................................................... April 2000
12.4.3
Section Properties ................................................................... April 2000
12.4.3.1
Steel Conduits .................................................................... April 2000
12.4.3.2
Aluminum Conduits ........................................................... April 2000
12.4.4
Chemical and Mechanical Requirements .............................. April 2000
12.4.5
Smooth Lined Pipe ................................................................. April 2000

.................12-3
.................12-3
.................12-3
.................12-4
.................12-4
.................12-4
.................12-4
.................12-5
.................12-5
.................12-5
.................12-6
.................12-6

12.5
SPIRAL RIB METAL PIPE ........................................................ April 2000 .................12-6
12.5.1
General ..................................................................................... April 2000 .................12-6
12.5.2
Design ...................................................................................... April 2000 .................12-6
12.5.2.1
Load Factor Design ............................................................ April 2000 .................12-6
12.5.2.2
Flexibility Factor ................................................................ April 2000 .................12-6
12.5.2.3
Minimum Cover ................................................................. April 2000 .................12-6
12.5.3
Section Properties ................................................................... April 2000 .................12-6
12.5.3.1
Steel Conduits .................................................................... April 2000 .................12-6

XXVIII

CONTENTS

BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

12.5.3.2
12.5.4
12.5.4.1
12.5.4.2
12.5.5

Aluminum Conduits ........................................................... April 2000 ................. 12-7


Chemical and Mechanical Requirements .............................. April 2000 ................. 12-7
Steel Spiral Rib Pipe and Pipe - ...................................................................................
Arch Requirements - AASHTO M 218 ............................. April 2000 ................. 12-7
Aluminum Spiral Rib Pipe and Pipe - ..........................................................................
Arch Requirements - AASHTO M 197 ............................. April 2000 ................. 12-7
Construction Requirements .................................................... April 2000 ................. 12-7

12.6
STRUCTURAL PLATE PIPE STRUCTURES ............................ April 2000 ................. 12-7
12.6.1
General ..................................................................................... April 2000 ................. 12-7
12.6.1.2
Service Load Design - Safety Factor, SF ......................... April 2000 ................. 12-7
12.6.1.3
Load Factor Design Capacity Modification Factor ......... April 2000 ................. 12-7
12.6.1.4
Flexiblility Factor ............................................................... April 2000 ................. 12-8
12.6.1.5
Minimum Cover ................................................................. April 2000 ................. 12-8
12.6.2
Seam Strength ......................................................................... April 2000 ................. 12-8
12.6.3
Section Properties ................................................................... April 2000 ................. 12-9
12.6.3.1
Steel Conduits .................................................................... April 2000 ................. 12-9
12.6.3.2
Aluminum Conduits ........................................................... April 2000 ................. 12-9
12.6.4
Chemical and Mechanical Properties .................................... April 2000 ................. 12-9
12.6.4.1
Steel Structural Plate Pipe, Pipe-Arch, and Arch ........................................................
Material Requirements - AASHTO M167 ........................ April 2000 ................. 12-9
12.6.4.2
Aluminum Structural Plate Pipe, Pipe-Arch, and ........................................................
Arch Material Requirements - ........................................................................................
AASHTO M 219, Alloy 5052 ............................................. April 2000 ................. 12-9
12.6.5
Structural Plate Arches ........................................................... April 2000 ................. 12-9
12.7
LONG SPAN STRUCTURAL PLATE STRUCTURES ............... April 2000
12.7.1
General ..................................................................................... April 2000
12.7.2
Structure Design ..................................................................... April 2000
12.7.2.1
General ................................................................................ April 2000
12.7.2.2
Acceptable Special Features .............................................. April 2000
12.7.3
Foundation Design ................................................................. April 2000
12.7.3.1
Settlement Limits ............................................................... April 2000
12.7.3.2
Footing Reactions (Arch Structures) ................................ April 2000
12.7.3.3
Footing Design ................................................................... April 2000
12.7.4
Soil Envelope Design .............................................................. April 2000
12.7.5
End Treatment ........................................................................ April 2000
12.7.6
Multiple Structures ................................................................. April 2000
12.8

................. 12-9
................. 12-9
...............12-10
...............12-10
...............12-10
...............12-10
...............12-10
...............12-11
...............12-13
...............12-13
...............12-14
...............12-14

STRUCTURAL PLATE BOX CULVERT .................................... April 2000 ...............12-14

Section 13 - Wood Structures


13.1
13.1.1
13.1.2
13.1.3
13.1.4

GENERAL AND NOTATIONS .................................................... April 2000


General ..................................................................................... April 2000
Net Section .............................................................................. April 2000
Impact ...................................................................................... April 2000
Notations .................................................................................. April 2000

................. 13-1
................. 13-1
................. 13-1
................. 13-1
................. 13-1

13.2
MATERIALS ................................................................................. April 2000 ................. 13-2
13.2.1
Sawn Lumber .......................................................................... April 2000 ................. 13-2
13.2.1.1
General ................................................................................ April 2000 ................. 13-2

CONTENTS

XXIX

BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

13.2.1.2
13.2.2
13.2.2.1
13.2.2.2
13.2.3
13.2.3.1
13.2.3.2
13.2.3.3
13.2.3.4
13.2.4

Dimensions ......................................................................... April 2000


Glued Laminated Timber ....................................................... April 2000
General ................................................................................ April 2000
Dimensions ......................................................................... April 2000
Structural Composite Lumber ................................................ April 2000
General ................................................................................ April 2000
Laminated Veneer Lumber ............................................... April 2000
Parallel Strand Lumber ..................................................... April 2000
Dimensions ......................................................................... April 2000
Piles .......................................................................................... April 2000

.................13-2
.................13-3
.................13-3
.................13-3
.................13-3
.................13-3
.................13-3
.................13-3
.................13-3
.................13-3

13.3
13.3.1
13.3.2
13.3.3
13.3.4

PRESERVATIVE TREATMENT .................................................. April 2000


Requirement for Treament ..................................................... April 2000
Treatment Chemicals .............................................................. April 2000
Field Testing............................................................................ April 2000
Fire Retardant Treatments .................................................... April 2000

.................13-3
.................13-3
.................13-3
.................13-3
.................13-4

13.4

DEFLECTION .............................................................................. April 2000 .................13-4

13.5
DESIGN VALUES ........................................................................ April 2000 .................13-4
13.5.1
General ..................................................................................... April 2000 .................13-4
13.5.2
Tabulated Values for Sawn Lumber ...................................... April 2000 .................13-4
13.5.2.2
Stress Grades in Flexure ................................................... April 2000 .................13-4
13.5.3
Tabulated Values for Glued Laminated Timber ................... April 2000 .................13-4
13.5.4
Tablulated Values for Structural Composite Lumber ........... April 2000 ...............13-13
13.5.5
Adjustments to Tabulated Design Values .............................. April 2000 ...............13-13
13.5.5.1
Wet Service Factor, C M .................................................................... April 2000 ...............13-13
13.5.5.2
Load Duration Factor, C D ............................................................... April 2000 ...............13-13
13.5.5.3
Adjustment for Preservative Treatment ........................... April 2000 ...............13-21
13.6
BENDING MEMBERS ................................................................. April 2000 ...............13-21
13.6.1
General ..................................................................................... April 2000 ...............13-21
13.6.2
Notching ................................................................................... April 2000 ...............13-21
13.6.3
Modulus of Elasticity .............................................................. April 2000 ...............13-22
13.6.4
Bending .................................................................................... April 2000 ...............13-22
13.6.4.1
Allowable Stress .................................................................. April 2000 ...............13-22
13.6.4.2
Size Factor, C F ..................................................................................... April 2000 ...............13-22
13.6.4.3
Volume Factor, C V .............................................................................. April 2000 ...............13-22
13.6.4.4
Beam Stability Factor, C L ............................................................... April 2000 ...............13-23
13.6.4.5
Form Factor, C f .................................................................................... April 2000 ...............13-23
13.6.5
Shear Parallel to Grain ........................................................... April 2000 ...............13-24
13.6.5.1
General ................................................................................ April 2000 ...............13-24
13.6.5.2
Actual Stress ....................................................................... April 2000 ...............13-24
13.6.5.3
Allowable Stress .................................................................. April 2000 ...............13-24
13.6.6
Compression Perpendicular to Grain.................................... April 2000 ...............13-24
13.6.6.1
General ................................................................................ April 2000 ...............13-24
13.6.6.2
Allowable Stress .................................................................. April 2000 ...............13-24
13.6.6.3
Bearing Area Factor, C b ................................................................... April 2000 ...............13-25
13.6.7
Bearing on Inclined Surfaces ................................................. April 2000 ...............13-25
13.7
13.7.1
13.7.2

XXX

COMPRESSION MEMBERS ....................................................... April 2000 ...............13-25


General ..................................................................................... April 2000 ...............13-25
Eccentric Loading or Combined Stresses .............................. April 2000 ...............13-25

CONTENTS

BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

13.7.3
13.7.3.1
13.7.3.2
13.7.3.3
13.7.3.4
13.7.3.5
13.7.4
13.8
13.8.1

Compression ............................................................................ April 2000


Net Section ......................................................................... April 2000
Allowable Stress .................................................................. April 2000
Column Stability Factor, C P ........................................................... April 2000
Tapered Columns ............................................................... April 2000
Round Columns .................................................................. April 2000
Bearing Parallel to Grain ....................................................... April 2000

...............13-26
...............13-26
...............13-26
...............13-26
...............13-27
...............13-27
...............13-27

TENSION MEMBERS ................................................................. April 2000 ...............13-28


Tension Parallel to Grain ....................................................... April 2000 ...............13-28

Section 14 - Bearings
14.1

SCOPE .......................................................................................... April 2000 ................. 14-1

14.2

DEFINITIONS ............................................................................. April 2000 ................. 14-1

14.3

NOTATIONS ................................................................................. April 2000 ................. 14-2

14.4
14.4.1

MOVEMENTS AND LOADS ....................................................... April 2000 ................. 14-3


Design Requirements .............................................................. April 2000 ................. 14-3

14.5
14.5.1
14.5.2
14.5.3

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BEARINGS ....................... April 2000 ................. 14-3


Load and Movement Capabilities .......................................... April 2000 ................. 14-3
Characteristics ......................................................................... April 2000 ................. 14-3
Forces in the Structure Caused by Restraint of ................................................................
Movement at the Bearing ....................................................... April 2000 ................. 14-6
14.5.3.1
Horizontal Force ................................................................. April 2000 ................. 14-6
14.5.3.2
Bending Moment ................................................................ April 2000 ................. 14-6
14.6
SPECIAL DESIGN PROVISIONS FOR BEARINGS ................ April 2000 ................. 14-6
14.6.1
Deleted ...................................................................................... April 2000 ................. 14-6
14.6.2
PTFE Sliding Surfaces ............................................................ April 2000 ................. 14-7
14.6.2.1
PTFE Surface ..................................................................... April 2000 ................. 14-7
14.6.2.2
Mating Surface ................................................................... April 2000 ................. 14-7
14.6.2.3
Minimum Thickness Requirements .................................. April 2000 ................. 14-7
14.6.2.4
Contact Pressure ................................................................ April 2000 ................. 14-7
14.6.2.5
Coefficient of Friction ....................................................... April 2000 ................. 14-7
14.6.2.6
Attachment .......................................................................... April 2000 ................. 14-8
14.6.3
Bearings with Curved Sliding Surfaces ................................ April 2000 ................. 14-9
14.6.3.1
Geometric Requirements ................................................... April 2000 ................. 14-9
14.6.3.2
Resistance to Lateral Load ................................................ April 2000 ................. 14-9
14.6.4
Deleted ...................................................................................... April 2000 ...............14-10
14.6.5
Steel Reinforced Elastomeric Bearings - Method B ............. April 2000 ...............14-10
14.6.5.1
General ................................................................................ April 2000 ...............14-10
14.6.5.2
Material Properties ............................................................ April 2000 ...............14-10
14.6.5.3
Design Requirements ......................................................... April 2000 ...............14-10
14.6.6
Elastomeric Pads and Steel Reinforced .............................................................................
Elastomeric Bearings - Method A .......................................... April 2000 ...............14-13
14.6.6.1
General ................................................................................ April 2000 ...............14-13
14.6.6.2
Material Properties ............................................................ April 2000 ...............14-13
14.6.6.3
Design Requirements ......................................................... April 2000 ...............14-13
14.6.6.4
Resistance to Deformation ................................................ April 2000 ...............14-14
14.6.7
Deleted ...................................................................................... April 2000 ...............14-14

CONTENTS

XXXI

BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

14.6.8
14.6.9
14.6.9.1
14.6.9.2
14.6.9.3
14.6.9.4
14.6.9.5
14.6.9.6
14.6.10

Deleted ...................................................................................... April 2000


Guides and Restraints ............................................................ April 2000
General ................................................................................ April 2000
Design Loads ...................................................................... April 2000
Materials ............................................................................. April 2000
Geometric Requirements ................................................... April 2000
Design Basis ....................................................................... April 2000
Attachment of Low-Friction Material ............................... April 2000
Other Bearing System ............................................................. April 2000

...............14-14
...............14-15
...............14-15
...............14-15
...............14-15
...............14-15
...............14-15
...............14-15
...............14-15

14.7
14.7.1
14.7.2
14.7.3

LOAD PLATES AND ANCHORAGE FOR BEARINGS ............ April 2000


Plates for Load Distribution .................................................. April 2000
Tapered Plates ......................................................................... April 2000
Anchorage ................................................................................ April 2000

...............14-16
...............14-16
...............14-16
...............14-16

14.8

CORROSION PROTECTION ....................................................... April 2000 ...............14-16

Section 15 - TFE Bearing Surface


Section 15 has been replaced by Section 14, "Bearings".

Section 16 - Steel Tunnel Liner Plates


16.1
16.1.1
16.1.2

GENERAL AND NOTATIONS .................................................... April 2000 .................16-1


General ..................................................................................... April 2000 .................16-1
Notations .................................................................................. April 2000 .................16-1

16.2

LOADS .......................................................................................... April 2000 .................16-1

16.3
16.3.1
16.3.2
16.3.3
16.3.4
16.3.5

DESIGN ........................................................................................ April 2000


Criteria ..................................................................................... April 2000
Joint Strength .......................................................................... April 2000
Minimum Stiffness for Installation ....................................... April 2000
Critical Buckling of Liner Plate Wall .................................... April 2000
Deflection or Flattening .......................................................... April 2000

16.4
16.4.1
16.4.2
16.4.3

CHEMICAL AND MECHANICAL REQUIREMENTS .............. April 2000 .................16-4


Chemical Composition ............................................................ April 2000 .................16-4
Minimum Mechanical Properties of Flat Plate before .....................................................
Cold Forming ........................................................................... April 2000 .................16-4
Dimensions and Tolerances ................................................... April 2000 .................16-4

16.5

SECTION PROPERTIES ............................................................. April 2000 .................16-4

16.6

COATINGS .................................................................................... April 2000 .................16-4

16.7

BOLTS ........................................................................................... April 2000 .................16-4

16.8

SAFETY FACTORS ...................................................................... April 2000 .................16-5

.................16-2
.................16-2
.................16-2
.................16-3
.................16-3
.................16-4

Section 17 - Soil Reinforced Concrete Structure Interaction Systems


17.1
17.1.1

XXXII

GENERAL ..................................................................................... April 2000 .................17-1


Scope ........................................................................................ April 2000 .................17-1

CONTENTS

BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

17.1.2
17.1.3
17.1.4
17.1.5
17.1.6
17.1.7
17.1.8
17.1.9

Notations .................................................................................. April 2000


Loads ........................................................................................ April 2000
Design ...................................................................................... April 2000
Deleted ...................................................................................... April 2000
Soil ............................................................................................ April 2000
Abrasive or Corrosive Conditions .......................................... April 2000
End Structures ........................................................................ April 2000
Deleted ...................................................................................... April 2000

................. 17-1
................. 17-3
................. 17-3
................. 17-3
................. 17-3
................. 17-3
................. 17-3
................. 17-3

17.2

SERVICE LOAD DESIGN ........................................................... April 2000 ................. 17-3

17.3

LOAD FACTOR DESIGN ............................................................ April 2000 ................. 17-3

17.4
REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPE .............................................. April 2000 ................. 17-3
17.4.1
Application ............................................................................... April 2000 ................. 17-3
17.4.2
Materials .................................................................................. April 2000 ................. 17-3
17.4.2.1
Concrete .............................................................................. April 2000 ................. 17-3
17.4.2.2
Reinforcement .................................................................... April 2000 ................. 17-3
17.4.2.3
Concrete Cover for Reinforcement ................................... April 2000 ................. 17-3
17.4.3
Installations ............................................................................. April 2000 ................. 17-4
17.4.3.1
Standard Installations ........................................................ April 2000 ................. 17-4
17.4.3.2
Deleted ................................................................................. April 2000 ................. 17-4
17.4.4
Design ...................................................................................... April 2000 ................. 17-4
17.4.4.1
General Requirements ....................................................... April 2000 ................. 17-4
17.4.4.2
Loads ................................................................................... April 2000 ................. 17-5
17.4.4.3
Minimum Fill ..................................................................... April 2000 ................. 17-5
17.4.4.4
Design Methods ................................................................. April 2000 ................. 17-5
17.4.5
Indirect Design Method Based on Pipe Strength and .....................................................
Load-Carrying Capacity .......................................................... April 2000 ...............17-10
17.4.5.1
Loads ................................................................................... April 2000 ...............17-10
17.4.5.2
Bedding Factor ................................................................... April 2000 ...............17-11
17.4.6
Direct Design Method for Precast Reinforced ..................................................................
Concrete Circular Pipe ........................................................... April 2000 ...............17-12
17.4.6.1
Application .......................................................................... April 2000 ...............17-12
17.4.6.2
General ................................................................................ April 2000 ...............17-12
17.4.6.3
Strength-Reduction Factors ............................................... April 2000 ...............17-13
17.4.6.4
Process and Material Factors ............................................ April 2000 ...............17-13
17.4.6.5
Orientation Angle ............................................................... April 2000 ...............17-13
17.4.7
Development of Quadrant Mat Reinforcement .................... April 2000 ...............17-19
17.5
REINFORCED CONCRETE ARCH, CAST-IN-PLACE .............. April 2000 ...............17-19
17.5.1
Application ............................................................................... April 2000 ...............17-19
17.5.2
Materials .................................................................................. April 2000 ...............17-19
17.5.2.1
Concrete .............................................................................. April 2000 ...............17-19
17.5.2.2
Reinforcement .................................................................... April 2000 ...............17-19
17.5.3
Design ...................................................................................... April 2000 ...............17-20
17.5.3.1
General Requirements ....................................................... April 2000 ...............17-20
17.5.3.2
Minimum Cover ................................................................. April 2000 ...............17-20
17.5.3.3
Strength-Reduction Factors ............................................... April 2000 ...............17-20
17.5.3.4
Splices of Reinforcement ................................................... April 2000 ...............17-20
17.5.3.5
Footing Design ................................................................... April 2000 ...............17-20
17.6

REINFORCED CONCRETE BOX, CAST-IN-PLACE ................ April 2000 ...............17-20

CONTENTS

XXXIII

BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

17.6.1
17.6.2
17.6.2.1
17.6.2.2
17.6.3
17.6.4
17.6.4.1
17.6.4.2
17.6.4.3

Application ............................................................................... April 2000 ...............17-20


Materials .................................................................................. April 2000 ...............17-20
Concrete .............................................................................. April 2000 ...............17-20
Reinforcement .................................................................... April 2000 ...............17-20
Concrete Cover for Reinforcement ........................................ April 2000 ...............17-20
Design ...................................................................................... April 2000 ...............17-20
General Requirements ....................................................... April 2000 ...............17-20
Deleted ................................................................................. April 2000 ...............17-20
Distribution of Concentrated Load Effects to 20 .........................................................
Bottom Slab ......................................................................... April 2000 ...............17-20
Distribution of Concentrated Loads in Skewed
Culverts ............................................................................... April 2000 ...............17-20
Span Length ....................................................................... April 2000 ...............17-21
Strength Reduction Factors .............................................. April 2000 ...............17-21
Crack Control ...................................................................... April 2000 ...............17-21
Minimum Reinforcement................................................... April 2000 ...............17-21

17.6.4.4
17.6.4.5
17.6.4.6
17.6.4.7
17.6.4.8

17.7
REINFORCED CONCRETE BOX, PRECAST ............................ April 2000 ...............17-21
17.7.1
Application ............................................................................... April 2000 ...............17-21
17.7.2
Materials .................................................................................. April 2000 ...............17-21
17.7.2.1
Concrete .............................................................................. April 2000 ...............17-21
17.7.2.2
Reinforcement .................................................................... April 2000 ...............17-21
17.7.3
Concrete Cover for Reinforcement ........................................ April 2000 ...............17-21
17.7.4
Design ...................................................................................... April 2000 ...............17-22
17.7.4.1
General Requirements ....................................................... April 2000 ...............17-22
17.7.4.2
Deleted ................................................................................. April 2000 ...............17-22
17.7.4.3
Distribution of Concentrated Load Effects in ..............................................................
Sides and Bottoms ............................................................. April 2000 ...............17-22
17.7.4.4
Distribution of Concentrated Loads in Skewed
Culverts ............................................................................... April 2000 ...............17-22
17.7.4.5
Span Length ....................................................................... April 2000 ...............17-22
17.7.4.6
Strength Reduction Factors .............................................. April 2000 ...............17-22
17.7.4.7
Crack Control ...................................................................... April 2000 ...............17-22
17.7.4.8
Minimum Reinforcement................................................... April 2000 ...............17-22
17.7.4.9
Shear Transfer in Transverse Joints Between .............................................................
Culvert Sections .................................................................. April 2000 ...............17-22
17.8
17.8.1
17.8.2
17.8.2.1
17.8.2.2
17.8.3
17.8.4
17.8.5
17.8.5.1
17.8.5.2
17.8.5.3
17.8.5.4

XXXIV

PRECAST REINFORCED CONCRETE THREE-SIDED ........................................................


STRUCTURES .............................................................................. April 2000 ...............17-23
Application ............................................................................... April 2000 ...............17-23
Materials .................................................................................. April 2000 ...............17-23
Concrete .............................................................................. April 2000 ...............17-23
Reinforcement .................................................................... April 2000 ...............17-23
Concrete Cover for Reinforcement ........................................ April 2000 ...............17-23
Geometric Properties .............................................................. April 2000 ...............17-23
Design ...................................................................................... April 2000 ...............17-23
General Requirements ....................................................... April 2000 ...............17-23
Distribution of Concentrated Load Effects in Side ........ April 2000 ...............17-23
Distribution of Concentrated Loads in .........................................................................
Skewed Culverts ................................................................. April 2000 ...............17-23
Shear Transfer in Transverse Joints Between .............................................................
Culvert Section ................................................................... April 2000 ...............17-23

CONTENTS

BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

17.8.5.5
17.8.5.6
17.8.5.7
17.8.5.8
17.8.5.9
17.8.5.10
17.8.5.11
17.8.5.12

Span Length ....................................................................... April 2000


Strength Reduction Factor ................................................ April 2000
Crack Control ...................................................................... April 2000
Minimum Reinforcement .................................................. April 2000
Deflection Control .............................................................. April 2000
Footing Design ................................................................... April 2000
Structure Backfill ................................................................ April 2000
Scour Protection ................................................................. April 2000

...............17-24
...............17-24
...............17-24
...............17-24
...............17-24
...............17-24
...............17-24
...............17-24

Section 18 - Soil-Thermoplastic Pipe Interaction Systems


18.1
GENERAL ..................................................................................... April 2000 ................. 18-1
18.1.1
Scope ........................................................................................ April 2000 ................. 18-1
18.1.2
Notations .................................................................................. April 2000 ................. 18-1
18.1.3
Loads ........................................................................................ April 2000 ................. 18-1
18.1.4
Design ...................................................................................... April 2000 ................. 18-1
18.1.5
Materials .................................................................................. April 2000 ................. 18-1
18.1.6
Soil Design ............................................................................... April 2000 ................. 18-1
18.1.6.1
Soil Parameters .................................................................. April 2000 ................. 18-1
18.1.7
Abrasive or Corrosive Conditions .......................................... April 2000 ................. 18-2
18.1.8
Minimum Spacing ................................................................... April 2000 ................. 18-2
18.1.9
End Treatment ........................................................................ April 2000 ................. 18-2
18.1.10
Deleted ...................................................................................... April 2000 ................. 18-2
18.2

SERVICE LOAD DESIGN ........................................................... April 2000 ................. 18-2

18.3
18.3.1
18.3.2
18.3.3

LOAD FACTOR DESIGN ............................................................ April 2000


Wall Area ................................................................................. April 2000
Buckling .................................................................................... April 2000
Handling and Installation Strength ....................................... April 2000

................. 18-2
................. 18-2
................. 18-2
................. 18-3

18.4
PLASTIC PIPE ............................................................................ April 2000 ................. 18-3
18.4.1
General ..................................................................................... April 2000 ................. 18-3
18.4.1.2
Deleted ................................................................................. April 2000 ................. 18-3
18.4.1.3
Load Factor Design - Capacity Modification Factor, : . April 2000 ................. 18-3
18.4.1.4
Flexibility Factor ................................................................ April 2000 ................. 18-3
18.4.1.5
Minimum Cover ................................................................. April 2000 ................. 18-3
18.4.1.6
Maximum Strain ................................................................ April 2000 ................. 18-3
18.4.1.7
Local Buckling .................................................................... April 2000 ................. 18-3
18.4.2
Section Properties ................................................................... April 2000 ................. 18-3
18.4.2.1
PE Corrugated Pipes (AASHTO M 294) ......................... April 2000 ................. 18-4
18.4.2.2
PE Ribbed Pipes (ASTM F 894) ...................................... April 2000 ................. 18-4
18.4.2.3
Profile Wall (Ribbed) PVC Pipes (AASHTO M 304) ...... April 2000 ................. 18-4
18.4.3
Chemical and Mechanical Requirements .............................. April 2000 ................. 18-4
18.4.3.1
Polyethylene ....................................................................... April 2000 ................. 18-4
18.4.3.2
Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) .............................................. April 2000 ................. 18-5

Appendix A
Deleted February 2004 (Live Load Tables)

CONTENTS

XXXV

BRIDGE D ESIGN SPECIFICATIONS SEPTEMBER 2004

Appendix B
Truck Train Loadings ................................................................................. April 2000 ...................B-1

Appendix C
Columns ....................................................................................................... April 2000 ...................C-1

Appendix D
Computation of Plastic Section Modulus Z* ............................................. April 2000 .................. D-1

XXXVI

CONTENTS

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS APRIL 2000

SECTION 1 - GENERAL PROVISIONS

1.1

DESIGN ANALYSIS AND GENERAL

1.3

STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY FOR


BRIDGES

1.3.1

The intent of these specifications is to produce integrity of design in bridges.

1.1.1

Design Analysis

When these Specifications provide for empirical formulae, alternate rational analyses, based on theories or
tests and accepted by the authority having jurisdiction,
will be considered as compliance with these Specifications.

1.1.2

Structural Integrity

Designs and details for new bridges should address


structural integrity by considering the following:
(a) The use of continuity and redundancy to provide
one or more alternative load paths.
(b) Structural members and bearing seat widths that
are resistant to damage or instability.
(c) External protection systems to minimize the effects of reasonably conceived severe loads.

1.1

BRIDGE LOCATIONS

The general location of a bridge is governed by the


route of the highway it carries, which, in the case of a new
highway, could be one of several routes under consideration. The bridge location should be selected to suit the
particular obstacle being crossed. Stream crossings
should be located with regard to initial capital cost of
bridgeworks and the minimization of total cost including
river channel training works and the maintenance measures necessary to reduce erosion. Highway and railroad
crossings should provide for possible future works such
as road widening.

WATERWAYS
General

1.3.1.1
Selecting favorable stream crossings
should be considered in the preliminary route determination to minimize construction, maintenance, and replacement costs. Natural stream meanders conditions should
be studied and, if necessary, channel changes, river
training works, and other construction that would reduce
erosion problems and prevent possible loss of the structure should be considered. The foundations of bridges
constructed across channels that have been realigned
should be designed for possible deepening and widening
of the relocated channel due to natural causes. On wide
flood plains, the lowering of approach embankments to
provide overflow sections that would pass unusual floods
over the highway is a means of preventing loss of structures. Where relief bridges are needed to maintain the
natural flow distribution and reduce backwater, caution
must be exercised in proportioning the size and in locating such structures to avoid undue scour or changes in the
course of the main river channel.
1.3.1.2
Usually, bridge waterways are sized to
pass a design flood of a magnitude and frequency consistent with the type of class of highway. In the selection of
the waterway opening, consideration should be given to
the amount of upstream ponding, the passage of ice and
debris, and possible scour of the bridge foundatons.
Where floods exceeding the design flood have occurred,
or where superfloods would cause extensive damage to
adjoining property or the loss of a costly structure, a
larger waterway opening may be warranted. Due consideration should be given to any federal, state, and local
requirements.
1.3.1.3
Relief openings, spur-dikes, and channel training works should be used where needed to
minimize the effect of adverse flood flow conditions.
Where scour is likely to occur, protection against damage
from scour should be provided in the design of bridge
piers and abutments. Embankment slopes adjacent to

SECTION 1 GENERAL PROVISIONS

1-1

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS MARCH 1999

structures subject to erosion should be adequately protected by riprap, flexible mattresses, retards, spur dikes or
other appropriate construction. Clearing of brush and
trees along embankments in the vicinity of bridge openings should be avoided to prevent high flow velocities
and possible scour. Borrow pits should not be located in
areas which would increase velocities and the possibility
of scour at bridges.

1.4

Culvert location, length, and waterway openings


should be in accordance with the AASHTO Guide on the
Hydraulic Design of Culverts in Highway Drainage
Guidelines.

1.5
1.3.2

Site Data

(a) Maps, stream cross sections aerial photographs.


(b) Complete data on existing bridges, including dates
of construction and performance during past
floods.
(c) Available high water marks with dates of occurrence.
(d) Information on ice debris, and channel stability.
(e) Factors affecting water stages such as high water
from other streams, reservoirs, flood control
projects, and tides.
(f) Geomorphic changes in channel flow.

1.3.2.2

Hydrologic Analysis

(a) Flood data applicable to estimating floods at site,


including both historical floods and maximum
floods of record.
(b) Flood-frequency curve for site.
(c) Distribution of flow and velocities at site of flood
discharges to be considered in design of structure.
(d) Stage-discharge curve for site.

1.3.2.3

Hydraulic Analysis

(a) Backwater and mean velocities at bridge opening


for various trial bridge lengths and selected discharges.
(b) Estimated scour depth at piers and abutments of
proposed structures.
(c) Effect of natural geomorphic stream pattern
changes on the proposed structure.

1-2

ROADWAY DRAINAGE

Hydraulic Studies

Hydraulic studies of bridge sites are a necessary part


of the preliminary design of a bridge and reports of such
studies should include applicable parts of the following
outline:

1.3.2.1

CULVERT LOCATION, LENGTH,


AND WATERWAY OPENINGS

SECTION 1 GENERAL PROVISIONS

The transverse drainage of the roadway should be


provided by a suitable crown in the roadway surface and
longitudinal drainage by camber or gradient. Water
flowing downgrade in a gutter section should be intercepted and not permitted to run onto the bridge. Short,
continuous span bridges, particularly overpasses, may be
built without inlets and the water from the bridge roadway carried downslope by open or closed chutes near the
end of the bridge structure. Longitudinal drainage on
long bridges should be provided by scuppers or inlets
which should be of sufficient size and number to drain the
gutters adequately. Downspouts, where required, should
be made of rigid corrosion-resistant material not less than
4 inches in least dimension and should be provided with
cleanouts. The details of deck drains should be such as to
prevent the discharge of drainage water against any
portion of the structure or on moving traffic below, and
to prevent erosion at the outlet of the downspout. Deck
drains may be connected to conduits leading to storm
water outfalls at ground level. Overhanging portions of
concrete decks should be provided with a drop bead or
notch.

1.6
1.6.1

RAILROAD OVERPASSES
Clearances

Structures designed to overpass a railroad shall be in


accordance with standards established and used by the
affected railroad in its normal practice. These overpass
structures shall comply with applicable Federal, State,
and local laws.
Regulations, codes, and standards should, as a minimum, meet the specifications and design standards of the
American Railway Engineering Association, the Association of American Railroads, and AASHTO.

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS MARCH 1999

1.6.2

Blast Protection

On bridges over railroads with steam locomotives,


metal likely to be damaged by locomotive gases, and all
concrete surfaces less than 20 feet above the tracks, shall
be protected by blast plates. The plates shall be placed to
take account of the direction of blast when the locomotive
is on level or superelevated tracks by centering them on
a line normal to the plane of the two rails at the centerline
of the tracks. The plates shall be not less than 4 feet wide
and shall be cast-iron, a corrosion and blast resisting
alloy, or asbestos-board shields, so supported that they
may be readily replaced. The thickness of plates and other
parts in direct contact with locomotive blast shall be not
less than 3/4 inch for cast iron, 3/8 inch for alloy, 1/2 inch
for plain asbestos-board and 7/16 inch for corrugated
asbestos-board. Bolts shall be not less than 5/8 inch in
diameter. Pocket which may hold locomotive gases shall
be avoided as far as practical. All fastenings shall be
galvanized or made of corrosion resistant material.

1.7

SUPERELEVATION

The superelevation of the floor surface of a bridge on


a horizontal curve shall be provided in accordance with
the standard practice of the commission for the highway
construction, except that the superelevation shall not
exceed 0.10 foot per foot width of roadway.

1.8

FLOOR SURFACES

All bridge floors shall have skid-resistant characteristics.

1.9

UTILITIES

Where required, provisions shall be made for trolley


wire supports and poles lighting pillars, electric conduits,
telephone conduits, water pipes, gas pipes, sanitary sewers, and other utility appurtenances.

SECTION 1 GENERAL PROVISIONS

1-3

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS MAY 2006

SECTION 2 - GENERAL FEATURES OF DESIGN

2.1

GENERAL

2.1.1
b

b'

d
Fa
Fb
Fv
Fy
fa
h

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

L
P

=
=

P'

t
w

=
=

truss, girder, or parapet wall adjacent to the roadway curb,


the width shall be measured to the extreme walk side of
these members.

Notations
flat width of square or rectangular tube (Article
2.7.4.3[b])
width of projecting flange element (Article
2.7.4.3)
modification factor for concentrated load, P,
used in the design of rail members (Article
2.7.1.3.1)
clear unsupported distance between flange
components (Article 2.7.4.3)
depth of W or I section (Article 2.7.4.3)
allowable axial stress (Article 2.7.4.3)
allowable bending stress (Article 2.7.4.2)
allowable shear stress (Article 2.7.4.2)
minimum yield stress (Article 2.7.4.2)
axial compression stress (Article 2.7.4.3)
height of top rail above reference surface
(Figure 2.7.4B)
post spacing (Figure 2.7.4B)
railing design loading = 54 kips (Article 2.7.1.3
and Figure 2.7.4B)
railing design loading equal to P, P/2 or P/3
(Article 2.7.1.3.5)
web thickness (Article 2.7.4.3)
pedestrian or bicycle loading (Article 2.7.4.3)

2.2
2.2.1

Navigational

Permits for the construction of crossings over navigable streams must be obtained from the U.S. Coast
Guard and other appropriate agencies. Requests for such
permits from the U.S. Coast Guard should be addressed
to the appropriate District Commander. Permit exemptions are allowed on non-tidal waterways which are not
used as a means to transport interstate or foreign commerce, and are not susceptible to such use in their natural
condition or by reasonable improvement.

2.2.2

Roadway Width

For recommendations on roadway widths for various


volumes of traffic see Caltrans Highway Design Manual,
Index 102.1 and Chapter 300.

2.2.3
2.1.2

STANDARD HIGHWAY
CLEARANCESGENERAL

Vertical Clearance

For Vertical Clearance requirements, see Caltrans


Highway Design Manual, Index 309.2 and Index 204.6.

Width of Roadway and Sidewalk

The width of roadway shall be the clear width measured at right angles to the longitudinal centerline of the
bridge between the bottoms of curbs. If brush curbs or
curbs are not used, the clear width shall be the minimum
width measured between the nearest faces of the bridge
railing.
The width of the sidewalk shall be the clear width,
measured at right angles to the longitudinal centerline of
the bridge, from the extreme inside portion of the handrail to the bottom of the curb or guardtimber. If there is a

2.2.4

Other

The channel openings and clearances shall be acceptable to agencies having jurisdiction over such matters.
Channel openings and clearances shall conform in width,
height, and location to all Federal, State, and local requirements.

SECTION 2

GENERAL FEATURES OF DESIGN

2-1

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS MAY 2005

2.4.1

HIGHWAY CLEARANCES FOR


UNDERPASSES
Width

The provisions of Article 2.3.1 shall be used.


Horizontal Clearance

Face of curb or barrier

9" (max.) brush curb (optional)


or sidewalk if warranted

Roadway Width

vertical clearance

The face of the curb is defined as the vertical or sloping


surface on the roadway side of the curb. Horizontal
measurements of roadway curbs are from the bottom of
the face, or, in the case of stepped back curbs, from the
bottom of the lower face. Maximum width of brush curbs,
if used, shall be 9 inches.
Where curb and gutter sections are used on the roadway approach, at either or both ends of the bridge, the
curb height on the bridge may equal or exceed the curb
height on the roadway approach. Where no curbs are used
on the roadway approaches, the height of the bridge curb
above the roadway shall be not less than 8 inches, and
preferably not more than 10 inches.
Where sidewalks are used for pedestrian traffic on
urban expressways, they shall be separated from the
bridge roadway by the use of a combination railing as
shown in Figure 2.7.4B.
In those cases where a New Jersey type parapet or a
curb is constructed on a bridge, particularly in urban
areas that have curbs and gutters leading to a bridge, the
same widths between curbs on the approach roadways
will be maintained across the bridge structure. A parapet
or other railing installed at or near the curb line shall have
its ends properly flared, sloped, or shielded.

2.4

Crown

Curbs and Sidewalks

Curb

2.2.5

Figure 2.3.1 Clearance diagram for bridges.

2.4.2

Vertical Clearance

The provisions of Article 2.2.3 shall be used.

2.3

HIGHWAY CLEARANCES FOR


BRIDGES
2.4.3

2.3.1

The horizontal clearance shall be the clear width and


the vertical clearance the clear height for the passage of
vehicular traffic as shown in Figure 2.3.1.
The roadway width shall generally equal the width of
the approach roadway section including shoulders. Where
curbed roadway sections approach a structure, the same
section shall be carried across the structure.
For Roadway Width requirements, see Caltrans Highway Design Manual, Index 208.1, 309.1, and Chapter
300.

Curbs, if used, shall match those of the approach


roadway section.

2.5
2.5.1

Roadway Width

RAILINGS

Vertical Clearance

The provisions of Article 2.2.3 shall be used.

2-2

HIGHWAY CLEARANCES FOR


TUNNELS

The provisions of Article 2.3.1 shall be used.

2.7
2.3.2

Curbs

Width

SECTION 2

Railings shall be provided along the edges of structures for protection of traffic and pedestrians. Other
suitable applications may be warranted on bridge-length
culverts as addressed in the 1989 AASHTO Roadside
Design Guide.

GENERAL FEATURES OF DESIGN

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS MAY 2005

Except on urban expressways, a pedestrian walkway


may be separated from an adjacent roadway by a traffic
railing or barrier with a pedestrian railing along the edge
of the structure. On urban expressways, the separation
shall be made by the use of a combination railing.

2.7.1
2.7.1.1

Vehicular Railing

2.7.1.2.2
Traffic railings and traffic portions of
combination railings shall not be less than 2 feet 3 inches
from the top of the reference surface. Parapets designed
with sloping traffic faces intended to allow vehicles to
ride up them under low angle contacts shall be at least 2
feet 8 inches in height.

General

2.7.1.1.1
Although the primary purpose of traffic railing is to contain the average vehicle using the
structure, consideration should also be given to (a) protection of the occupants of a vehicle in collision with the
railing, (b) protection of other vehicles near the collision,
(c) protection of vehicles or pedestrians on roadways
underneath the structure, and (d) appearance and freedom of view from passing vehicles.
2.7.1.1.2
Materials for traffic railings shall be
concrete, metal, timber, or a combination thereof. Metal
materials with less than 10 percent tested elongation shall
not be used.
2.7.1.1.3
Traffic railings should provide a
smooth continuous face of rail on the traffic side with the
posts set back from the face of rail. Structural continuity
in the rail members, including anchorage of ends, is
essential. The railing system shall be able to resist the
applied loads at all locations.
2.7.1.1.4
Protrusions or depressions at rail joints
shall be acceptable provided their thickness or depth is no
greater than the wall thickness of the rail member or
3/8 inch, whichever is less.
2.7.1.1.5
Careful attention shall be given to the
treatment of railings at the bridge ends. Exposed rail
ends, posts, and sharp changes in the geometry of the
railing shall be avoided. A smooth transition by means of
a continuation of the bridge barrier, guardrail anchored to
the bridge end, or other effective means shall be provided
to protect the traffic from direct collision with the bridge
rail ends.

2.7.1.2

is anticipated, or the top of curb when the curb projection


is greater than 9 inches from the traffic face of the railing.

2.7.1.2.3
The lower element of a traffic or combination railing should consist of either a parapet projecting at least 18 inches above the reference surface or a rail
centered between 15 and 20 inches above the reference
surface.
2.7.1.2.4
For traffic railings, the maximum clear
opening below the bottom rail shall not exceed 17 inches
and the maximum opening between succeeding rails
shall not exceed 15 inches. For combination railings,
accommodating pedestrian or bicycle traffic, the maximum opening between railing members shall be governed by Articles 2.7.2.2.2 and 2.7.3.2.1 respectively.
2.7.1.2.5
The traffic faces of all traffic rails must
be within 1 inch of a vertical plane through the traffic face
of the rail closest to traffic.

2.7.1.3

Loads

2.7.1.3.1
When the height of the top of the top
traffic rail exceeds 2 feet 9 inches, the total transverse
load distributed to the traffic rails and posts shall be
increased by the factor C. However, the maximum load
applied to any one element need not exceed P, the
transverse design load.
2.7.1.3.2
Rails whose traffic face is more than 1
inch behind a vertical plane through the face of the traffic
rail closest to traffic or centered less than 15 inches above
the reference surface shall not be considered to be traffic
rails for the purpose of distributing P or CP, but may be
considered in determining the maximum clear vertical
opening, provided they are designed for a transverse
loading equal to that applied to an adjacent traffic rail or
P/2, whichever is less.

Geometry

2.7.1.2.1
The heights of rails shall be measured
relative to the reference surface which shall be the top of
the roadway, the top of the future overlay if resurfacing

2.7.1.3.3
Transverse loads on posts, equal to P,
or CP, shall be distributed as shown in Figure 2.7.4B. A
load equal to one-half the transverse load on a post shall
simultaneously be applied longitudinally, divided among

SECTION 2

GENERAL FEATURES OF DESIGN

2-3

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS MAY 2005

not more than four posts in a continuous rail length. Each


traffic post shall also be designed to resist an independently applied inward load equal to one-fourth the outward
transverse load.
2.7.1.3.4
The attachment of each rail required in
a traffic or combination railing shall be designed to resist
a vertical load equal to one-fourth of the transverse
design load of the rail. The vertical load shall be applied
alternately upward or downward. The attachment shall
also be designed to resist an inward transverse load equal
to one-fourth the transverse rail design load.
2.7.1.3.5
Rail members shall be designed for a
moment, due to concentrated loads, at the center of the
panel and at the posts of P'L/6 where L is the post spacing
and P' is equal to P, P/2, or P/3, as modified by the factor
C where required. The handrail members of combination
railings shall be designed for a moment at the center of the
panel and at the posts of 0.1wL2.
2.7.1.3.6
The transverse force on concrete parapet and barrier walls shall be spread over a longitudinal
length of 10 feet.
2.7.1.3.7
Railings other than those shown in
Figure 2.7.4B are permissible provided they meet the
requirements of this Article. Railing configurations that
have been successfully tested by full scale impact tests
are exempt from the provisions of the Article.

2.7.2
2.7.2.1

Bicycle Railing
General

2.7.2.2

2.7.2.2.1
The minimum height of a railing used
to protect a bicyclist shall be 1.37 m (54 inches), measured
from the top of the surface on which the bicycle rides to
the top of the upper rail member.
2.7.2.2.2
Within a band bordered by the bikeway
surface and a line 27 inches above it, all elements of the
railing assembly shall be spaced such that a 6-inch sphere
will not pass through any opening. Within a band bordered by lines 27 and 54 inches, elements shall be spaced
such that an 8-inch sphere will not pass through any
opening. Chain link fence is exempt from the rail spacing
requirements listed above. Rails should be flush or
project beyond the face of posts and/or pickets. If not, post
or picket protrusion will be accepted with a rubrail placed
at 42 inches (1060 mm) measured from the top of the
riding surface.
2.7.2.2.3
The minimum design loadings for bicycle railing shall be w = 50 pounds per linear foot
transversely and vertically, acting simultaneously on
each rail.
2.7.2.2.4
Design loads for rails located more
than 54 inches above the riding surface shall be determined by the designer.
2.7.2.2.5
Posts shall be designed for a transverse
load of wL (where L is the post spacing) acting at the
center of gravity of the upper rail, but at a height not
greater than 54 inches.
2.7.2.2.6
Refer to Figures 2.7.4A and 2.7.4B for
more information concerning the application of loads.

2.7.2.1.1
Bicycle railing shall be used on bridges
specifically designed to carry bicycle traffic, and on
bridges where specific protection of bicyclists is deemed
necessary.
2.7.2.1.2
Railing components shall be designed
with consideration to safety, appearance, and when the
bridge carries mixed traffic freedom of view from passing vehicles.

2-4

SECTION 2

Geometry and Loads

GENERAL FEATURES OF DESIGN

wL

w
w

3'-6" minimum

w
wL

3'-6" minimum

3'-6" minimum

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS MAY 2005

w
w

wL
w

Walking surface

(To be used adjacent to a sidewalk when highway traffic is seperate from


pedestrian traffic by a traffic railing.)
PEDESTRIAN RAILING

w
w

w
w

w
w

Bikeway
Surface

w
w

w
w
w

3'-6" Rubrail Top

wL

3'-6" Rubrail Top

4'-6" minimum

4'-6" minimum

wL

4'-6" minimum

4'-6" minimum

BICYCLE RAILING

Note:
If screening or solid face is presented, number of rails may be reduced; wind loads must
be added if solid face is utilized.
Notes:
1. Loadings on left are applied to rails.
2. Loads on right are applied to posts.
3. The shapes of rail members are illustrative only. Any material or combination of
materials listed in Article 2.7 may be used in any configuration.
4. The spacings illustrated are maximum values. Rail elements spacings shall conform
to Articles 2.7.2.2.2 and 2.7.3.2.1
Nomenclature:
w = Pedestrian or bicycle loading per unit length of rail
L = Post spacing
Figure 2.7.4A Pedestrian Railing, Bicycle Railing

SECTION 2

GENERAL FEATURES OF DESIGN

2-5

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS MAY 2005

inches above it, all elements of the railing assembly shall


be spaced such that a 6-inch sphere will not pass through
any opening. For elements between 27 and 42 inches
above the walking surface, elements shall be spaced such
that an 8-inch sphere will not pass through any opening.

Pedestrian Railing
General

2.7.3.1.1
Railing components shall be proportioned commensurate with the type and volume of anticipated pedestrian traffic. Consideration should be given to
appearance, safety and freedom of view from passing
vehicles.

2.7.3.2.2
The minimum design loading for pedestrian railing shall be w = 50 pounds per linear foot,
transversely and vertically, acting simultaneously on
each longitudinal member. Rail members located more
than 5 feet 0 inches above the walkway are excluded from
these requirements.

2.7.3.1.2
Materials for pedestrian railing may be
concrete, metal, timber, or a combination thereof.

2.7.3.2.3
Posts shall be designed for a transverse
load of wL (where L is the post spacing) acting at the
center of gravity of the upper rail or, for high rails, at 5
feet 0 inches maximum above the walkway.

Geometry and Loads

2.7.3.2.1
The minimum height of a pedestrian
railing shall be 42 inches measured from the top of the
walkway to the top of the upper rail member. Within a
band bordered by the walkway surface and a line 27

P/2

P/2

wL
P/2

P/2

w
wL

Walkway surface
(typ.)

3'-6" minimum

P/2

w
wL

2'-8" min.

P/2

w
wL

3'-6" minimum
2'-3" min.

1'-3"
max.

P/2

1'-6" min.

P/2

3'-6" minimum

1'-3"
max.

P/2

1'-3" max.

P/2

1'-8" max.
1'-3" min.

3'-6" minimum

2'-3" min.

P/2

wL

2'-3" min.

2.7.3.2.4
Refer to Figures 2.7.4A and 2.7.4B for
more information concerning the application of loads.

1'-0"
max.

2.7.3.2

2'-3" min.

2.7.3.1

3'-6" minimum
2'-8" min.

2.7.3

(To be used when curb projects more than 9" from the traffic face of railing.)
COMBINATION TRAFFIC AND PEDESTRIAN RAILING
9" max.

P/2

1'-0"
max.
2'-3" min.

P/2

P/2

Top of future resurfacing


(typ.)

P/2

2'-8" min.

P/2

Roadway surface (typ.)

1'-3" max.

P/2

1'-5" max.

P/3

2'-3" min.

P/3

P/2

1'-8" max.
1'-3" min.

P/3

1'-3"
max.

P/3

P/3

1'-8" max.
1'-3" min.
1'-5"
max.

2'-3" min.

1'-3"
max.

P/3

9" max.

2'-3" min.
1'-3"
1'-6" min.
max.

9" max.

(To be used where there is no curb or curb project 9" or less from traffic face of railing.)
TRAFFIC RAILING
Figure 2.7.4B Traffic Railing

2-6

SECTION 2

GENERAL FEATURES OF DESIGN

P/2
P/2

P/2

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS MAY 2005

P/2

P/2

10"
10"

P/2

wL

w
w

w
wL
w

2'-8" min.

P/2

1'-0"
max.

P/2

w
w
w
w

4'-6" minimum

P/2

P/2

w
wL

2'-3" min.

P/2

P/2

w
wL

4'-6" minimum
10"
2'-8" min.

P/2

4'-6" minimum
1'-3"

w
w
w

4'-6" minimum
1'-3"

wL

2'-3" min.

2'-3" min.
1'-6" min. 1'-3"
max.

Bikeway surface
(typ.)
1'-8"
1'-3"
1'-3" max.
1'-3"
max.

2'-3" min.

4'-6" minimum
1'-3"

COMBINATION TRAFFIC AND PEDESTRIAN RAILING

Notes:
1. Loadings on left are applied to rails.
2. Loads on right are applied to posts.
3. The shapes of rail members are illustrative only. Any material or combination of
materials listed in Article 2.7 may be used in any configuration.
4. The spacings illustrated are maximum values. Rail elements spacings shall conform
to Article 2.7.1.2.4.
Nomenclature:
P = Highway design loading = 54 kips
h = Height of top of top rail above reference surface (in.)
L = Post spacing (ft.)
w = Pedestrian or bicycle loading per unit length of rail

C =1+

h 33
18

Figure 2.7.4B (continued)

2.7.4

Structural Specifications and


Guidelines

2.7.4.1
Railings shall be designed by the elastic method to the allowable stresses for the appropriate
material.
For aluminum alloys the design stresses given in the
Specifications for Aluminum Structures Fifth Edition,
December 1986, for Bridge and Similar Type Structures published by the Aluminum Association, Inc. for
alloys 6061-T6 (Table A.6), 6351-T5 (Table A.6) and
6063-T6 (Table A.6) shall apply, and for cast aluminum
alloys the design stresses given for alloys A444.0-T4
(Table A.9), A356.0-T61 (Table A.9) and A356.0-T6
(Table A.9) shall apply.
For fabrication and welding of aluminum railing see
Article 11.5.

2.7.4.2
The allowable unit stresses for steel
shall be as given in Article 10.32, except as modified
below.
For steels not generally covered by the Standard
Specifications, but having a guaranteed yield strength,
Fy, the allowable unit stress, shall be derived by applying
the general formulas as given in the Standard Specifications under Unit Stresses except as indicated below.
The allowable unit stress for shear shall be Fv = 0.33Fy.
Round or oval steel tubes may be proportioned using
an allowable bending stress, Fb = 0.66Fy, provided the
R/t ratio (radius/thickness) is less than or equal to 40.
Square and rectangular steel tubes and steel W and I
sections in bending with tension and compression on
extreme fibers of laterally supported compact sections
having an axis of symmetry in the plane of loading may
be designed for an allowable stress Fb = 0.60Fy.

SECTION 2

GENERAL FEATURES OF DESIGN

2-7

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS MAY 2005

2.7.4.3
are as follows:

The requirements for a compact section

(a) The width to thickness ration of projecting elements of the compression flange of W and I sections
shall not exceed

b
t

1,600
(2-1)

Fy

(b) the width to thickness ratio of the compression


flange of square or rectangular tubes shall not exceed

b
t

6,000
(2-2)

Fy

(c) The D/t ratio of webs shall not exceed

D
t

13,000
(2-3)

Fy

(d) If subject to combined axial force and bending, the


D/t ratio of webs shall not exceed

D
t

f
13,300 1 - 1.43 a
F

(2-4)

Fy

but need not be less than

D
t

7,000
(2-5)

Fy

(e) The distance between lateral supports in inches of


W or I sections shall not exceed

2,400b
(2-6)

Fy

or

2-8

20,000,000 A
dFy

SECTION 2

(2-7)

GENERAL FEATURES OF DESIGN

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FEBRUARY 2004

SECTION 3

LOADS

Part A
Type of Loads
3.1
A

NOTATIONS

= maximum expected acceleration of bed rock


at the site
a
= length of short span of slab (Article 3.24.6)
B
= buoyancy (Article 3.22)
b
= width of pier or diameter of pile (Article
3.18.2.2.4)
b
= length of long span of slab (Article 3.24.6)
C
= combined response coefficient
C
= stiffness parameter = K(W/L) (Article
3.23.4.3)
C
= centrifugal force in percent of live load
(Article 3.10.1)
CF = centrifugal force (Article 3.22)
Cn = coefficient for nose inclination (Article
3.18.2.2.1)
CM = steel bending stress coefficient (Article
3.25.1.5)
CR = steel shear stress coefficient (Article 3.25.1.5)
D
= parameter used in determination of load
fraction of wheel load (Article 3.23.4.3)
D
= degree of curve (Article 3.10.1)
D
= dead load (Article 3.22)
D.F. = fraction of wheel load applied to beam
(Article 3.28.1)
DL = contribution dead load
E
= width of slab over which a wheel load is
distributed (Article 3.24.3)
E
= earth pressure (Article 3.22)
EQ = equivalent static horizontal force applied at
the center of gravity of the structure
Ec = modulus of elasticity of concrete (Article
3.26.3)
Es
= modulus of elasticity of steel (Article 3.26.3)
Ew = modulus of elasticity of wood (Article 3.26.3)
F
= horizontal ice force on pier (Article
3.18.2.2.1)
F
= framing factor
Fb = allowable bending stress (Article 3.25.1.3)

Fv
g
I
ICE
J

=
=
=
=
=

K
K
K

=
=
=

L
L
L
L
LF

=
=
=
=
=

MD =
Mx =
My =
NB
NL
n
P
P
P

=
=
=
=
=
=

P
P
P15
P20
p
p

=
=
=
=
=
=

R
R

=
=

allowable shear stress (Article 3.25.1.3)


32.2 ft./sec.2
impact fraction (Article 3.8.2)
ice pressure (Article 3.22)
gross Saint-Venant torsional constant of the
precast member (Article 3.23.4.3)
stream flow force constant (Article 3.18.1)
stiffness constant (Article 3.23.4)
wheel load distribution constant for timber
flooring (Article 3.25.1.3)
live load distribution constant for spread box
girders (Article 3.28.1)
loaded length of span (Article 3.8.2)
load length of sidewalk (Article 3.14.1.1)
live load (Article 3.22)
span length (Article 3.23.4)
longitudinal force from live load (Article
3.22)
moment capacity of dowel (Article 3.25.1.4)
primary bending moment (Article 3.25.1.3)
total transferred secondary moment (Article
3.25.1.4)
number of beams (Article 3.28.1)
number of traffic lanes (Article 3.23.4)
number of dowels (Article 3.25.1.4)
live load on sidewalk (Article 3.14.1.1)
stream flow pressure (Article 3.18.1)
total uniform force required to cause unit
horizontal deflection of whole structure
load on one rear wheel of truck (Article
3.24.3)
wheel load (Article 3.24.5)
design wheel load (Article 3.25.1)
12,000 pounds (Article 3.24.3)
16,000 pounds (Article 3.24.3)
effective ice strength (Article 3.18.2.2.1)
proportion of load carried by short span (Ar
ticle 3.24.6.1)
radius of curve (Article 3.10.1)
normalized rock response

SECTION 3 LOADS

3-1

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FEBRUARY 2004

R
RD
Rx
Ry

=
=
=
=

S
S
S
S
S
S

=
=
=
=
=
=

S
S
S
s
SF
T
T
t
t
V
V
W

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

W
W
W
We
W
W
WL
w

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

=
=

=
PL =
B

3-2

rib shortening (Article 3.22)


shear capacity of dowel (Article 3.25.1.4)
primary shear (Article 3.25.1.3)
total secondary shear transferred (Article
3.25.1.4)
design speed (Article 3.10.1)
soil amplification spectral ratio
shrinkage (Article 3.22)
average stringer spacing (Article 3.23.2.3.1)
spacing of beams (Article 3.23.3)
parameter used in determining the load frac
tion to be applied to precast concrete beams
(Article 3.23.4.3)
effective span length (Article 3.24.1)
span length (Article 3.24.8.2)
beam spacing (Article 3.28.1)
effective deck span (Article 3.25.1.3)
stream flow (Article 3.22)
period of vibration
temperature (Article 3.22)
thickness of ice (Article 3.18.2.2.4)
deck thickness (Article 3.25.1.3)
variable spacing of truck axles (Figure 3.7.3A)
velocity of water (Article 3.18.1)
combined weight on the first two axles of a
standard HS Truck (Figure 3.7.3A)
width of sidewalk (Article 3.14.1.1)
wind load on structure (Article 3.22)
total dead weight of the structure
width of exterior girder (Article 3.23.2.3.2)
overall width of bridge (Article 3.23.4.3)
roadway width between curbs (Article 3.28.1)
wind load on live load (Article 3.22)
width of pier or diameter of circular-shaft
pier at the level of ice action (Article
3.18.2.2.1)
distance from load to point of support (Ar
ticle 3.24.5.1)
subscript denoting direction perpendicular
to longitudinal stringers (Article 3.25.1.3)
reduction for ductility and risk assessment
(with appropriate script) coefficient applied
to loads for service load and load factor
designs (Article 3.22)
load factor (Article 3.22)
proportional limit stress perpendicular to grain
(Article 3.25.1.4)
load combination coefficient for buoyancy
(Article 3.22.1)
load combination coefficient for centrifugal
force (Article 3.22.1)

SECTION 3 LOADS

D
E
EQ
ICE
L
R
S
W
WL

3.2

= load combination coefficient for dead load


(Article 3.22.1)
= load combination coefficient for earth pres
sure (Article 3.22.1)
= load combination coefficient for earthquake
(Article 3.22.1)
= load combination coefficient for ice (Article
3.22.1)
= load combination coefficient for live load
(Article 3.22.1)
= load combination coefficient for rib shorten
ing, shrinkage and temperature (Article
3.22.1)
= load combination coefficient for stream flow
(Article 3.22.1)
= load combination coefficient for wind
(Article 3.22.1)
= load combination coefficient for wind on live
load (Article 3.22.1)
= Poisson's ratio (Article 3.23.4.3)

GENERAL

3.2.1

Structures shall be designed to carry


the following loads and forces:
Dead load.

Live load.

Impact or dynamic effect of the live load.

Wind loads.

Other forces, when they exist, as follows:

Longitudinal forces, centrifugal force, thermal forces,

earth and drift pressure, buoyancy, shrinkage stresses,


rib shortening, erection stresses, ice and current
pressure, earthquake stresses, prestressing and
friction forces.

3.2.2

Members shall be proportioned using +


the allowable stresses permitted by the design procedure +
+
and the limitations imposed by the material.

3.2.3

When stress sheets are required, a dia


gram or notation of the assumed loads shall be shown and
the stresses due to the various loads shall be shown
separately.

3.2.4

Where required by design conditions,


the concrete placing sequence shall be indicated on the
plans or in the special provisions.

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FEBRUARY 2004

3.2.5

The loading combination shall be in


accordance with Article 3.22.

3.2.6

When a bridge is skewed, the loads and


forces carried by the bridge through the deck system to
pin connections and hangers should be resolved into
vertical, lateral, and longitudinal force components to be
considered in the design.

3.3

Compacted sand, earth, gravel, or ballast ........... 120


Loose sand, earth, and gravel .............................. 100
Macadam or gravel, rolled .................................. 140
Cinder filling ......................................................... 60
Pavement, other than wood block ...................... 150
Railway rails, guard rails, and fastenings
(per linear foot of track) ................................. 200
Stone masonry ..................................................... 170
Asphalt plank, 1 in. thick ......................... 9 lb. sq. ft.

DEAD LOAD
3.4

LIVE LOAD

3.3.1

The dead load shall consist of the weight


of the entire structure, including the roadway, sidewalks,
car tracks, pipes, conduits, cables, and other public utility
services.

The live load shall consist of the weight of the applied


moving load of vehicles, cars, and pedestrians.

3.3.2

3.5

The snow and ice load is considered to


be offset by an accompanying decrease in live load and
impact and shall not be included except under special
conditions.

3.3.2.1
If differential settlement is anticipated
in a structure, consideration should be given to stresses
resulting from this settlement.
3.3.3

If a separate wearing surface is to be


placed when the bridge is constructed, or is expected to be
placed in the future, adequate allowance shall be made for
+ its weight in the design dead load.

3.3.4

Special consideration shall be given to


the necessity for a separate wearing surface for those
regions where the use of chains on tires or studded snow
tires can be anticipated.

OVERLOAD PROVISIONS

Structures which carry vehicular traffic shall be ana


lyzed for overloads that are represented by P loads as
described in Article 3.7, and other specific loads where
applicable. Application shall be in accordance with Ar
ticle 3.22.

3.6

+
+
+
+

TRAFFIC LANES

3.6.1

The lane loading or standard truck


shall be assumed to occupy a width of 10 feet.

3.6.2

The loads shall be placed in 12-foot


wide design traffic lanes, spaced across the entire bridge
roadway width measured between curbs.

3.6.3
3.3.5

Where the abrasion of concrete is not


expected, the traffic may bear directly on the concrete
slab. If considered desirable, 1/4 inch or more may be
added to the slab for a wearing surface.

Fractional parts of design lanes shall


not be used, but roadway widths from 20 to 24 feet shall
have two design lanes each equal to one-half the roadway
width.

3.6.4
3.3.6

The following weights are to be used in


computing the dead load:
#/cu. ft

Steel or cast steel ................................................. 490

Cast iron ............................................................... 450

Aluminum alloys ................................................. 175

Timber (treated or untreated) ................................ 50

Concrete, plain or reinforced .............................. 150

The traffic lanes shall be placed in such


numbers and positions on the roadway, and the loads
shall be placed in such positions within their individual
traffic lanes, so as to produce the maximum stress in the
member under consideration.

3.6.5

These provisions shall not apply to


those superstructure members for which wheel load ap
plication without regard to placement in traffic lanes is
specified in Articles 3.23 thru 3.28, 6.4 and 10.39.

SECTION 3 LOADS

3-3

+
+
+
+

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FEBRUARY 2004

3.7
3.7.1

HIGHWAY LOADS
Standard Truck and Lane Loads*

The highway live loadings on the road


3.7.1.1
ways of bridges or incidental structures shall consist of
standard trucks or lane loads that are equivalent to truck
+ trains. Three systems of loading are provided. The H
loadings and the HS loadings-the HS loadings being
+ heavier than the corresponding H loadings and P loads
+ based on permit vehicles for regulation of overloads.

3.7.1.2
Each lane load shall consist of a uni
form load per linear foot of traffic lane combined with a
single concentrated load (or two concentrated loads in the
case of continuous spans-see Article 3.11.3), so placed on
the span as to produce maximum stress. The concentrated
load and uniform load shall be considered as uniformly
distributed over a 10 foot width on a line normal to the
centerline of the lane.
3.7.1.3
For the computation of moments and
shears, different concentrated loads shall be used as
indicated in Figure 3.7.6B. The lighter concentrated
loads shall be used when the stresses are primarily bend
ing stresses, and the heavier concentrated loads shall be
used when the stresses are primarily shearing stresses.
3.7.2

Classes of Loading

There are four standard classes of highway loading: H


20, H 15, HS 20, and HS 15. Loading H 15 is 75 percent
of loading H 20. Loading HS 15 is 75 percent of Loading
HS 20. If loadings other than those designated are de
sired, they shall be obtained by proportionately changing
the weights shown for both the standard truck and the
corresponding lane loads.

3.7.3

The policy of affixing the year to loadings to identify


them was instituted with the publication of the 1944
edition in the following manner:
H 15 Loading, 1944 Edition shall be
designated ................................................ H 15-44
H 20 Loading, 1944 Edition shall be
designated ................................................ H 20-44
H 15-S 12 Loading, 1944 Edition shall be
designated ............................................. HS 15-44
H 20-S 16 Loading, 1944 Edition shall be
designated ............................................. HS 20-44
The affix shall remain unchanged until such time as
the loading specification is revised. The same policy for
identification shall be applied, for future reference, to
loadings previously adopted by the American Associa
tion of State Highway and Transportation Officials.

3.7.4

3-4

SECTION 3 LOADS

Minimum Loading

Bridges shall be designed for HS 20-44 loading or an


Alternate Military Loading of two axles four feet apart
with each axle weighing 24,000 pounds, whichever pro
duces the greatest stress.
Transverse Reinforced Slabs shall be designed with a
single 32k axle.

3.7.5

H Loading

The H loadings consist of a two-axle truck or the


corresponding lane loading as illustrated in Figures 3.7.6A
and 3.7.6B. The H loadings are designated H followed by
a number indicating the gross weight in tons of the
standard truck.

3.7.6
*Note: The system of lane loads defined here (and illustrated in
Figure 3.7.6.B) was developed in order to give a simpler method of
calculating moments and shears than that based on wheel loads of
the truck.
Appendix B shows the truck train loadings of the 1935
Specifications of AASHTO and the corresponding lane loadings.
In 1944, the HS series of trucks was developed. These
approximate the effect of the corresponding 1935 truck preceded
and followed by a train of trucks weighing three-fourths as much
as the basic truck.

Designation of Loadings

HS Loading

The HS loadings consist of a tractor truck with semi


trailer or the corresponding lane load as illustrated in
Figures 3.7.7A and 3.7.6B. The HS loadings are desig
nated by the letters HS followed by a number indicating
the gross weight in tons of the tractor truck. The variable
axle spacing has been introduced in order that the spacing
of axles may approximate more closely the tractor trailers
now in use. The variable spacing also provides a more

+
+

+
+

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FEBRUARY 2004

**
FIGURE 3.7.6A

Standard H Trucks

In the design of timber floors and orthotropic steel decks (excluding transverse beams) for H 20 loading, one axle
load of 24,000 pounds or two axle loads of 16,000 pounds each spaced 4 feet apart may be used, whichever produces
the greater stress, instead of the 32,000-pound axle shown.

** For slab design, the center line of wheels shall be assumed to be 1 foot from face of curb. (See Article 3.24.2)

SECTION 3 LOADS

3-5

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FEBRUARY 2004

Concentrated Load -

18,000 lbs. for Moment*


26,000 lbs. for Shear

Uniform Load 640 lbs per linear foot of load lane

H20 - 44 LOADING
HS20 - 44 LOADING
Concentrated Load -

13,500 lbs. for Moment*


19,500 lbs. for Shear

Uniform Load 480 lbs per linear foot of load lane

H15 - 44 LOADING
HS15 - 44 LOADING

FIGURE 3.7.6B
*

Lane Loading

For the loading of continuous spans involving lane loading refer to Article 3.11.3 which provides for an
additional concentrated load.

satisfactory loading for continuous spans, in that heavy


axle loads may be so placed on adjoining spans as to
produce maximum negative moments.

loads transferred to footings nor to those parts of piles or


columns that are below ground.

3.8.1.1
+

3.7.7

+
+
+
+

P loads (permit design live loads) are special vehicular


loads that shall be applied at the factored level in Load
Factor Design and at service level for fatigue consider
ations in steel structures. See Figure 3.7.7B.

3.8

(1)
(2)

(3)

Superstructure, including legs of rigid frames.


Piers, (with or without bearings regardless of
type) excluding footings and those portions be
low the ground line.
The portions above the ground line of concrete
or steel piles that support the superstructure.

IMPACT
3.8.1.2

3.8.1

Application

Highway live loads shall be increased for those struc


tural elements in Group A, below, to allow for dynamic,
vibratory and impact effects. Impact allowances shall not
be applied to items in Group B. It is intended that impact
be included as part of the loads transferred from super
structure to substructure, but shall not be included in

3-6

Group A-Impact Shall be Included

P Loading

SECTION 3 LOADS

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

Group B-Impact Shall Not be


Included

Abutments, retaining walls, piers, piles, except


as specified in 3.8.1.1 (3).
Foundation pressures and footings.
Timber structures.
Sidewalk loads.
Culverts and structures having 3 feet or more
cover.

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FEBRUARY 2004

**
FIGURE 3.7.7A

Standard HS Trucks

In the design of timber floors and orthotropic steel decks (excluding transverse beams) for H 20 loading, one axle
load of 24,000 pounds or two axle loads of 16,000 pounds each spaced 4 feet apart may be used, whichever produces
the greater stress, instead of the 32,000-pound axle shown.

** For slab design, the center line of wheels shall be assumed to be 1 foot from face of curb. (See Article 3.24.2)

SECTION 3 LOADS

3-7

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FEBRUARY 2004

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

FIGURE 3.7.7B Permit Design Live Loads

3-8

SECTION 3 LOADS

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FEBRUARY 2004

3.8.2

Impact Formula

The amount of the impact allowance or


3.8.2.1
increment is expressed as a fraction of the live load stress,
and shall be determined by the formula:
I=

50
L + 125

(3-1)

in which,
I
L

=
=

3.10
impact fraction (maximum 30 percent);
length in feet of the portion of the span that is
loaded to produce the maximum stress in the
member as defined in 3.8.2.2..

directional in the future. The load used, without impact,


shall be the lane load plus the concentrated load for
moment specified in Article 3.7, with reduction for mul
tiple-loaded lanes as specified in Article 3.12. The center
of gravity of the longitudinal force shall be assumed to be
located 6 feet above the floor slab and to be transmitted
to the substructure through the superstructure.

3.10.1

Structures on curves shall be designed


for a horizontal radial force equal to the following per
centage of the live load, without impact, in all traffic
lanes:

3.8.2.2
For uniformity of application, in this
formula, the loaded length, L, shall be as follows:
(a)
(b)

(c)

(d)
+

(e)

+
+
+
+

(f)

For roadway floors: The design span length.


For transverse members, such as floor beams:
the span length of member center to center of
supports.
For computing truck load moments: the span
length, or for cantilever arms the length from the
moment center to the farthermost axle.
For shear due to truck loads: the length of the
loaded portion of span from the point under
consideration to the far reaction. For cantilever
arms use a 30 percent impact factor.
For continuous spans: the length of span under
consideration for positive moment, and the av
erage of two adjacent loaded spans for negative
moment and reaction.
For culverts and other underground structures
with cover of less than three feet use an impact
fraction of 0.30.

CENTRIFUGAL FORCES

C = 0.00117S 2 D =

6.68S 2
R

(3-2)

where,
C = the centrifugal force in percent of the live load,
without impact;
S = the design speed in miles per hour;
D = the degree of curve;
R = the radius of the curve in feet.

3.10.2

The effects of superelevation shall be


taken into account.

3.10.3

The centrifugal force shall be applied 6


feet above the roadway surface, measured along the
centerline of the roadway. The design speed shall be
determined with regard to the amount of superelevation
provided in the roadway. The traffic lanes shall be loaded
+
in accordance with the provisions of Article 3.7.

3.10.4
+

3.8.2.3

3.9
3.9.1

For Culverts See "SECTION 6


CULVERTS".

LONGITUDINAL FORCES

Provision shall be made for the effect of


a longitudinal force of 5 percent of the live load in all
lanes carrying traffic headed in the same direction. All
lanes shall be loaded for bridges likely to become one

The loads and the number and posi


tions of lanes loaded for centrifugal force shall be the
same as for live load in the case under consideration.
Design speed for P loads shall be 25 mph (max.).

3.10.5

When a reinforced concrete floor slab


or a steel grid deck is keyed to or attached to its supporting
members, it may be assumed that the deck resists, within
its plane, the shear resulting from the centrifugal forces
acting on the live load.

SECTION 3 LOADS

3-9

+
+
+
+

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FEBRUARY 2004

3.11

APPLICATION OF LIVE LOAD

3.11.1

Traffic Lane Units

In computing stresses, each 10-foot lane load or single


standard truck shall be considered as a unit, and fractions
of load lane widths or trucks shall not be used.

3.11.2

Number and Position of Traffic


Lane Units

The number and position of the lane load or truck loads


shall be as specified in Article 3.7 and, whether lane or
truck loads, shall be such as to produce maximum stress,
subject to the reduction specified in Article 3.12.

3.11.3

3.12

REDUCTION IN LOAD INTENSITY

3.12.1

Where maximum stresses are produced


in any member by loading a number of traffic lanes
simultaneously, the following percentages of the live
loads shall be used in view of the improbability of
coincident maximum loading:

Lane Loads on Continuous Spans

For the determination of maximum negative moment


in the design of continuous spans, the lane load shown in
Figure 3.7.6B shall be modified by the addition of a
second, equal weight concentrated load placed in one
other span in the series in such position to produce the
maximum effect. For maximum positive moment, only
one concentrated load shall be used per lane, combined
with as many spans loaded uniformly as are required to
produce maximum moment.

3.11.4

Apply P loads for strength considerations only in all


materials, and for serviceability under fatigue in struc
tural steel. In Load Combination Ipc, distribution follows
the same rules as Load Combination IH. In Load Combi
nation Ipw, the P load shall be used alone or in conjunc
tion with one HS or Alternate Military Loading in a
separate traffic lane depending upon which is most se
vere.

Percent
One or two lanes .................................................. 100
Three lanes ............................................................. 90
Four lanes or more ................................................. 75

3.12.2

The reduction in intensity of loads on


transverse members such as floor beams shall be deter
mined as in the case of main trusses or girders, using the
number of traffic lanes across the width of roadway that
must be loaded to produce maximum stresses in the floor
beam.

Loading for Maximum Stress


3.13

ELECTRIC RAILWAY LOADS

3.11.4.1

On both simple and continuous spans,


the type of loading, whether lane load or truck load, to be
used shall be the loading which produces the maximum
stress. The moment and shear tables given in Appendix A
show which type of loading controls for simple spans.

3.11.4.2
For continuous spans, the lane loading
shall be continuous or discontinuous; only one standard
H or HS truck per lane shall be considered on the
structure.
+
+
+
+
+

3.11.4.3

Loading for Load Factor


Design

Apply H, HS, and Alternate Military Loadings, inter


changeably, one per lane, for both strength and service
ability considerations in all materials.

3-10

SECTION 3 LOADS

If highway bridges carry electric railway traffic, the


railway loads shall be determined from the class of traffic
which the bridge may be expected to carry. The possibil
ity that the bridge may be required to carry railroad
freight cars shall be given consideration.

3.14
3.14.1

SIDEWALK, CURB, AND RAILING


LOADING
Sidewalk Loading

Sidewalk floors, stringers and their


3.14.1.1
immediate supports, shall be designed for a live load of
85 pounds per square foot of sidewalk area. Girders,
trusses, arches and other members shall be designed for
the following sidewalk live loads:

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FEBRUARY 2004

Spans 0 to 25 feet in length ..........................85 lb./ft.2

Spans 26 to 100 feet in length ......................60 lb./ft.2


Spans over 100 feet in length according to the formula

3,000
55
-
W

P
=
30
+

L
50

(3-3)

in which,
P = live load per square foot, max. 60-lb. per sq. ft.;
L = loaded length of sidewalk in feet;
W = width of sidewalk in feet.

3.14.2

3.14.2.1
Curbs shall be designed to resist a lat
eral force of not less than 500 pounds per linear foot of
curb, applied at the top of the curb, or at an elevation 10
inches above the floor if the curb is higher than 10 inches.
3.14.2.2
Where sidewalk, curb, and traffic rail
form an integral system, the traffic railing loading shall
be applied and stresses in curbs computed accordingly.
3.14.3

3.14.1.2
In calculating stresses in structures that
support cantilevered sidewalks, the sidewalk shall be
fully loaded on only one side of the structure if this
condition produces maximum stress.
+
+
+
+

3.14.1.3
Bridges for pedestrian, equestrian and/
or bicycle traffic shall be designed for a live load of 85
PSF. Check equestrian bridge for 0.5(H20) = (H10)
loading.
3.14.1.4
Where bicycle or pedestrian bridges
are expected to be used by maintenance vehicles, special
design consideration should be made for these loads. The
following loads shall be used:

+
+

Clear deck width from 6 ft to 10 ft:


0.25(H20) = (H5) loading

+
+

Clear deck width over 10 ft:


0.5(H20) = (H10)

+
+
+

Clear deck widths of less than 6 ft:


need not be designed for a maintenance vehicle
load.

+
+
+
+

In all cases, a single truck shall be positioned to


produce the maximum load effect. The maintenance
vehicle live load shall not be placed in combination with
the pedestrian live load.

+
+
+
+
+
+

3.14.1.5
The frequency of pedestrian footfall
loads in either the vertical or lateral direction shall not
resonate with the natural frequencies of the structure. The
fundamental frequency shall be a minimum of 3 Hz in the
vertical direction and 1.3 Hz in the lateral direction,
unless detailed analysis justifies otherwise.

Curb Loading

Railing Loading

For Railing Loads, see Article 2.7.

3.15

WIND LOADS

The wind load shall consist of moving uniformly


distributed loads applied to the exposed area of the
structure. The exposed area shall be the sum of the areas
of all members, including floor system and railing, as seen
in elevation at 90 degrees to the longitudinal axis of the
structure. The forces and loads given herein are for a base
wind velocity of 100 mile per hour. For Group II and
Group V loading, but not for Group III and Group VI
loadings, they may be reduced or increased in the ratio of
the square of the design wind velocity to the square of the
base wind velocity provided that the maximum probable
wind velocity can be ascertained with reasonable accu
racy, or provided that there are permanent features of the
terrain which make such changes safe and advisable. If a
change in the design wind velocity is made, the design
wind velocity shall be shown on the plans.

3.15.1

Superstructure Design

3.15.1.1

Group II and Group V

Loadings

3.15.1.1.1 A wind load of the following intensity


shall be applied horizontally at right angles to the longi
tudinal axis of the structure:
For trusses and arches ...... 75 pounds per square foot
For girders and beams ..... .50 pounds per square foot

SECTION 3

LOADS

3-11

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FEBRUARY 2004

3.15.1.1.2 The total force shall not be less than


300 pounds per linear foot in the plane of the windward
chord and 150 pounds per linear foot in the plane of the
leeward chord on truss spans, and not less than 300
pounds per linear foot on girder spans.
3.15.1.2

Group III and Group VI


Loadings

Group III and Group VI loadings shall comprise the


loads used for Group II and Group V loadings reduced by
70 percent and a load of 100 pounds per linear foot
applied at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the
structure and 6 feet above the deck as a wind load on a
moving live load. When a reinforced concrete floor slab
or a steel grid deck is keyed to or attached to its supporting
members, it may be assumed that the deck resists, within
its plane, the shear resulting from the wind load on the
moving live load.

3.15.2

Substructure Design

Forces from Superstructure

3.15.2.1.1 For unusual or major structures the


transverse and longitudinal forces transmitted by the
+ superstructure to the substructure for various angles of
wind direction shall be as set forth in the following table.
The skew angle is measured from the perpendicular to the
longitudinal axis and the assumed wind direction shall be
that which produces the maximum stress in the substruc
ture. The transverse and longitudinal forces shall be
applied simultaneously at the elevation of the center of
gravity of the exposed area of the superstructure.
Trusses
Skew Angle
of Wind
Degrees
0
15
30
45
60

Lateral
Load
PSF
75
70
65
47
24

Longitudinal
Load
PSF
0
12
28
41
50

Girders
Lateral
Load
PSF
50
44
41
33
17

Longitudinal
Load
PSF
0
6
12
16
19

The loads listed above shall be used in Group II and


Group V loading as given in Article 3.22.

3-12

Skew Angle
of Wind
Degrees
0
15
30
45
60

SECTION 3 LOADS

Lateral Load
lb./ft.
100
88
82
66
34

Longitudinal Load
lb./ft.
0
12
24
32
38

This load shall be applied at a point 6 feet above the


deck.

3.15.2.1.3 For the usual girder and slab bridges


+
the following wind loading may be used.
W

Forces transmitted to the substructure by the super


structure and forces applied directly to the substructure
by wind loads shall be as follows:

3.15.2.1

3.15.2.1.2 For Group III and Group VI loadings,


the loads may be reduced by 70 percent and a load per
linear foot added as a wind load on a moving live load,
as given in the following table:

(wind load on structure)


50 pounds per square foot, transverse;
12 pounds per square foot, longitudinal;
Both forces shall be applied simultaneously.

WL (wind load on live load)


100 pounds per linear foot, transverse;
40 pounds per linear foot, longitudinal;
Both forces shall be applied simultaneously.

3.15.2.2

Forces Applied Directly to the

Substructure

The transverse and longitudinal forces to be applied


directly to the substructure for a 100-mile per hour wind
shall be calculated from an assumed wind force of 40
pounds per square foot. For wind directions assumed
skewed to the substructure this force shall be resolved
into components perpendicular to the end and front
elevations of the substructure. The component perpen
dicular to the end elevation shall act on the exposed
substructure area as seen in end elevation and the compo
nent perpendicular to the front elevation shall act on the
exposed areas and shall be applied simultaneously with
the wind loads from the superstructure. The above loads
are for Group II and Group V loadings and may be reduced
by 70 percent for Group III and Group VI loadings, as
indicated in Article 3.22.

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FEBRUARY 2004

3.15.3

Overturning Forces

Prestressed Structures - See Division 1, Section 9 of


this volume.

The effect of forces tending to overturn structures shall


be calculated under Groups II, III, V, and VI of Article 3.22
assuming that the wind direction is at right angles to the
longitudinal axis of the structure. In addition, an upward
force shall be applied at the windward quarter point of the
transverse superstructure width. This force shall be 20
pounds per square foot of deck and sidewalk plan area for
Group II and group V combinations and 6 pounds per
square foot for Group III and Group VI combinations.

3.16 THERMAL FORCES


Provisions shall be made for stresses or movements
resulting from variations in temperature. The rise and fall
in temperature shall be fixed for the locality in which the
structure is to be constructed and shall be computed from
an assumed temperature at the time of erection. Due
consideration shall be given to the lag between air tem
perature and the interior temperature of massive concrete
members or structures.
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

The range of temperature shall generally be as


follows:
Air Temperature
Range
Extreme: 120 o F
Certain mountain
and
desert locations

Design Range
Concrete
Rise or Fall 60o F
Rise or Fall 40o F
Movement/Unit
Movement/Unit
Length
Length
.00039
.00024
Steel

Moderate: 100o F
Interior Valleys
and most
mountain locations

Rise or Fall 50o F


Movement/Unit
Length
.00033

Rise or Fall 35o F


Movement/Unit
Length
.00021

Mild: 80o F
Coastal Areas, Los
Angeles, and San
Francisco Bay Area

Rise or Fall 40o F


Movement/Unit
Length
.00026

Rise or Fall 30o F


Movement/Unit
Length
.00018

Other Structures - The temperature fall from a normal +


temperature as given above provides adequately for +
stress and movement caused by shrinkage.
+

3.17 UPLIFT
3.17.1

Provision shall be made for adequate


attachment of the superstructure to the substructure by
ensuring that the calculated uplift at any support is
resisted by tension members engaging a mass of masonry
equal to the largest force obtained under one of the
following conditions:
(a)

100 percent of the calculated uplift caused by


any loading or combination of loadings in which
the live plus impact loading is increased by 100
percent.
(b) 150 percent of the calculated uplift at working
load level.
(c) 100 percent of the calculated uplift for load
factor design.

3.17.2

Anchor bolts subject to tension or other


elements of the structures stressed under the above con
ditions shall be designed at 150 percent of the allowable
basic stress.

3.18 FORCE FROM STREAM CURRENT,


FLOATING ICE AND DRIFT
All piers and other portion so structures that are
subject to the force of flowing water, floating ice, or drift
shall be designed to resist the maximum stresses induced
thereby.

3.18.1

Force of Stream Current on Piers

3.18.1.1
+
+
+
+

Provisions shall be made in concrete structures for


stresses and movements resulting from shrinkage, as
follows:
Arches - Shrinkage Coefficient ...................... 0.0002

+
+

Stream Pressure

3.18.1.1.1 The effect of flowing water on piers and


drift build-up, assuming a second degree parabolic veloc
ity distribution and thus a triangular pressure distribu
tion, shall be calculated by the formula:
Pavg = K (Vavg )2

SECTION 3 LOADS

(3-4)

3-13

+
+

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FEBRUARY 2004

3.18.2 Force of Ice on Piers

where:
Pavg
Vavg

= average steam pressure, in pounds per square


foot;
= average velocity of water in feet per second;
computed by dividing the flow rate by the
flow area,
= a constant, being 1.4 for all piers subjected to
drift build-up and square-ended piers, 0.7 for
circular piers, and 0.5 for angle-ended piers
where the angle is 30 degrees or less.

The maximum stream flow pressure, Pmax, shall be


equal to twice the average stream flow pressure, Pavg,
computed by Equation 3-4. Stream flow pressure shall be
a triangular distribution with Pmax located at the top of
water elevation and a zero pressure located at the flow
line.

3.18.1.1.2
The stream flow forces shall
be computed by the product of the stream flow pressure,
taking into account the pressure distribution, and the
exposed pier area. In cases where the corresponding top
of water elevation is above the low beam elevation,
stream flow loading on the superstructure shall be inves
tigated. The stream flow pressure acting on the super
structure may be taken as Pmax with a uniform distribu
tion.
3.18.1.2

Pressure Components

When the direction of stream flow is other than normal


to the exposed surface area, or when bank migration or a
change of stream bed meander is anticipated, the effects
of the directional components of stream flow pressure
shall be investigated.

3.18.1.3

Drift Lodged Against Pier

Where a significant amount of drift lodged against a


pier is anticipated, the effects of this drift buildup shall be
considered in the design of the bridge opening and the
bridge components. The overall dimensions of the drift
buildup shall reflect the selected pier locations, site
conditions, and known drift supply upstream. When it is
anticipated that the flow area will be significantly
blocked by drift buildup, increases in high water eleva
tions, stream velocities, stream flow pressures, and the
potential increases in scour depths shall be investigated.

3-14

SECTION 3 LOADS

Pressure of ice on piers shall be calculated at 400


pounds per square inch. The thickness of ice and height
at which it applies shall be determined by investigation at
the site of the structure.

3.19

+
+
+
+

BUOYANCY

Buoyancy shall be considered where it affects the


design of either substructure, including piling, or the
superstructure.

3.20

EARTH PRESSURE

3.20.1

Structures which retain level fills shall


be proportioned to withstand pressure as given by
Rankine's formula, or by other expressions given in Sec
tion 5, "Retaining Walls"; provided, however, that no
vertical wall structure shall be designed for less than an
equivalent fluid unit weight of 36 pounds per cubic foot,
except that the maximum load on the heels of wall footings
shall be determined by using an equivalent fluid unit
weight of 27 pounds per cubic foot.

3.20.2

For rigid frames a maximum of one-half


of the moment caused by earth pressure (lateral) may be
used to reduce the positive moment in the beams, in the
top slab, or in the top and bottom slab, as the case may be.

3.20.3

When highway traffic can come within


a horizontal distance from the top of the structure equal to
one-half its height, the pressure shall have added to it a live
load surcharge pressure equal to not less than 2 feet of the
earth.

3.20.4

Where an adequately designed rein


forced concrete approach slab supported at one end by
the bridge is provided, no live load surcharge need be
considered.

3.20.5

All designs shall provide for the thor


ough drainage of the back-filling material by means of
weep holes and crushed rock, pipe drains or gravel drains,
or by perforated drains.

+
+
+
+

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FEBRUARY 2004

3.21
+
+
+
+
+
+

Part B
Combinations of Loads

EARTHQUAKES

All structures shall be designed to resist earthquake


motions by considering the relationship of the site to
active faults, the seismic response of the soils at the site,
and the dynamic response characteristics of the total
structure and its individual components in accordance
with the Caltrans Seismic Design Criteria.

3.22

COMBINATIONS OF LOADS

3.22.1

The following Groups represent vari


ous combination of loads and forces to which a structure
may be subjected. Each component of the structure, or the
foundation on which it rests, shall be proportioned to
withstand safely all group combinations of these forces
that are applicable to the particular site or type. Group
loading combinations for Service Load Design and Load
Factor Design are given by:
Group (N) = [DD + L (L + I) + CCF + EE + BB
+ SSF + WW + PSPS + WLWL + LLF
+ R(R + S + T) + EQEQ + ICEICE + CTCT]
(3-10)
where
N

D
L
I
E
B
W
WL

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

LF
CF
R
S
T
EQ
SF
ICE
PS
CT

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

group number;

load factor, see Table 3.22.1A and B;


coefficient, see Table 3.22.1A and B;
dead load;

live load;

live load impact;

earth pressure;

buoyancy;

wind load on structure;

wind load on live load-100 pounds per

linear foot;

longitudinal force from live load;

centrifugal force;

rib shortening;

shrinkage;

temperature;

earthquake;

stream flow pressure;

ice pressure;

prestress.

truck collision

3.22.2

For service load design, the percentage +


of the basic unit stress for the various groups is given in
+
Table 3.22.1B.
The loads and forces in each group shall be taken as
appropriate from Articles 3.3 to 3.21. The maximum
section required shall be used.

SECTION 3 LOADS

3-15

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FEBRUARY 2004

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

TABLE 3.22.1A Factors for Load Factor Design

Group

Gamma
Factor D

(L+I)H (L+I)P CF

Beta Factors
SF
W

WL LF

PS R+S+T EQ

ICE

CT

IH

1.30

1.67

0.77

IPC

1.30

0.77

IPW

1.30

1.15

0.77

IP3D

1.30

1.25

0.77

II

1.30

0.77

III

1.30

0.3

0.77

IV

1.30

0.77

1.25

0.80

VI

1.25

0.3

0.80

VII

1.00

1.00

VIII

1.30

0.77

IX

1.20

0.83

X*

1.30

1.67

0.67

XI

1.0

1.0

0.5

1.0

H denotes H loads.

PC denotes P loads on closely spaced girders used only for superstructures.

PW denotes P loads on widely spaced girders and substructures.

P3D denotes P loads only on superstructures when three-dimensional analysis is used for load distribution.

D = 0.75 when checking columns for maximum moment or maximum eccentricities and associated axial

load; and when Dead Load effects are of opposite sign to the net effects of other loads in a Group.
D = 1.00 when checking columns for maximum axial load and associated moment.
D = 1.00 for flexural and tension members and for culverts.
E = 0.50 for checking positive moments in rigid frames.
E = 1.00 for vertical earth pressure and for rigid culverts.
E = 1.30 for lateral earth pressure. (Not for culverts.)
E = 1.50 for flexible culverts.
* Group X applies only to culverts. Other Groups do not apply to culverts.

3-16

SECTION 3 LOADS

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FEBRUARY 2004

TABLE 3.22.1B Factors for Service Load Design*

Group

Gamma
Factor

1.0

II

1.0

III

1.0

IV

L+I CF

Beta Factors
W WL LF

SF

100

125

0.3

125

1.0

125

1.0

140

VI

1.0

0.3

140

VIII

1.0

140

IX

1.0

150

Not applicable for culvert design. Use Load Factor Design.

Indicates percentage of basic unit stress.

PS

R+S+T ICE

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

No increase in allowable unit stresses shall be permitted for members or connections carrying wind loads only
P Loads apply in Service Load design only for checking serviceability under fatigue in structural steel.
When EQ loads are applied, Load Factor Design shall be used to analyze their effects.

SECTION 3 LOADS

3-17

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FEBRUARY 2004

+
+
+
+
+
+

For load factor design, the gamma and


beta factors given in Table 3.22.1A are only intended for
designing structural members by the load factor concept.
The load factors are not intended to be used when check
ing the foundation stability (safety factors against over
turning, sliding, etc.) of a structure.

3.23 DISTRIBUTION OF LOADS TO


STRINGERS, LONGITUDINAL
BEAMS, AND FLOOR BEAMS*

3.22.4

3.23.1

When long span structures are being


designed by load factor design, the gamma and beta
factors specified for Load Factor Design represent general
conditions and should be increased if, in the Engineer's
judgment, expected loads, service conditions, or materi
als of construction are different from those anticipated by
the specifications.
+
+
+
+
+

Position of Loads for Shear

In calculating end shears and end reac


3.23.1.1
tions in transverse floor beams and longitudinal beams
and stringers, no longitudinal distribution of the wheel
load shall be assumed for the wheel or axle load adjacent
to the end at which the stress is being determined.

3.22.5

At the factored level all structures shall


be analyzed for the effect of both HS and P Loads as
defined in Article 3.7 using the group loading combina
tions of Table 3.22.1A. P Loads shall be considered as
follows:

+
+
+
+

Group IPC applies only for P Load application to


superstructures for which Footnote f to Table 3.23.1
does not apply. The distribution follows the same
rules as applies to H Loads, Article 3.23.

+
+
+
+
+
+

Group IPW applies for P Load application for which


Footnote f to Table 3.23.1 applies. Group IPW also
applies to all substructures including bents and pier
caps entirely contained within the superstructure.
Load combination IPW is to be applied in accor
dance with Article 3.11.

+
+
+
+
+
+
+

Group IP3D applies only for P load application to


superstructures for which a three dimensional analy
sis for live loads has been conducted that explicitly
considers the lateral stiffness and load transfer
characteristics of the superstructure elements. Load
combination IP3D is to be applied in accordance
with Article 3.11.

+
+
+
+
+
+

Part C

Distribution of Loads

3.22.3

3.22.6

Load factor design methods of


AASHTO using Load Group IB shall be used for the
analysis of specific loads that do not conform to any
design loading specified herein. Distribution of such
loads shall be consistent with the nature of the load and
provisions of these specifications.

3.23.1.2
Lateral distribution of the wheel load
shall be that produced by assuming the flooring to act as
a simple span between stringers or beams. For loads in
other positions on the span, the distribution for shear shall
be determined by the method prescribed for moment,
except that the calculations of horizontal shear in rectan
gular timber beams shall be in accordance with Article
13.3.
3.23.2

Bending Moments in Stringers and


Longitudinal Beams**

3.23.2.1

General

In calculating bending moments in longitudinal


beams or stringers, no longitudinal distribution of the
wheel loads shall be assumed. The lateral distribution
shall be determined as follows.

3.23.2.2

Interior Stringers and Beams

The live load bending moment for each interior


stringer shall be determined by applying to the stringer

Provisions in this Article shall not apply to orthotropic deck


bridges.

** In view of the complexity of the theoretical analysis involved


in the distribution of wheel loads to stringers, the empirical
method herein described is authorized for the design of normal
highway bridges.

3-18

SECTION 3 LOADS

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FEBRUARY 2004

the fraction of a wheel load (both front and rear) deter


mined in Table 3.23.1.
+
+
+
+
+

3.23.2.2.1 The dead load bending moments for


each interior stringer shall be determined by applying the
panel load to the stringer. Box girders designed as whole
width units shall have the dead load applied uniformly to
the whole cross-section.

+
+
+
+
+

3.23.2.2.2 Curbs, sidewalks, railings, and wearing


surface may be considered equally distributed to all
roadway stringers or beams, but shall not be distributed
beyond a longitudinal expansion joint in the roadway
slab.

+
+
+
+

3.23.2.2.3

The weight of each utility to be carried


on a structure shall be distributed to supporting longitu
dinal members assuming a simple beam between longitu
dinal members.

3.23.2.3.1.3 When the outside roadway


beam or stringer supports the sidewalk live load as well
as traffic live load and impact and the structure is to be
designed by the service load method, the allowable stress
in the beam or stringer may be increased by 25 percent for
the combination of dead load, sidewalk live load, traffic
live load, and impact, providing the beam is of no less
carrying capacity than would be required if there were no
sidewalks. When the combination of sidewalk live load
and traffic live load plus impact governs the design and
the structure is to be designed by the load factor method,
1.25 may be used as the beta factor in place of 1.67.
3.23.2.3.1.4 In no case shall an exterior
stringer have less carrying capacity than an interior
stringer.
3.23.2.3.1.5
3.23.2.3.2

3.23.2.3
3.23.2.3.1

Outside Roadway Stringers


and Beams
Steel-Timber-Concrete T-Beams

3.23.2.3.1.1 The dead load supported by


the outside roadway stringer or beam shall be that portion
of the floor slab carried by the stringer or beam. Curbs,
railings, and wearing surface, if placed after the slab has
cured, may be distributed equally to all roadway stringers
or beams.

+
+
+

3.23.2.3.1.2 The live load bending mo


ment for outside roadway stringers or beams shall be
determined by applying to the stringer or beam the
fraction of a wheel line determined by multiplying the
value of the interior stringers or beams by
We /S

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

We

= The top slab width as measured from the


outside face of the slab to the midpoint
between the exterior and interior stringer or
beam. The cantilever dimension of any slab
extending beyond the exterior girder shall
not exceed S/2, measured from the centerline
of the exterior beam.

+
+

= average stringer spacing in feet. If S exceeds


values given in Table 3.23.1 use footnote f.

Deleted

Concrete Box Girders

Dead load and live load distribution to exterior girders +


shall be included in whole-width unit designs as given in +
Article 3.23.2.2.
+

3.23.2.3.3

Total Capacity of Stringers and


Beams

The combined design load capacity of all the beams


and stringers in a span shall not be less than required to
support the total live and dead load in the span.

3.23.3

Bending Moments in Floor Beams


(Transverse)

In calculating bending moments in


3.23.3.1
floor beams, no transverse distribution of the wheel loads
shall be assumed.

3.23.3.2
If longitudinal stingers are omitted and
the floor is supported directly on floor beams, the beams
shall be designed for loads determined in accordance
with Table 3.23.3.1.

SECTION 3 LOADS

3-19

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FEBRUARY 2004

TABLE 3.23.1 Distribution of Wheel Loads in

Longitudinal Beams

Kind of Floor

+
+

+
+
+

Overall deck width


7.0

3.23.4

Bridge Designed
Bridge Designed for for Two or more
One Traffic Lane
Traffic Lanes

Timbera:
S/4.0
Plankb
Nail laminatedc
4" thick or multiple
layerd floors over
5" thick
S/4.5
Nail laminatedc
6" or more thick S/5.0
If S exceeds 5'
use footnote f.
Glued Laminatede
Panels on glued
Laminated Stringers
4" thick
S/4.5
6" or more thick
S/6.0
If S exceeds 6'
use footnote f.
On Steel Stringers
4" thick
S/4.5
6" or more thick
S/5.25
If S exceeds 5.5'
use footnote f.
Concrete:
On Steel I-Beam
Stringersg and
Prestressed
Concrete Girders
S/7.0
If S exceeds 10'
use footnote f.
On Concrete
T-Beamsk
S/6.5
If S exceeds 6'
use footnote f.
On Timber
Stringers
S/6.0
If S exceeds 6'
use footnote f.
Concrete box girdersh,j:
Designed as whole width units.
Do not apply Article 3.12.
On Steel Box Girders
On Prestressed Concrete
Spread Box Beams

S/3.75

S/4.0
S/4.25
If S exceeds 6.5'
use footnote f.

S/4.0
S/5.0
If S exceeds 7.5'
use footnote f.
S/4.0
S/4.5
If S exceeds 7'
use footnote f.

S/5.5
If S exceeds 14'
use footnote f.
S/6.0
If S exceeds 15'
use footnote f.

Precast Concrete Beams Used in


Multi-Beam Decks

See Article 10.39.2.


See Article 3.28.

Steel Grid:
(Less than 4" thick) S/4.5
(4" or more)
S/6.0
If S exceeds 6'
use footnote f.
Steel Bridge
Corrugated Planki
(2" min. depth)
S/5.5

3-20

S/5.0
If S exceeds 10'
use footnote f.

S = average stringer spacing in feet.


a
Timber dimensions shown are for nominal thickness.
bPlank floors consist of pieces of lumber laid edge to edge with
the wide faces bearing on the supports. (See Article 16.3.11-Division II).
c
Nail laminated floors consist of pieces of lumber laid face to
face with the narrow edges bearing on the supports, each piece
being nailed to the preceding piece. (See Article 16.3.12-Division II).
dMultiple layer floors consist of two or more layers of planks,
each layer being laid at an angle to the other. (See Article 16.3.11
Division II).
e
Glued laminated panel floors consist of vertically glued laminated
members with the narrow edges of the laminations bearing on the
supports. (See Article 16.3.13-Division II).
fIn this case the load on each stringer shall be the reaction of the
wheel loads, assuming the flooring between the stringers to act as a
simple beam.
g
"Design of I-Beam Bridges" by N. M. Newmark-Proceedings,
ASCE, March 1948.
hThe sidewalk live load (see Article 3.14) shall be omitted for
interior and exterior box girders designed in accordance with the wheel
load distribution indicated herein.
i
Distribution factors for Steel Bridge Corrugated Plank set forth
above are based substantially on the following reference:
Journal of Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol. 67, No. 2, 1977
"Wheel Load Distribution of Steel Bridge Plank," by Conrad P. Heins,
Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Maryland.
These distribution factors were developed based on studies using
6" x 2" steel corrugated plank. The factors should yield safe results for
other corrugation configurations provided primary bending stiffness is
the same as or greater than the 6" x 2" corrugated plank used in the
studies.
j
Unusual plan layouts may be designed as individual girders, using
S/7. If S exceeds 16' use footnote f.
k"Design of Slab and Stringer Highway Bridges", by N.M. Newmark
and C.P. Siess - Public Roads, January-February-March 1943. "Distri
bution of Loads to Girders in Slab-and-Girder Bridges; Theoretical
Analyses and Their Relation to Field Tests" by C.P. Siess and A.S.
Veletsos - Highway Research Board Report 14-B, 1952.

SECTION 3 LOADS

S/4.0
S/5.0
If S exceeds 10.5'
use footnote f.

S/4.5

A multi-beam bridge is constructed


3.23.4.1
with precast reinforced or prestressed concrete beams that
are placed side by side on the supports. The interaction
between the beams is developed by continuous longitu
dinal shear keys used in combination with transverse tie
assemblies which may, or may not, be prestressed, such as
bolts, rods, or prestressing strands, or other mechanical
means. Full-depth rigid end diaphragms are needed to
ensure proper load distribution for channel, single- and
multi-stemmed tee beams.

+
+
+
+
+
+
+

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FEBRUARY 2004

TABLE 3.23.3.1 Distribution of Wheel Loads


in Transverse Beams
Fraction of
Wheel Load
to Each
Floor Beam

Kind of Floor
Planka,b

S
4

Nail laminatedc or glued laminatede,


4 inches in thickness, or multiple layerd
floors more than 5 inches thick

S
4.5

Nail laminatedc or glued laminatede,


6 inches or more in thickness

Sf
5

Concrete

Sf
6

Steel grid (less than 4 inches thick)

S
4.5

where,
S
D

= width of precast member;

= (5.75 - 0.5NL) + 0.7NL (1 - 0.2C)2

when C 5
(3-12)
(3-13)
= (5.75 - 0.5NL) when C > 5
= number of traffic lanes from Article 3.6;
= K(W/L)
(3-14)

D
NL
C
where,

W = overall width of bridge measured perpendicu


lar to the longitudinal girders in feet;
L

= span length measured parallel to longitudinal


girders in feet; for girders with cast-in-place
and diaphragms, use the length between end
diaphragms;

{(1+ )I/J}1/2

S
6

Steel grid (4 inches or more)


Steel bridge corrugated plank (2 inches
minimum depth)

If the value of I/J exceeds 5.0, the live load distri


bution should be determined using a more precise
method, such as the Articulate Plate Theory or Grillage
Analysis.

S
5.5

Note:
S = spacing of floor beams in feet.

where,

a-e

For footnotes a through e, see Table 3.23.1.

f If

S exceeds denominator, the load on the beam shall be the


reaction of the wheels loads assuming the flooring between beams
to act as a simple beam.

I =
J =
m =

moment of inertia;

Saint-Venant torsion constant;

Poisson's ratio for girders.

In lieu of more exact methods, "J" may be estimated


using the following equations:
For Non-voided Rectangular Beams, Channels, Tee
Beams:

In calculating bending moments in


multi-beam precast concrete bridges, conventional or
prestressed, no longitudinal distribution of wheel load
shall be assumed.

3.23.4.3
The live load bending moment for each
section shall be determined by applying to the beam the
fraction of a wheel load (both front and rear) determined
by the following equation:
S

Load Fraction = D

(3-11)

J= (1/3) bt3 (1- 0.630t/b)

3.23.4.2

where,
b =
t

the length of each rectangular component


within the section.
the thickness of each rectangular component
within the section.

The flanges and stems of stemmed or channel sections


are considered as separate rectangular components whose
values are summed together to calculate "J". Note that for

SECTION 3

LOADS

3-21

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FEBRUARY 2004

"Rectangular Beams with Circular Voids" the value of "J"


can usually be approximated by using the equation
above for rectangular sections and neglecting the voids.

3.24.1.2
The following effective span lengths
shall be used in calculating the distribution of loads and
bending moments for slabs continuous over more than
two supports:

For Box-Section Beams:


(a)
J=

2tt f (b t )2 (d t f

)
2

bt + dt f t 2 t 2 f

where
b
d
t
tf

=
=
=
=

(b)
the overall width of the box,

the overall depth of the box,

the thickness of either web,

the thickness of either flange.

The formula assumes that both flanges are the same


thickness and uses the thickness of only one flange. The
same is true of the webs.
For preliminary design, the following values of K may
be used.
Bridge Type
Multi-beam

Beam Type
Non-voided rectangular beams
Rectangular beams with circular voids
Box section beams
Channel, single and multi-stemmed tee beams

K
0.7
0.8
1.0
2.2

3.24 DISTRIBUTION OF LOADS AND


DESIGN OF CONCRETE SLABS*
3.24.1

Span Lengths (See Article 8.8)

For simple spans the span length shall


3.24.1.1
be the distance center to center of supports but need not
exceed clear span plus thickness of slab.

(c)

3.24.2

3-22

SECTION 3 LOADS

Slabs supported on timber stringers. "S" shall be


the clear span plus one-half thickness of stringer.

Edge Distance of Wheel Loads

In designing sidewalks, supporting


3.24.2.1
members, and slabs including cantilever overhangs, the
center line of the wheel load shall be 1 foot from the face
of the rail. However, a wheel load need not be applied on
sidewalks protected by a vehicle barrier rail. (See Com
mentary)

+
+
+
+
+
+

3.24.2.2
In service load design, the combined
permanent, pedestrian, vehicular and impact stresses for
the loading described in 3.24.2.1 shall not be greater than
150 percent of the allowable stresses. In load factor design
for combined permanent, pedestrian, vehicular, and im
pact loads, 1.0 may be used as the beta factor in place of
1.67 for the design of deck slabs.

+
+
+
+
+
+
+

3.24.3
* The slab distribution set forth herein is based substantially
on the "Westergaard" theory. The following references are
furnished concerning the subject of slab design.
Public Roads, March 1930, "Computation of Stresses in
Bridge Slabs Due to Wheel Loads," by H.M. Westergaard.
University of Illinois, Bulletin No. 303, "Solutions for
Certain Rectangular Slabs Continuous over Flexible Supports,"
by Vernon P. Jensen; Bulletin 304, "A Distribution Procedure
for the Analysis of Slabs Continuous over Flexible Beams," by
Nathan M. Newmark; Bulletin 315, "Moments in Simple Span
Bridge Slabs with Stiffened Edges," by Vernon P. Jensen; and
Bulletin 346, "Highway Slab Bridges with Curbs; Laboratory
Tests and Proposed Design Method."

Slabs monolithic with beams or slabs mono


lithic with walls without haunches and rigid top
flange prestressed beams with top flange width
to minimum thickness ratio less than 4.0. "S"
shall be the clear span.
Slabs supported on steel stringers, or slabs sup
ported on thin top flange prestressed beams with
top flange width to minimum thickness ratio
equal to or greater than 4.0. "S" shall be the
distance between edges of top flange plus onehalf of stringer top flange width.

Bending Moment

The bending moment per foot width of slab shall be


calculated according to methods given under Cases A
and B, unless more exact methods are used considering
tire contact area. The tire contact area needed for exact
methods is given in Article 3.30.
In Cases A and B:
S

= effective span length, in feet, as defined un


der "Span Lengths" Articles 3.24.1 and 8.8;

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FEBRUARY 2004

E
+

P
P20

= width of slab in feet over which a wheel load


is distributed;
= load on one rear wheel of truck
= 16,000 pounds for H 20 loading.

3.24.3.1

Case A-Main Reinforcement


Perpendicular to Traffic
(Spans 2 to 24 Feet Inclusive)

The live load moment for simple spans shall be deter


mined by the following formula (impact not included):
HS 20 Loading:

( S + 2)
P
32 20 = Moments in foot - pounds
+

In slabs continuous over three or more supports, a


continuity factor of 0.8 shall be applied to the above
formulas for both positive and negative moment.

3.24.3.2

Case B-Main Reinforcement


Parallel to Traffic

For wheel loads, the distribution width, E, shall be


(4+0.06S) but shall not exceed 7.0 feet. Lane loads are
distributed over a width of 2E. Longitudinally reinforced
+ slabs shall be designed for the appropriate live loading.
+

3.24.4

Shear

Slabs designed for bending moment in accordance


with Article 3.24.3 shall be considered satisfactory in
+ shear.

3.24.5

Cantilever Slabs

3.24.5.1

Truck Loads

Under the following formulas for distribution of loads


on cantilever slabs, the slab is designed to support the
load independently of the effects of any edge support
along the end of the cantilever. The distribution given
includes the effect of wheels on parallel elements.

3.24.5.1.1 Case A-Reinforcement

Perpendicular to Traffic

Each wheel on the element perpendicular to traffic


shall be distributed over a width according to the follow
ing formula:

E = 0.8X + 3.75

(3-17)

The moment per foot of slab shall be (P/E)X footpounds, in which X is the distance in feet from load to
point of support.

3.24.5.1.2 Case B-Reinforcement Parallel


to Traffic
The distribution width for each wheel load on the
element parallel to traffic shall be as follows:

E = 0.35X + 3.25 , but shall not exceed 7.0 feet


(3-18)
The moment per foot of slab shall be (P/E)X footpounds.

3.24.5.2

Railing Loads

A horizontal load of 54K shall be applied to the barrier


in the tranverse direction at the uppermost point, and in
accordance with Article 3.22, Group XI loading. The
effective length of slab resisting collision loadings shall
be equal to E = 10 feet where a solid parapet is used, and
based on yield line theory for all other cases.

3.24.6

Slabs Supported on Four Sides

3.24.6.1
For slabs supported along four edges
and reinforced in both directions, the proportion of the
load carried by the short span of the slab shall be given by
the following equations:
For uniformly, distributed load,

p=

b4

(3-19)

a 4 + b 4

For concentrated load at center,

p=

b3

(3-20)

a + b 3
3

SECTION 3

LOADS

3-23

+
+
+
+
+
+

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FEBRUARY 2004

3.24.9

where,
p = proportion of load carried by short span;
a = length of short span of slab;
b = length of long span of slab.

3.24.6.2
Where the length of the slab exceeds
11/2 times its width, the entire load shall be carried by the
transverse reinforcement.
3.24.6.3
The distribution width, E, for the load
taken by either span shall be determined as provided for
other slabs. The moments obtained shall be used in
designing the center half of the short and long slabs. The
reinforcement steel in the outer quarters of both short and
long spans may be reduced by 50 percent. In the design
of the supporting beams, consideration shall be given to
the fact that the loads delivered to the supporting beams
are not uniformly distributed along the beams.
3.24.7

Median Slabs

Raised median slabs shall be designed in accordance


with the provisions of this article with truck loadings so
placed as to produce maximum stresses. Combined dead,
live, and impact stresses shall not be greater than 150
percent of the allowable stresses. Flush median slabs
shall be designed without overstress.

3.24.8

Longitudinal Edge Beams

Edge beams shall be provided for all


3.24.8.1
slabs having main reinforcement parallel to traffic. The
beam may consist of a slab section additionally rein
forced, a beam integral with and deeper than the slab, or
an integral reinforced section of slab and curb.

3.24.8.2
The edge beam of a simple span shall be
designed to resist a live load moment of 0.10PS, where
+

P = wheel load in pounds;


S = span length in feet.

3.24.8.3
For continuous spans, the moment may
be reduced by 20 percent unless a greater reduction
results from a more exact analysis.

Unsupported Transverse Edges

The design assumptions of this article do not provide


for the effect of loads near unsupported edges. Therefore,
at the ends of the bridge and at intermediate points where
the continuity of the slab is broken, the edges shall be
supported by diaphragms or other suitable means. The
diaphragms shall be designed to resist the full moment
and shear produced by the wheel loads which can come
on them.

3.24.10

Distribution Reinforcement

3.24.10.1 To provide for the lateral distribution


of the concentrated live loads, reinforcement shall be
placed transverse to the main steel reinforcement in the
bottoms of all slabs except culvert or bridge slabs where
the depth of fill over the slab exceeds 2 feet.
3.24.10.2 The amount of distribution reinforce
ment shall be the percentage of the main reinforcement
steel required for positive moment as given by the follow
ing formulas:
For main reinforcement parallel to traffic,
100

Percentage =

Maximum 50%

(3-21)

For main reinforcement perpendicular to traffic,


220

Percentage =

Maximum 67%

(3-22)

where S = the effective span length in feet.

3.24.10.3 For main reinforcement perpendicular


to traffic, the specified amount of distribution reinforce
ment shall be used in the middle half of the slab span, and
not less than 50 percent of the specified amount shall be
used in the outer quarters of the slab span.
3.25 DISTRIBUTION OF WHEEL LOADS
ON TIMBER FLOORING
For the calculation of bending moments in timber
flooring each wheel load shall be distributed as follows.

3-24

SECTION 3 LOADS

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FEBRUARY 2004

3.25.1

Transverse Flooring

3.25.1.1
In direction of span, the wheel load
shall be distributed over the width of tire as given in
Article 3.30.
+

moment and shear.* The maximum shear is for a wheel


position assumed to be 15 inches or less from the
centerline of the support. The maximum moment is for a
wheel position assumed to be centered between the
supports.

Normal to direction of span, the wheel load shall be


distributed as follows:
Plank floor:

the width of plank.

Non-interconnected* nail laminated panel floor:


15 inches, but not to exceed panel width.
Non-interconnected glued laminated panel floor:
15 inches plus thickness of floor, but not to
exceed panel width.
Continuous nail laminated floor and interconnected
nail laminated panel floor, with adequate shear trans
fer between panels**:
15 inches plus thickness of floor, but not to
exceed panel width.
Interconnected glued laminated panel floor, with
adequate shear transfer between panels**, not less
than 6 inches thick:
15 inches plus twice thickness of floor, but not
to exceed panel width.

3.25.1.2
For transverse flooring the span shall
be taken as the clear distance between stringers plus onehalf the width of one stringer, but shall not exceed the
clear span plus the floor thickness.
3.25.1.3
One design method for interconnected
glued laminated panel floors is as follows: For glued
laminated panel decks using vertically laminated lumber
with the panel placed in a transverse direction to the
stringers and with panel interconnected using steel dow
els, the determination of the deck thickness shall be based
on the following equations for maximum unit primary

*
The terms interconnected and non-interconnected refer
to the joints between the individual nail laminated or glued
laminated panels.
**
This shear transfer may be accomplished using me
chanical fasteners, splines, or dowels along the panel joint or
other suitable means.

The equations are developed for deck panel spans equal


to or greater than the width of the tire (as specified in Article
3.30), but not greater than 200 inches.

Thus,

M x = P(.51 log 10 s - K)

(3-23)

R x = .034P

(3-24)

t=

6M x
Fb

(3-25)

or,

t=

3R x
whichever is greater
2Fv

(3-26)

where,
M x = primary bending moment in inch-pounds per
inch;
Rx = primary shear in pounds per inch;
x = denotes direction perpendicular to longitudinal
stringers;
P = design wheel load in pounds;
s = effective deck span in inches;
t = deck thickness, in inches, based on moment or
shear, whichever controls;
K = design constant depending on design load as
follows:
H 15

K = 0.47

H 20

K = 0.51

Fb = allowable bending stress, in pounds per square


inch, based on load applied parallel to the wide
face of the laminations, (see Tables 13.2.2A
and B);
Fv = allowable shear stress, in pounds per square
inch, based on load applied parallel to the wide
face of the laminations, (see Tables 13.2.2A
and B).

*
The terms interconnected and non-interconnected refer
to the joints between the individual nail laminated or glued
laminated panels.

SECTION 3

LOADS

3-25

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FEBRUARY 2004

3.25.1.4

The determination of the minimum


size and spacing required of the steel dowels required to
transfer the load between panels shall be based on the
following equation:
1,000 R y M y

n=

+
PL R D M D

in.

lb.

in.-lb.

1/in.2

1/in.3

600

850

36.9

81.5

8.50

800

1,340

22.3

41.7

10.00

.75

1,020

1,960

14.8

24.1

11.50

.875

1,260

2,720

10.5

15.2

13.00

1.0

1,520

3,630

7.75

10.2

14.50

1.125

1,790

4,680

5.94

7.15

15.50

1.25

2,100

5,950

4.69

5.22

17.00

1.375

2,420

7,360

3.78

3.92

18.00

1.5

2,770

8,990

3.11

3.02

19.50

.625

where
n

= number of steel dowels required for the given


spans;
PL = proportional limit stress perpendicular to
grain (for Douglas Fir or Southern pine, use
1,000 psi);
Ry = total secondary shear transferred, in pounds,
determined by the relationship:

R y = 6Ps/1,000 for s 50 inches

Diameter
of Dowel

Moment
Capacity
MD

0.5

(3-27)

(3-28)
=

P
(s 20) for s > 50 inches
2s

(3-29)

M y = total secondary moment transferred, in inchpound, determined by the relationship

Ps
M y =
(s 10) for s 50 inches (3-30)
1,600
M y =

Ps (s - 30)
for s > 50 inches
20 (s -10)

(3-31)

RD and MD = shear and moment capacities,

respectively, as given in the

following table:

Steel Stress
Coefficients
CR
CM

in.

3.25.1.5
In addition, the dowels shall be
checked to ensure that the allowable stress of the steel is
not exceeded using the following equation:

or,
Ry =

Total
Dowel
Length
Required

Shear
Capacity
RD

1
CR R y + CM M y
n

(3-32)

where,

= minimum yield point of steel pins in


pounds per square inch (see Table
10.32.1A);
n, Ry, My = as previously defined;
CR, CM = steel stress coefficients as given in
preceding table.

3.25.2

Plank and Nail Laminated


Longitudinal Flooring

In the direction of the span, the wheel


3.25.2.1
load shall be considered a point loading.

3.25.2.2
Normal to the direction of the span the
wheel load shall be distributed as follows:
Plank floor:
width of plank.
+
Non-interconnected nail laminated or glued
+
laminated panel floor:
width of tire plus thickness of floor, but not to
exceed panel width. Continuous nail
laminated floor and interconnected nail
laminated or glued laminated panel floor, with +

3-26

SECTION 3 LOADS

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FEBRUARY 2004

adequate shear transfer between panels*, not


less than 6 inches thick: width of tire plus twice
thickness of floor.

Wheel Load Fraction per Panel


=

3.25.2.3
For longitudinal flooring the span
shall be taken as the clear distance between floor beams
plus one-half the width of one beam but shall not exceed
the clear span plus the floor thickness.
3.25.3

Longitudinal Glued Laminate


Timber Deck

3.25.3.1

TWO OR MORE TRAFFIC LANES

WP
L
3.75 +
28

or

WP
, whichever is greater.
5.00

ONE TRAFFIC LANE


Load Fraction =

WP
L
4.25 +
28

or

WP
, whichever is greater.
5.50

where, WP = Width of Panel; in feet (3.5 WP 4.5)


L = Length of span for simple span bridges and the
length of the shortest span for continuous bridges in feet.

3.25.3.2

For wheel loads in other positions on the span, the


lateral distribution for shear shall be determined by the
method prescribed for moment.

3.25.3.3

Deflections

Bending Moment

In calculating bending moments in glued laminated


timber longitudinal decks, no longitudinal distribution of
wheel loads shall be assumed. The lateral distribution
shall be determined as follows.
The live load bending moment for each panel shall be
determined by applying to the panel the fraction of a
wheel load determined from the following equations:

Load Fraction =

WP
but not less than 1.
4.00

Shear

When calculating the end shears and end reactions for


each panel, no longitudinal distribution of the wheel
loads shall be assumed. The lateral distribution of the
wheel load at the supports shall be that determined by the
equation:

* This shear transfer may be accomplished using mechanical


fasteners, splines, or dowels along the panel joint or spreader beams
located at intervals along the panels or other suitable means.

The maximum deflection may be calculated by apply


ing to the panel the wheel load fraction determined by the
method prescribed for moment.

3.25.3.4

Stiffener Arrangement

The transverse stiffeners shall be adequately attached


to each panel, at points near the panel edges, with either
steel plates, thru-bolts, C-clips or aluminum brackets.
The stiffeners spacing required will depend upon the
spacing needed in order to prevent differential panel
movement; however, a stiffener shall be placed at
midspan with additional stiffeners placed at intervals not
to exceed 10 feet. The stiffness factor EI of the stiffener
shall not be less than 80,000 kip-in2.

3.25.4

Continuous Flooring

If the flooring is continuous over more than two spans,


the maximum bending moment shall be assumed as being
80 percent of that obtained for a simple span.

3.26 DISTRIBUTION OF WHEEL LOADS


AND DESIGN OF COMPOSITE
WOOD-CONCRETE MEMBERS
3.26.1

Distribution of Concentrated Loads


for Bending Moment and Shear

For freely supported or continuous slab


3.26.1.1
spans of composite wood-concrete construction, as de
scribed in Article 20.19.1 Division II, the wheel loads
shall be distributed over a transverse width of 5 feet for
bending moment and a width of 4 feet for shear.

SECTION 3 LOADS

3-27

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FEBRUARY 2004

3.26.1.2
For composite T-beams of wood and
concrete, as described in Article 20.19.2-Division II, the
effective flange width shall not exceed that given in
Article 10.38.3. Shear connectors shall be capable of
resisting both vertical and horizontal movement.

in which

3.26.2

3.27 DISTRIBUTION OF WHEEL LOADS


ON STEEL GRID FLOORS*

Distribution of Bending Moments in


Continuous Spans

3.26.2.1
Both positive and negative moments
shall be distributed in accordance with the following
table:
Maximum Bending Moments-Percent of Simple
Span Moment
Maximum Uniform
Dead Load Moments
Wood
Subdeck
Span

Maximum Live
Load Moments

Composite
Slab

Concentrated
Load

Pos.

Neg.

Pos.

Neg.

Interior

50

50

55

45

75

End

70

60

70

60

2-Spana

65

70

60

75

aContinuous

Pos. Neg.

Uniform
Load
Pos.

Neg.

25

75

55

85

30

85

65

85

30

80

75

beam of 2 equal spans.

3.26.2.2
Impact should be considered in com
puting stresses for concrete and steel, but neglected for
wood.
3.26.3

3.27.1 General
The grid floor shall be designed as
3.27.1.1
continuous, but simple span moments may be used and
reduced as provided in Article 3.24.

3.27.1.2
The following rules for distribution of
loads assume that the grid floor is composed of main
elements that span between girders, stringers, or cross
beams, and secondary elements that are capable of trans
ferring load between the main elements.
3.27.1.3
Reinforcement for secondary elements
shall consist of bars or shapes welded to the main steel.
3.27.2

Ec
= 1 for slab in which the net concrete thickness
Ew
is less than half the overall depth of the
composite section
Ec
= 2 for slab in which the net concrete thickness
Ew
is at least half the overall depth of the
composite section
Es
= 18.75 (for Douglas fir and Southern pine)
Ew

SECTION 3 LOADS

Floors Filled with Concrete

The distribution and bending moment


3.27.2.1
shall be as specified for concrete slabs, Article 3.24. The
following items specified in that article shall also apply to
concrete filled steel grid floors:
Longitudinal edge beams
Unsupported transverse edges
Span lengths

Design

The analysis and design of composite wood-concrete


members shall be based on assumptions that account for
the different mechanical properties of the components. A
suitable procedure may be based on the elastic properties
of the materials as follows:

3-28

Ec = modulus of elasticity of concrete;

Ew = modulus of elasticity of wood;

Es = modulus of elasticity of steel.

3.27.2.2
The strength of the composite steel and
concrete slab shall be determined by means of the "trans
formed area" method. The allowable stresses shall be as
set forth in Articles 8.15.2, 8.16.1, and 10.32.
3.27.3

Open Floors

A wheel load shall be distributed, nor


3.27.3.1
mal to the main elements, over a width equal to 11/4
inches per ton of axle load plus twice the distance center
to center of main elements. The portion of the load

* Provisions in this article shall not apply to orthotropic


bridge superstructures.

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FEBRUARY 2004

assigned to each main element shall be applied uniformly


over a length equal to the rear tire width (20 inches for H
20, 15 inches for H 15).

3.27.3.2
The strength of the section shall be
determined by the moment of inertia method. The allow
able stresses shall be as set forth in Article 10.32.
3.27.3.3
Edges of open grid steel floors shall be
supported by suitable means as required. These supports
may be longitudinal or transverse, or both, as may be
required to support all edges properly.
3.27.3.4

When investigating for fatigue, the


minimum cycles of maximum stress shall be used.

3.28 DISTRIBUTING OF LOADS FOR


BENDING MOMENT IN SPREAD
BOX GIRDERS*

3.28.2

Exterior Beams

The live load bending moment in the exterior beams


shall be determined by applying to the beams the reaction
of the wheel loads obtained by assuming the flooring to
act as a simple span (of length S) between beams, but shall
not be less than 2NL/NB.

3.29 MOMENTS, SHEARS, AND


REACTIONS
Maximum moments, shears, and reactions are given in
tables, Appendix A, for H 15, H 20, HS 15, and HS 20
loadings. They are calculated for the standard truck or the
lane loading applied to a single lane on freely supported
spans. It is indicated in the table whether the standard
truck or the lane loadings produces the maximum stress.

3.30 TIRE CONTACT AREA


3.28.1 Interior Beams
The live load bending moment for each interior beam
in a spread box beam superstructure shall be determined
by applying to the beam the fraction (D.F.) of the wheel
load (both front and rear) determined by the following
equation:

D.F. =

2N L
S
+k
L
NB

The tire contact area shall be assumed as a rectangle


with an area in square inches of 0.01P, and a Length in
Direction of Traffic/Width of Tire ratio of 1/2.5, in which
P = wheel load in pounds.

(3-33)

where,
NL
NB
S
L
k

= number of design traffic lanes (Article 3.6);


= number of beams (4 N B 10 ) ;
= beam spacing in feet (6.57 S 11.00 ) ;
= Span length in feet;
= 0.07W N L (0.10N L 0.26) 0.20N B 0.12 ;
(3-34)
W = numeric value of the roadway width between
curbs expressed in feet (32 W 66 ) .

* The provisions of Article 3.12, Reduction in Load Intensity,


were not applied in the development of the provisions presented in
3.28.1 and 3.28.2.

SECTION 3 LOADS

3-29

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FEBRUARY 2004

Section 3 Commentary
Loads
3.10.4

Centrifugal Forces

This specification has been revised to require a cen


trifugal force generated by the reaction due to the control
ling live load. This will eliminate inconsistency which
required a considerable increase in reinforcement and a
corresponding increase in the probable yield strength.
Single column bents were especially affected in the
transverse direction. For example, if one permit load
generated the critical moment, a significant centrifugal
moment, generated by HS trucks in all lanes, formerly
would have been added to it. For this example, the revised
specification will require adding only the centrifugal
moment generated by one permit truck traveling at a slow
speed.
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

3.14.1.6
Past experience has shown that "march
ing" can generate unacceptable movements at approxi
mately 2 Hz in the vertical direction and 1 Hz in the lateral
direction. Fundamental frequency is defined as vibra
tions on the predominant vertical mode of a bridge,
expressed in cycles per second, or the inverse of the
natural period. References"

+
+

"Guide Specification for Design of Pedestrian


Bridges", AASHTO, August 1977.

+
+
+

Bachmann, H. "Case Studies of Structures with


Man-Induced Vibrations", ASCE J. of Structural
Engineering, Vol. 118, No. 3, March 1992.

+
+
+

Dallard et. al. "The London Millennium Foot


bridge", The Structural Engineer, Vol. 79/No. 22,
20 November 2001.

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

3.24.2.1
The designer should consider whether
or not vehicular barrier railing will remain in place during
the lifespan of the structure. In anticipation of bridge
widenings, Article 3.23.2.3.1.4 prohibits the exterior
girder from having less capacity than the interior girders.
It may be more prudent to design the slab or supporting
member as if the barrier was removed. Note that a vehicu
lar barrier rail is an unmountable structure. A standard
sidewalk curb is mountable and should not be considered
a vehicular barrier rail.

3-30

SECTION 3 LOADS

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

SECTION 4 - FOUNDATIONS

Part A
General Requirements and Materials
4.1

GENERAL

Foundations shall be designed to support all live and


dead loads, and earth and water pressure loadings in
accordance with the general principles specified in this
section. The design shall be made either with reference to
service loads and allowable stresses as provided in SERVICE LOAD DESIGN or, alternatively, with reference
to load factors, and factored strength as provided in
STRENGTH DESIGN.

4.2
4.2.1

FOUNDATION TYPE AND


CAPACITY
Selection of Foundation Type

Selection of foundation type shall be based on an


assessment of the magnitude and direction of loading,
depth to suitable bearing materials, evidence of previous
flooding, potential for liquefaction, undermining or scour,
swelling potential, frost depth and ease and cost of
construction.

4.2.2

Foundation Capacity

Foundations shall be designed to provide adequate


structural capacity, adequate foundation bearing capacity with acceptable settlements, and acceptable overall
stability of slopes adjacent to the foundations. The tolerable level of structural deformation is controlled by the
type and span of the superstructure.

4.2.2.1

Bearing Capacity

The bearing capacity of foundations may be estimated


using procedures described in Articles 4.4, 4.5, or 4.6 for
service load design and Articles 4.11, 4.12, or 4.13 for
strength design, or other generally accepted theories.
Such theories are based on soil and rock parameters

measured by in situ and/or laboratory tests. The bearing


capacity may also be determined using load tests.

4.2.2.2

Settlement

The settlement of foundations may be determined


using procedures described in Articles 4.4, 4.5, or 4.6 for
service load design and Articles 4.11, 4.12, or 4.13 for
strength design, or other generally acepted methodologies. Such methods are based on soil and rock parameters
measured directly or inferred from the results of in situ
and/or laboratory tests.

4.2.2.3

Overall Stability

The overall stability of slopes in the vicinity of foundations shall be considered as part of the design of
foundations.

4.2.3

Soil, Rock, and Other Problem


Conditions

Geologic and environmental conditions can influence


the performance of foundations and may require special
consideration during design. To the extent possible, the
presence and influence of such conditions shall be evaluated as part of the subsurface exploration program. A
representative, but not exclusive, listing of problem conditions requiring special consideration is presented in
Table 4.2.3A for general guidance.

4.3

SUBSURFACE EXPLORATION AND


TESTING PROGRAMS

The elements of the subsurface exploration and testing programs shall be the responsibility of the designer
based on the specifice requirements of the project and his
or her experience with local geologic conditions.

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

4-1

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

TABLE 4.2.3A Problem Conditions Requiring Special Consideration


Problem
Type

Soil

Description

Comments

Organic soil; highly plastic clay


Sensitive clay
Micaceous soil

Low strength and high compressibility


Potentially large strength loss upon large straining
Potentially high compressibility (often saprolitic)

Expansive clay/silt; expansive slag


Liquefiable soil

Potentially large expansion upon wetting


Complete strength loss and high deformations due to
earthquake loading
Potentially large deformations upon wetting (Caliche; Loess)
Potentially large expansion upon oxidation
Low strength when loaded parallel to bedding
Potentially large expansion upon wetting; degrades readily
upon exposure to air/water
Expands upon exposure to air/water

Collapsible soil
Pyritic soil
Laminated rock
Expansive shale
Pyritic shale
Rock

Soluble rock
Cretaceous shale
Weak claystone (Red Beds)
Gneissic and Schistose Rock
Subsidence
Sinkholes/solutioning

Condition

4.3.1

Soluble in flowing and standing water (Limestone,


Limerock, Gypsum)
Indicator of potentially corrosive ground water
Low strength and readily degradable upon exposure to air/water
Highly distorted with irregular weathering profiles and steep
discontinuities
Typical in areas of underground mining or high ground water
extraction
Karst topography; typical of areas underlain by carbonate rock
strata

Negative skin friction/


expansion loading
Corrosive environments
Permafrost/frost
Capillary water

Additional compressive/uplift load on deep foundations due to


settlement/uplift of soil
Acid mine drainage; degradation of certain soil/rock types
Typical in northern climates
Rise of water level in silts and fine sands leading to strength loss

General Requirements

Rock strata
Depth to rock
Identification and classification
Quality (i.e., soundness, hardness, jointing and
presence of joint filling, resistance to weathering, if exposed, and solutioning)
Compressive strength (e.g., uniaxial compression, point load index)
Expansion potential
Ground water elevation
Ground surface elevation
Local conditions requiring special consideration

As a minimum, the subsurface exploration and testing


programs shall define the following, where applicable:
Soil strata
Depth, thickness, and variability
Identification and classification
Relevant engineering properties (i.e., shear
strength, compressibility, stiffness, permeability, expansion or collaspe potential, and frost
susceptibility)

4-2

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

Exploration logs shall include soil and rock strata


descriptions, penetration resistance for soils (e.g., SPT or
qc), and sample recovery and RQD for rock strata. The
drilling equipment and method, use of drilling mud, type
of SPT hammer (i.e. safety, donut, hydraulic) or cone
penetrometer (i.e., mechanical or electrical), and any
unusual subsurface conditions such as artesian pressures,
boulders or other obstructions, or voids shall also be
noted on the exploration logs.

rock core, or a length of rock core equal to three times the


pile or shaft diameter below anticipated tip elevation,
whichever is greater, shall be obtained to insure the
exploration has not been terminated on a boulder. For
shaft group bearing on rock the exploration shall penetrate sufficient depth into competent rock to determine
the physical characteristics of rock within the zone of
foundation influence for design.

4.3.3
4.3.2

+
+
+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

Minimum Coverage

Minimum Depth

Where substructure units will be supported on spread


footings, the minimum depth of the subsurface exploration shall extend below the anticipated bearing level a
minimum of two footing widths for isolated, individual
footings where L< 2B, and four footing widths for footings where L > 5B. For intermediate footing lengths, the
minimum depth of exploration may be estimated by
linear interpolation as a function of L between depths of
2B and 5B below the bearing level. Greater depths may
be required where warranted by local conditions.
Where substructure units will be supported on deep
foundations, the depth of the subsurface exploration shall
extend a minimum of 20 feet below the anticipated pile or
shaft tip elevation. Where pile or shaft groups will be
used, the subsurface exploration shall penetrate sufficient depth into firm stable material to insure that significant settlement will not develop from compression of the
deeper soils due to loads imposed by the structure. For
piles or shafts bearing on rock, a minimum of 10 feet of

Unless the subsurface conditions of the site are known


to be uniform, a minimum of one soil boring shall be make
for each substructure unit. For substructure units over
100' in width, a minimum of two borings shall be required.

4.3.4

Laboratory Testing

Laboratory testing shall be performed as necessary to


determine engineering properties including unit weight,
shear strength, compressive strength and compressibility. In the absence of laboratory testing, engineering
properties may be estimated based on published test
results or local experience.

4.3.5

Scour

The probable depth of scour shall be determined by


subsurface exploration and hydraulic studies. Refer to
Article 1.3.2 and FHWA (1988) for general guidance
regarding hydraulic studies and design.

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

4-3

+
+
+
+

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

Part B
Service Load Design Method
Allowable Stress Design
4.4

SPREAD FOOTINGS

4.4.1

General

4.4.1.1

Applicability

Provisions of this Article shall apply for design of


isolated footings, and to combined footings and mats
(footings supporting more than one column, pier, or
wall).

4.4.1.2

Footings Supporting NonRectangular Columns or Piers

Footings supporting circular or regular polygon-shaped


concrete columns or piers may be designed assuming that
the columns or piers act as square members with the same
area for location of critical sections for moment, shear,
and development of reinforcement.

4.4.1.3
+
+
+
+
+

Footings in Fill

Footings located in fill are subject to the same bearing


capacity and settlement considerations as footings in
natural soil in accordance with Articles 4.4.7.1 through
4.4.7.2. The behavior of both the fill and underlying
natural soil shall be considered.

4.4.1.4

Footings in Sloped Portions of


Embankments

The earth pressure against the back of footings and


columns within the sloped portion of an embankment
shall be equal to the at-rest earth pressure in accordance
with Article 5.5.2. The resistance due to the passive earth
pressure of the embankment in front of the footing shall
be neglected to a depth equal to a minimum depth of 3
feet, the depth of anticipated scour, freeze thaw action,
and/or trench excavation in front of the footing, whichever is greater.

4.4.1.5

Distribution of Bearing Pressure

Footings shall be designed to keep the maximum soil


and rock pressures within safe bearing values. To prevent
unequal settlement, footings shall be designed to keep the

4-4

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

bearing pressure as nearly uniform as practical. For footings supported on piles or drilled shafts, the spacing
between piles and drilled shafts shall be designed to
ensure nearly equal loads on deep foundation elements as
may be practical.
When footings support more than one column, pier, or
wall, distribution of soil pressure shall be consistent with
properties of the foundation materials and the structure,
and with the principles of geotechnical engineering.

4.4.2

Notations

The following notations shall apply for the design of


spread footings on soil and rock:
A
= Contact area of footing (ft2)
A'
= Effective footing area for computation of
bearing capacity of a footing subjected to
eccentric load (ft2); (See Article 4.4.7.1.1.1)
bc,b,bq = Base inclination factors (dim); (See Article 4.4.7.1.1.8)
B
= Width of footing (ft); (Minimum plan dimension of footing unless otherwise noted)
B'
= Effective width for load eccentric in direction of short side, L unchanged (ft)
c
= Soil cohesion (ksf)
c'
= Effective stress soil cohesion (ksf)
c*
= Reduced effective stress soil cohesion for
punching shear (ksf); (See Article 4.4.7.1)
ca
= Adhesion between footing and foundation
soil or rock (ksf); (See Article 4.4.7.1.1.3)
cv
= Coefficient of consolidation (ft2/yr); (See
Article 4.4.7.2.3)
c1
= Shear strength of upper cohesive soil layer
below footing (ksf); (See Article
4.4.7.1.1.7)
c2
= Shear strength of lower cohesive soil layer
below footing (ksf); (See Article
4.4.7.1.1.7)
Cc
= Compression index (dim); (See Article
4.4.7.2.3)
Ccr
= Recompression index (dim); (See Article
4.4.7.2.3)
Cc
= Compression ratio (dim); (See Article
4.4.7.2.3)
Co
= Uniaxial compressive strength of intact
rock (ksf)
Cr
= Recompression ration (dim); (See Article
4.4.7.2.3)
C
= Coefficient of secondary compression defined as change in height per log cycle of
time (dim); (See Article 4.4.7.2.4)

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

D
Df
e
ef
eo
ep
eB

eL

Eo
Em
Es
F
f c
FS
H

Hc
Hcrit

Hd
Hs
i
ic,i,iq
I

l
L
L'

= Influence depth for water below footing


(ft); (See Article 4.4.7.1.1.6)
= Depth to base of footing (ft)
= Void ratio (dim); (See Article 4.4.7.2.3)
= Void ratio at final vertical effective stress
(dim); (See Article 4.4.7.2.3)
= Void ratio at initial vertical effective stress
(dim); (See Article 4.4.7.2.3)
= Void ratio at maximum past vertical effective stress (dim); (See Article 4.4.7.2.3)
= Eccentricity of load in the B direction
measured from centroid of footing (ft)
(See Article 4.4.7.1.1.1)
= Eccentricity of load in the L direction measured from centroid of footing (ft); (See
Article 4.4.7.1.1.1)
= Modulus of intact rock (ksf)
= Rock mass modulus (ksf) (See Article
4.4.8.2.2.)
= Soil modulus (ksf)
= Total force on footing subjected to an inclined load (k); (See Article 4.4.7.1.1.1)
= Unconfined compressive strength of concrete (ksf)
= Factor of safety against bearing capacity,
overturning or sliding shear failure (dim)
= Depth from footing base to top of second
cohesive soil layer for two-layer cohesive
soil profile below footing (ft); (See Article
4.4.7.1.1.7)
= Height of compressible soil layer (ft)
= Critical thickness of the upper layer of a
two-layer system beyond which the underlying layer will have little effect on the
bearing capacity of footings bearing in the
upper layer (ft) (See Article 4.4.7.1.1.7)
= Height of longest drainage path in compressible soil layer (ft)
= Height of slope (ft); (See Article 4.4.7.1.1.4)
= Slope angle from horizontal of ground
surface below footing (deg)
= Load inclination factors (dim); (See Article 4.4.7.1.1.3)
= Influence coefficient to account for rigidity and dimensions of footing (dim); (See
Article 4.4.8.2.2)
= Center-to-center spacing between adjacent

Ll

footings (ft)
= Length of footing (ft)
= Effective footing length for load eccentric
in direction of long side, B unchanged (ft)

q ult

N
Nl

Nc,N,Nq

Nm

Nms
Ns
Ncq,Nq

P
Pmax

q
Q
qall
qc
qmax
Qmax

qmin
qn
qo
q os

q1

= Length (or width) of footing having positive contact pressure (compression) for
footing loaded eccentrically about one axis
(ft)
= Exponential factor relating B/L or L/B
ratios for inclined loading (dim); (See Article 4.4.7.1.1.3)
= Standard penetration resistance (blows/ft)
= Standard penetration resistance corrected
for effects of overburden pressure (blows/
ft); (See Article 4.4.7.2.2)
= Bearing capacity factors based on the value
of internal friction of the foundation soil
(dim); (See Article 4.4.7.1)
= Modified bearing capacity factor to account for layered cohesive soils below
footing (dim); (See Article 4.4.7.1.1.7)
= Coefficient factor to estimate qult for rock
(dim); (See Article 4.4.8.1.2)
= Stability number (dim); (See Article
4.4.7.1.1.4)
= Modified bearing capacity factors for effects of footing on or adjacent sloping
ground (dim); (See Article 4.4.7.1.1.4)
= Tangential component of force on footing
(k)
= Maximum resisting force between footing
base and foundation soil or rock for sliding
failure (k)
= Effective overburden pressure at base of
footing (ksf)
= Normal component of force on footing (k)
= Allowable uniform bearing capacity (ksf)
= Cone penetration resistance (ksf)
= Maximum footing contact pressure (ksf)
= Maximum normal component of load supported by foundation soil or rock at ultimate bearing capacity (k)
= Minimum magnitude of footing contact
pressure (ksf)
= Nominal bearing resistance (ksf)(see Article 4.4.7)
= Unfactored vertical pressure at base of
loaded area (ksf); (See Article 4.4.7.2.1)
= Unfactored bearing pressure (ksf) causing
the maximum allowable elastic settlement
(see Article 4.4.7.2.2)
= Ultimate bearing capacity for uniform bearing pressure (ksf)
= Ultimate bearing capacity of footing supported in the upper layer of a two-layer
system assuming the upper layer is infi-

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

4-5

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

q2

R
r
RQD
sc,s,sq
su
Sc
Se
Ss
St
t
t1,t2
T
zw

m
z

'
m

v
vf
vo
vp

4-6

nitely thick (ksf) (See Article 4.4.7.1.1.7)


= Ultimate bearing capacity of a fictitious
footing of the same size and shape as the
actual footing, but supported on surface of
the second (lower) layer of a two-layer
system (ksf); (See Article 4.4.7.1.1.7)
= Resultant of pressure on base of footing (k)
= Radius of circular footing or B/2 for square
footing (ft); (See Article 4.4.8.2.2)
= Rock Quality Designation (dim)
= Footing shape factors (dim); (See Article
4.4.7.1.1.2)
= Undrained shear strength of soil (ksf)
= Consolidation settlement (ft); (See Article
4.4.7.2.3)
= Elastic or immediate settlement (ft); (See
Article 4.4.7.2.2)
= Secondary settlement (ft); (See Article
4.4.7.2.4)
= Total settlement (ft); (See Article 4.4.7.2)
= Time to reach specified average degree
of consolidation (yr); (See Article 4.4.7.2.3)
= Arbitrary time intervals for determination
of Ss (yr); (See Article 4.4.7.2.4)
= Time factor (dim); (See Article 4.4.7.2.3)
= Depth from footing base down to the highest anticipated ground water level (ft); (See
Article 4.4.7.1.1.6)
= Angle of inclination of the footing base
from the horizontal (radian)
= Reduction factor (dim); (See Article
4.4.8.2.2)
= Length to width ratio of footing (dim)
= Punching index = BL/[2(B+L)H] (dim);
(See Article 4.4.7.1.1.7)
= Factor to account for footing shape and
rigidity (dim); (See Article 4.4.7.2.2)
= Total unit weight of soil or rock (kcf)
= Buoyant unit weight of soil or rock (kcf)
= Moist unit weight of soil (kcf)
= Angle of friction between footing and foundation soil or rock (deg); (See Article
4.4.7.1.1.3)
= Vertical strain (dim); (See Article 4.4.7.2.3)
= Vertical strain at final vertical effective
stress (dim); (See Article 4.4.7.2.3)
= Initial vertical strain (dim); (See Article
4.4.7.2.3)
= Vertical strain at maximum past vertical
effective stress (dim); (See Article
4.4.7.2.3)

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

'f
'o
'p

'
*

= Angle of load eccentricity (deg)


= Shear strength ratio (c2/c1) for two layered
cohesive soil system below footing (dim);
(See Article 4.4.7.1.1.7)
= Reduction factor to account for
three-dimensional effects in settlement
analysis (dim); (See Article 4.4.7.2.3)
= Poissons ratio (dim)
= Final vertical effective stress in soil at
depth interval below footing (ksf); (See
Article 4.4.7.2.3)
= Initial vertical effective stress in soil at
depth interval below footing (ksf); (See
Article 4.4.7.2.3)
= Maximum past vertical effective stress in
soil at depth interval below footing (ksf);
(See Article 4.4.7.2.3)
= Angle of internal friction (deg)
= Effective stress angle of internal friction
(deg)
= Reduced effective stress soil friction angle
for punching shear (ksf); (See Article
4.4.7.1)

The notations for dimension units include the following: dim = Dimensionless; deg = degree; ft = foot; k = kip;
k/ft = kip/ft; ksf = kip/ft2; kcf = kip/ft3; lb = pound; in. =
inch; and psi = pound per square inch. The dimensional
units provided with each notation are presented for illustration only to demonstrate a dimensionally correct combination of units for the footing capacity procedures
presented herein. If other units are used, the dimensional
correctness of the equations shall be confirmed.

4.4.3

Design Terminology

Refer to Figure 4.4.3A for terminology used in the


design of spread footing foundations.

4.4.4

Soil and Rock Property Selection

Soil and rock properties defining the strength and


compressibility characteristics of the foundation materials are required for footing design. Foundation stability
and settlement analyses for design shall be conducted
using soil and rock properties based on the results of field
and/or laboratory testing.

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

FIGURE 4.4.3A Design Terminology for Spread Footing Foundations

4.4.5

Depth
4.4.5.2

4.4.5.1

Minimum Embedment and


Bench Width

Footings not otherwise founded on sound, nondegradeable rock surfaces shall be embedded a sufficient
depth to provide adequate bearing, scour and frost heave
protection, or 3 feet to the bottom of footing, whichever
+ is greatest. For footings constructed on slopes, a minimum horizontal distance of 4 feet, measured at the top of
footing, shall be provided between the near face of the
footing and the face of the finished slope.

Scour Protection

Footings supported on soil or degradable rock strata


shall be embedded below the maximum computed scour
depth or protected with a scour countermeasure. Footings
supported on massive, competent rock formations which
are highly resistant to scour shall be placed directly on the
cleaned rock surface. Where required, additional lateral
resistance should be provided by drilling and grouting
steel dowels into the rock surface rather than blasting to
embed the footing below the rock surface.

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

4-7

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

+
+
+
+

+
+

Footings on piles may be located above the lowest


anticipated scour level provided the piles are designed
for this condition. Assume that all of the degradation
scour has occurred and none of the maximum anticipated
local scour (local pier and local contraction) has occurred
when designing for earthquake loading. Where footings
on piles are subject to damage by boulders or debris
during flood scour, adequate protection shall be provided. Footings shall be constructed so as to neither pose
an obstacle to water traffic nor be exposed to view during
low flow.
Abutment footings shall be constructed so as to be
stable if scour or meandering causes loss of approach fill.

4.4.5.3

Footing Excavations

Footing excavations below the ground water table,


particularly in granular soils having relatively high permeability, shall be made such that the hydraulic gradient
in the excavation bottom is not increased to a magnitude
that would cause the foundation soils to loosen or soften
due to the upward flow of water. Further, footing excavations shall be made such that hydraulic gradients and
material removal do not adversely affect adjacent structures. Seepage forces and gradients may be evaluated by
flow net procedures or other appropriate methods. Dewatering or cutoff methods to control seepage shall be used
where necessary.
Footing excavations in nonresistant, easily weathered
moisture sensitive rocks shall be protected from weathering immediately after excavation with a lean mix concrete or other approved materials.

4.4.5.4

Anchorage

Footings founded on inclined, smooth rock surfaces


and which are not restrained by an overburden of resistant
material shall be effectively anchored by means of rock
anchors, rock bolts, dowels, keys, benching or other
suitable means. Shallow keying or benching of large
footing areas shall be avoided where blasting is required
for rock removal.

4-8

Geotechnical Design on Soil

Spread footings on soil shall be designed to support


the design loads with adequate bearing and structural
capacity, and with tolerable settlements in conformance
with Articles 4.4.7 and 4.4.11.
The location of the resultant of pressure (R) on the base
of the footings shall be maintained within B/6 of the
center of the footing.
The nominal bearing resistance, qn, shall be taken as
the lesser of the values qult and 3.0 qos.

4.4.7.1

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

Bearing Capacity

The ultimate bearing capacity (for general shear failure) may be estimated using the following relationship
for continuous footings (i.e., L > 5B):
qult = cNc + 0.5BN + qNq (4.4.7.1-1)
The allowable bearing capacity shall be determined
as:
qall = qn /FS

(4.4.7.1-2)

Refer to Table 4.4.7.1A for values of Nc, N and Nq.


If local or punching shear failure is possible, the value
of qult may be estimated using reduced shear strength
parameters c* and * in 4.4.7.1-1 as follows:

Piping

Piping failures of fine materials through rip-rap or


through drainage backfills behind abutments shall be
prevented by properly designed, graded soil filters or
geotextile drainage systems.

4.4.6

4.4.7

c* = 0.67c

(4.4.7.1-3)

= tan1(0.67tan)

(4.4.7.1-4)

Effective stress methods of analysis and drained shear


strength parameters shall be used to determine bearing
capacity factors for drained loading conditions in all
soils. Additionally, the bearing capacity of cohesive soils
shall be checked for undrained loading conditions using
bearing capacity factors based on undrained shear
strength parameters.

4.4.7.1.1

Factors Affecting Bearing


Capacity

A modified form of the general bearing capacity


equation may be used to account for the effects of footing
shape, ground surface slope, base inclination, and inclined loading as follows:

+
+
+
+

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

TABLE 4.4.7.1A Bearing Capacity Factors

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

Nc
5.14
5.38
5.63
5.90
6.19
6.49
6.81
7.16
7.53
7.92
8.35
8.80
9.28
9.81
10.37
10.98
11.63
12.34
13.10
13.93
14.83
15.82
16.88
18.05
19.32
20.72

Nq
1.00
1.09
1.20
1.31
1.43
1.57
1.72
1.88
2.06
2.25
2.47
2.71
2.97
3.26
3.59
3.94
4.34
4.77
5.26
5.80
6.40
7.07
7.82
8.66
9.60
10.66

N
0.00
0.07
0.15
0.24
0.34
0.45
0.57
0.71
0.86
1.03
1.22
1.44
1.69
1.97
2.29
2.65
3.06
3.53
4.07
4.68
5.39
6.20
7.13
8.20
9.44
10.88

qult = cNcscbcic + 0.5 BN = sbi + qNqsqbqiq


(4.4.7.1.1-1)
Reduced footing dimensions shall be used to account
for the effects of eccentric loading.

4.4.7.1.1.1

Eccentric Loading

For loads eccentric relative to the centroid of the


footing, reduced footing dimensions (B' and L') shall be
used to determine bearing capacity factors and modifiers
(i.e., slope, footing shape, and load inclination factors),
and to calculate the ultimate load capacity of the footing.
The reduced footing dimensions shall be determined as
follows:

26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

Nc
22.25
23.94
25.80
27.86
30.14
32.67
35.49
38.64
42.16
46.12
50.59
55.63
61.35
67.87
75.31
83.86
93.71
105.11
118.37
133.88
152.10
173.64
199.26
229.93
266.89

Nq
11.85
13.20
14.72
16.44
18.40
20.63
23.18
26.09
29.44
33.30
37.75
42.92
48.93
55.96
64.20
73.90
85.38
99.02
115.31
134.88
158.51
187.21
222.31
265.51
319.07

N
12.54
14.47
16.72
19.34
22.40
25.99
30.22
35.19
41.06
48.03
56.31
66.19
78.03
92.25
109.41
130.22
155.55
186.54
224.64
271.76
330.35
403.67
496.01
613.16
762.89

B' = B 2eB

(4.4.7.1.1.1-1)

L' = L 2eL

(4.4.7.1.1.1-2)

The effective footing area shall be determined as


follows:
A' = B'L'

(4.4.7.1.1.1-3)

Refer to Figure 4.4.7.1.1.1A for loading definitions


and footing dimensions.
The value of qult obtained using the reduced footing
dimensions represents an equivalent uniform bearing
pressure and not the actual contact pressure distribution
beneath the footing. This equivalent pressure may be
multiplied by the reduced area to determine the ultimate
load capacity of the footing from the standpoint of bearing capacity. The actual contact pressure distribution
(i.e., trapezoidal for the conventional assumption of a

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

4-9

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

rigid footing and a positive pressure along each footing


edge) shall be used for structural design of the footing.
The actual distribution of contact pressure for a rigid
footing with eccentric loading about one axis is shown in
Figure 4.4.7.1.1.1B. For an eccentricity (eL) in the L
direction, the actual maximum and minimum contact
pressures may be determined as follows:
for eL < L/6:
(4.4.7.1.1.1-4)
q min = Q[1 (6e L /L)]/BL

(4.4.7.1.1.3-1)
ic = 1 (nP/BLcNc) (for = 0)
iq = [1 P/(Q + BLc cot)]n

q max = 2Q/(3B[L/2) e L ])

(4.4.7.1.1.1-6)

q min = 0

(4.4.7.1.1.1-7)

L1 = 3[(L/2) e L ]

(4.4.7.1.1.1-8)

For an eccentricity (e) in the B direction, the maximum and minimum contact pressures may be determined
using Equations 4.4.7.1.1.1-4 through 4.4.7.1.1.1-8 by
replacing terms labeled L by B, and terms labeled B by L.
Footings on soil shall be designed so that the eccentricity of loading is less than 1/6 of the footing dimension
in any direction.

i = [1 P/(Q + BLc cot)](n+1)

(4.4.7.1.1.3-4)

n = [(2 + L/B)/(1+ L/B)]cos2


+ [(2 + B/L)/(1+ B/L)]sin2

(4.4.7.1.1.3-5)

Refer to Figure 4.4.7.1.1.1A for loading definitions


and footing dimensions. For cases in which the loading is
eccentric, the terms L and B shall be replaced by L' and
B' respectively, in the above equations.
Failure by sliding shall be considered by comparing
the tangential component of force on the footing (P) to the
maximum resisting force (Pmax) by the following:
Pmax = Qtan + BLca

(4.4.7.1.1.3-6)

FS = Pmax /P 1.5

(4.4.7.1.1.3-7)

In determining Pmax, the effect of passive resistance


provided by footing embedment shall be ignored, and BL
shall represent the actual footing area in compression as
shown in Figure 4.4.7.1.1.1B or Figure 4.4.7.1.1.1C.

4.4.7.1.1.4

s c = 1 + (B/L)(N q /N c )

(4.4.7.1.1.2-1)

sq = 1 + (B/L) tan

(4.4.7.1.1.2-2)

s = 1 0.4(B/L)

(4.4.7.1.1.2-3)

For circular footings, B equals L. For cases in which


the loading is eccentric, the terms L and B shall be
replaced by L' and B' respectively, in the above equations.

Inclined Loading

For inclined loads, the following inclination factors


shall be applied in Equation 4.4.7.1.1-1:

4-10

(4.4.7.1.1.3-3)

Footing Shape

For footing shapes other than continuous footings


(i.e., L < 5B) the following shape factors shall be applied
to Equation 4.4.7.1.1-1:

4.4.7.1.1.3

(4.4.7.1.1.3-2)

(4.4.7.1.1.1-5)

for L/6 < eL < L/2:

4.4.7.1.1.2

ic = iq [(1 iq)/Nc tan ] (for > 0)

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

Ground Surface Slope

For footings located on slopes or within 3B of a slope


crest, qult may be determined using the following revised
version of Equation 4.4.7.1.1-1:

q ult = cN cqsc bci c + 0.5BN qs b i

(4.4.7.1.1.4-1)

Refer to Figure 4.4.7.1.1.4A for values of Ncq and Nq


for footings on slopes and Figures 4.4.7.1.1.4B for values
of Ncq and Nq for footings at the top of slopes. For
footings in or above cohesive soil slopes, the stability
number in the figures, Ns is defined as follows:
N s = H s /c

(4.4.7.1.1.4-2)

Overall stability shall be evaluated for footings on or


adjacent to sloping ground surfaces as described in Article 4.4.9.

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

FIGURE 4.4.7.1.1.1A Definition Sketch for Loading and Dimensions for Footings
Subjected to Eccentric or Inclined Loads
Modified after EPRI (1983)

FIGURE 4.4.7.1.1.1B Contact Pressure for Footing Loaded Eccentrically About One Axis

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

4-11

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

FIGURE 4.4.7.1.1.1C Contact Pressure for Footing Loaded Eccentrically About Two Axes
Modified after AREA (1980)

4-12

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

600
8

Foundation depth/width
Df /B=O
D f /B=1

Foundation depth/width
Df /B=O
D f /B=1
Linear interpolation
for intermediate depths
Effective Angle of Internal
friction f.

500

Slope stability
factor N s

Bearing capacity factor N gq

Bearing capacity factor Ncq

400

0
1
2

5.53
20

40

300
200
100

25

10

5
1
o

Inclination of slope

80

45

40 o

40 o

50

60

45 o

30 o

30 o

10 o

20 o

30 o

40

50

Inclination of slope i

Cohesionless Soil

Cohesive Soil

Hs
Df

B
Geometry

FIGURE 4.4.7.1.1.4A Modified Bearing Capacity Factors for Footing on Sloping Ground
Modified after Meyerhof (1957)

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

4-13

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

8 Inclination of
slope i
o
30o
0
7
60

90

500

N s=0

400
0

5 30

60

90

90

30

60

60

Inclination of
slope i
0o

300
200

20

Foundation depth/width
Df /B=O
D f /B=1
Linear interpolation
for intermediate depths
Effective Angle of Internal
friction f.

40

40 o

100

0o

40 o

20 o

0o

30

50
25

90
0

Slope stability
factor N s

0o

1 30

Bearing capacity factor N gq

Bearing capacity factor N gq

Foundation depth/width
Df /B=O
D f /B=1

30

0o

40 o

30 o

10

5
1
0

5.53

1
2
6
3
4
5
Distance of foundation from edge of slope b/B
b/B (for Ns =0) or b/H (for Ns >0)

30 o
1
2
6
3
4
5
Distance of foundation from edge of slope b/B

Cohesionless Soil

Cohesive Soil

b
Df
B

Hs
I

FIGURE 4.4.7.1.1.4B Modified Bearing Capacity Factors for Footing Adjacent Sloping Ground
Modified after Meyerhof (1957)

4-14

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

4.4.7.1.1.5 Embedment Depth


The shear strength of soil above the base of footings is
neglected in determining qult using Equation 4.4.7.1.11. If other procedures are used, the effect of embedment
shall be consistent with the requirements of the procedure
followed.

4.4.7.1.1.6

Ground Water

Ultimate bearing capacity shall be determined using


the highest anticipated ground water level at the footing
location. The effect of ground water level on the ultimate
bearing capacity shall be considered by using a weighted
average soil unit weight in Equation 4.4.7.1.1-1. If
< 37o, the following equations may be used to determine
the weighted average unit weight:
for zw > B : use = m (no effect)

(4.4.7.1.1.6-1)

for zw < B : use = ' + (zw/B) (m ')


(4.4.7.1.1.6-2)
for zw< 0 : use = '

(4.4.7.1.1.6-3)

Refer to Figure 4.4.7.1.1.6A for definition of terms


used in these equations. If 37o, the following equations
may be used to determine the weighted average unit
weight:
= (2D - zw) (zwm /D2)(zwm /D2) + '/D2)(D-zw)2
(4.4.7.1.1.6-4)
D = 0.5Btan(45 + /2)

4.4.7.1.1.7

(4.4.7.1.1.6-5)

Layered Soils

If the soil profile is layered, the general bearing capacity equation shall be modified to account for differences

FIGURE 4.4.7.1.1.6A Definition Sketch for Influence of Ground Water Table on Bearing Capacity

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

4-15

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

in failure modes between the layered case and the homogeneous soil case assumed in Equation 4.4.7.1.1-1.

Nm = (1/bm + kscNc) < scNc

(4.4.7.1.1.7-2)

Drained Loading
Undrained Loading
For undrained loading of a footing supported on the
upper layer of a two-layer cohesive soil system, qult may
be determined by the following:
qult = c1Nm + q

(4.4.7.1.1.7-1)

Refer to Figure 4.4.7.1.1.7A for the definition of c1.


For undrained loading, c1 equals the undrained soil shear
strength sul, and 1=0.
If the bearing stratum is a cohesive soil which overlies
a stiffer cohesive soil, refer to Figure 4.4.7.1.1.7B to
determine Nm. If the bearing stratum overlies a softer
layer, punching shear should be assumed and Nm may be
calculated by the following:

FIGURE 4.4.7.1.1.7A
Typical Two-Layer Soil Profiles

4-16

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

For drained loading of a footing supported on a strong


layer overlying a weak layer in a two-layer system, qult
may be determined using the following:
qult = [q2 + (1/K)c1'cot1'] exp + {2[1
+ (B/L)]Ktan1'(H/B)} (1/K)c1' cot1'
(4.4.7.1.1.7-3)
The subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the upper and lower
layers, respectively. K = (1 sin21')/(1 + sin21') and q2
equals qult of a fictitious footing of the same size and
shape as the actual footing but supported on the second
(or lower) layer. Reduced shear strength values shall be
used to determine q2 in accordance with Article 4.4.7. 1.

FIGURE 4.4.7.1.1.7B Modified Bearing Capacity


Factor for Two-Layer Cohesive Soil with Softer Soil
Overlying Stiffer Soil EPRI (1983)

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

If the upper layer is a cohesionless soil and ' equals


25 to 50, Equation 4.4.7.1.1.7-3 reduces to:
qult = q2 exp{0.67[1 + (B/L)]H/B}

Refer to Figure 4.4.7.1.1.8A for definition sketch.


Where footings must be placed on sloping surfaces,
refer to Article 4.4.6 for anchorage requirements.

(4.4.7.1.1.7-4)

4.4.7.1.2
The critical depth of the upper layer beyond which the
bearing capacity will generally be unaffected by the
presence of the lower layer is given by the following:
Hcrit = [3B1n(q1/q2)]/[2(1 + B/L)]

Spread footings on soil shall be designed for Group 1


loadings using a minimum factor of safety (FS) of 3.0
against a bearing capacity failure.

(4.4.7.1.1.7-5)

4.4.7.2
In the equation, q1 equals the bearing capacity of the
upper layer assuming the upper layer is of infinite extent.

4.4.7.1.1.8

Inclined Base

Footings with inclined bases are generally not recommended. Where footings with inclined bases are necessary, the following factors shall be applied in Equation
4.4.7.1.1-1:
bq = b = (1 tan)2

Factors of Safety

(4.4.7.1.1.8-1)

bc = b (1 b)/(Nctan) (for > 0)


(4.4.7.1.1.8-2)
bc = 1 [2/( + 2)] (for = 0)

Settlement

The total settlement includes elastic, consolidation,


and secondary components and may be determined using
the following:
St = Se + Sc + Ss

(4.4.7.2-1)

Elastic settlement shall be determined using the


unfactored dead load, plus the unfactored component of
live and impact loads assumed to extend to the footing
level. Consolidation and secondary settlement may be
determined using the full unfactored dead load only.
Other factors which can affect settlement (e.g., embankment loading, lateral and/or eccentric loading, and
for footings on granular soils, vibration loading from
dynamic live loads or earthquake loads) should also be
considered, where appropriate. Refer to Gifford, et al.,

(4.4.7.1.1.8-3)

FIGURE 4.4.7.1.1.8A Definition Sketch for Footing Base Inclination

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

4-17

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

(1987) for general guidance regarding static loading


conditions and Lam and Martin (1986) for guidance
regarding dynamic/seismic loading conditions.

4.4.7.2.1

Stress Distribution

Figure 4.4.7.2.1A may be used to estimate the distribution of vertical stress increase below circular (or
square) and long rectangular footings (i.e., where L >
5B). For other footing geometries, refer to Poulos and
Davis (1974).

Some methods used for estimating settlement of footings on sand include an integral method to account for the
effects of vertical stress increase variations. Refer to
Gifford, et al., (1987) for guidance regarding application
of these procedures.

4.4.7.2.2

Elastic Settlement

The elastic settlement of footings on cohensionless


soils and stiff cohesive soils may be estimated using the
following:

FIGURE 4.4.7.2.1A Boussinesg Vertical Stress Contours for Continuous and Square Footings
Modified after Sowers (1979)

4-18

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

TABLE 4.4.7.2.2A Elastic Constants of Various Soils


Modified after U.S. Department of the Navy (1982) and Bowles (1982)
Estimating Es From Es From N(1)

Typical Range of Values

Soil Type
Clay:
Soft sensitive
Medium stiff
to stiff
Very stiff

Loess
Silt

50-300
300-1,000
1,000-2,000

300-1,200
40-400

Fine sand:
Loose
Medium dense
Dense
Sand:
Loose
Medium dense
Dense
Gravel:
Loose
Medium dense
Dense
(1)N
(2)N
1
(3)s
u
(4)q
c

Youngs Modulus, Es
(ksf)

=
=
=
=

Poissons
Ratio, v
(dim)
0.4-0.5
(undrained)

0.1-0.3
0.3-0.35

Es
(ksf)

Soil Type
Silts, sandy silts, slightly
cohesive mixtures
Clean fine to medium sands
and slightly silty sands
Coarse sands and sands with
little gravel

8N1(2)

Sandy gravel and gravels

24N1

14N1
20N1

Estimating Es From su (3)


160-240
240-400
400-600

0.25

200-600
600-1,000
1,000-1,600

0.2-0.35

600-1,600
1,600-2,000
2,000-4,000

0.2-0.35

Soft sensitive clay


Medium stiff to stiff clay
Very stiff clay

400su-1,000su
1,500su-2,400su
3,000su-4,000su

Estimating Es From qc(4)

0.3-0.4

Sandy soils

4qc

0.3-0.4

Standard Penetration Test (SPT) resistance.


SPT corrected for depth.
Undrained shear strength (ksf).
Cone penetration resistance (ksf).

TABLE 4.4.7.2.2B Elastic Shape and Rigidity


Factors EPRI (1983)

L/B

Flexible (average)

Rigid

Circular
1
2
3
5
10

1.04
1.06
1.09
1.13
1.22
1.41

1.13
1.08
1.10
1.15
1.24
1.41

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

4-19

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

Se = q o (1 v 2 ) A / E s z (4.4.7.2.2-1)

Refer to Table 4.4.7.2.2A for approximate values of Es


and v for various soil types, and Table 4.4.7.2.2B for
values of z for various shapes of flexible and rigid
footings. Unless Es varies significantly with depth, Es
should be determined at a depth of about 1/2 to 2/3 of B
below the footing. If the soil modulus varies significantly
with depth, a weighted average value of Es may be used.
Refer to Gifford, et al., (1987) for general guidance
regarding the estimation of elastic settlement of footings
on sand.
For determining the nominal bearing resistance, qos
shall be the value of qo which produces elastic settlements
of
Se = 1 inch in structures with continuous spans or
multi-column bents
Se = 2 inches in simple span structures.

4.4.7.2.3

Consolidation Settlement

The consolidation settlement of footings on saturated


or nearly saturated cohesive soils may be estimated using
the following when laboratory test results are expressed in terms of void ratio (e):
For initial overconsolidated soils (i.e., sp' > so'):
Sc = [Hc/(1 + eo)][(Ccr log{sp'/so'}
+ Cc log{sf'/sp'})]
(4.4.7.2.3-1)
For initial normally consolidated soils (i.e., sp' =
so'):
Sc = [Hc/(1 + eo)][(Cc log(sf'/sp')]
(4.4.7.2.3-2)
If laboratory test results are expressed in terms of
vertical strain (ev) consolidation settlement may be estimated using the following:
For initial overconsolidated soils (i.e., sp' > so'):
Sc = Hc[Crelog(sp' > so') + Cce log(sf' > sp')]
(4.4.7.2.3-3)
For initial normally consolidated soils (i.e., sp' =
so'):
Sc = HcCcelog(sf'/sp')
(4.4.7.2.3-4)
Refer to Figures 4.4.7.2.3A and 4.4.7.2.3B for the
definition of terms used in the equations.
To account for the decreasing stress with increased
depth below a footing, and variations in soil compressibility with depth, the compressible layer should be
divided into vertical increments (i.e., typically 5 to 10

4-20

FIGURE 4.4.7.2.3A Typical Consolidation


Compression Curve for Overconsolidated Soil
Void Ratio Versus Vertical Effective Stress
EPRI (1983)

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

FIGURE 4.4.7.2.3B Typical Consolidation


Compression Curve for Overconsolidated Soil
Void Strain Versus Vertical Effective Stress

FIGURE 4.4.7.2.3C Reduction Factor to Account


for Effects of Three-Dimensional Consolidation
Settlement EPRI (1983)

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

FIGURE 4.4.7.2.3D Percentage of Consolidation as a Function of Time Factor, T


EPRI (1983)
feet for most normal width footings for highway applications), and the consolidation settlement of each increment analyzed separately. The total value of Sc is the
summation of Sc for each increment.
If the footing width is small relative to the thickness
of the compressible soil, the effect of three-dimensional
(3-D) loading may be considered using the following:
Sc(3-D) = cSc(1-D)

(4.4.7.2.3-5)

Refer to Figure 4.4.7.2.3C for values of c.


The time (t) to achieve a given percentage of the total
estimated 1-D consolidation settlement may be estimated
using the following:
t = THd2/cv
(4.4.7.2.3-6)
Refer to Figure 4.4.7.2.3D for values of T for constant
and linearly varying excess pressure distributions. See
Winterkorn and Fang (1975) for values of T for other
excess pressure distributions. Values of cv may be estimated from the results of laboratory consolidation testing
of undisturbed soil samples or from in-situ measurements
using devices such as a piezoprobe or piezocone.

4.4.7.2.4

Secondary Settlement

Secondary settlement of footings on cohesive soil may


be estimated using the following:
Sc = CHclog(t2/t1)

(4.4.7.2.4-1)

t1 is the time when secondary settlement begins (typically at a time equivalent to 90-percent average degree of
consolidation), and t2 is an arbitrary time which could
represent the service life of the structure. Values of C
may be estimated from the results of consolidation testing
of undisturbed soil samples in the laboratory.

4.4.7.2.5
4.4.7.3
4.4.8

Deleted

Deleted

Geotechnical Design on Rock

Spread footings supported on rock shall be designed


to support the design loads with adequate bearing and
structural capacity and with tolerable settlements in conformance with Articles 4.4.8 and 4.4.11. For footings on
rock, the location of the resultant of pressure (R) on the
base of footings shall be maintained within B/4 of the
center of the footing.
The bearing capacity and settlement of footings on
rock is influenced by the presence, orientation and condition of discontinuities, weathering profiles, and other
similar features. The methods used for design of footings
on rock should consider these factors as they apply at a
particular site, and the degree to which they should be
incorporated in the design.
For footings on competent rock, reliance on simple
and direct analyses based on uniaxial compressive rock
strengths and RQD may be applicable. Competent rock is
defined as a rock mass with discontinuities that are tight

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

4-21

+
+
+
+

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

or open not wider than 1/8 inch. For footings on less


competent rock, more detailed investigations and analyses should be used to account for the effects of weathering,
the presence and condition of discontinuities, and other
geologic factors.

4.4.8.1

Bearing Capacity

4.4.8.1.1

rock within a depth of B below the base of the footing,


where the RQD values are relatively uniform within that
interval. If rock within a depth of 0.5B below the base of
the footing is of poorer quality, the RQD of the poorer rock
shall be used to determine qall.

4.4.8.1.2

Footings on Broken or Jointed


Rock

Footings on Competent Rock


The design of footings on broken or jointed rock must
account for the condition and spacing of joints and other
discontinuities. The ultimate bearing capacity of footings on broken or jointed rock may be estimated using the
following relationship:
qult = NmsCo

(4.4.8.1.2-1)

Allowable bearing capacity, qall (tsf)

The allowable bearing capacity for footings supported


on level surfaces in competent rock may be determined
using Figure 4.4.8.1.1 A (Peck, et al. 1974). In no instance
shall the maximum allowable bearing capacity exceed
the allowable bearing stress in the concrete. The RQD
used in Figure 4.4.8.1.1A shall be the average RQD for the

Note:
qall shall not exceed the unconfined compressive strength
of the rock or 0.595 f'c of the concrete.

FIGURE 4.4.8.1.1A Allowable Contact Stress for Footings on Rock with Tight Discontinuities
Peck, et al. (1974)

4-22

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

TABLE 4.4.8.1.2A Values of Coefficient Nms for Estimation of the Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Footings on
Broken or Jointed Rock (Modified after Hoek, (1983))
Rock Mass
Quality

General Description

RMR(1)
Rating

NGI(2)
Rating

RQD(3)

(%)

Nms(4)
C

Excellent

Intact rock with joints spaced


> 10 feet apart

100

500

95-100

3.8

4.3

5.0

5.2

6.1

Very good

Tightly interlocking, undisturbed rock with rough


unweathered joints spaced 3 to
10 feet apart

85

100

90-95

1.4

1.6

1.9

2.0

2.3

Good

Fresh to slightly weathered


rock, slightly disturbed with
joints spaced 3 to 10 feet apart

65

10

75-90

0.28

0.32

0.38

0.40

0.46

Fair

Rock with several sets of moderately weathered joints spaced


1 to 3 feet apart

44

50-75

0.049

0.056

0.066

0.069

0.081

Poor

Rock with numerous weathered


joints spaced I to 20 inches
apart with some gouge

23

0.1

25-50

0.015

0.016

0.019

0.020

0.024

Very poor

Rock with numerous highly


weathered joints spaced < 2
inches apart

0.01

< 25

Use qult for an equivalent soil mass

(1)Geomechanics Rock Mass Rating (RMQ) SystemBieniawski, 1988.


(2)Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI) Rock Mass Classification System, Barton, et al., 1974.
(3)Range of RQD values provided for general guidance only; actual determination of rock mass quality should be based on RMR or NGI

rating systems.
of Nms as a function of rock type; refer to Table 4.4.8.1.2B for typical range of values of Co for different rock type in each
category.

(4)Value

Refer to Table 4.4.8.1.2A for values of Nms. Values of


Co should preferably be determined from the results of
laboratory testing of rock cores obtained within 2B of the
base of the footing. Where rock strata within this interval
are variable in strength, the rock with the lowest capacity
should be used to determine qult. Alternatively, Table
4.4.8.1.2B may be used as a guide to estimate Co. For
rocks defined by very poor quality, the value of qult
should be determined as the value of qult for an equivalent
soil mass.

4.4.8.1.3

Factors of Safety

Spread footings on rock shall be designed for Group 1


loadings using a minimum factor of safety (FS) of 3.0
against a bearing capacity failure.

4.4.8.2

Settlement

4.4.8.2.1

Footings on Competent Rock

For footings on competent rock, elastic settlements


will generally be less than 1/2 inch when footings are
designed in accordance with Article 4.4.8.1.1. When
elastic settlements of this magnitude are unacceptable or
when the rock is not competent, an analysis of settlement
based on rock mass characteristics must be made. For
rock masses which have time-dependent settlement characteristics, the procedure in Article 4.4.7.2.3 may be
followed to determine the time-dependent component of
settlement.

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

4-23

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

TABLE 4.4.8.1.2B Typical Range of Uniaxial Compressive Strength (Co) as a Function of


Rock Category and Rock Type
Rock
Category

Co(1)
General Description

Rock Type

(ksf)

(psi)

Carbonate rocks with welldeveloped crystal cleavage

Dolostone
Limestone
Carbonatite
Marble
Tactite-Skarn

7005008008002,700-

6,500
6,000
1,500
5,000
7,000

4,800- 45,000
3,500- 42,000
5,500- 10,000
5,500- 35,000
19,000- 49,000

Lithified argillaceous rock

Argillite
Claystone
Marlstone
Phyllite
Siltstone
Shale(2)
Slate

600301,0005002001503,000-

3,000
170
4,000
5,000
2,500
740
4,400

4,200- 21,000
200- 1,200
7,600- 28,000
3,500- 35,000
1,400- 17,000
1,000- 5,100
21,000- 30,000

Arenaceous rocks with strong


crystals and poor cleavage

Conglomerate
Sandstone
Quartzite

700- 4,600
1,400- 3,600
1,300- 8,000

4,800- 32,000
9,700- 25,000
9,000- 55,000

Fine-grained igneous
crystalline rock

Andesite
Diabase

2,100- 3,800
450-12,000

14,000- 26,000
3,100- 83,000

Coarse-grained igneous and


metamorphic crystalline rock

Amphibolite
Gabbro
Gneiss
Granite
Quartzdiorite
Quartzmonzonite
Schist
Syenite

2,5002,6005003002002,7002003,800-

17,000- 40,000
18,000- 45,000
3,500- 45,000
2,100- 49,000
1,400- 14,000
19,000- 23,000
1,400- 21,000
26,000- 62,000

(1)Range of Uniaxial Compressive


(2)Not including oil shale.

4.4.8.2.2

Strength values reported by various investigations.

Footings on Broken or Jointed


Rock

Where the criteria for competent rock are not met, the
influence of rock type, condition of discontinuities and
degree of weathering shall be considered in the settlement analysis.
The elastic settlement of footings on broken or jointed
rock may be determined using the following:
For circular (or square) footings;
= qo (1 v2)rI/Em, with I = (

)/z
(4.4.8.2.2-1)

4-24

5,800
6,500
6,500
7,000
2,100
3,300
3,000
9,000

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

For rectangular footings;


= qo (1 v2)BI/Em, with I = (L/B)1/2/z
(4.4.8.2.2-2)
Values of I may be computed using the z values
presented in Table 4.4.7.2.2B from Article 4.4.7.2.2 for
rigid footings. Values of Poissons ratio () for typical
rock types are presented in Table 4.4.8.2.2A. Determination of the rock mass modulus (Em) should be based on the
results of in-situ and laboratory tests. Alternatively, values of Em may be estimated by multiplying the intact rock
modulus (Eo) obtained from uniaxial compression tests
by a reduction factor (E) which accounts for frequency
of discontinuities by the rock quality designation (RQD),
using the following relationships (Gardner, 1987):

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

TABLE 4.4.8.2.2A Summary of Poissons Ratio for Intact Rock


Modified after Kulhawy (1978)

Rock Type

No. of
Values

No. of
Rock
Types

Maximum

Granite
Gabbro
Diabase
Basalt
Quartzite
Marble
Gneiss
Schist
Sandstone
Siltstone
Shale
Limestone
Dolostone

22
3
6
11
6
5
11
12
12
3
3
19
5

22
3
6
11
6
5
11
11
9
3
3
19
5

0.39
0.20
0.38
0.32
0.22
0.40
0.40
0.31
0.46
0.23
0.18
0.33
0.35

Poissons Ratio, v
Minimum
0.09
0.16
0.20
0.16
0.08
0.17
0.09
0.02
0.08
0.09
0.03
0.12
0.14

Mean

Standard
Deviation

0.20
0.18
0.29
0.23
0.14
0.28
0.22
0.12
0.20
0.18
0.09
0.23
0.29

0.08
0.02
0.06
0.05
0.05
0.08
0.09
0.08
0.11
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.08

TABLE 4.4.8.2.2B Summary of Elastic Moduli for Intact Rock


Modified after Kulhawy (1978)

Rock Type
Granite
Diorite
Gabbro
Diabase
Basalt
Quartzite
Marble
Gneiss
Slate
Schist
Phyllite
Sandstone
Siltstone
Shale
Limestone
Dolostone
(1)1.0

Elastic Modulus, Eo
(psi x 106)(1)

No. of
Values

No. of
Rock
Types

Maximum

26
3
3
7
12
7
14
13
11
13
3
27
5
30
30
17

26
3
3
7
12
7
13
13
2
12
3
19
5
14
30
16

14.5
16.2
12.2
15.1
12.2
12.8
10.7
11.9
3.79
10.0
2.51
5.68
4.76
5.60
13.0
11.4

Minimum

Mean

Standard
Deviation

0.93
2.48
9.80
10.0
4.20
5.29
0.58
4.13
0.35
0.86
1.25
0.09
0.38
0.001
0.65
0.83

7.64
7.45
11.0
12.8
8.14
9.59
6.18
8.86
1.39
4.97
1.71
2.13
2.39
1.42
5.70
4.22

3.55
6.19
0.97
1.78
2.60
2.32
2.49
2.31
0.96
3.18
0.57
1.19
1.65
1.45
3.73
3.44

x 106 psi = 1.44 x 105 ksf.

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

4-25

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

Em = E Eo
E = 0.0231 (RQD) - 1.32 > 0.15

(4.4.8.2.2-3)

4.4.9

(4.4.8.2.2-4)

The overall stability of footings, slopes, and foundation soil or rock shall be evaluated for footings located on
or near a slope by limiting equilibrium methods of analysis which employ the Modified Bishop, simplified Janbu,
Spenser or other generally accepted methods of slope
stability analysis. Where soil and rock parameters and
ground water levels are based on in-situ and/or laboratory
tests, the minimum factor of safety shall be 1.3 (or 1.5
where abutments are supported above a slope). Otherwise, the minimum factor of safety shall be 1.5 (or 1.8
where abutments are supported above a retaining wall).

For preliminary design or when site-specific test data


cannot be obtained, guidelines for estimating values of Eo
(such as presented in Table 4.4.8.2.2B or Figure
4.4.8.2.2A) may be used. For preliminary analyses or for
final design when in-situ test results are not available, a
value of E = 0.15 should be used to estimate Em.
+

4.4.8.2.3

Deleted

Overall Stability

FIGURE 4.4.8.2.2A Relationship Between Elastic Modulus and


Uniaxial Compressive Strength for Intact Rock
Modified after Deere (1968)

4-26

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

4.4.10

Deleted

4.4.11

Structural Design

4.4.11.1
4.4.11.1.1

Loads and Reactions


Action of Loads and Reactions

Footings shall be considered as under the action of


downward forces, due to the superimposed loads, resisted by an upward pressure exerted by the foundation
materials and distributed over the area of the footings as
determined by the eccentricity of the resultant of the
downward forces. Where piles are used under footings,
the upward reaction of the foundation shall be considered
as a series of concentrated loads applied at the pile
centers, each pile being assumed to carry the computed
portion of the total footing load.

4.4.11.1.2

Isolated and Multiple Footing


Reactions

When a single isolated footing supports a column, pier


or wall, the footing shall be assumed to act as a cantilever.
When footings support more than one column, pier, or
wall, the footing slab shall be designed for the actual
conditions of continuity and restraint.

4.4.11.2
4.4.11.2.1

Moments
Critical Section

External moment on any section of a footing shall be


determined by passing a vertical plane through the footing, and computing the moment of the forces acting over
the entire area of footing on one side of that vertical plane.
+ The critical section for bending shall be taken at the face
+ of column, pier, wall or at edge of hinge. In the case of
columns that are not square or rectangular, the critical
section shall be taken at the side of the concentric square
of equivalent area. For footings under masonry walls, the
critical section shall be taken as halfway between the
middle and edge of the wall. For footings under metallic
column bases, the critical section shall be taken as halfway between the column face and the edge of the metallic
+ base. Reinforcement for footing flexural moments shall
+ be in accordance with Article 8.16.3.

4.4.11.2.2

Distribution of Reinforcement

Reinforcement of one-way and two-way square footings shall be distributed uniformly across the entire width
of footing.
In two-way rectangular footings, reinforcement shall +
be distributed as follows:
+
Reinforcement in the long direction shall be distrib- +
uted uniformly across entire width of footing.
+
For reinforcement in the long direction, the area of
reinforcement to be placed shall be not less than 2L/ (L+S)
times the area of reinforcement required to resist the
applied moment and shall be distributed uniformily over
the entire width. L and S equal the lengths of the long side
and short side of the footing, respectively.

+
+
+
+
+
+

The minimum top flexural reinforcement for footings


shall be that required to resist loads which cause tension
in the top fiber, Article 8.17.1 or Article 8.20 whichever
controls.

+
+
+
+

4.4.11.3

Shear

4.4.11.3.1

Computation of shear in footings, and


location of critical section, shall be in accordance with
Article 8.15.5.6 or 8.16.6.6. Location of critical section
shall be measured from the face of column, pier, wall, or
at edge of hinge, for footings supporting a column, pier,
or wall. For footings supporting a column or pier with
metallic base plate, the critical section shall be measured
from the location defined in Article 4.4.11.2.1.

4.4.11.3.2

For footings supported on piles, shear


on the critical section shall be in accordance with the
following, where dp is the diameter of a round pile or depth
of H pile at footing base:
(a) Entire reaction from any pile whose center is
located dp/2 or more outside the critical section
shall be considered as producing shear on that
section.
(b) Reaction from any pile whose center is located
dp/2 or more inside the critical section shall be
considered as producing no shear on that section.
(c) For intermediate positions of pile center, the
portion of the pile reaction to be considered as
producing shear on the critical section shall be
based on linear interpolation between full value at

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

4-27

+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

dp/2 outside the section and zero value at dp/2


inside the section.
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

4.4.11.3.3

Minimum Reinforcement

The minimum shear reinforcement for column footings shall be vertical No. 5 bars at 12 inch spacing in each
direction in a band between d of the footing from the
column surface and 6 inches maximum from the column
reinforcement. Shear bars shall be hooked around the top
and bottom flexure reinforcement in the footing.

4.4.11.4
4.4.11.4.1

Development of Reinforcement

4.4.11.5.3

Bearing on concrete at contact surface between supporting and supported member shall not exceed concrete
bearing strength for either surface as given in Articles
8.15.2 or 8.16.7.

4.4.11.5.4 Reinforcement
Reinforcement shall be provided across interface between supporting and supported member either by extending main longitudinal reinforcement into footings or
by dowels. Reinforcement across interface shall be sufficient to satisfy all of the following:

Development Length

Computation of development of reinforcement in


footings shall be in accordance with Articles 8.24
through 8.32.

4.4.11.4.2

Critical Section

Critical sections for development of reinforcement


shall be assumed at the same locations as defined in
Article 4.4.11.2 and at all other vertical planes where
changes in section, or reinforcement occur. See also
Article 8.24.1.5.

4.4.11.5
4.4.11.5.1

Transfer of Force at Base of


Column
Transfer of Force

All forces and moments applied at base of column or


pier shall be transferred to top of footing by bearing on
concrete and by reinforcement.
+
Fixed bases shall meet the requirements of this Ar+ ticle. Pinned bases shall meet the requirements of Article
+ 8.16.4.6.

4.4.11.5.2

Lateral Forces

Lateral forces shall be transferred to supporting footing in accordance with shear-transfer provisions of Articles 8.15.5.4 or 8.16.6.4.

4-28

Bearing

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

Reinforcement shall be provided to transfer all


force that exceeds concrete bearing strength in
supporting or supported member.
If required loading conditions include uplift, total
tensile force shall be resisted by reinforcement.
Area of reinforcement shall not be less than 0.005
times gross area of supported member, with a
minimum of four bars.

4.4.11.5.5

Dowel Size

Diameter of dowels, if used, shall not exceed diameter


of longitudinal reinforcement by more than 0. 15 inch.

4.4.11.5.6

Development Length

For transfer of force by reinforcement, development of


reinforcement in supporting and supported member shall
be in accordance with Articles 8.24 through 8.32.

4.4.11.5.7

Splicing

At footings, No. 14 and 18 main longitudinal reinforcement, in compression only, may be lap spliced with
footing dowels to provide the required area, but not less
than that required by Article 4.4.11.5.4. Dowels shall not
be larger than No. 11 and shall extend into the column a
distance of not less than the development length of the
No. 14 or 18 bars or the splice length of the dowels,
whichever is greater; and into the footing a distance of not
less than the development length of the dowels.
The bars shall be terminated in the footings with a +
standard hook. Lap splices shall not be used.
+

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

4.4.11.6
4.4.11.6.1

Unreinforced Concrete Footings


Design Stress

Design stresses in plain concrete footings or pedestals


shall be computed assuming a linear stress distribution.
For footings and pedestals cast against soil, effective
thickness used in computing stresses shall be taken as the
overall thickness minus 3 inches. Extreme fiber stress in
tension shall not exceed that specified in Article
8.15.2.1.1. Bending need not be considered unless projection of footing from face to support member exceeds
footing thickness.

4.4.11.6.2

Pedestals

The ratio of unsupported height to average least lateral


dimension of plain concrete pedestals shall not exceed 3.

4.5

DRIVEN PILES

4.5.1

General

The provisions of this article shall apply to the design


of axially and laterally loaded driven piles in soil or
extending through soil to rock.

4.5.1.1

Application

Piling may be considered when footings cannot be


founded on rock, or on granular or stiff cohesive soils
within a reasonable depth. At locations where soil conditions would normally permit the use of spread footings
but the potential for scour exists, piles may be used as a
protection against scour. Piles may also be used where an
unacceptable amount of settlement of spread footings
may occur.

4.5.1.2

Materials

Piles may be structural steel sections, steel pipe, precast concrete, cast-in-place concrete, prestressed concrete, timber, or a combination of materials. In every
case, materials shall be supplied in accordance with the
provisions of this Article.
+

4.5.1.3

Deleted

4.5.1.4

Lateral Tip Restraint

No piling shall be used to penetrate a soft or loose


upper stratum overlying a hard or firm stratum unless the
piles penetrate the hard or firm stratum by a sufficient
distance to fix the ends against lateral movement of the
pile tip. Driving points or shoes may be necessary to
accomplish this penetration.

4.5.1.5

Estimated Lengths

Estimated pile lengths for each substructure shall be


shown on the plans and shall be based upon careful
evaluation of available subsurface information, static
and lateral capacity calculations, and/or past experience.

4.5.1.6

Estimated and Minimum Tip


Elevation

Estimated and minimum pile tip elevations for each


substructure should be shown on the contract plans.
Estimated pile tip elevations shall reflect the elevation
where the required ultimate pile capacity can be obtained.
Minimum pile tip elevations shall reflect the penetration
required to support lateral pile loads (including scour
considerations where appropriate) and/or penetration of
overlying, unsuitable soil strata.

4.5.1.7

Deleted

4.5.1.8

Test Piles

Test piles shall be considered for each substructure


unit (See Article 7. 1.1 for definition of substructure unit)
to determine pile installation characteristics, evaluate
pile capacity with depth and to establish contractor pile
order lengths. Piles may be tested by static loading,
dynamic testing, conducting driveability studies, or a
combination thereof, based upon the knowledge of subsurface conditions. The number of test piles required may
be increased in non-uniform subsurface conditions. Test
piles may not be required where previous experience
exists with the same pile type and ultimate pile capacity
in similar subsurface conditions.

4.5.2

Pile Types

Piles shall be classified as friction or end bearing


or a combination of both according to the manner in
which load transfer is developed.

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

4-29

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

4.5.2.1

Friction Piles

A pile shall be considered to be a friction pile if the


major portion of support capacity is derived from soil
resistance mobilized along the side of the embedded pile.

4.5.2.2

End Bearing Piles

A pile shall be considered to be an end bearing pile if


the major portion of support capacity is derived from the
resistance of the foundation material on which the pile tip
rests.

4.5.2.3

Combination Friction and End


Bearing Piles

Under certain soil conditions and for certain pile


materials, the bearing capacity of a pile may be considered as the sum of the resistance mobilized on the embedded shaft and that developed at the pile tip, even though
the forces that are mobilized simultaneously are not
necessarily maximum values.

Qult
rs
Rs
rt
Rt

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Ultimate pile capacity (k)


Unit side resistance (ksi)
Side resistance (ksi)
Unit tip resistance (ksi)
Tip resistance (k)
Percentage of reinforcement (dim)
Allowable stress (ksi)

The notations for dimension units include the following: dim = Dimensionless; ft = foot; square feet = ft2; k =
kip; ksi = kip/in2 and in. = inch. The dimensional units
provided with each notation are presented for illustration
only to demonstrate a dimensionally correct combination
of units for the footing capacity procedures presented
herein. If other units are used, the dimensional correctness of the equations shall be confirmed.

4.5.4

Design Terminology

Refer to Figure 4.5.4A for terminology used in the


design of driven pile foundations.

4.5.5
4.5.2.4

Batter Piles

When the lateral resistance of the soil surrounding the


piles is inadequate to counteract the horizontal forces
transmitted to the foundation, or when increased rigidity
of the entire structure is required, batter piles should be
used in the foundation. Where negative skin friction
loads are expected, batter piles should be avoided, and an
alternate method of providing lateral restraint should be
used.

4.5.3

Notations

The following notations shall apply for the design of


driven pile foundations:
As
At
B
f'c
fpc

=
=
=
=
=

FS
Fy
L
Qall
QS
QT

=
=
=
=
=
=

4-30

Selection of Soil and Rock Properties

Area of pile circumference (ft2)


Area of pile tip (ft2)
Pile diameter or width (ft)
Concrete compression strength (ksi)
Concrete compression stress due to prestressing
after all losses (ksi)
Factor of safety (dim)
Yield strength of steel (ksi)
Pile length (ft)
Design capacity (k)
Ultimate shaft resistance (k)
Ultimate tip resistance (k)

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

Soil and rock properties defining the strength and


compressibility characteristics of the foundation materials, are required for driven pile design. Refer to Article
4.3 for guidelines for subsurface exploration to obtain
soil and rock properties.

4.5.6

Selection of Design Pile Capacity

The design pile capacity is the maximum load the pile


shall support with tolerable movement. In determining
the design pile capacity, the following items shall be
considered:

Ultimate geotechnical capacity; and


Structural capacity of the pile section.

4.5.6.1

Ultimate Geotechnical Capacity

The ultimate axial capacity of a driven pile shall be


determined from:
Qult = QS + QT

(4.5.6.1-1)

The allowable design axial capacity shall be determined from:


Qall = Qult/FS

(4.5.6.1-2)

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

FIGURE 4.5.4A Design Terminology for Driven Pile Foundatons

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

4-31

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

4.5.6.1.1

Factors Affecting Axial Capacity

In determining the design axial capacity, consideration shall be given to:

load test is recommended. Pile relaxation should be


considered in certain kinds of rock when performing load
tests.

4.5.6.2

The difference between the supporting capacity


of a single pile and that of a group of piles;
The capacity of an underlying strata to support the
load of the pile group;
The effects of driving piles on adjacent structures or slopes;
The possibility of scour and its effect on axial and
lateral capacity;
The effects of negative skin friction or downdrag
loads from consolidating soil and the effects of
uplift loads from expansive or swelling soils;
The influence of construction techniques such as
augering or jetting on capacity; and
The influence of fluctuations in the elevation of
the ground water table on capacity.

4.5.6.1.2

Axial Capacity in Cohesive Soils

The ultimate axial capacity of piles in cohesive soils


may be calculated using a total stress method (e.g.,
Tomlinson, 1957) for undrained loading conditions, or
an effective stress method (e.g., Meyerhof, 1976) for
drained loading conditions. The axial capacity may also
be calculated from in-situ testing methods such as the
cone penetration (e.g., Schmertmann, 1978) or
pressuremeter tests (e.g., Baguelin, 1978).

4.5.6.1.3

Axial Capacity in Cohesionless


Soils

The ultimate axial capacity of piles in cohesionless


soils may be calculated using an empirical effective stress
method (e.g., Nordlund, 1963) or from in-situ testing
methods and analysis such as the cone penetration (e.g.,
Schmertmann, 1978) or pressuremeter tests (e.g.,
Baguelin, 1978).

4.5.6.1.4

Axial Capacity on Rock

For piles driven to competent rock, the structural


capacity in Article 4.5.7 will generally govern the design
axial capacity. For piles driven to weak rock such as shale
and mudstone or poor quality weathered rock, a static

4-32

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

Factor of Safety Selection

The required nominal resistance is twice the design


service load. The Division of Structural Foundations will
determine the geotechnical capacity to meet or exceed
the required nominal resistance. The safety margin between the required nominal resistance and the ultimate
geotechnical capacity shall be determined by the Division of Structural Foundations considering the uncertainties of the ultimate soil capacity determination and
pile installation control.

4.5.6.3

Deleted

4.5.6.4

Group Pile Loading

Group pile capacity should be determined as the


product of the group efficiency, number of piles in the
group, and the capacity of a single pile. In general, a group
efficiency value of 1.0 should be used; however, for
friction piles in cohesive soil, a group efficiency value
less than 1.0 may be required depending upon the centerto-center spacing of the piles. The Division of Structural
Foundations should be consulted to determine the efficiency factors for friction piles in cohesive soils.

4.5.6.5

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+
+
+
+

Lateral Loads on Piles

The design of laterally loaded piles is usually governed by lateral movement criteria. The design of laterally loaded piles shall account for the effects of soil/rock
structure interaction between the pile and ground (e.g.,
Reese, 1984). Methods of analysis evaluating the ultimate capacity or deflection of laterally loaded piles (e.g.,
Broms, 1964a and 1964b; Singh, et al., 1971) may be
used for preliminary design only as a means to evaluate
appropriate pile sections.

4.5.6.5.1

Lateral Resistance

Lateral resistance of piles fully embedded in soil with


standard penetration resistance value, N, of 10 and with
a 1/4 inch maximum horizontal deflection under Service
Load shall be:

+
+
+
+

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

+
+
+
+
+
+

CIDH Concrete (16") ................................ 13 kips


Driven Concrete(15" or 14") ..................... 13kips
Driven Concrete (12") ................................ 5 kips
Steel (12" or 10" flange) ............................. 5 kips
Steel (8" flange) .......................................... 4 kips
Timber ......................................................... 5 kips

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

The lateral resistance of piles not within these criteria


shall be determined by geotechnical analysis and structural adequacy of the pile.
At bent and pier footings the number of piles required
for lateral pile resistance shall not be governed by Group
VII loads.
The horizontal component of a battered piles axial
load may be added to the lateral resistance.

4.5.6.6

Uplift Loads on Pile

The uplift design capacity of single piles and pile


groups shall be determined in accordance with Articles
4.5.6.6.1 and 4.5.6.6.2 respectively. Proper provision
shall be made for anchorage of the pile into the pile cap.

4.5.6.6.1
+
+
+
+
+
+

Single Pile

Friction piles may be considered to resist an intermittent but not sustained uplift. Uplift resistance may be
equivalent to 40 percent of the allowable structural
compressive load capacity. Adequate pile anchorage,
tensile strength, and geotechnical capacity must be provided.

4.5.6.6.2

Pile Group

The uplift design capacity for a pile group shall be the


lesser of: (1) The single pile uplift design capacity multiplied by the number of piles in the group, or (2)
two-thirds of the effective weight of the pile group and the
soils contained within a block defined by the perimeter
of the group and the embedded length of the piles, or (3)
one-half the effective weight of the pile group and the soil
contained within a block defined by the perimeter of the
group and the embedded pile length plus one-half the
total soil shear on the peripheral surface of the group.
+

4.5.6.6.3

4.5.6.7

Vertical Ground Movement

The potential for external loading on a pile by vertical


ground movements shall be considered as part of the
design. Vertical ground movements may result in negative skin friction or downdrag loads due to settlement of
compressible soils or may result in uplift loads due to
heave of expansive soils. For design purposes, the full
magnitude of maximum vertical ground movement shall
be assumed.

4.5.6.7.1

Negative Skin Friction

The potential for external loading on a pile by negative skin friction/downdrag due to settlement of compressible soil shall be considered as a part of the design.
Evaluation of negative skin friction shall include a loadtransfer method of analysis to determine the neutral point
(i.e., point of zero relative displacement) and load distribution along shaft (e.g., Fellenius, 1984, Reese and
ONeill, 1988). Due to the possible time dependence
associated with vertical ground movement, the analysis
shall consider the effect of time on load transfer between
the ground and shaft and the analysis shall be performed
for the time period relating to the maximum axial load
transfer to the pile. If necessary, negative skin friction
loads that cause excessive settlement may be reduced by
application of bitumen or other viscous coatings to the
pile surfaces before installation.

4.5.6.7.2

Expansive Soil

Piles driven in swelling soils may be subjected to


uplift forces in the zone of seasonal moisture change.
Piles shall extend a sufficient distance into moisturestable soils to provide adequate resistance to swelling
uplift forces. In addition, sufficient clearance shall be
provided between the ground surface and the underside
of pile caps or grade beams to preclude the application of
uplift loads at the pile cap. Uplift loads may be reduced
by application of bitumen or other viscous coatings to the
pile surface in the swelling zone.

4.5.6.8

Deleted

Seal Course

In seals, the bond between timber, steel, or concrete


+
+ piles and surrounding concrete may be assumed to be 10
+ pounds per square inch. The total bond force used shall be
+ no greater than the resistance of the pile to uplift.

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

4-33

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

4.5.7

Structural Capacity of Pile Section

4.5.7.1

Load Capacity Requirements

Piles shall be designed as structural members capable


of safely supporting all loads imposed on them by the
structure or surrounding soil.

4.5.7.2

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

Allowable Stresses in Piles

The maximum allowable stress on a pile shall not


exceed the following limits in severe subsurface conditions.
Where pile damage or deterioration is possible, it may
be prudent to use a lower stress level than the maximum
allowable stress.

4-34

TABLE 4.5.7.3A Allowable Working Stress for


Round Timber Piles

Piles Extending Above Ground


Surface

For portions of piles in air or water, or in soil not


capable of providing adequate lateral support throughout the pile length to prevent buckling, the structural
design provisions for compression members of Sections
8, 9, 10, and 13 shall apply except: timber piles shall be
designed in accordance with Article 13.5 using the allowable unit stresses given in Article 13.2 for lumber and in
Table 4.5.7.3A.

4.5.7.3

stress shall not exceed the values in Table 4.5.7.3A


for the pile tip area. For sawn timber piles, the
values applicable to wet condition for allowable compression parallel to grain shall be used in
Accordance with Article 13.2.

For steel H-piles, and unfilled steel pipe piles, the


maximum allowable stress shall not exceed 0.28Fy
over the net cross-sectional area of the pile, not
including the area of any tip reinforcement. Net
section equals gross section less 1/16 inch from all
surfaces.
For concrete filled steel pipe piles, the maximum
allowable stress shall not exceed 0.28Fy + 0.40f 'c
applied over the net cross-sectional area of the
steel pipe and on the cross-sectional area of the
concrete, respectively.
For precast concrete piles, the maximum allowable stress shall not exceed 0.33 f'c on the gross
cross-sectional area of the concrete.
For prestressed concrete piles fully embedded in
soils providing lateral support, the maximum
allowable stress shall not exceed 0.33 f'c 0.27pe
on the gross cross-sectional area of the concrete.
For round timber piles, the maximum allowable

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

Species
Ash, white
Beech
Birch
Chestnut
Cypress, Southern
Cypress, Tidewater red
Douglas Fir, coast type
Douglas Fir, inland
Elm, rock
Elm, soft
Gum, black and red
Hemlock, Eastern
Hemlock, West Coast
Hickory
Larch
Maple, hard
Oak, red and white
Pecan
Pine, Lodgepole
Pine, Norway
Pine, Southern
Pine, Southern, dense
Poplar, yellow
Redwood
Spruce, Eastern
Tupelo

Allowable Unit Working


Stress Compression
Parallel to Grain for
Normal Duration of
Loading a (psi)
1,200
1,300
1,300
900
1,200
1,200
1,200
1,100
1,300
850
850
800
1,000
1,650
1,200
1,300
1,100
1,650
800
850
1,200
1,400
800
1,100
850
850

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

4.5.7.4

Deleted

4.5.7.5

Scour

The probable depth of scour shall be determined by


subsurface exploration and hydraulic studies as described in Article 4.3.5. If heavy scour is expected,
consideration shall be given to designing the portion of
the pile that would be exposed as a column. In all cases,
the pile length shall be determined such that the design
structural load may be safely supported entirely below
the probable scour depth. The pile shall be of adequate
cross-section to withstand the driving necessary to penetrate through the anticipated scour depth to the design
embedment.

4.5.8

Protection Against Corrosion and


Abrasion

Where conditions of exposure warrant, concrete encasement or other corrosion protection shall be used on
steel piles and steel shells. Exposed steel piles or steel
shells shall not be used in salt or brackish water, and only
with caution in fresh water. Where the piling is exposed
to the abrasive action of the bed load of materials, the
section shall be increased in thickness or positive protection shall be provided.

4.5.9

Wave Equation Analysis

The constructability of the pile foundation design


should be evaluated using a wave equation computer
program. The wave equation should be used to confirm
that the design pile section can be installed to the desired
depth, ultimate capacity, and within the allowable driving stress levels specified in Article 4.5.11 using an
appropriately sized driving system.

4.5.10

Dynamic Monitoring

Dynamic monitoring may be specified for piles installed in difficult subsurface conditions such as soils
with obstructions and boulders, or a steeply sloping
bedrock surface to evaluate compliance with structural
pile capacity. Dynamic monitoring may also be considered for geotechnical capacity verification where the size
of the project or other limitations deter static load testing.

4.5.11

Maximum Allowable Driving


Stresses

Maximum allowable driving stresses in pile material


for top driven piles shall not exceed the following limits:
Steel piles
Concrete piles

Prestressed concrete piles


Normal environments

0.90Fy (Compression)
0.90Fy (Tension)
0.85 f'c (Compression)
0.70Fy of Steel Rein
forcement (Tension)
0.85 f'c fpe (Compression)
3 f c + fpe (Tension)
(f'c and fpe must be in psi.
The resulting max stress is
also in psi.)

Severe corrosive
environments
Timber piles

fpe (Tension)
3a (Compression)
3a (Tension)

Driving stresses may be estimated by performing wave


equation analyses or by dynamic monitoring of force and
acceleration at the pile head during pile driving.

4.5.12

Tolerable Movement

Tolerable axial and lateral displacement criteria for


driven pile foundations shall be developed by the structural engineer consistent with the function and type of
structure, fixity of bearings, anticipated service life, and
consequences of unacceptable displacements on the
structural performance. Driven pile displacement analyses shall be based on the results of in-situ and/or laboratory testing to characterize the load deformation behavior of the foundation materials.

4.5.13

Buoyancy

The effect of hydrostatic pressure shall be considered


in the design as provided in Article 3.19.

4.5.14

Protection Against Deterioration

4.5.14.1

Steel Piles

A steel pile foundation design shall consider that steel


piles may be subject to corrosion, particularly in fill soils,
low ph soils (acidic) and marine environments. A field

SECTION 4

FOUNDATIONS

4-35

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

electric resistivity survey, or resistivity testing and ph


testing of soil and ground water samples should be used
to evaluate the corrosion potential. Methods of protecting steel piling in corrosive environments include use of
protective coatings, cathodic protection, and increased
pile steel area.

4.5.15.1.2

Timber Piles

A timber pile foundation design shall consider that


deterioration of timber piles can occur due to decay from
wetting and drying cycles or from insects or marine
borers. Methods of protecting timber piling include pressure treating with creosote or other wood preservers.

4.5.15

Spacing, Clearances, and


Embedment

4.5.15.1

Pile Footings

+
Footings shall be proportioned to provide the required
+ minimum spacing, clearance and embedment of piles.
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

4.5.15.1.1

Pile Spacing

The minimum center to center spacing of piles shall be


two times either the diameter or the maximum dimension
of the pile, but not less than 3 feet. The spacing shall be
increased when required by subsurface conditions.
The minimum distance from the center of the pile to the
nearest edge of the footing shall be equal to either the
diameter or the maximum dimension of the pile, but not
less than 1 foot 6 inches.

4-36

Bent Caps

Concrete Piles

A concrete pile foundation design shall consider that


deterioration of concrete piles can occur due to sulfates in
soil, ground water, or sea water; chlorides in soils and
chemical wastes; acidic ground water and organic acids.
Laboratory testing of soil and ground water samples for
sulfates and ph is usually sufficient to assess pile deterioration potential. A full chemical analysis of soil and
ground water samples is recommended when chemical
wastes are suspected. Methods of protecting concrete
piling can include dense impermeable concrete, sulfate
resisting portland cement, minimum cover requirements
for reinforcing steel, and use of epoxies, resins, or other
protective coatings.

4.5.14.3

Piles shall be embedded into concrete footings as +


follows: concrete piles 3 inches; steel piles 5 inches; +
timber piles 8 inches.
+

4.5.15.2
4.5.14.2

Minimum Projection into CAP

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

Piles shall be embedded into concrete bent caps as +


follows: concrete piles 1 inch; steel piles 5 inches; +
timber piles 8 inches.
+

4.5.16

Precast Concrete Piles

4.5.16.1

Size and Shape

Precast concrete piles shall be of approved size and


shape but may be either of uniform section or tapered. In
general, tapered piling shall not be used for trestle construction except for the portion of the pile which lies
below the ground line; nor shall tapered piles be used in
any location where the piles are to act as columns.

4.5.16.2

Minimum Area

In general, concrete piles shall have a cross-sectional


area, measured above the taper, of not less than 98 square
inches. In saltwater a minimum cross-sectional area of
140 square inches shall be used. If a square section is
employed, the corners shall be chamfered at least 1 inch.

4.5.16.3

Minimum Diameter of Tapered


Piles

The diameter of tapered piles measured at the point


shall be not less than 8 inches. In all cases the diameter
shall be considered as the least dimension through the
center.

4.5.16.4

Driving Points

Piles preferably shall be cast with a driving point and,


for hard driving, preferably shall be shod with a metal
shoe of approved pattern.

4.5.16.5

Vertical Reinforcement

Vertical reinforcement shall consist of not less than


four bars spaced uniformly around the perimeter of the
pile, except that if more than four bars are used, the
number may be reduced to four in the bottom 4 feet of the

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

pile. The amount of reinforcement shall be at least 1 1/2


percent of the total section measured above the taper.

4.5.16.6

Spiral Reinforcement

The full length of vertical steel shall be enclosed with


spiral reinforcement or equivalent hoops. The spiral
reinforcement at the ends of the pile shall have a pitch of
3 inches and gage of not less than No. 5 (U.S. Steel Wire
Gage). In addition, the top 6 inches of the pile shall have
five turns of spiral winding at 1-inch pitch. For the
remainder of the pile, the lateral reinforcement shall be a
No. 5 gage spiral with not more than 6-inch pitch, or 1/4inch round hoops spaced on not more than 6-inch centers.

4.5.16.7

Reinforcement Cover

The reinforcement shall be placed at a clear distance


from the face of the pile of not less than 2 inches and,
when piles are used in saltwater or alkali soils, this clear
distance shall not be less than 3 inches.

4.5.16.8

Splices

Piles may be spliced provided that the splice develops


the full strength of the pile. Splices should be detailed on
the contract plans. Any alternative method of splicing
that provides equal results may be considered for approval.

4.5.16.9

Handling Stresses

In computing stresses due to handling, the static loads


shall be increased by 50 percent as an allowance for
impact and shock.

4.5.17

Cast-In-Place Concrete Piles

4.5.17.1

Materials

Cast-in-place concrete piles shall be, in general, cast


in metal shells that shall remain permanently in place.
However, other types of cast-in-place piles, plain or
reinforced, cased or uncased, may be used if the soil
conditions permit their use and if their design and method
of placing are satisfactory.

4.5.17.2

Shape

4.5.17.3

Minimum Area

The minimum area at the butt of the pile shall be 100


inches and the minimum diameter at the tip of the pile
shall be 8 inches. Above the butt or taper, the minimum
size shall be as specified for precast piles.

4.5.17.4

General Reinforcement
Requirements

Cast-in-place piles, carrying axial loads only where


the possibility of lateral forces being applied to the piles
is insignificant, need not be reinforced where the soil
provides adequate lateral support. Those portions of castin-place concrete piles that are not supported laterally
shall be designed as reinforced concrete columns in
accordance with Articles 8.15.4 and 8.16.4, and the
reinforcing steel shall extend 10 feet below the plane
where the soil provides adequate lateral restraint. Where
the shell is smooth pipe and more than 0.12 inch in
thickness, it may be considered as load carrying in the
absence of corrosion. Where the shell is corrugated and
is at least 0.075 inch in thickness, it may be considered
as providing confinement in the absence of corrosion.

4.5.17.5

Reinforcement into
Superstructure

Sufficient reinforcement shall be provided at the junction of the pile with the superstructure to make a suitable
connection. The embedment of the reinforcement into
the cap shall be as specified for precast piles.

4.5.17.6

Shell Requirements

The shell shall be of sufficient thickness and strength


so that it will hold its original form and show no harmful
distortion after it and adjacent shells have been driven
and the driving core, if any, has been withdrawn. The
plans shall stipulate that alternative designs of the shell
must be approved by the Engineer before any driving is
done.

4.5.17.7

Splices

Piles may be spliced provided the splice develops the


full strength of the pile. Splices should be detailed on the
contract plans. Any alternative method of splicing providing equal results may be considered for approval.

Cast-in-place concrete piles may have a uniform crosssection or may be tapered over any portion.

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

4-37

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

4.5.17.8

Reinforcement Cover

The reinforcement shall be placed a clear distance of


not less than 2 inches from the cased or uncased sides.
When piles are in corrosive or marine environments, or
when concrete is placed by the water or slurry displacement methods, the clear distance shall not be less than 3
inches for uncased piles and piles with shells not sufficiently corrosion resistant.

4.5.17.9

Steel H-Piles

4.5.18.1

Metal Thickness

Steel piles shall have a minimum thickness of web of


0.400 inch. Splice plates shall not be less than 1/8 in. thick.

4.5.18.2

Splices

Piles shall be spliced to develop the net section of pile.


The flanges and web shall be either spliced by butt
welding or with plates that are welded, riveted, or bolted.
Splices shall be detailed on the contract plans. Prefabricated splicers may be used if the splice can develop the
net section of the pile in compression, tension, shear, and
bending.

4.5.18.3

Caps

In general, caps are not required for steel piles embedded in concrete.

4.5.18.4

Lugs, Scabs, and Core-Stoppers

These devices may be used to increase the bearing


capacity of the pile where necessary. They may consist of
structural shapeswelded, riveted, or boltedof plates
welded between the flanges, or of timber or concrete
blocks securely fastened.

4.5.18.5

Point Attachments

If pile penetration through cobbles, boulders, debris


fill or obstructions is anticipated, pile tips shall be rein-

4-38

4.5.19

Unfilled Tubular Steel Piles

4.5.19.1

Metal Thickness

Piles shall have a minimum thickness not less than


indicated in the following table:

Spacing Limitations

+
The spacing limitation for reinforcement shall be
+ considered in the design as provided in Article 8.21.7.

4.5.18

forced with structural shapes or with prefabricated cast


steel points. Cast steel points shall meet the requirements
of ASTM A27.

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

Outside Diameter

Less than
14 inches

14 inches
and over

Wall Thickness

0.25 inch

0.375 inch

4.5.19.2

Splices

Piles shall be spliced to develop the full section of the


pile. The piles shall be spliced either by butt welding or
by the use of welded sleeves. Splices shall be detailed on
the contract plans.

4.5.19.3

Driving

Tubular steel piles may be driven either closed or open


ended. Closure plates should not extend beyond the
perimeter of the pile.

4.5.19.4

Column Action

Where the piles are to be used as part of a bent structure


or where heavy scour is anticipated that would expose a
portion of the pile, the pile will be investigated for
column action. The provisions of Article 4.5.8 shall apply
to unfilled tubular steel piles.

4.5.20

Prestressed Concrete Piles

4.5.20.1

Size and Shape

Prestressed concrete piles that are generally octagonal, square or circular shall be of approved size and shape.
Air entrained concrete shall be used in piles that are
subject to freezing and thawing or wetting and drying.
Concrete in prestressed piles shall have a minimum
compressive strength, f 'c of 5,000 psi at 28 days. Prestressed concrete piles may be solid or hollow. For
hollow piles, precautionary measures should be taken to

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

prevent breakage due to internal water pressure during


driving, ice pressure in trestle piles, and gas pressure due
to decomposition of material used to form the void.

4.5.20.2

Main Reinforcement

Main reinforcement shall be spaced and stressed so as


to provide a compressive stress on the pile after losses,
fpe, general not less than 700 psi to prevent cracking
during handling and installation. Piles shall be designed
to resist stresses developed during handling as well as
under service load conditions. Bending stresses shall be
investigated for all conditions of handling, taking into
account the weight of the pile plus 50-percent allowance
for impact, with tensile stresses limited to 5 f c .

4.5.20.3

Vertical Reinforcement

The full length of vertical reinforcement shall be


enclosed within spiral reinforcement. For piles up to 24
inches in diameter, spiral wire shall be No. 5 (U.S. Steel
Wire Gage). Spiral reinforcement at the ends of these
piles shall have a pitch of 3 inches for approximately 16
turns. In addition, the top 6 inches of pile shall have five
turns of spiral winding at 1-inch pitch. For the remainder
of the pile, the vertical steel shall be enclosed with spiral
reinforcement with not more than 6-inch pitch. For piles
having diameters greater than 24 inches, spiral wire shall
be No. 4 (U.S. Steel Wire Gage). Spiral reinforcement at
the end of these piles shall have a pitch of 2 inches for
approximately 16 turns. In addition, the top 6 inches of
pile shall have four turns of spiral winding at 1 1 /2 inches.
For the remainder of the pile, the vertical steel shall be
enclosed with spiral reinforcement with not more than 4inch pitch. The reinforcement shall be placed at a clear
distance from the face of the prestressed pile of not less
than 2 inches.

4.5.20.4

Hollow Cylinder Piles

+
Large diameter hollow cylinder piles shall be of ap+ proved size and shape. The wall thickness for cylinder
+ piles shall not be less than 5 inches.

4.5.20.5

Splices

When prestressed concrete piles are spliced, the splice


shall be capable of developing the full section of the pile.
Splices shall be detailed on the contract plans.

4.5.21

Timber Piles

4.5.21.1

Materials

Timber piles shall conform to the requirements of the


Specifications for Wood Products, AASHTO M 168.
Timber piles shall be treated or untreated as indicated on
the contract plans. Preservative treatment shall conform
to the requirements of Section 16, Preservative Treatments for Lumber.

4.5.21.2

Limitations on Untreated Timber


Pile Use

Untreated timber piles may be used for temporary


construction, revetments, fenders, and similar work, and
in permanent construction under the following conditions:

For foundation piling when the cutoff is below


permanent ground water level.
For trestle construction when it is economical to
do so, although treated piles are preferable.
They shall not be used where they will, or may, be
exposed to marine borers.
They shall not be used where seismic design
considerations are critical.

4.5.21.3

Limitations on Treated Timber


Pile Use

Treated timber piles shall not be used where seismic


design considerations are critical.

4.6

DRILLED SHAFTS

4.6.1

General

The provisions of this article shall apply to the design


of axially and laterally loaded drilled shafts in soil or
extending through soil to or into rock.

4.6.1.1

Application

Drilled shafts may be considered when spread footings


cannot be founded on suitable soil or rock strata within
a reasonable depth and when piles are not economically
viable due to high loads or obstructions to driving.
Drilled shafts may be used in lieu of spread footings as a

SECTION 4

FOUNDATIONS

4-39

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

protection against scour. Drilled shafts may also be considered to resist high lateral or uplift loads when deformation tolerances are small.

4.6.1.2

Materials

Shafts shall be cast-in-place concrete and may include


deformed bar steel reinforcement, structural steel sections, and/or permanent steel casing as required by design. In every case, materials shall be supplied in accordance with the provisions of this Standard.

4.6.1.3

Construction

Drilled shafts may be constructed using the dry, casing, or wet method of construction, or a combination of
methods. In every case, hole excavation, concrete placement, and all other aspects of shaft construction shall be
performed in conformance with the provisions of this
Standard.

4.6.1.4

Embedment

Shaft embedment shall be determined based on vertical and lateral load capacities of both the shaft and
subsurface materials.

4.6.1.5

Shaft Diameter

For rock-socketed shafts which require casing through


the overburden soils, the socket diameter should be at
least 6 inches less than the inside diameter of the casing
to facilitate drill tool insertion and removal through the
casing. For rock-socketed shafts not requiring casing
through the overburden soils, the socket diameter can be
equal to the shaft diameter through the soil.

4.6.1.6

Fill used for embankment construction shall be random


fill material having adequate capacity which shall not
obstruct shaft construction to the required depth. Negative skin friction loads due to settlement and consolidation of embankment or underlying soils shall be evaluated for shafts in embankments. (See Article 4.6.5.2.5.)

4.6.2

The following notations shall apply for the design of


drilled shaft foundations in soil and rock:
a
A
At
b
B
Bb
B1
Br
Bt
Cm
Co
D
Dr
Ec
Eo
Em
FS
fsi

Batter Shafts
H

The use of battered shafts to increase the lateral capacity of foundations is not recommended due to their
difficulty of construction and high cost. Instead, consideration should first be given to increasing the shaft
diameter to obtain the required lateral capacity.

4.6.1.7

Shafts Through Embankment


Fill

Shafts extending through embankments shall extend


a minimum of 10 feet into original ground unless bedrock
or competent bearing strata occurs at a lesser penetration.

4-40

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

Notations

i
Ips

Ipu

N
N'

= Tip bearing factor to account for large diameter


shaft tip (dim); (See Article 4.6.5.1.3)
= Area of shaft (ft2)
= Area of shaft tip (ft2)
= Tip bearing factor to account for large diameter
shaft tip (dim); (See Article 4.6.5.1.3)
= Shaft diameter (ft); (See Article 4.6.3)
= Diameter of enlarged base (ft); (See Article
4.6.3)
= Least width of shaft group (ft); (See Article
4.6.5.2.4.3)
= Diameter of rock socket (ft); (See Article 4.6.3)
= Tip diameter (ft); (See Article 4.6.5.1.3)
= Uniaxial compressive strength of rock mass
(ksf); (See Article 4.6.5.3. 1)
= Uniaxial compressive strength of intact rock
(ksf)
= Shaft length (ft); (See Article 4.6.3)
= Length of rock socket (ft); (See Article 4.6.3)
= Elastic modulus of concrete shaft or reinforced
shaft (ksf)
= Elastic modulus of intact rock (ksf)
= Elastic modulus of rock mass (ksf)
= Factor of safety (dim)
= Ultimate load transfer along shaft (ksf); (See
Article 4.6.5.1.1 and 4.6.5.1.2)
= Distance from shaft tip to top of weak soil layer
(ft); (See Article 4.6.5.2.4.3)
= Depth interval (dim); (See Articles 4.6.5.1.1
and 4.6.5.1.2)
= Displacement influence factor for rock-socketed shafts loaded in compression (dim); (See
Article 4.6.5.5.2)
= Displacement influence factor for rock-socketed shafts loaded in uplift (dim); (See Article
4.6.5.5.2)
= Standard penetration resistance (blows/ft)
= Standard penetration test blow count corrected
for effects of overburden (blows/ft)

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

Nc

= Bearing capacity factor (dim); (See Article


4.6.5.1.3)
Ni
= Number of depth intervals into which shaft is
divided for determination of side resistance
(dim); (See Articles 4.6.5.1.1 and 4.6.5.1.2)
P
= Lateral load on shaft (k)
Q
= Total axial compression load applied to shaft
butt (k)
qE
= Ultimate unit tip capacity for an equivalent
shaft for a group of shafts supported in strong
layer overlying weaker layer (ksf); (See Article
4.6.5.2.4.3)
q Lo
= Ultimate unit tip capacity of an equivalent shaft
bearing in weaker underlying soil layer (ksf);
(See Article 4.6.5.2.4.3)
Qu
= Total axial uplift load applied to shaft butt (k)
q UP = Ultimate unit tip capacity of an equivalent shaft
bearing in stronger upper soil layer (ksf); (See
Article 4.6.5.2.4.3)
QS
= Ultimate side resistance in soil (k); (See Articles 4.6.5.1.1 and 4.6.5.1.2)
q SR = Ultimate unit shear resistance along shaft/rock
interface (psi); (See Article 4.6.5.3.1)
QS R = Ultimate side resistance of rock socket (k); (See
Article 4.6.5.3.1)
qT
= Ultimate unit tip resistance for shafts (ksf);
(See Articles 4.6.5.1.3 and 4.6.5.1.4)
q TR = Ultimate unit tip resistance for shafts reduced
for size effects (ksf); (See Equations 4.6.5.1.33 and 4.6.5.1.4-2)
QT
= Ultimate tip resistance in soil (k); (See Articles
4.6.5.1.3 and 4.6.5.1.4)
Q TR = Ultimate tip resistance of rock socket (k); (See
Article 4.6.5.3.2)
Qult = Ultimate axial load capacity (k); (See Article
4.6.5.1)
RQD = Rock Quality Designation (dim)
sui
= Incremental undrained shear strength as a function over ith depth interval (ksf); (See Article
4.6.5.1.1)
sut
= Undrained shear strength within 2B below shaft
tip (ksf); (See Article 4.6.5.1.3)
W
= Weight of shaft (k)
zi
= Depth to midpoint of ith interval (ft); (See
Article 4.6.5.1.2)

= Adhesion factor (dim)


i
= Adhesion factor as a function over ith depth
interterval (dim); (See Article 4.6.5. 1.1)
E
= Reduction factor to estimate rock mass modulus and uniaxial strength from the modulus and

' 1

z i =

=
=
=

'v i

uniaxial strength of intact rock (dim); (See


Article 4.6.5.3.1)
Load transfer factor in the ith interval (dim);
(See Article 4.6.5.1.2)
Effective soil unit weight in ith interval (kcf);
(See Article 4.6.5.1.2)
ith increment of shaft length (ft)
Factor to account for reduced individual capacity of closely spaced shafts in group (dim); (See
Article 4.6.5.2.4.1)
Elastic shortening of shaft (ft); (See Articles
4.6.5.5.1.1 and 4.6.5.5.1.2)
Total settlement displacement at butt for shaft
with rock socket (ft); (See Article 4.6.5.5.2)
Total uplift displacement at butt for shaft with
rock socket (ft); (See Equation 4.6.5.5.2)
3.1415 (dim)
Poissons ratio (dim)
Unconfined compressive strength of rock mass
or concrete, whichever is weaker (psi); (See
Article 4.6.5.3.1)
Effective vertical stress at midpoint of ith depth
interval (ksf); (See Article 4.6.5.1.2)

The notations for dimension units include the following: dim = Dimensionless; deg = degree; ft = foot; k = kip;
k/ft = kip/ft; ksf = kip/ft 2 and kcf = kip/ft 3 . The dimensional units provided with each notation are presented for
illustration only to demonstrate a dimensionally correct
combination of units for the shaft capacity and settlement
procedures presented below. If other units are used, the
dimensional correctness of the equations should be confirmed.

4.6.3

Design Terminology

Refer to Figure 4.6.3A for terminology used in design


of drilled shafts.

4.6.4

Selection of Soil and Rock Properties

Soil and rock properties defining the strength and


compressibility characteristics of the foundation materials are required for drilled shaft design.

4.6.4.1

Presumptive Values

Presumptive values for allowable bearing pressures on


soil and rock may be used only for guidance, preliminary
design or design of temporary structures. The use of
presumptive values shall be based on the results of

SECTION 4

FOUNDATIONS

4-41

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

FIGURE 4.6.3A Design Terminology for Drilled Shaft Foundations

subsurface exploration to identify soil and rock conditions. All values used for design shall be confirmed by
field and/or laboratory testing.

4.6.4.2

Measured Values

Foundation stability and settlement analyses for final


design shall be performed using soil and rock properties
based on the results of field and/or laboratory testing.

4.6.5

Geotechnical Design

+
Drilled shafts shall be designed to support the design
+ loads with adequate bearing and structural capacity, and
+ with tolerable settlements in conformance with Articles
+ 4.6.5 and 4.6.6.
Shaft design shall be based on working stress prin-

4-42

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

ciples using maximum unfactored loads derived from


calculations of dead and live loads from superstructures,
substructures, earth (i.e., sloping ground), wind and traffic. Allowable axial and lateral loads may be determined
by separate methods of analysis.
The design methods presented herein for determining
axial load capacity assume drilled shafts of uniform crosssection, with vertical alignment, concentric axial loading
and a relatively horizontal ground surface. The effects of
an enlarged base, group action, and sloping ground are
treated separately.

4.6.5.1

Axial Capacity in Soil

The ultimate axial capacity (Qult) of drilled shafts shall


be determined in accordance with the following for

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

4.6.5.1.1

compression and uplift loading, respectively:


Qult = QS + QT W

(4.6.5.1-1)

Qult < 0.7 QS + W

(4.6.5.1-2)

Side Resistance in Cohesive Soil

For shafts in cohesive soil loaded under undrained


loading conditions, the ultimate side resistance may be
estimated using the following:
N

QS = B iSui zi

The allowable or working axial load shall be determined as:

i =1

(4.6.5.1.1-1)
Qall = Qult /FS

(4.6.5.1-3)

Shafts in cohesive soils may be designed by total and


effective stress methods of analysis, for undrained and
drained loading conditions, respectively. Shafts in cohesionless soils shall be designed by effective stress methods of analysis for drained loading conditions.

The ultimate unit load transfer in side resistance at any


depth f si is equal to the product of i and s ui. Refer to Table
4.6.5. 1. 1 A for guidance regarding selection of i and
limiting values of fsi for shafts excavated dry in open or
cased holes. Environmental, long-term loading or construction factors may dictate that a depth greater than 5
feet should be ignored in estimating QS. Refer to Figure

Top Five Feet


Noncontributing

Bottom One Diameter *


of Stem
Noncontributing
Bottom One Diameter
Noncontributing

Straight Shaft

Periphery of Bell
Noncontributing

Belled Shaft
* Two Diameters in Stiff Fissured Clay.

FIGURE 4.6.5.1.1A Identification of Portions of Drilled Shafts Neglected for Estimation of Drilled Shaft
Side Resistance in Cohesive Soil
Reese and O'Neill (1988)

SECTION 4

FOUNDATIONS

4-43

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

4.6.5.1.1A for identification of portions of drilled shaft


not considered in contributing to the computed value of
QS. For shafts in cohesive soil under drained loading
conditions, QS may be determined using the procedure in
Article 4.6.5.1.2.
Where time-dependent changes in soil shear strength
may occur (e.g., swelling of expansive clay or downdrag
from a consolidating clay), effective stress methods
(Article 4.6.5.1.2) should be used to compute QS in the
zone where such changes may occur.

4.6.5.1.2

Side Resistance in Cohesionless


Soil

For shafts in cohesionless soil or for effective stress


analysis of shafts in cohesive soils under drained loading
conditions, the ultimate side resistance of axially loaded
drilled shafts may be estimated using the following:
N

B i z11z1
i =1

(4.6.5.1.2-1)

The value of i may be determined using the following:


i = 1.5 - 0.5 - 0.135 z, ;1.2>i > 0.25
(4.6.5.1.2-2)
The value of 'i should be determined from measurements from undisturbed samples along the length of the
shaft or from empirical correlations with SPT or other insitu test methods. The ultimate unit load transfer in side
resistance at any depth, fsi is equal to the product of i and
'vi. The limiting value of fsi for shafts in cohesionless soil
is 4 ksf.

TABLE 4.6.5.1.1A Recommended Values of and


fsi for Estimation of Drilled Shaft Side Resistance in
Cohesive Soil Reese and ONeill (1988)

Location Along Drilled Shaft

Limiting
Value of Load
Value Transfer, fsi
of
(ksf)

From ground surface to depth


along drilled shaft of 5 ft*

Bottom 1 diameter of the


0
drilled shaft or 1 stem diameter
above the top of the bell (if skin
friction is being used)

All other points along the


sides of the drilled shaft

0.55

5.5

*The depth of 5 ft may need adjustment if the drilled shaft is


installed in expansive clay or if there is substantial groundline
deflection from lateral loading.

4.6.5.1.3

Tip Resistance in Cohesive Soil

For axially loaded shafts in cohesive soil subjected to


undrained loading conditions, the ultimate tip resistance
of drilled shafts may be estimated using the following:
QT = qTAt = NcsutAt

(4.6.5.1.3-1)

Values of the bearing capacity factor Nc may be


determined using the following:
Nc = 6.0[1+0.2(D/Bt)];Nc 9
(4.6.5.1.3-2)
The limiting value of unit end bearing (qT=Ncsut) is 80
ksf.
The value of Sut should be determined from the results
of in-situ and/or laboratory testing of undisturbed samples
obtained within a depth of 2B below the tip of the shaft.
If the soil within 2B of the tip is of soft consistency, the
value of Nc should be reduced by one-third.
If Bt > 6.25 feet (75 inches) and shaft settlements will
not be evaluated, the value of qT should be reduced to qTR
as follows:
qTR = FrqT = (2.5/[aBt/12 + 2.5b])qT

4-44

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

(4.6.5.1.3-3)

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

a = 0.0071 + 0.0021(D/Bt); a < 0.015

(4.6.5.1.3-4)

b = 0.45(sut)0.5; 0.5< b < 1.5(4.6.5.1.3-5)


The limiting value of qTR is 80 ksf.
For shafts in cohesive soil under drained loading
conditions, QT may be estimated using the procedure
described in Article 4.6.5.1.4.

4.6.5.1.4

Tip Resistance in Cohesionless


Soil

For axially loaded drilled shafts in cohesionless soils


or for effective stress analysis of axially loaded drilled
shafts in cohesive soil, the ultimate tip resistance may be
estimated using the following:
QT = qTAt

(4.6.5.1.4-1)

The value of qT may be determined from the results of


standard penetration testing using uncorrected blow count
readings within a depth of 2B below the tip of the shaft.
Refer to Table 4.6.5.1.4A for recommended values of qT.
If Bt > 4.2 feet (50 inches) and shaft settlements will
not be evaluated, the value of qT should be reduced to qTR
as follows:
qTR = (50/12Bt)qT

4.6.5.2
4.6.5.2.1

(4.6.5.1.4-2)

Factors Affecting Axial Capacity


in Soil
Soil Layering and Variable Soil
Strength with Depth

The design of shafts in layered soil deposits or soil


deposits having variable strength with depth requires
evaluation of soil parameters characteristic of the respective layers or depths. QS in such soil deposits may be
estimated by dividing the shaft into layers according to
soil type and properties, determining QS for each layer,
and summing values for each layer to obtain the total QS.
If the soil below the shaft tip is of variable consistency, QT
may be estimated using the predominant soil strata within
2B below the shaft tip.
For shafts extending through soft compressible layers
to tip bearing on firm soil or rock, consideration shall be
given to the effects of negative skin friction (Article
4.6.5.2.5) due to the consolidation settlement of soils
surrounding the shaft. Where the shaft tip would bear on

a thin firm soil layer underlain by a softer soil unit, the


shaft shall be extended through the softer soil unit to
eliminate the potential for a punching shear failure into
the softer deposit.
TABLE 4.6.5.1.4A Recommended Values of qT* for
Estimation of Drilled Shaft Tip Resistance in
Cohesionless Soil after Reese and ONeill (1988)
Standard
Penetration Resistance
N
(Blows/Foot)
(uncorrected)

Value of qT
(ksf)

0 to 75
Above 75

1.20 N
90

*Ultimate value or value at settlement of 5 percent of base


diameter.

4.6.5.2.2

Ground Water

The highest anticipated water level shall be used for


design.

4.6.5.2.3

Enlarged Bases

An enlarged base (bell or underream may be used at


the shaft tip in stiff cohesive soil to increase the tip
bearing area and reduce the unit end bearing pressure, or
to provide additional resistance to uplift loads.
The tip capacity of an enlarged base shall be determined assuming that the entire base area is effective in
transferring load. Allowance of full effectiveness of the
enlarged base shall be permitted only when cleaning of
the bottom of the drilled hole is specified and can be
acceptably completed before concrete placement.

4.6.5.2.4

Group Action

Evaluation of group shaft capacity assumes the effects


of negative skin friction (if any) are negligible.

4.6.5.2.4.1

Cohesive Soil

Evaluation of group capacity of shafts in cohesive soil


shall consider the presence and contact of a cap with the
ground surface and the spacing between adjacent shafts.
For a shaft group with a cap in firm contact with the
ground, Qult may be computed as the lesser of (1) the sum

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

4-45

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

+
+
+
+
+
+
+

of the individual capacities of each shaft in the group or


(2) the capacity of an equivalent pier defined in the
perimeter area of the group. For the equivalent pier, the
shear strength of soil shall not be reduced by any factor
(e.g., 1 to determine the Qs component of Qult the total
base area of the equivalent pier shall be used to determine
the QT component of Qult, and the additional capacity of
the cap shall be ignored.
If the cap is not in firm contact with the ground, or if
the soil at the surface is loose or soft, the individual
capacity of each shaft should be reduced to times QT for
an isolated shaft, where = 1.0 for a center-to-center
(CTC) spacing of 6B or greater, for a CTC of less than 6B
the Division of Structural Foundations should be consulted to determine the value of . The group capacity
may then be computed as the lesser of (1) the sum of the
modified individual capacities of each shaft in the group,
or (2) the capacity of an equivalent pier as described
above.

4.6.5.2.4.2 Cohesionless Soil

+
+
+
+
+
+

Evaluation of group capacity of shafts in cohesionless


soil shall consider the spacing between adjacent shafts.
Regardless of cap contact with the ground, the individual
capacity of each shaft should be reduced to times QT for
an isolated shaft, where = 1.0 for a center-to-center
(CTC) spacing of 8B or greater, for a CTC of less than 8B
the Division of Structural Foundations should be consulted to determine the value of . The group capacity
may be computed as the lesser of (1) the sum of the
modified individual capacities of each shaft in the group
or (2) the capacity of an equivalent pier circumscribing
the group, including resistance over the entire perimeter
and base areas.

If the underlying soil unit is a weaker cohesive soil


strata, careful consideration shall be given to the potential for large settlements in the weaker layer.

4.6.5.2.5

The potential for external loading on a shaft by vertical ground movement (i.e., negative skin friction/
downdrag due to settlement of compressible soil or uplift
due to heave of expansive soil) shall be considered as a
part of design. For design purposes, it shall be assumed
that the full magnitude of maximum potential vertical
ground movement occurs.
Evaluation of negative skin friction shall include a
load-transfer method of analysis to determine the neutral
point (i.e., point of zero relative displacement) and load
distribution along shaft (e.g., Reese and ONeill, 1988).
Due to the possible time dependence associated with
vertical ground movement, the analysis shall consider the
effect of time on load transfer between the ground and
shaft and the analysis shall be performed for the time
period relating to the maximum axial load transfer to the
shaft.
Shafts designed for and constructed in expansive soil
shall extend to a sufficient depth into moisture-stable
soils to provide adequate anchorage to resist uplift movement. In addition, sufficient clearance shall be provided
between the ground surface and underside of caps or
beams connecting shafts to preclude the application of
uplift loads at the shaft/cap connection from swelling
ground conditions. Uplift capacity shall rely only on side
resistance in conformance with Article 4.6.5.1. If the
shaft has an enlarged base, QS shall be determined in
conformance with Article 4.6.5.2.3.

4.6.5.2.6
4.6.5.2.4.3 Group in Strong Soil Overlying
Weaker Soil
If a group of shafts is embedded in a strong soil deposit
which overlies a weaker deposit (cohesionless and cohesive soil), consideration shall be given to the potential for
a punching failure of the tip into the weaker soil strata.
For this case, the unit tip capacity of the equivalent shaft
(qE) may be determined using the following:
qE = qLO + (H/10B1)(qup) < qup
(4.6.5.2.4.3-1)

4-46

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

Vertical Ground Movement

Method of Construction

The load capacity and deformation behavior of drilled


shafts can be greatly affected by the quality and method(s)
of construction. The effects of construction methods are
incorporated in design by application of a factor of safety
consistent with the expected construction method(s) and
level of field quality control measures (Article 4.6.5.4).
Where the spacing between shafts in a group is restricted, consideration shall be given to the sequence of
construction to minimize the effect of adjacent shaft
construction operations on recently constructed shafts.

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

4.6.5.3

Drilled shafts are socketed into rock to limit axial


displacements, increase load capacity and/or provide
fixity for resistance to lateral loading. In determining the
axial capacity of drilled shafts with rock sockets, the side
resistance from overlying soil deposits may be ignored.
Typically, axial compression load is carried solely by
the side resistance on a shaft socketed into rock until a
total shaft settlement (s) on the order of 0.4 inches occurs.
At this displacement, the ultimate side resistance, QSR is
mobilized and slip occurs between the concrete and rock.
As a result of this slip, any additional load is transferred
to the tip.
The design procedures assume the socket is constructed in reasonably sound rock that is little affected by
construction (i.e., does not rapidly degrade upon excavation and/or exposure to air or water) and which is cleaned
prior to concrete placement (i.e., free of soil and other
debris). If the rock is degradable, consideration of special
construction procedures, larger socket dimensions, or
reduced socket capacities should be considered.

4.6.5.3.1

QSR = BrDr(0.144qSR)

Axial Capacity in Rock

Side Resistance

The ultimate side resistance (QSR) for shafts socketed


into rock may be determined using the following:

(4.6.5.3.1-1)

Refer to Figure 4.6.5.3. 1 A for values of qSR. For uplift


loading Qult of a rock socket shall be limited to 0.7QSR.
The design of rock sockets shall be based on the
unconfined compressive strength of the rock mass (Cm) or
concrete, whichever is weaker (c). Cm may be estimated
using the following relationship:
Cm = ECo

(4.6.5.3.1-2)

Refer to Article 4.4.8.2.2 for the procedure to determine E as a function of RQD.

4.6.5.3.2

Tip Resistance

Evaluation of ultimate tip resistance (QTR) for rocksocketed drilled shafts shall consider the influence of
rock discontinuities. QTR for rock-socketed drilled shafts
may be determined using the following:
QTR = NmsCoAt

(4.6.5.3.2-1)

Preferably, values of Co should be determined from the


results of laboratory testing of rock cores obtained within
2B of the base of the footing. Where rock strata within this
interval are variable in strength, the rock with the lowest

FIGURE 4.6.5.3.1A Procedure for Estimating Average Unit Shear for Smooth Wall Rock-Socketed Shafts
Horvath, et al. (1983)

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

4-47

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

capacity should be used to determine QTR. Alternatively,


Table 4.4.8.1.2B may be used as a guide to estimate Co.
For rocks defined by very poor quality, the value of QTR
cannot be less than the value of QT for an equivalent soil
mass.

4.6.5.3.3
4.6.5.3.3.1

Factors Affecting Axial Capacity


in Rock
Rock Stratification

Rock stratification shall be considered in the design of


rock sockets as follows:
Sockets embedded in alternating layers of weak
and strong rock shall be designed using the strength
of the weaker rock.
The side resistance provided by soft or weathered
rock should be neglected in determining the required socket length where a socket extends into
more competent underlying rock. Rock is defined
as soft when the uniaxial compressive strength of
the weaker rock is less than 20 percent of that of the
stronger rock, or weathered when the RQD is less
than 20 percent.
Where the tip of a shaft would bear on thin rigid
rock strata underlain by a weaker unit, the shaft
shall be extended into or through the weaker unit
(depending on load capacity or deformation requirements) to eliminate the potential for failure
due to flexural tension or punching failure of the
thin rigid stratum.
Shafts designed to bear on strata in which the rock
surface is inclined should extend to a sufficient
depth to ensure that the shaft tip is fully bearing on
the rock.
Shafts designed to bear on rock strata in which
bedding planes are not perpendicular to the shaft
axis shall extend a minimum depth of 2B into the
dipping strata to minimize the potential for shear
failure along natural bedding planes and other
slippage surfaces associated with stratification.

4.6.5.3.3.2

Rock Mass Discontinuities

The strength and compressibility of rock will be affected by the presence of discontinuities (joints and
fractures). The influence of discontinuities on shaft behavior will be dependent on their attitude, frequency and
condition, and shall be evaluated on a case-by-case basis
as necessary.

4-48

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

4.6.5.3.3.3 Method of Construction


The effect of the method of construction on the engineering properties of the rock and the contact between the
rock and shaft shall be considered as a part of the design
process.

4.6.5.4

Factors of Safety

Drilled shafts in soil or socketed in rock shall be


designed for a minimum factor of safety of 2.0 against
bearing capacity failure (end bearing, side resistance or
combined). The minimum recommended factors of safety
are based on an assumed normal level of field quality
control during shaft construction. If a normal level of field
quality control cannot be assured, higher minimum factors of safety shall be used.

4.6.5.5

Deformation of Axially Loaded


Shafts

The settlement of axially loaded shafts at working or


allowable loads shall be estimated using elastic or load
transfer analysis methods. For most cases, elastic analysis will be applicable for design provided the stress levels
in the shaft are moderate relative to Qult. Where stress
levels are high, consideration should be given to methods
of load transfer analysis.

4.6.5.5.1

Shafts in Soil

Settlements should be estimated for the design or


working load.

4.6.5.5.1.1

Cohesive Soil

The short-term settlement of shafts in cohesive soil


may be estimated using Figures 4.6.5.5.1.1A and
4.6.5.5.1.1B. The curves presented indicate the proportions of the ultimate side resistance (QS) and ultimate tip
resistance (QT) mobilized at various magnitudes of settlement. The total axial load on the shaft (Q) is equal to the
sum of the mobilized side resistance (QS) and mobilized
tip resistance (Qt).
The settlement in Figure 4.6.5.5.1.1A incorporates the
effects of elastic shortening of the shaft provided the shaft
is of typical length (i.e., D < 100 ft). For longer shafts, the
effects of elastic shortening may be estimated using the
following:
e = PD/AEc

(4.6.5.5.1.1-1)

+
+
+
+

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

For a shaft with an enlarged base in cohesive soil, the


diameter of the shaft at the base (B b ) should be used in
Figure 4.6.5.5.1.1B to estimate shaft settlement at the tip.
Refer to Article 4.4.7.2.3 for procedures to estimate
the consolidation settlement component for shafts extending into cohesive soil deposits.

4.6.5.5.1.2

4.6.5.5.1.3 Mixed Soil Profile


The short-term settlement of shafts in a mixed soil
profile may be estimated by summing the proportional
settlement components from layers of cohesive and cohesionless soil comprising the subsurface profile.

Cohesionless Soil

4.6.5.5.2

The short-term settlement of shafts in cohesionless


soil may be estimated using Figures 4.6.5.5.1.2A and
4.6.5.5.1.2B. The curves presented indicate the proportions of the ultimate side resistance (QS) and ultimate tip
resistance (QT) mobilized at various magnitudes of settlement. The total axial load on the shaft (Q) is equal to the
sum of the mobilized side resistance (QS) and mobilized
tip resistance (Qt ). Elastic shortening of the shaft shall be
estimated using the following relationship:
e = PD/AEc

Shafts Socketed into Rock

In estimating the displacement of rock-socketed drilled


shafts, the resistance to deformation provided by overlying soil deposits may be ignored. Otherwise, the load
transfer to soil as a function of displacement may be
estimated in accordance with Article 4.6.5.5.1.
The butt settlement ( s ) of drilled shafts fully socketed
into rock may be determined using the following which
is modified to include elastic shortening of the shaft:
e = Q

(4.6.5.5.1.2-1)

(I

ps

/ Br Em ) + ( D r /AEc )
(4.6.5.5.2-1)

1.0
1.2

0.9
0.8
0.7

End Bearing

0.8

0.6

Range of Results

0.4

Ultimate End Bearing

Side Load Transfer

Ultimate Side Load Transfer

1.0

0.6
0.5
0.4
Range of Results
0.3

Trend Line

Trend Line

0.2
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.0

0.2 0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

Settlement
Diameter of Shaft

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

, %

FIGURE 4.6.5.5.1.1A Load Transfer in


Side Resistance Versus Settlement Drilled Shafts in
Cohesive Soil
After Reese and ONeill (1988)

0.0
0

10

Settlement of Base , %
Diameter of Base

FIGURE 4.6.5.5.1.1B Load Transfer in


Tip Bearing Settlement Drilled Shafts in
Cohesive Soil
After Reese and ONeill (1988)

SECTION 4

FOUNDATIONS

4-49

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

FIGURE 4.6.5.5.1.2A Load Transfer in Side


Resistance Versus Settlement Drilled Shafts in
Cohesionless Soil After Reese and O'Neill (1988)

Refer to Figure 4.6.5.5.2A to determine Is.


The uplift displacement (u) at the butt of drilled shafts
fully socketed into rock may be determined using the
following which is modified to include elastic shortening
of the shaft:
u = Q u

(I

/ Br E m ) + ( D r / AE c )

(4.6.5.5.2-2)
Refer to Figure 4.6.5.5.2B to determine Ipu.
The rock mass modulus (Em) should be determined
based on the results of in-situ testing (e.g., pressuremeter) or estimated from the results of laboratory tests in
which Em is the modulus of intact rock specimens, and (Eo)
is estimated in accordance with Article 4.4.8.2.2.
For preliminary design or when site-specific test data
cannot be obtained, guidelines for estimating values of
Eo, such as presented in Table 4.4.8.2.2B or Figure
4.4.8.2.2A, may be used. For preliminary analyses or for
final design when in-situ test results are not available, a
value of E = 0.15 should be used to estimate Em.

4-50

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

FIGURE 4.6.5.5.1.2B Load Transfer in Tip


Bearing Versus Settlement Drilled Shafts in
Cohesionless Soil After Reese and O'Neill (1988)

4.6.5.5.3

Tolerable Movement

Tolerable axial displacement criteria for drilled shaft


foundations shall be developed by the structural designer
consistent with the function and type of structure, fixity
of bearings, anticipated service life, and consequences of
unacceptable displacements on the structure performance. Drilled shaft displacement analyses shall be
based on the results of in-situ and/or laboratory testing to
characterize the load-deformation behavior of the foundation materials.

4.6.5.6

Lateral Loading

The design of laterally loaded drilled shafts shall


account for the effects of soil/rock-structure interaction
between the shaft and ground (e.g., Reese, 1984; Borden
and Gabr, 1987). Methods of analysis evaluating the
ultimate capacity or deflection of laterally loaded shafts
(e.g., Broms, 1964a, b; Singh, et al., 1971) may be used for
preliminary design only as a means to determine approximate shaft dimensions.

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

FIGURE 4.6.5.5.2B Influence Coefficient for


Elastic Uplift Displacement of Rock-Socketed
Drilled Shafts Modified after Pells and Turner
(1979)

FIGURE 4.6.5.5.2A Influence Coefficient for


Elastic Settlement of Rock-Socketed Drilled Shafts
Modified after Pells and Turner (1979)

4.6.5.6.1

Factors Affecting Laterally


Loaded Shafts

4.6.5.6.1.1 Soil Layering


The design of laterally loaded drilled shafts in layered
soils shall be based on evaluation of the soil parameters
characteristic of the respective layers.

4.6.5.6.1.2

Ground Water

The highest anticipated water level shall be used for


design.

4.6.5.6.1.3 Scour
The potential for loss of lateral capacity due to scour
shall be considered in the design. Refer to Article 1.3.2
and FHWA (1988) for general guidance regarding hydraulic studies and design. If heavy scour is expected,
consideration shall be given to designing the portion of

the shaft that would be exposed as a column. In all cases,


the shaft length shall be determined such that the design
structural load can be safely supported entirely below the
probable scour depth.

4.6.5.6.1.4 Group Action


There is no reliable rational method for evaluating the
group action for closely spaced, laterally loaded shafts.
Therefore, as a general guide, drilled shafts in a group
may be considered to act individually when the center-tocenter (CTC) spacing, is greater than 2.5B in the direction
normal to loading, and CTC > 8B in the direction parallel
to loading. For shaft layouts not conforming to these
criteria, the effects of shaft interaction shall be considered in the design.

4.6.5.6.1.5 Cyclic Loading

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

The effects of traffic, wind, and other nonseismic +


cyclic loading on the load-deformation behavior of later- +
ally loaded drilled shafts shall be considered during +
design. Analysis of drilled shafts subjected to cyclic
loading may be considered in the COM624 analysis
(Reese, 1984).

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

4-51

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

4.6.5.6.1.6 Combined Axial and Lateral


Loading
The effects of lateral loading in combination with
axial loading shall be considered in the design. Analysis
of drilled shafts subjected to combined loading may be
considered in the COM624 analysis (Reese, 1984).

4.6.5.6.1.7

Sloping Ground

For drilled shafts which extend through or below


sloping ground, the potential for additional lateral loading shall be considered in the design. The general method
of analysis developed by Borden and Gabr (1987) may be
used for the analysis of shafts in stable slopes. For shafts
in marginally stable slopes, additional consideration
should be given for low factors of safety against slope
failure or slopes showing ground creep, or when shafts
extend through fills overlying soft foundation soils and
bear into more competent underlying soil or rock formations. For unstable ground, detailed explorations, testing
and analysis are required to evaluate potential additional
lateral loads due to slope movements.

the socket. The diameter of columns supported by shafts +


+
shall be less than or equal to B.

4.6.6.2

Where the potential for lateral loading is insignificant,


drilled shafts need to be reinforced for axial loads only.
Those portions of drilled shafts that are not supported
laterally shall be designed as reinforced concrete columns in accordance with Articles 8.15.4 and 8.16.4, and
the reinforcing steel shall extend a minimum of 10 feet
below the plane where the soil provides adequate lateral
restraint.
Where permanent steel casing is used and the shell is
smooth pipe and more than 0.12 inch in thickness, it may
be considered as load carrying in the absence of corrosion.
The design of longitudinal and spiral reinforcement
shall be in conformance with the requirements of Articles
8.18.1 and 8.18.2.2, respectively. Development of deformed reinforcement shall be in conformance with the
requirements of Articles 8.24, 8.26, and 8.27.

4.6.6.2.1
4.6.5.6.2

4.6.5.7
4.6.6
4.6.6.1

Deleted

Structural Design and General Shaft


Dimensions
General

Drilled shafts shall be designed to insure that the shaft


will not collapse or suffer loss of serviceability due to
excessive stress and/or deformation. Shafts shall be designed to resist failure following applicable procedures
presented in Section 8.
+
The diameter of shafts with rock sockets should be
+ sized a minimum of 6 inches larger than the diameter of

4-52

Spacing Limitation

Tolerable Lateral Movements

Tolerable lateral displacement criteria for drilled shaft


foundations shall be developed by the structural designer
consistent with the function and type of structure, fixity
of bearings, anticipated service life, and consequences of
unacceptable displacements on the structure performance. Drilled shaft lateral displacement analysis shall
be based on the results of in-situ and/or laboratory testing
to characterize the load-deformation behavior of the
foundation materials.
+

Reinforcement

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

The spacing limitation for reinforcement shall be +


considered in the design as provided in Article 8.21.7
+

4.6.6.2.2

Splices

Splices shall develop the full capacity of the bar in


tension and compression. The location of splices shall be
staggered around the perimeter of the reinforcing cage so
as not to occur at the same horizontal plane. Splices may
be developed by lapping, welding, and special approved
connectors. Splices shall be in conformance with the
requirements of Article 8.32.

4.6.6.2.3

Transverse Reinforcement

Transverse reinforcement shall be designed to resist


stresses caused by fresh concrete flowing from inside the
cage to the side of the excavated hole. Transverse reinforcement may be constructed of hoops or spiral steel.

4.6.6.2.4

Handling Stresses

Reinforcement cages shall be designed to resist handling and placement stresses.

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

4.6.6.2.5

Reinforcement Cover

The reinforcement shall be placed a clear distance of


not less than 2 inches from the permanently cased or 3
inches from the uncased sides. When shafts are constructed in corrosive or marine environments, or when
concrete is placed by the water or slurry displacement
+ methods, the clear distance should not be less than 4
inches for uncased shafts and shafts with permanent
casings not sufficiently corrosion resistant.
The reinforcement cage shall be centered in the hole
using centering devices. All steel centering devices shall
be epoxy coated.

4.6.6.2.6

Reinforcement into Superstructure

Sufficient reinforcement shall be provided at the junction of the shaft with the superstructure to make a suitable
connection. The embedment of the reinforcement into
the cap shall be in conformance with Articles 8.24 and
8.25.

4.6.6.3

Enlarged Bases

Enlarged bases shall be designed to insure that plain


concrete is not overstressed. The enlarged base shall
slope at a side angle not less than 30 degrees from the
vertical and have a bottom diameter not greater than 3
times the diameter of the shaft. The thickness of the
bottom edge of the enlarged base shall not be less than 6
inches.

4.6.6.4

Center-to-Center Shaft Spacing

The center-to-center spacing of drilled shafts should


be 3B or greater to avoid interference between adjacent
shafts during construction. If closer spacing is required,
the sequence of construction shall be specified and the
interaction effects between adjacent shafts shall be evaluated by the designer.

4.6.7

tion shafts into the materials planned for support. Load


testing should be conducted whenever special site conditions or combinations of load are encountered, or when
structures of special design or sensitivity (e.g., large
bridges) are to be supported on drilled shaft foundations.

4.6.7.2

Load Testing Procedures

Load tests shall be conducted following prescribed


written procedures which have been developed from
accepted standards (e.g., ASTM, 1989; Crowther, 1988)
and modified, as appropriate, for the conditions at the
site. Standard pile load testing procedures developed by
the American Society for Testing and Materials which
may be modified for testing drilled shafts include:

ASTM D1143, Standard Method of Testing Piles


Under Static Axial Compressive Load;
ASTM D3689, Standard Method of Testing Individual Piles Under Static Axial Tensile Load; and
ASTM D3966, Standard Method for Testing Piles
Under Lateral Loads.

A simplified procedure for testing drilled shafts permitting determination of the relative contribution of side
resistance and tip resistance to overall shaft capacity is
also available (Osterberg, 1984).
As a minimum, the written test procedures should
include the following:

Apparatus for applying loads including reaction


system and loading system.
Apparatus for measuring movements.
Apparatus for measuring loads.
Procedures for loading including rates of load
application, load cycling and maximum load.
Procedures for measuring movements.
Safety requirements.
Data presentation requirements and methods of
data analysis.
Drawings showing the procedures and materials
to be used to construct the load test apparatus.

Load Testing

4.6.7.1

General

Where necessary, a full scale load test (or tests) should


be conducted on a drilled shaft foundation(s) to confirm
response to load. Load tests shall be conducted using a
test shaft(s) constructed in a manner and of dimensions
and materials identical to those planned for the produc-

As a minimum, the results of the load test(s) shall


provide the load-deformation response at the butt of the
shaft. When appropriate, information concerning ultimate load capacity, load transfer, lateral load-displacement with depth, the effects of shaft group interaction, the
degree of fixity provided by caps and footings, and other
data pertinent to the anticipated loading conditions on the
production shafts shall be obtained.

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

4-53

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

4.6.7.3

Selection of an appropriate load test method shall be


based on an evaluation of the anticipated types and
duration of loads during service, and shall include consideration of the following:

4-54

Part C
Strength Design Method
Load Factor Design

Load Test Method Selection

The immediate goals of the load test (i.e., to proof


load the foundation and verify design capacity).
The loads expected to act on the production foundation (compressive and/or uplift, dead and/or
live) and the soil conditions predominant in the
region of concern.
The local practice or traditional method used in
similar soil/rock deposits.
Time and budget constraints.

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

Note to User: Article Number 4.7 has been omitted


intentionally.

4.8

SCOPE

Provisions of this section shall apply for the design of


spread footings, driven piles, and drilled shaft foundations.

4.9

DEFINITIONS

Batter Pile A pile driven at an angle inclined to the


vertical to provide higher resistance to lateral loads.
Combination End-Bearing and Friction Pile - Pile that
derives its capacity from the contributions of both end
bearing developed at the pile tip and resistance mobilized
along the embedded shaft.
Deep Foundation A foundation which derives its
support by transferring loads to soil or rock at some depth
below the structure by end bearing, by adhesion or
friction or both.
Design Load All applicable loads and forces or their
related internal moments and forces used to proportion a
foundation. In load factor design, design load refers to
nominal loads multiplied by appropriate load factors.
Design Strength The maximum load-carrying capacity of the foundation, as defined by a particular limit state.
In load factor design, design strength is computed as the
product of the nominal resistance and the appropriate
performance factor.
Drilled Shaft A deep foundation unit, wholly or
partly embedded in the ground, constructed by placing
fresh concrete in a drilled hole with or without steel
reinforcement. Drilled shafts derive their capacities from
the surrounding soil and/or from the soil or rock strata
below their tips. Drilled shafts are also commonly referred to as caissons, drilled caissons, bored piles or
drilled piers.
End-Bearing Pile A pile whose support capacity is
derived principally from the resistance of the foundation
material on which the pile tip rests.
Factored Load Load, multiplied by appropriate load
factors, used to proportion a foundation in load factor
design.
Friction Pile A pile whose support capacity is derived principally from soil resistance mobilized along the
side of the embedded pile.

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

Limit State A limiting condition in which the foundation and/or the structure it supports are deemed to be
unsafe (i.e., strength limit state), or to be no longer fully
useful for their intended function (i.e., serviceability
limit state).
Load Effect The force in a foundation system (e.g.,
axial force, sliding force, bending moment, etc.) due to
the applied loads.
Load Factor A factor used to modify a nominal load
effect, which accounts for the uncertainties associated
with the determination and variability of the load effect.
Load Factor Design A design method in which
safety provisions are incorporated by separately accounting for uncertainties relative to load and resistance.
Nominal Load A typical value or a code-specified
value for a load.
Nominal Resistance The analytically estimated loadcarrying capacity of a foundation calculated using nominal dimensions and material properties, and established
soil mechanics principles.
Performance Factor A factor used to modify a
nominal resistance, which accounts for the uncertainties
associated with the determination of the nominal resistance and the variability of the actual capacity.
Pile A relatively slender deep foundation unit, wholly
or partly embedded in the ground, installed by driving,
drilling, augering, jetting, or otherwise, and which derives its capacity from the surrounding soil and/or from
the soil or rock strata below its tip.
Piping Progressive erosion of soil by seeping water,
producing an open pipe through the soil, through which
water flows in an uncontrolled and dangerous manner.
Shallow Foundation A foundation which derives its
support by transferring load directly to the soil or rock at
shallow depth. If a single slab covers the supporting
stratum beneath the entire area of the superstructure, the
foundation is known as a combined footing. If various
parts of the structure are supported individually, the
individual supports are known as spread footings, and the
foundation is called a footing foundation.

4.10
4.10.1

LIMIT STATES, LOAD FACTORS,


AND RESISTANCE FACTORS
General

All relevant limit states shall be considered in the


design to ensure an adequate degree of safety and serviceability.

4.10.2

Serviceability Limit States

Service limit states for foundation design shall include:


settlements, and
lateral displacements.
The limit state for settlement shall be based upon
rideability and economy. The cost of limiting foundation
movements shall be compared to the cost of designing the
superstructure so that it can tolerate larger movements, or
of correcting the consequences of movements through
maintenance, to determine minimum lifetime cost. More
stringent criteria may be established by the owner.

4.10.3

Strength Limit States

Strength limit states for foundation design shall include:


bearing resistance failure,
excessive loss of contact,
sliding at the base of footing,
loss of overall stability, and
structural capacity.
Foundations shall be proportioned such that the factored resistance is not less than the effects of factored
loads specified in Section 3.

4.10.4

Strength Requirement

Foundations shall be proportioned by the methods


specified in Articles 4.11 through 4.13 so that their design
strengths are at least equal to the required strengths.
The required strength is the combined effect of the
factored loads for each applicable load combination
stipulated in Article 3.22. The design strength is calculated for each applicable limit state as the nominal resistance, Rn or qn, multiplied by an appropriate performance
(or resistance) factor, . Methods for calculating nominal
resistance are provided in Articles 4.11 through 4.13, and
values of performance factors are given in Article 4.10.6.

4.10.5

Load Combinations and Load


Factors

Foundations shall be proportioned to withstand safely


all load combinations stipulated in Article 3.22 which are
applicable to the particular site or foundation type. With

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

4-55

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

the exception of the portions of concrete or steel piles that


are above the ground line and are rigidly connected to the
superstructure as in rigid frame or continuous structures,
impact forces shall not be considered in foundation
design. (See Article 3.8.1.)
Values of and coefficients for load factor design, as
given in Table 3.22.1A, shall apply to strength limit state
considerations; while those for service load design (also
given in Table 3.22.1B) shall apply to serviceability
considerations.
+ 4.10.6

Performance Factors

+
The performance (or resistance) factor, f, shall be as
+ follows:
+
+
+

Soil Bearing Pile Capacity


Pressure
= 0.50
= 0.75
Group Loads I through VI

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

Group Loads VII

= 1.00

= 1.00

Structure Design will determine the required nominal


resistance for piles based on the above performance
factors. Geotechnical Services will determine the
geotechnical capacity to meet or exceed the required
nominal resistance. The safety margin between the required nominal resistance and the ultimate geotechnical
capacity shall be determined by the Geotechnical Services considering the reliability of the ultimate soil
capacity determination and pile installation control.

4.11
4.11.1

SPREAD FOOTINGS
General Considerations

4.11.1.1

General

Provisions of this Article shall apply to design of


isolated footings, and where applicable, to combined
footings. Special attention shall be given to footings on
fill.
Footings shall be designed to keep the soil pressure as
nearly uniform as practicable. The distribution of soil
pressure shall be consistent with properties of the soil and
the structure, and with established principles of soil
mechanics.

4-56

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

4.11.1.2

Depth

The depth of footings shall be determined with respect


to the character of the foundation materials and the
possibility of undermining. Footings at stream crossings
shall be founded at depth below the maximum anticipated depth of scour as specified in Article 4.11.1.3.
Footings not exposed to the action of stream current
shall be founded on a firm foundation and below frost
level.
Consideration shall be given to the use of either a
geotextile or graded granular filter layer to reduce susceptibility to piping in rip rap or abutment backfill.

4.11.1.3

Scour Protection

Footings supported on soil or degradable rock strata


shall be embedded below the maximum computed scour
depth or protected with a scour counter-measure. Footings supported on massive, competent rock formations
which are highly resistant to scour shall be placed directly
on the cleaned rock surface. Where required, additional
lateral resistance shall be provided by drilling and grouting steel dowels into the rock surface rather than blasting
to embed the footing below the rock surface.

4.11.1.4

Frost Action

In regions where freezing of the ground occurs during


the winter months, footings shall be founded below the
maximum depth of frost penetration in order to prevent
damage from frost heave.

4.11.1.5

Anchorage

Footings which are founded on inclined smooth solid


rock surfaces and which are not restrained by an overburden of resistant material shall be effectively anchored by
means of rock anchors, rock bolts, dowels, keys or other
suitable means. Shallow keying of large footing areas
shall be avoided where blasting is required for rock
removal.

4.11.1.6

Groundwater

Footings shall be designed for the highest anticipated


position of the groundwater table.
The influence of the groundwater table on bearing
capacity of soils or rocks, and settlements of the structure
shall be considered. In cases where seepage forces are
present, they should also be included in the analyses.

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

4.11.1.7

Uplift

Where foundations may be subjected to uplift forces,


they shall be investigated both for resistance to pullout
and for their structural strength.

4.11.1.8

Deterioration

Deterioration of the concrete in a foundation by sulfate, chloride, and acid attack should be investigated.
Laboratory testing of soil and groundwater samples for
sulfates, chloride and pH should be sufficient to assess
deterioration potential. When chemical wastes are suspected, a more thorough chemical analyses of soil and
groundwater samples should be considered.

4.11.1.9

Nearby Structures

In cases where foundations are placed adjacent to


existing structures, the influence of the existing structures on the behavior of the foundation, and the effect of
the foundation on the existing structures, shall be investigated.

4.11.2

Notations

B
B'
c
Cw1, Cw2
Df
Dw
Em
i
L'
Li
N
Nm, Ncm, Nqm
qc
qmax
qn

= footing width (in length units)


= reduced effective footing width (see
Article 4.11.4.1.5) (in length units)
= soil cohesion (in units of force/length2)
= correction factors for groundwater effect (dimensionless)
= depth to footing base (in length units)
= depth to groundwater table (in length
units)
= elastic modulus of rock masses (in units
of force/length2)
= type of load
= reduced effective length (see Article
4.11.4.1.5) (in length units)
= load type i
= average value of standard penetration
test blow count (dimensionless)
= modified bearing capacity factors used
in analytic theory (dimensionless)
= cone resistance (in units of force/
length2)
= maximum factored footing contact pressure (in units of force/length2)
= nominal bearing resistance (in units of
force/length2)

q ult

= ultimate bearing capacity (in units of


force/length2)
= reduction factor due to the effect of load
inclination (dimensionless)
= nominal resistance
= rock quality designation
= span length (in length units)
= undrained shear strength of soil (in units
of force/length2)
= load factor coefficient for load type i
(see Article C 4.10.4)
= load factor (see Article C 4.10.4)
= total (moist) unit weight of soil (see
Article C 4.11.4.1.1)
= differential settlement between adjacent footings
= performance factor
= friction angle of soil

R1
Rn
RQD
s
su
i

4.11.3

Movement Under Serviceability


Limit States

4.11.3.1

General

Movement of foundations in both vertical settlement


and lateral displacement directions shall be investigated
at service limit states.
Lateral displacement of a foundation shall be evaluated when:
horizontal or inclined loads are present,
the foundation is placed on an embankment slope,
possibility of loss of foundation support through
erosion or scour exists, or
bearing strata are significantly inclined.

4.11.3.2

Loads

Immediate settlement shall be determined using the


service load combinations given in Table 3.22.1B. Time
dependent settlement shall be determined using only the
permanent loads.
Settlement and horizontal movements caused by embankment loadings behind bridge abutments should be
investigated.
In seismically active areas, consideration shall be
given to the potential settlement of footings on sand
resulting from ground motions induced by earthquake
loadings.

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

4-57

+
+
+
+

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

4.11.3.3

Movement Criteria

The vertical settlement criteria in Article 4.4.7.2.2


represents general conditions and should be modified if,
in the Engineer's judgement, expected loads, service
conditions, or foundation materials are different from
those anticipated by the specifications.

4.11.3.4.3

The magnitude of consolidation and secondary settlements in rock masses containing soft seams shall be
estimated by applying procedures discussed in Article
4.11.3.4.2.

4.11.4
+
+
+
+
+
+

Vertical and horizontal movement criteria for footings


shall be developed consistent with the function and type
of structure, anticipated service life, and consequences of
unacceptable movements on structure performance. The
tolerable movement criteria shall be established by empirical procedures or structural analyses.

4.11.3.4

Settlement Analyses

Foundation settlements shall be estimated using deformation analyses based on the results of laboratory or
in-situ testing. The soil parameters used in the analyses
shall be chosen to reflect the loading history of the
ground, the construction sequence and the effect of soil
layering.
Both total and differential settlements, including time
effects, shall be considered.

4.11.3.4.1

Settlement of Footings on
Cohesionless Soils

Estimates of settlement of cohesionless soils shall


make allowance for the fact that settlements in these soils
can be highly erratic.
No method should be considered capable of predicting settlements of footings on sand with precision.
Settlements of footings on cohesionless soils may be
estimated using empirical procedures or elastic theory.

4.11.3.4.2

Settlement of Footings on
Cohesive Soils

For foundations on cohesive soils, both immediate


and consolidation settlements shall be investigated. If
the footing width is small relative to the thickness of a
compressible soil, the effect of three-dimensional loading shall be considered. In highly plastic and organic
clay, secondary settlements are significant and shall be
included in the analysis.

4-58

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

Settlements of Footings on Rock

Safety Against Soil Failure

4.11.4.1

Bearing Capacity of Foundation


Soils

Several methods may be used to calculate ultimate


bearing capacity of foundation soils. The calculated
value of ultimate bearing capacity shall be multiplied by
an appropriate performance factor, as given in Article
4.10.6, to determine the factored bearing capacity.
Footings are considered to be adequate against soil
failure if the factored bearing capacity exceeds the effect
of factored design loads ( qn > qmax).

4.11.4.1.1

Theoretical Estimation

The bearing capacity should be estimated using accepted soil mechanics theories based on measured soil
parameters. The soil parameter used in the analysis shall
be representative of the soil shear strength under the
considered loading and subsurface conditions.

4.11.4.1.2

Semi-empirical Procedures

The bearing capacity of foundation soils may be


estimated from the results of in-situ tests or by observing
foundations on similar soils. The use of a particular insitu test and the interpretation of the results shall take
local experience into consideration. The following insitu tests may be used:
Standard penetration test (SPT)
Cone penetration test (CPT), and
Pressuremeter test.

4.11.4.1.3

Plate Loading Test

Bearing capacity may be determined by load tests


providing that adequate subsurface explorations have
been made to determine the soil profile below the foundation.
The bearing capacity determined from a load test may
be extrapolated to adjacent footings where the subsurface
profile is similar.

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

Plate load test shall be performed in accordance with


the procedures specified in ASTM Standard D 1194-87 or
AASHTO Standard T 235-74.

4.11.4.1.4

Presumptive Values

Presumptive values for allowable bearing pressures on


soil and rock, given in Table 4.11.4.1.4-1, shall be used
only for guidance, preliminary design or design of temporary structures. The use of presumptive values shall be
based on the results of subsurface exploration to identify
soil and rock conditions. All values used for design shall
be confirmed by field and/or laboratory testing.
The values given in Table 4.11.4.1.4-1 are applicable
directly for working stress procedures. When these values
are used for preliminary design, all load factors shall be
taken as unity.

4.11.4.1.5

discontinuities, weathering profiles and other similar


profiles as they apply at a particular site, and the degree
to which they shall be incorporated in the design.
For footings on competent rock, reliance on simple
and direct analyses based on uniaxial compressive rock
strengths and RQD may be applicable. Competent rock
shall be defined as a rock mass with discontinuities that
are tight or open not wider than one-eighth inch. For
footings on less competent rock, more detailed investigations and analyses shall be performed to account for the
effects of weathering, and the presence and condition of
discontinuities.
Footings on rocks are considered to be adequate
against bearing capacity failure if the product of the
ultimate bearing capacity determined using procedures
described in Articles 4.11.4.2.1 through 4.11.4.2.3 and an
appropriate performance factor exceeds the effect of
design loads.

Effect of Load Eccentricity


4.11.4.2.1

For loads eccentric to the centroid of the footing, a


reduced effective footing area (B' x L') shall be used in
design. The reduced effective area is always concentrically loaded, so that the design bearing pressure on the
reduced effective area is always uniform.
Footings under eccentric loads shall be designed to
ensure that: (1) the product of the bearing capacity and an
appropriate performance factor exceeds the effect of
vertical design loads, and (2) eccentricity of loading,
evaluated based on factored loads, is less than 1/4 of the
footing dimension in any direction for footings on soils.
For structural design of an eccentrically loaded foundation, a triangular or trapezoidal contact pressure distribution based on factored loads shall be used.

4.11.4.1.6

Effect of Groundwater Table

Ultimate bearing capacity shall be determined based


on the highest anticipated position of groundwater level
at the footing location. In cases where the groundwater
table is at a depth less than 1.5 times the footing width
below-the bottom of the footing, reduction of bearing
capacity, as a result of submergence effects, shall be
considered.

4.11.4.2

Bearing Capacity of
Foundations on Rock

The bearing capacity of footings on rock shall consider the presence, orientation and condition of

Semi-empirical Procedures

Bearing capacity of foundations on rock may be


determined using empirical correlation with RQD or
other systems for evaluating rock mass quality, such as
the Geomechanic Rock Mass Rating (RMR) system, or
Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI) Rock Mass
Classification System. The use of these semi-empirical
procedures shall take local experience into consideration.

4.11.4.2.2

Analytic Method

The ultimate bearing capacity of foundations on rock


shall be determined using established rock mechanics
principles based on the rock mass strength parameters.
The influence of discontinuities on the failure mode shall
also be considered.

4.11.4.2.3

Load Test

Where appropriate, load tests may be performed to


determine the bearing capacity of foundations on rock.

4.11.4.2.4

Presumptive Bearing Values

For simple structures on good quality rock masses,


values of presumptive bearing pressure given in Table
4.11.4.2.4-1 may be used for preliminary design. The use
of presumptive values shall be based on the results of
subsurface exploration to identify rock conditions. All

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

4-59

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

TABLE 4.11.4.1.4-1 Presumptive Allowable Bearing Pressures for Spread Footing Foundations
(Modified after U.S. Department of the Navy, 1982)
Allowable Bearing Pressure (tsf)

Type of Bearing Material


Massive crystalline igneous and
metamorphic rock: graphite,
diorite, basalt, gneiss,
thoroughly cemented
conglomerate (sound
condition allows minor
cracks)
Foliated metamorphic rock:
slate, schist (sound condition
allows minor cracks)
Sedimentary rock: hard cemented
shales, siltstone, sandstone,
limestone without cavities
Weathered or broken bedrock of
any kind except highly
argillacous rock (shale)
Compaction shale or other highly
argillacous rock in sound
condition
Well-graded mixture of fine- and
coarse-grained soil: glacial till,
hardpan, boulder clay
(GW-GC, GC, SC)
Gravel, gravel-sand mixtures,
boulder-gravel mixtures
(GW, GP, SW, SP)
Coarse to medium sand, sand
with little gravel (SW, SP)

Consistency in Place

Ordinary Range

Recommended Value
for Use

Very hard, sound rock

60 to 100

80

Hard sound rock

30 to 40

35

Hard sound rock

15 to 25

20

Medium hard rock

8 to 12

10

Medium hard rock

8 to 12

10

Very dense

8 to 12

10

Homogeneous inorganic clay,


sandy or silty clay (CL, CH)

Very dense
Medium dense to dense
Loose
Very dense
Medium dense to dense
Loose
Very dense
Medium dense to dense
Loose
Very dense
Medium dense to dense
Loose
Very stiff to hard
Medium stiff to stiff

6 to 10
4 to 7
2 to 6
4 to 6
2 to 4
1 to 3
3 to 5
2 to 4
1 to 2
3 to 5
2 to 4
1 to 2
3 to 6
1 to 3

7
5
3
4
3
1.5
3
2.5
1.5
3
2.5
1.5
4
2

Inorganic silt, sandy or clayey silt,


varved silt-clay fine sand

Soft
Very stiff to hard
Medium stiff to stiff

0.5 to 1
2 to 4
1 to 3

0.5
3
1.5

Soft

0.5 to 1

0.5

Fine to medium sand, silty or


clayey medium to coarse sand
(SW, SM, SC)
Fine sand, silty or clayey medium
to fine sand (SP, SM, SC)

(ML, MH)

4-60

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

values used in design shall be confirmed by field and/or


laboratory testing. The values given in Table 4.11.4.2.41 are directly applicable to working stress procedure, i.e.,
all the load factors shall be taken as unity.

4.11.4.2.5

qualified engineers. Records of the control investigations should be kept as part of the final project data,
among other things, to permit a later assessment of the
foundation in connection with rehabilitation, change of
neighboring structures, etc.

Effect of Load Eccentricity


4.11.6.2

If the eccentricity of loading on a footing is less than


1/ of the footing width, a trapezoidal bearing pressure
6
shall be used in evaluating the bearing capacity. If the
eccentricity is between 1/6 and 1/4 of the footing width, a
triangular bearing pressure shall be used. The maximum
bearing pressure shall not exceed the product of the
ultimate bearing capacity multiplied by a suitable performance factor. The eccentricity of loading evaluated using
factored loads shall not exceed 3/8 (37.5%) of the footing
dimensions in any direction.

4.11.4.3

Failure by Sliding

Failure by sliding shall be investigated for footings


that support inclined loads and/or are founded on slopes.
For foundations on clay soils, possible presence of a
shrinkage gap between the soil and the foundation shall
be considered. If passive resistance is included as part of
the shear resistance required for resisting sliding, consideration shall also be given to possible future removal of
the soil in front of the foundation.

4.11.4.4

Loss of Overall Stability

The overall stability of footings, slopes and foundation soil or rock, shall be evaluated for footings located on
or near a slope using applicable factored load combinations in Article 3.22 and a performance factor of 0.75.

4.11.5

Structural Capacity

The structural design of footings shall comply to the


provisions given in Article 4.4.11 and Article 8.16.

4.11.6

Construction Considerations for


Shallow Foundations

4.11.6.1

General

The ground conditions should be monitored closely


during construction to determine whether or not the
ground conditions are as foreseen and to enable prompt
intervention, if necessary. The control investigation
should be performed and interpreted by experienced and

Excavation Monitoring

Prior to concreting footings or placing backfill, an


excavation shall be free of debris and excessive water.
Monitoring by an experienced and trained person
should always include a thorough examination of the
sides and bottom of the excavation, with the possible
addition of pits or borings to evaluate the geological
conditions.
The assumptions made during the design of the foundations regarding strength, density, and groundwater
conditions should be verified during construction, by
visual inspection.

4.11.6.3

Compaction Monitoring

Compaction shall be carried out in a manner so that the


fill material within the section under inspection is as close
as practicable to uniform. The layering and compaction
of the fill material should be systematic everywhere, with
the same thickness of layer and number of passes with the
compaction equipment used as for the inspected fill. The
control measurements should be undertaken in the form
of random samples.

4.12

DRIVEN PILES

4.12.1

General

The provisions of the specifications in Articles 4.5.1


through 4.5.21 with the exception of Article 4.5.6, shall
apply to strength design (load factor design) of driven
piles. Article 4.5.6 covers the allowable stress design of
piles and shall be replaced by the articles in this section
for load factor design of driven piles, unless otherwise
stated.

4.12.2
as
Ap
As
CPT

=
=
=
=

Notations
pile perimeter
area of pile tip
surface area of shaft of pile
cone penetration test

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

4-61

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

TABLE 4.11.4.2.4-1 Presumptive Bearing Pressures (tsf) for Foundations on Rock (After Putnam, 1981)
Sound
Foliated
Rock

Sound
Sedimentary
Rock

Soft
Rock3

Soft
Shale

Broken
Shale

Code

Year1

Bedrock2

Baltimore
BOCA
Boston
Chicago
Cleveland
Dallas
Detroit
Indiana
Kansas City
Los Angeles
New York City
New York State
Ohio
Philadelphia
Pittsburgh
Richmond
St. Louis
San Francisco
Uniform Building
Code
NBC Canada
New South Wales,
Australia

1962
1970
1970
1970
1951/1969
1968
1956
1967
1961/1969
1970
1970
...
1970
1969
1959/1969
1968
1960/1970
1969
1970

100
100
100
100
...
.2qu5
100
.2qu
.2qu
10
60
100
100
50
25
100
100
3-5
.2qu

35
40
50
100
...
.2qu
100
.2qu
.2qu
4
60
40
40
15
25
40
40
3-5
.2qu

...
25
10
...
25
.2qu
9,600
.2qu
.2qu
3
60
15
15
10-15
25
25
25
3-5
.2qu

10
10
10
...
...
.2qu
.12
.2qu
.2qu
1
8
...
10
8
8
10
10
...
.2qu

...
4
...
...
...
.2qu
12
.2qu
.2qu
1
...
...
4
...
8
4
1.5
...
.2qu

(4)
1.5
(4)
...
...
.2qu
...
.2qu
.2qu
1
...
...
...
...
...
1.5
1.5
...
.2qu

1970
1974

...
...

...
...

100
33

...
13

...
4.5

...
...

Note: 1Year of code or original year and date of revision.


2Massive crystalline bedrock.
3Soft and broken rock, not including shale.
4Allowable bearing pressure to be determined by appropriate city official.
5qu = unconfined compressive strength.

d
D
D'
Db
Ds
ex
ey
Ep
Es
fs
H

4-62

= dimensionless depth factor for estimating tip


capacity of piles in rock
= pile width or diameter
= effective depth of pile group
= depth of embedment of pile into a bearing
stratum
= diameter of socket
= eccentricity of load in the x-direction
= eccentricity of load in the y-direction
= Youngs modulus of a pile
= soil modulus
= sleeve friction measured from a CPT at point
considered
= distance between pile tip and a weaker underlying soil layer

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

Hs
I
Ip
K
Kc
Ks
Ksp
Lf
nh
N
N

= depth of embedment of pile socketed into rock


= influence factor for the effective group embedment
= moment of inertia of a pile
= coefficient of lateral earth pressure
= correction factor for sleeve friction in clay
= correction factor for sleeve friction in sand
= dimensionless bearing capacity coefficient
= depth to point considered when measuring
sleeve friction
= rate of increase of soil modulus with depth
= Standard Penetration Test (SPT) blow count
= average uncorrected (SPT) blow count along
pile shaft

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

Ncorr

= average SPT-N value corrected for effect of


overburden
Npile = number of piles in a pile group
OCR = overconsolidation ratio
PD
= unfactored dead load
Pg
= factored total axial load acting on a pile group
Px,y
= factored axial load acting on a pile in a pile
group; the pile has coordinates (X,Y) with
respect to the centroidal origin in the pile group
PI
= plasticity index
q
= net foundation pressure
qc
= static cone resistance
ql
= limiting tip resistance
qo
= limiting tip resistance in lower stratum
qp
= ultimate unit tip resistance
qs
= ultimate unit side resistance
qu
= average uniaxial compressive strength of rock
cores
qult
= ultimate bearing capacity
Qp
= ultimate load carried by tip of pile
Qs
= ultimate load carried by shaft of pile
Qug
= ultimate uplift resistance of a pile group or a
group of drilled shafts
Qult
= ultimate bearing capacity
R
= characteristic length of soil-pile system in cohesive soils
sd
= spacing of discontinuities
S
= average spacing of piles
Su
= undrained shear strength
SPT = Standard Penetration Test
Su
= average undrained shear strength along pile
shaft
td
= width of discontinuities
T
= characteristic length of soil-pile system in cohesionless soils
Wg
= weight of block of soil, piles and pile cap
x
= distance of the centroid of the pile from the
centroid of the pile cap in the x-direction
X
= width of smallest dimension of pile group
y
= distance of the centroid of the pile from the
centroid of the pile cap in the y-direction
Y
= length of pile group or group of drilled shafts
Z
= total embedded pile length

= adhesion factor applied to Su

= coefficient relating the vertical effective stress


and the unit skin friction of a pile or drilled shaft
'
= effective unit weight of soil

= angle of shearing resistance between soil and


pile

tol
'h
'v
av

q
qs
qp
u
ug

4.12.3

= empirical coefficient relating the passive lateral earth pressure and the unit skin friction of
a pile
= pile group efficiency factor
= settlement
= tolerable settlement
= horizontal effective stress
= vertical effective stress
= average shear stress along side of pile
= performance factor
= performance factor for the bearing capacity of
a pile group failing as a unit consisting of the
piles and the block of soil contained within the
piles
= performance factor for the total ultimate bearing capacity of a pile
= performance factor for the ultimate shaft capacity of a pile
= performance factor for the ultimate tip capacity
of a pile
= Performance factor for the uplift capacity of a
single pile
= performance factor for the uplift capacity of
pile groups

Selection of Design Pile Capacity

Piles shall be designed to have adequate bearing and


structural capacity, under tolerable settlements and tolerable lateral displacements.
The supporting capacity of piles shall be determined
by static analysis methods based on soil-structure interaction. Capacity may be verified with pile load test
results, use of wave equation analysis, use of the dynamic
pile analyzer or, less preferably, use of dynamic formulas.

4.12.3.1

Factors Affecting Axial Capacity

See Article 4.5.6. 1. 1. The following sub-articles shall


supplement Article 4.5.6.1.1.

4.12.3.1.1

Pile Penetration

Piling used to penetrate a soft or loose upper stratum


overlying a hard or firm stratum, shall penetrate the hard
or firm stratum by a sufficient distance to limit lateral and
vertical movement of the piles, as well as to attain
sufficient vertical bearing capacity.

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

4-63

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

4.12.3.1.2

Groundwater Table and


Buoyancy

Ultimate bearing capacity shall be determined using


the groundwater level consistent with that used to calculate load effects. For drained loading, the effect of hydrostatic pressure shall be considered in the design.

shall include both the unfactored dead and live loads for
piles in cohesionless soils and only the unfactored dead
load for piles in cohesive soils.
Service loads for evaluating lateral displacement of
foundations shall include all lateral loads in each of the
load combinations as given in Article 3.22.

4.12.3.2.2
4.12.3.1.3

Effect Of Settling Ground and


Downdrag Forces

Possible development of downdrag loads on piles


shall be considered where sites are underlain by compressible clays, silts or peats, especially where fill has
recently been placed on the earlier surface, or where the
groundwater is substantially lowered. Downdrag loads
shall be considered as a load when the bearing capacity
and settlement of pile foundations are investigated.
Downdrag loads shall not be combined with transient
loads.
The downdrag loads may be calculated, as specified in
Article 4.12.3.3.2 with the direction of the skin friction
forces reversed. The factored downdrag loads shall be
added to the factored vertical dead load applied to the
deep foundation in the assessment of bearing capacity.
The effect of reduced overburden pressure caused by the
downdrag shall be considered in calculating the bearing
capacity of the foundation.
The downdrag loads shall be added to the vertical dead
load applied to the deep foundation in the assessment of
settlement at service limit states.

4.12.3.1.4

Tolerable axial and lateral movements for driven pile


foundations shall be developed consistent with the function and type of structure, fixity of bearings, anticipated
service life and consequences of unacceptable displacements on performance of the structure.

4.12.3.2.3

Settlement

The settlement of a pile foundation shall not exceed


the tolerable settlement, as selected according to Article
4.12.3.2.2.

4.12.3.2.3a Cohesive Soil


Procedures used for shallow foundations shall be used
to estimate the settlement of a pile group, using the
equivalent footing location shown in Figure 4.12.3.2.1-1.

4.12.3.2.3b Cohesionless Soil


The settlement of pile groups in cohesionless soils can
be estimated using results of in situ-tests, and the equivalent footing location shown in Figure 4.12.3.2.1-1.

Uplift
4.12.3.2.4

Pile foundations designed to resist uplift forces should


be checked both for resistance to pullout and for structural capacity to carry tensile stresses. Uplift forces can
be caused by lateral loads, buoyancy effects, and expansive soils.

4.12.3.2

Tolerable Movement

Movement Under Serviceability


Limit State

Lateral Displacement

The lateral displacement of a pile foundation shall not


exceed the tolerable lateral displacement, as selected
according to Article 4.12.3.2.2.
The lateral displacement of pile groups shall be estimated using procedures that consider soil-structure interaction.

4.12.3.3 Resistance at Strength Limit States


4.12.3.2.1

General

For purposes of calculating the settlements of pile


groups, loads shall be assumed to act on an equivalent
footing located at two-thirds of the depth of embedment
of the piles into the layer which provide support as shown
in Figure 4.12.3.2.1-1.
Service loads for evaluating foundation settlement

4-64

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

The strength limit states that shall be considered


include:
bearing capacity of piles,
uplift capacity of piles,
punching of piles in strong soil into a weaker layer,
and
structural capacity of the piles.

+
+
+
+
+

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

Db

2Db
3

Equivalent
footing
Db

2
(a)

Soft Layer

2Db
Db

Firm Layer

Db
3

1
Equivalent
footing

(b)

Figure 4.12.3.2.1-1 Location of Equivalent Footing (After Duncan and Buchignani, 1976)

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

4-65

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

4.12.3.3.1

Axial Loading of Piles

Preference shall be given to a design process based


upon static analyses in combination with either field
monitoring during driving or load tests. Load test results
may be extrapolated to adjacent substructures with similar subsurface conditions. The ultimate bearing capacity
of piles may be estimated using analytic methods or insitu test methods.

4.12.3.3.7

Uplift

Uplift shall be considered when the force effects


calculated based on the appropriate strength limit state
load combinations are tensile.
When piles are subjected to uplift, they should be
investigated for both resistance to pullout and structural
ability to resist tension.

4.12.3.3.7a Single Pile Uplift Capacity


4.12.3.3.2

+
+
+
+
+

Analytic Estimates of Pile


Capacity

Analytic methods may be used to estimate the ultimate


bearing capacity of piles in cohesive and cohesionless
soils. Both total and effective stress methods may be used
provided the appropriate soil strength parameters are
evaluated.

4.12.3.3.3

Pile of Capacity Estimates


Based on In-Situ Tests

In-situ test methods may be used to estimate the


+
+ ultimate axial capacity of piles.

4.12.3.3.4

Piles Bearing on Rock

For piles driven to weak rock such as shales and


+
+ mudstones or poor quality weathered rock, the ultimate
+ tip capacity shall be estimated using semi-empirical
+ methods.

Friction piles may be considered to resist an intermittent but not sustained uplift. Uplift resistance may be
equivalent to 40 percent of the ultimate structural compressive load capacity for Groups I through VI loadings
and 50 percent of the ultimate structural compressive
load capacity for Groups VII loading. Adequate pile
anchorage, tensile strength, and geotechnical capacity
must be provided.

4.12.3.3.7b Pile Group Uplift Capacity


The ultimate uplift capacity of a pile group shall be
estimated as the lesser of the sum of the individual pile
uplift capacities, or the uplift capacity of the pile group
considered as a block. The block mechanism for cohesionless soil shall be taken as provided in Figure
C4.12.3.7.2-1 and for cohesive soils as given in Figure
C4.12.3.7.2-2. Buoyant unit weights shall be used for soil
below the groundwater level.

4.12.3.3.8
4.12.3.3.5
+
+
+
+
+

Presumptive End Bearing


Capacities

Presumptive values for allowable bearing pressures


given in Table 4.11.4.1.4-1 on soil and rock shall be used
only for guidance, preliminary design or design of temporary structures. The use of presumptive values shall be
based on the results of subsurface exploration to identify
soil and rock conditions. All values used for design shall
be confirmed by field and/or laboratory testing.

4-66

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

Lateral Load

Pile Load Test

The load test method specified in ASTM D 1143-81


may be used to verify the pile capacity. Tensile load
testing of piles shall be done in accordance with ASTM
D 3689-83. Lateral load testing of piles shall be done in
accordance with ASTM D 3966-81.

4.12.3.3.6

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

The effects of soil-structure or rock-structure interaction between the piles and ground, including the number
and spacing of the piles in the group, shall be accounted
for in the design of laterally loaded piles.

4.12.3.3.9

+
+
+
+

Batter Pile

The bearing capacity of a pile group containing batter


piles may be estimated by treating the batter piles as
vertical piles.

4.12.3.3.10 Group Capacity


4.12.3.3.10a Cohesive Soil
If the cap is not in firm contact with the ground, and if +
the soil at the surface is soft, the individual capacity of +

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

+
+
+
+
+

each pile shall be multiplied by an efficiency factor ,


where = 1.0 for a center-to-center (CTC) spacing of 6B
or greater, for a CTC of less than 6B the Division of
Structural Foundations should be consulted to determine
the value of .
If the cap is not in firm contact with the ground and if
the soil is stiff, then no reduction in efficiency shall be
required.
If the cap is in firm contact with the ground, then no
reduction in efficiency shall be required.
The group capacity shall be the lesser of:
the sum of the modified individual capacities of
each pile in the group, or
the capacity of an equivalent pier consisting of the
piles and a block of soil within the area bounded by
the piles.
For the equivalent pier, the full shear strength of soil
shall be used to determine the skin friction resistance, the
total base area of the equivalent pier shall be used to
determine the end bearing resistance, and the additional
capacity of the cap shall be ignored.

4.12.3.3.10b

Cohesionless Soil

The ultimate bearing capacity of pile groups in cohesionless soil shall be the sum of the capacities of all the
piles in the group. The efficiency factor, shall be 1.0
where the pile cap is, or is not, in contact with the ground.

4.12.3.3.10c Pile Group in Strong Soil


Overlying a Weak or
Compressible Soil
If a pile group is embedded in a strong soil deposit
overlying a weaker deposit, consideration shall be given
to the potential for a punching failure of the pile tips into
the weaker soil stratum. If the underlying soil stratum
consists of a weaker compressible soil, consideration
shall be given to the potential for large settlements in that
weaker layer.
+

4.12.3.3.11 Deleted
4.12.4

Structural Design

The structural design of driven piles shall be in accordance with the provisions of Articles 4.5.7, which was
developed for allowable stress design procedures. To use
load factor design procedures for the structural design of

driven piles, the load factor design procedures for reinforced concrete, prestressed concrete and steel in Sections 8, 9, and 10, respectively, shall be used in place of
the allowable stress design procedures.

4.12.4.1

Buckling of Piles

Stability of piles shall be considered when the piles


extend through water or air for a portion of their lengths.

4.12.5

Deleted

4.13

DRILLED SHAFTS

4.13.1

General

The provisions of the specifications in Articles 4.6.1


through 4.6.7 with the exception of Article 4.6.5, shall
apply to the strength design (load factor design) of drilled
shafts. Article 4.6.5 covers the allowable stress design of
drilled shafts, and shall be replaced by the articles in this
section for load factor design of drilled shafts, unless
otherwise stated.
The provisions of Article 4.13 shall apply to the design
of drilled shafts, but not drilled piles installed with
continuous flight augers that are concreted as the auger is
being extracted.

4.13.2

Notations

a
Ap
As
Asoc
Au
b
CPT
d

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

D
Db

=
=

Dp
Ds
Ec
Ei
Ep
Er
Es
Fr

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

parameter used for calculating Fr


area of base of drilled shaft
surface area of a drilled pier
cross-sectional area of socket
annular space between bell and shaft
perimeter used for calculating Fr
cone penetration test
dimensionless depth factor for estimating tip
capacity of drilled shafts in rock
diameter of drilled shaft
embedment of drilled shaft in layer that pro
vides support
diameter of base of a drilled shaft
diameter of a drilled shaft socket in rock
Youngs modulus of concrete
intact rock modulus
Youngs modulus of a drilled shaft
modulus of the in-situ rock mass
soil modulus
reduction factor for tip resistance of large
diameter drilled shaft

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

4-67

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

Hs
Ip
I
I
k

K
Kb

KE
Ksp
LL
N
Nc
Ncorr
Nu
p1
Po
PD
PL
qp
qpr
qs
qs bell
qu
qult
Qp
Qs
QSR
Qult
R
RQD
sd
SPT
Su
td
T

4-68

= depth of embedment of drilled shaft socketed


into rock
= moment of inertia of a drilled shaft
= influence coefficient (see Figure C4.13.3.3.4-1)
= influence coefficient for settlement of drilled
shafts socketed in rock
= factor that reduces the tip capacity for shafts
with a base diameter larger than 20 inches so
as to limit the shaft settlement to 1 inch
= coefficient of lateral earth pressure or load
transfer factor
= dimensionless bearing capacity coefficient
for drilled shafts socketed in rock using
pressuremeter results
= modulus modification ratio
= dimensionless bearing capacity coefficient
(see Figure C4.13.3.3.4-4)
= liquid limit of soil
= uncorrected Standard Penetration Test (SPT)
blow count
= bearing capacity factor
= corrected SPT-N value
= uplift bearing capacity factor
= limit pressure determined from pressuremeter
tests within 2D above and below base of shaft
= at rest horizontal stress measured at the base
of drilled shaft
= unfactored dead load
= plastic limit of soil
= Ultimate unit tip resistance
= reduced ultimate unit tip resistance of drilled
shafts
= ultimate unit side resistance
= unit uplift capacity of a belled drilled shaft
= uniaxial compressive strength of rock core
= ultimate bearing capacity
= ultimate load carried by tip of drilled shaft
= ultimate load carried by side of drilled shaft
= ultimate side resistance of drilled shafts socketed in rock
= total ultimate bearing capacity
= characteristic length of soil-drilled shaft system in cohesive soils
= Rock Quality Designation
= spacing of discontinuities
= Standard Penetration Test
= undrained shear strength
= width of discontinuities
= characteristic length of soil-drilled shaft system in cohesionless soils

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

z
Z

= depth below ground surface


= total embedded length of drilled shaft

Greek

'

base
e
tol
'v
v
Pi

' or f
q
qs
qp

4.13.3

= adhesion factor applied to Su


= coefficient relating the vertical effective stress
and the unit skin friction of a drilled shaft
= effective unit weight of soil
= angle of shearing resistance between soil and
drilled shaft
= drilled shaft group efficiency factor
= settlement of the base of the drilled shaft
= elastic shortening of drilled shaft
= tolerable settlement
= vertical effective stress
= total vertical stress
= working load at top of socket
= performance factor
= angle of internal friction of soil
= performance factor for the total ultimate bear
ing capacity of a drilled shaft
= performance factor for the ultimate shaft ca
pacity of a drilled shaft
= performance factor for the ultimate tip capacity of a drilled shaft

Geotechnical Design

Drilled shafts shall be designed to have adequate


bearing and structural capacities under tolerable settlements and tolerable lateral movements.
The supporting capacity of drilled shafts shall be
estimated by static analysis methods (analytical methods
based on soil-structure interaction). Capacity may be
verified with load test results.
The method of construction may affect the drilled
shaft capacity and shall be considered as part of the
design process. Drilled shafts may be constructed using
the dry, casing or wet method of construction, or a
combination of methods.

4.13.3.1

Factors Affecting Axial


Capacity

See Article 4.6.5.2 for drilled shafts in soil and Article


4.6.5.3.3 for drilled shafts in rock. The following subarticles shall supplement Articles 4.6.5.2 and 4.6.5.3.3.

4.13.3.1.1

Downdrag Loads

Downdrag loads shall be evaluated, where appropriate, as indicated in Article 4.12.3.1.3.

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

4.13.3.1.2

Uplift

The provisions of Article 4.12.3.1.4 shall apply as


applicable.
Shafts designed for and constructed in expansive soil
shall extend for a sufficient depth into moisture-stable
soils to provide adequate anchorage to resist uplift. Sufficient clearance shall be provided between the ground
surface and underside of caps or beams connecting shafts
to preclude the application of uplift loads at the shaft/cap
connection due to swelling ground conditions. Uplift
capacity of straight-sided drilled shafts shall rely only on
side resistance in conformance with Article 4.13.3.3.2 for
drilled shafts in cohesive soils, and Article 4.13.3.3.3 for
drilled shafts in cohesionless soils. If the shaft has an
enlarged base, Qs shall be determined in conformance
with Article 4.13.3.3.6.

settlement (if constructed in cohesive soils), and axial


compression of the drilled shaft.

4.13.3.2.3b Group Settlement


The settlement of groups of drilled shafts shall be
estimated using the same procedures as described for pile
groups, Article 4.12.3.2.3.
Cohesive Soil, See Article 4.12.3.2.3a
Cohesionless Soil, See Article 4.12.3.2.3b

4.13.3.2.4

The provisions of Article 4.12.3.2.4 shall apply as


applicable.

4.13.3.3
4.13.3.2
4.13.3.2.1

Movement Under Serviceability


Limit State
General

The provisions of Article 4.12.3.2.1 shall apply as


applicable.
In estimating settlements of drilled shafts in clay, only
unfactored permanent loads shall be considered. However unfactored live loads must be added to the permanent loads when estimating settlement of shafts in granular soil.

4.13.3.3.1

4.13.3.2.3

Axial Loading of Drilled Shafts

The provisions of Article 4.12.3.3.1 shall apply as


applicable.

Tolerable Movement

The provisions of Article 4.12.3.2.2 shall apply as


applicable.

Resistance at Strength Limit


States

The strength limit states that must be considered


include: (1) bearing capacity of drilled shafts, (2) uplift
capacity of drilled shafts, and (3) punching of drilled
shafts bearing in strong soil into a weaker layer below.

4.13.3.3.2
4.13.3.2.2

Lateral Displacement

Analytic Estimates of Drilled


+
Shaft Capacity in Cohesive Soils +

Analytic (rational) methods may be used to estimate


the ultimate bearing capacity of drilled shafts in cohesive
soils.

Settlement
4.13.3.3.3

The settlement of a drilled shaft foundation involving


either single drilled shafts or groups of drilled shafts shall
not exceed the tolerable settlement as selected according
to Article 4.13.3.2.2

4.13.3.2.3a Settlement of Single Drilled


Shafts

Estimation of Drilled-Shaft
Capacity in Cohesionless Soils

The ultimate bearing capacity of drilled shafts in


cohesionless soils shall be estimated using applicable
methods, and the factored capacity selected using judgment, and any available experience with similar conditions.

The settlement of single drilled shafts shall be estimated considering short-term settlement, consolidation

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

4-69

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS NOVEMBER 2003

4.13.3.3.4
+
+
+
+
+
+

In determining the axial capacity of drilled shafts with


rock sockets, the side resistance from overlying soil
deposits shall be ignored.
If the rock is degradable, consideration of special
construction procedures, larger socket dimensions, or
reduced socket capacities shall be considered.

4.13.3.3.5
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

Axial Capacity in Rock

Load Test

Where necessary, a full scale load test or tests shall be


conducted on a drilled shaft or shafts to confirm response
to load. Load tests shall be conducted using shafts constructed in a manner and of dimensions and materials
identical to those planned for the production shafts.
Load tests shall be conducted following prescribed
written procedures which have been developed from
accepted standards and modified, as appropriate, for the
conditions at the site. Standard pile load testing procedures developed by the American Society for Testing and
Materials as specified in Article 4.12.3.3.5 may be modified for testing drilled shafts.

4.13.3.3.6

Uplift Capacity

Uplift shall be considered when (i) upward loads act


on the drilled shafts and (ii) swelling or expansive soils
act on the drilled shafts. Drilled shafts subjected to uplift
forces shall be investigated, both for resistance to pullout
and for their structural strength.

4.13.3.3.6a Uplift Capacity of a Single


Drilled Shaft
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

The uplift capacity of a single straight-sided drilled


shaft shall be estimated in a manner similar to that for
estimating the ultimate side resistance for drilled shafts in
compression (Articles 4.13.3.3.2, 4.13.3.3.3, and
4.13.3.3.4).
The uplift capacity of a belled shaft shall be estimated
neglecting the side resistance above the bell, and assuming that the bell behaves as an anchor.

4.13.3.3.6b Group Uplift Capacity


+

4.13.3.3.7

Lateral Load

The design of laterally loaded drilled shafts is usually


governed by lateral movement criteria (Article 4.13.3.2)
or structural failure of the drilled shaft. The design of
laterally loaded drilled shafts shall account for the effects
of interaction between the shaft and ground, including
the number of piers in the group.

4.13.3.3.8

Group Capacity

Possible reduction in capacity from group effects shall


be considered.

4.13.3.3.8a Cohesive Soil


The provisions of Article 4.12.3.3.10a shall apply.

4.13.3.3.8b Cohesionless Soil


Evaluation of group capacity of shafts in cohesionless
soil shall consider the spacing between adjacent shafts.
Regardless of cap contact with the ground, the individual
capacity of each shaft shall be reduced by a factor for
an isolated shaft, where = 1.0 for a center-to-center
(CTC) spacing of 8 diameters or greater, for a CTC of less
than 8 diameters the Division of Structural Foundations
should be consluted to determine the value of .

The provisions of Article 4.12.3.3.10c shall apply as


applicable.

4.13.3.3.9
4.13.4

Deleted

Structural Design

The structural design of drilled shafts shall be in


accordance with the provisions of Article 4.6.6, which
was developed for allowable stress design procedures. In
order to use load factor design procedures for the structural design of drilled shafts, the load factor design
procedures in Section 8 for reinforced concrete shall be
used in place of the allowable stress design procedures.

4.13.4.1

Buckling of Drilled Shafts

Stability of drilled shafts shall be considered when the


shafts extend through water or air for a portion of their
length.

SECTION 4 FOUNDATIONS

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

4.13.3.3.8c Group in Strong Soil Overlying


Weaker Compressible Soil

See Article 4.12.3.3.7b

4-70

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

SECTION 5 - RETAINING WALLS

Part A
General Requirements and Materials
5.1

GENERAL

Retaining walls shall be designed to withstand lateral


earth and water pressures, the effects of surcharge loads,
the self-weight of the wall and in special cases, earth
quake loads in accordance with the general principles
specified in this section.
Retaining walls shall be designed for a service life
based on consideration of the potential long-term effects
of material deterioration on each of the material compo
nents comprising the wall. Permanent retaining walls
should be designed for a minimum service life of 50 years.
Temporary retaining walls should be designed for a
minimum service life of 5 years.
The quality of in-service performance is an important
consideration in the design of permanent retaining walls.
Permanent walls shall be designed to retain an aestheti
cally pleasing appearance, and be essentially mainte
nance free throughout their design service life.
The Service Load Design Method shall be used for the
design of retaining walls except where noted otherwise.

5.2

WALL TYPES

Retaining walls are generally classified as gravity,


semi-gravity (or conventional), non-gravity cantilevered,
and anchored. Gravity walls derive their capacity to resist
lateral loads through dead weight of the wall. The gravity
wall type includes rigid gravity walls, mechanically
stabilized earth (MSE) walls, and prefabricated modular
gravity walls. Semi-gravity walls are similar to gravity
walls, except they rely on their structural components to
mobilize the dead weight of backfill to derive their
capacity to resist lateral loads. Non-gravity cantilevered

walls rely on structural components of the wall partially


embedded in foundation material to mobilize passive
resistance to resist lateral loads. Anchored walls derive
their capacity to resist lateral loads by their structural
components being restrained by tension elements con
nected to anchors and possibly additionally by partial
embedment of their structural components into founda
tion material. The anchors may be ground anchors
(tiebacks), passive concrete anchors, passive pile an
chors, or pile group anchors. The ground anchors are
connected directly to the wall structural components
whereas the other type anchors are connected to the wall
structural components through tie rods. Within the wall
types above, many of the retaining wall systems available
are proprietary. Their use requires appropriate contrac
tual requirements. See Figures 5.2-1 through 5.2-4 for
examples.

5.2.1

Selection of Wall Type

Selection of appropriate wall type is based on an


assessment of the design loading, depth to adequate
foundation support, presence of deleterious environmen
tal factors, physical constraints of the site, cross-sectional
geometry of the site both existing and planned, settle
ment potential, desired aesthetics, constructibility, main
tenance, and cost.

5.2.1.1

Rigid Gravity and Semi-Gravity


Walls

Rigid gravity walls may be constructed of stone ma


sonry, unreinforced concrete, or reinforced concrete.
These walls can be used in both cut and fill applications.
They have relatively narrow base widths. They are
generally not used when deep foundations are required.
They are most economical at low wall heights.

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

5-1

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

Face
Panels

Soil Reinforcement

MSE Wall with Precast

Concrete Face Panels

Reinforced Concrete Cantilever Wall

Batte

r 1:6

Figure 5.2-2 Typical Semi-Gravity Retaining Walls

utilities. They are most economical at low to medium wall


heights.
Due to the rigidity of rigid gravity walls and semigravity walls they should only be used where their foun
dations can be designed to limit total and differential
settlements to acceptable values.

5.2.1.2

Precast Concrete Crib Wall

Figure 5.2-1 Typical Gravity Retaining Walls

Semi-gravity cantilever, counterfort and buttress walls


are constructed of reinforced concrete. They can be used
in both cut and fill applications. They have relatively
narrow base widths. They can be supported by both
shallow and deep foundations. The position of the wall
stem relative to the footing can be varied to accommodate
right-of-way constraints. These walls can support
soundwalls, sign structures, and other highway features.
They can accommodate drainage structures and utilities
and span existing drainage structures and load sensitive

5-2

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

Non-Gravity Cantilevered

Walls

Non-gravity cantilevered walls are constructed of


vertical structural members consisting of partially em
bedded soldier piles or continuous sheet piles. Soldier
piles may be constructed with driven steel piles, treated
timber, precast concrete or steel piles placed in drilled
holes and backfilled with concrete or cast-in-place rein
forced concrete. Continuous sheet piles may be con
structed with driven precast prestressed concrete sheet
piles or steel sheet piles. Soldier piles are faced with either
treated timber, reinforced shotcrete, reinforced cast-in
place concrete, precast concrete or metal elements.
This type wall is suitable for both cut and fill applica
tions but is most suitable for cut applications. Because of
the narrow base width of this type wall it is suitable for

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

Steel Sheet
Piles

This type wall depends on passive resistance of the


foundation material and the moment resisting capacity of
the vertical structural members for stability, therefore its
maximum height is limited by the competence of the
foundation material and the moment resisting capacity of
the vertical structural members. Because this type wall
depends on the passive resistance of foundation material,
it should not be used where it is likely that foundation
material will be removed in front of the wall during its
service life.
The economical height of this type wall is generally
limited to a maximum height of 20 feet or less.

5.2.1.3

Continuous Vertical Wall Elements

Soldier pile
with timber
lagging

Anchored Walls

Anchored walls are typically composed of the same


elements as non-gravity cantilevered walls (Article
5.2.1.2), but derive additional lateral resistance from one
or more levels of anchors. The anchors may be ground
anchors (tiebacks) consisting of drilled holes with grouted
in prestressing steel tendons extending from the wall face
to an anchor zone located behind potential failure planes
in the retained soil or rock mass. The anchors may also
be structural anchors consisting of reinforced concrete
anchors, driven or drilled in vertical pile anchors or a
group of driven piles consisting of battered compression
piles and vertical tension piles connected with a rein
forced concrete cap. These anchors are located behind
potential failure planes in the retained soil and are con
nected to the wall by horizontal tie rods.
Ground anchors are suitable for situations requiring
one or more levels of anchors whereas anchors utilizing
tie rods are typically limited to situations requiring a
single level of anchors. The ground anchor tendons and
tie rods must be provided with corrosion protection.

Discrete Vertical Wall Elements

Figure 5.2-3 Typical Non-Gravity Cantilevered


Retaining Walls

situations with tight space constraints or right-of-way


constraints.

The distribution of lateral earth pressure on anchored


walls is influenced by the method and sequence of wall
construction and the anchor prestressing. Ground an
chors are generally prestressed to a high percentage of
their design tension force whereas anchors with tie rods
are secured to the wall with little or no prestress force.
Anchored walls are typically constructed in cut situ
ations in which construction proceeds from the top down
to the base of the wall. For situations where fill is placed
behind the wall special consideration in the design and
construction is required to protect the ground anchors or

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

5-3

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

Waler

Tie rod
Steel Sheet
Piles

Pile anchor
System

Waler
Ground anchor
( Tieback anchor )
Soldier pile
with timber
lagging

Figure 5.2.4 Typical Anchored Retaining Walls

tie rods from construction damage due to fill placement


and fill settlement.
The vertical wall elements should extend below po
tential failure planes associated with the retained soil or
rock mass. Where competent and stable foundation ma
terial is located at the base of the wall face, only minimal
embedment of the wall may be required (soldier pileless
design).
The long-term creep characteristics of the anchors
should be considered in design. Anchors should not be
located in soft clay or silt.

5-4

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

Anchored walls may be used to stabilize unstable sites.


Provided adequate foundation material exists at the site
for the anchors, economical wall heights up to 80 feet are
feasible.

5.2.1.4

Mechanically Stabilized Earth


Walls

Mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls use either


metallic (inextensible) or geosynthetic (extensible) soil
reinforcement in the soil mass, and vertical or near verti
cal facing elements. MSE walls behave as a gravity wall,

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

deriving their lateral resistance through the dead weight


of the reinforced soil mass behind the facing.

the soil reinforcement and adequate control of surface


runoff is provided.

MSE walls are typically used where conventional


reinforced concrete retaining walls are considered, and
are particularly well suited for sites where substantial
total and differential settlements are anticipated. The
allowable differential settlement is limited by the
deformability of the wall facing elements within the
plane of the wall face. In the case of precast concrete
facing elements (panels), deformablitiy is dependent on
the panel size and shape and the width of the joints
between panels. This type wall can be used in both cut
and fill applications. Because their base width is greater
than that of conventional reinforced concrete walls they
are most cost effective in fill applications. The practical
height of MSE walls is limited by the competence of the
foundation material at a given site.

Where high concentrated loads must be supported at


the wall face, such as those from highway sign founda
tions, a section of conventionally reinforced concrete
wall may be constructed within the length of the MSE
wall. This section of wall should be designed to retain
both the lateral earth pressures and the concentrated
loads.

MSE walls shall not be used where utilities or highway


drainage must be located within the reinforced mass
except that highway drainage may be placed within the
reinforced soil mass if it runs vertically or perpendicular
to the wall face.
MSE walls shall not be used where floodplain erosion
or scour may undermine the reinforced soil mass unless
the wall is founded at sufficient depth or adequate scour
protection is provided to prevent the erosion or scour.
MSE walls shall not be used to support bridge abut
ments with shallow foundations nor pile supported bridge
abutments where seismic displacements of the abutment
would impose large forces on the wall face panels and the
soil reinforcement to face panel connections. MSE walls
may be used in front of pile supported bridge abutments
where the seismic forces from the bridge superstructure
are limited by elastomeric bearing pads supporting the
bridge superstructure. These limited seismic forces shall
be considered in the design of the MSE wall. The design
service life shall be increased to 75 years for MSE walls
in front of pile supported bridge abutments.
MSE walls shall not be used where aggressive environ
mental conditions exist unless environment specific stud
ies of the long-term corrosion or degradation of the soil
reinforcement are conducted.

Various aesthetic treatments can be incorporated in


the precast concrete face panels.

5.2.1.5

Prefabricated Modular Walls

Prefabricated modular walls use stacked or intercon


nected structural elements, some of which utilize soil or
rock fill, to resist earth pressures by acting as gravity
retaining walls. Structural elements consisting of treated
timber, or precast reinforced concrete are used to from a
cellular system which is filled with soil to construct a crib
wall, also steel modules are bolted together to form a
similar system to construct a bin wall. Rock filled wire
gabion baskets are used to construct a gabion wall. Solid
precast concrete units or segmental concrete masonry
units are stacked to form a gravity block wall.
Prefabricated modular walls may be used where con
ventional reinforced concrete walls are considered.
Steel modular systems shall not be used where aggres
sive industrial pollutants or other environmental condi
tions such as use of deicing salts or cathodic protection
of nearby pipelines are present at a given site.
Traffic barriers shall not be placed at the face of this
type wall but shall be placed in fill above the top of the
wall.
The aesthetic appearance of some of these type walls
is governed by the nature of the structural elements used.
Those elements consisting of precast concrete may incor
porate various aesthetic treatments.
This type wall is most economical for low to medium
height walls.

MSE walls with metallic soil reinforcement may be


used where deicing salts are used provided an imperme
able cap is constructed at or near the ground surface above

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

5-5

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

5.2.2

Wall Capacity

Retaining walls shall be designed to provide adequate


structural capacity with acceptable movements, adequate
foundation bearing capacity with acceptable settlements,
and acceptable overall stability of slopes adjacent to
walls. The tolerable level of lateral and vertical deforma
tions is controlled by the type and location of the wall
structure and surrounding facilities.

5.2.2.1

Bearing Capacity

The bearing capacity of wall foundation support sys


tems shall be estimated using procedures described in
Articles 4.4 Spread Footings, 4.5 Driven Piles, or 4.6
Drilled Shafts, or other generally accepted theories.
Such theories are based on soil and rock parameters
measured by in-situ and /or laboratory tests.

excess pore water pressures may develop during a seismic


event.
Seismic forces applied to the mass of the slope shall be
based on a horizontal seismic acceleration coefficient, kh,
equal to one-third of, A, the expected peak acceleration
produced by the Maximum Credible Earthquake on
bedrock at the site as defined in the Caltrans Seismic
Hazard Map. Generally the vertical seismic coefficient,
kv, is considered to equal zero.
For seismic loads, if it is determined that the factor of
safety for the slope is less than 1.0 using one-third of the
peak bedrock acceleration, procedures for estimating
earthquake induced deformations such as the Newmarks
Method may be used provided that the retaining wall and
any supported structure can tolerate the resulting defor
mations.

5.2.2.4
5.2.2.2

Settlement

The settlement of wall foundation support systems


shall be estimated using procedures described in Articles
4.4, 4.5 or 4.6, or other generally accepted methods. Such
methods are based on soil and rock parameters measured
directly or inferred from the results of in-situ and/or
laboratory tests.

5.2.2.3

Overall Stability

As part of the design, the overall stability of the


retaining wall, retained slope and foundation soil or rock
shall be evaluated for all walls using limiting equilibrium
methods of analysis. A minimum factor of safety of 1.3
shall be used for the design of walls for static loads, except
that a minimum factor of safety of 1.5 shall be used for the
design of walls which support bridge abutments, build
ings, critical utilities, or other installations for which
there is a low tolerance for failure. A minimum factor of
safety of 1.0 shall be used for the design of walls for
seismic loads. In all cases, the subsurface conditions and
soil/rock properties of the wall site shall be adequately
characterized through in-situ exploration and testing and
/or laboratory testing as described in Article 5.3 Subsur
face Exploration And Testing Programs. Special explo
ration, testing and analysis may be required for retaining
walls constructed over soft deposits or for sites where

5-6

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

Tolerable Deformations

Tolerable vertical and lateral deformation criteria for


retaining walls shall be developed based on the function
and type of wall, anticipated service life, and conse
quences of unacceptable movements (i.e., both structural
and aesthetic).
Allowable total and differential vertical deformations
for a particular retaining wall are dependent on the ability
of the wall to deflect without causing damage to the wall
elements or exhibiting unsightly deformations. The total
and differential vertical deformation of a retaining wall
should be small for rigid gravity and semi-gravity retain
ing walls, and for soldier pile walls with cast-in-place
concrete facing. For walls with inclined tieback anchors,
any downward movement can cause significant
destressing of the anchors.
MSE walls can tolerate larger total and differential
vertical defections than rigid walls. The amount of total
and differential vertical deflection that can be tolerated
depends on the wall facing material, configuration, and
timing of facing construction. A cast-in-place concrete
facing has the same vertical deformation limitations as
the more rigid retaining wall systems. However, the cast
in-place facing of an MSE wall can be specified to be
constructed after an appropriate settlement period so that
vertical as well as horizontal deformations have time to
occur. An MSE wall with welded wire or geosynthetic
facing can tolerate the most deformation. An MSE wall

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

with multiple precast concrete face panels cannot tolerate


as much vertical deformations as flexible welded wire or
geosynthetic facings because of potential damage to the
precast face panels and unsightly face panel separation.
Horizontal movements resulting from outward rota
tion of the wall or resulting from the development of
internal equilibrium between the loads applied to the
wall and the internal structure of the wall must be limited
to prevent overstress of the structural wall facing and to
prevent the wall face batter from becoming negative. In
general, if vertical deformations are properly controlled,
horizontal deformations will likely be within acceptable
limits. For MSE walls with extensible reinforcements,
reinforcement serviceability criteria, the wall face batter,
and the facing type selected (i.e. the flexibility of the
facing) will influence the horizontal deformation criteria
required.
Vertical wall movements shall be estimated using
conventional settlement computational methods (see
Articles 4.4, 4.5, and 4.6). For gravity and semi-gravity
walls, lateral movement results from a combination of
differential vertical settlement between the heel and the
toe of the wall and the rotation necessary to develop
active earth pressure conditions (see Table C5.5.1-1). If
the wall is designed for at-rest earth pressure conditions,
the deflections in Table C5.5.1-1 do not need to be
considered.
Where a wall is used to support a structure, tolerable
movement criteria shall be established in accordance
with Articles 4.4, 4.5 and 4.6. Where a wall supports soil
on which an adjacent structure is founded, the effects of
wall movements and associated backfill settlement on
the adjacent structure shall be evaluated.

5.2.3

5.3

SUBSURFACE EXPLORATION AND


TESTING PROGRAMS

The elements of the subsurface exploration and testing


programs shall be based on the specific requirements of
the project and prior experience with the local geological
conditions.

5.3.1

As a minimum, the subsurface exploration and testing


programs shall define the following, where applicable:

Soil strata:

- Depth, thickness, and variability


- Identification and classification
- Relevant engineering properties (i.e., natural
moisture content, Atterberg limits, shear
strength, compressibility, stiffness, perme
ability, expansion or collapse potential, and
frost susceptibility)
- Relevant soil chemistry, including pH, resis
tivity, cloride, sulfate, and sulfide content

Rock strata:

- Depth to rock
- Identification and classification
- Quality (i.e., soundness, hardness, jointing
and presence of joint filling, resistance to
weathering, if exposed, and solutioning)
- Compressive strength (i.e., uniaxial com
pression, point load index)
- Expansion potential

Ground water elevation, including seasonal


variations, chemical composition, and pH
(especially important for anchored, non-gravity
cantilevered, modular, and MSE walls)
where corrosion potential is an important con
sideration

Ground surface topography

Local conditions requiring special consider


ation (i.e., presence of stray electrical currents)

Soil, Rock, and Other Problem


Conditions

Geologic and environmental conditions can influ


ence the performance of retaining walls and their founda
tions, and may require special consideration during de
sign. To the extent possible, the presence and influence
of such conditions shall be evaluated as part of the
subsurface exploration program. A representative, but
not exclusive, listing of problem conditions requiring
special consideration is presented in Table 4.2.3A for
general guidance.

General Requirements

Exploration logs shall include soil and rock strata


descriptions, penetration resistance for soils (i.e., SPT or
qc), and sample recovery and RQD for rock strata. The
drilling equipment and method, use of drilling mud, type

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

5-7

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

of SPT hammer (i.e., safety, donut, hydraulic) or cone


penetrometer (i.e., mechanical or electrical), and any
unusual subsurface conditions such as artesian pressures,
boulders or other obstructions, or voids shall also be
noted on the exploration logs.

5.3.2

Minimum Depth

Regardless of the wall foundation type, borings shall


extend into a bearing layer adequate to support the
anticipated foundation loads, defined as dense or hard
soils, or bedrock. In general, for walls which do not utilize
deep foundation support, subsurface explorations shall
extend below the anticipated bearing level a minimum of
twice the total wall height. Greater depths may be
required where warranted by local conditions. Where the
wall is supported on deep foundations and for all nongravity walls, the depth of the subsurface explorations
shall extend a minimum of 20 feet below the anticipated
pile, shaft, or slurry wall tip elevation. For piles or shafts
end bearing on rock, or shafts extending into rock, a
minimum of 10 feet of rock core, or a length of rock core
equal to at least three times the shaft diameter, which ever
is greater, shall be obtained to insure that the exploration
has not been terminated on a boulder and to determine the
physical characteristics of the rock within the zone of
foundation influence for design.

5.3.3

Minimum Coverage

A minimum of one soil boring shall be made for each


retaining wall. For retaining walls over 100 feet in length,
the spacing between borings should be not longer than
200 feet. In planning the exploration program, consider
ation should be given to placing borings inboard and
outboard of the wall line to define conditions in the scour
zone at the toe of the wall and in the zone behind the wall
to estimate lateral loads and anchorage capacities.

should be applied when establishing project design val


ues based on laboratory and field tests.

5.3.5

The probable depth of scour shall be determined by


subsurface exploration and hydraulic studies. Refer to
Article 1.3.2 for general guidance regarding hydraulic
studies and design.

5.4

Laboratory Testing

Laboratory testing shall be performed as necessary to


determine engineering characteristics including unit
weight, natural moisture content, Atterberg limits, grada
tion, shear strength, compressive strength and compress
ibility. In the absence of laboratory testing, engineering
characteristics may be estimated based on field tests and/
or published property correlations. Local experience

5-8

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

NOTATIONS

The following notations apply for design of retaining


walls:
a
a

= width of strip load (FT); 5.5.5.10


= length of the sides of a square cell or the
length of the short side of a rectangular cell
(FT); 5.10.4

= length of side of rectangular wall cell used


for determining, Rb (FT); 5.10.4
A
= the expected peak acceleration produced by
the maximum credible earthquake on bed
rock at the site as defined in the Caltrans
Seismic Hazard Map (DIM); 5.2.2.3
Acorrosion loss
= cross-sectional area of soil reinforcement lost due to corrosion over the design
service life (FT ); 5.9.3
Agross
= cross sectional area of transverse grid ele
ment before any sacrificial steel loss due to
corrosion (FT ); 5.9.3

Anet

At
At

5.3.4

Scour

b
b
b

= cross sectional area of transverse grid element at end of design service life after design
sacrificial steel loss has occurred ( FT ); 5.9.3
= tributary area of wall face at level of soil
reinforcement (FT ); 5.9.3
= tributary area of wall face used in determin
ing, Tmax (FT ); 5.9.3
= actual width of embedded discrete vertical
wall element below design grade in plane of
wall (FT); 5.5.5.6, 5.7.6
= distance from pressure surface to near edge
of strip load (FT); 5.5.5.10
= actual width of concrete anchor (FT); 5.8.6.2.1
= width of soil reinforcement under consider
ation (FT); 5.9.3.5.2

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

b
b
b
b
bc
bf
bt

= length of the long side of a rectangular cell


(FT); 5.10.4
= effective width of embedded portion of ver
tical wall elements (FT); 5.5.5.6, 5.7.6
= effective width of concrete anchor (FT);
5.8.6.2.1
= effective width of anchor pile (FT); 5.8.6.2.2
= indicator of batter of compression piles
(DIM); 5.8.6.2.3
= width of footing overwhich horizontal force,
PH , is distributed (FT); 5.5.5.10
= indicator of batter of tension piles (DIM);
5.8.6.2.3

bt
B
B
B

= width of tributary area, At (FT); 5.9.3


= notional slope of backfill (DEG) ; 5.5.5.5
= width of footing (FT); 5.5.5.10
= width of wall footing (FT); 5.6.4

B
B
B

= wall base width (FT); 5.9.1


= width of soil reinforcement (FT); 5.9.3
= length of transverse grid elements of soil
reinforcement (FT);5.9.3

= width of wall footing actually in compres


sion (B= B-2e) (FT); 5.6.4
= effective base width (FT); 5.9.2
= width of excavation in front of wall (FT);
5.5.5.7.2b
= distance from back face of footing key to the
back face or heel of wall footing (FT);
5.6.3,5.6.4

B
Be
Bk

Bn

B1
c
c
ca
C
Cp
Cph

= base width of nth tier of tiered wall with the


bottom tier being the first tier ( n=1) (FT);
5.10.1
= distance from toe of footing to front face of
footing key (FT )5.6.4
= unit cohesion (KSF); 5.5.5.4
= cohesion of foundation soil (KSF); 5.6.4
= adhesion between wall footing and founda
tion soil or rock (KSF); 5.6.4
= overall soil reinforcement surface area ge
ometry factor(DIM); 5.9.3
= axial force in compression pile (KIPS);
5.8.6.2.3
= horizontal component of axial force in a
battered compression pile (KIPS); 5.8.6.2.3

CRCR

d
d
d
d
dbnet
D
D
D

D
Dk
Do
Do

Do
D1

e
e
e
e
emax

= long-term connection strength reduction


factor to account for reduced ultimate
strength resulting from connection (DIM);
5.9.3.5.2
= depth of potential base failure surface below
the design grade in front of wall (FT);
5.5.5.7.2b
= distance from center of width, bf , to back of
wall or pressure surface (FT); 5.5.5.10
= depth of concrete anchor cover (FT) ; 5.8.6.2.1
= distance from finished grade to top of anchor
pile (FT) ;5.8.6.2.2
= diameter of ground anchor drill hole (FT);
5.8.6.3
= net diameter of transverse grid element after
consideration for corrosion loss (FT); 5.9.3
= depth of embedment of concrete anchor (FT);
5.8.6.2.1
= embedment from finished grade to be used
for anchor pile (FT); 5.8.6.2.2
= depth of embedment of vertical wall ele
ments for non-gravity cantilevered walls
(FT); 5.7.1
= depth of embedment of vertical wall ele
ments for anchored walls (FT); 5.8.6.3
= depth of wall footing key (FT); 5.6.4
= calculated embedment depth of vertical wall
elements (FT); 5.5.5.6, 5.7.1, 5.7.6
= embedment of vertical wall elements that
provides a factor of safety equal to 1.0 against
rotation about level of tie rod of an anchored
wall (DIM); 5.8.6.2
= calculated embedment from finished grade

of anchor pile (FT); 5.8.6.2.2

= effective width for determining vertical stress

at any depth due to applied vertical load


(FT); 5.5.5.10
= eccentricity of resultant force acting on foot
ing base from center of footing (FT); 5.6.4
= eccentricity of resultant force (DIM); 5.9.2
= base of natural logarithms (DIM); 5.10.4
= eccentricity of vertical load on footing (FT);
5.5.5.10
= maximum allowable eccentricity of the re
sultant force acting on the base of the wall
(FT); 5.9.2

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

5-9

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

Fa
FAC
Fy
F*
FS
FS
FSpo

FSpo

FSOT
FSR
FSSL
FST
h
h
h
h

= force at tip of embedded vertical wall ele


ments required to provide equilibruim of
horizontal forces (KIPS); 5.5.5.6
= total force acting on anchor pile at depth,
Do, required to provide equilibrium of hori
zontal forces acting on the anchor pile (KIPS);
5.8.6.2.2
= allowable tensile stress for steel soil rein
forcement (KSI); 5.9.3
= pullout anchorage factor of soil reinforce
ment (DIM); 5.9.3
= yield strength of steel (KSI); 5.9.3
= pullout resistance factor for soil reinforce
ment (DIM); 5.9.3
= factor of safety (DIM); 5.6.4
= global safety factor (DIM); 5.9.3.4.2.1
= factor of safety against pullout of wall mod
ules above the level under consideration
(DIM); 5.10.3
= factor of safety against pullout for level of
soil reinforcement under consideration
(DIM); 5.9.3
= factor of safety against overturning (DIM);
5.7.6
= factor of safety against rotation about level
of tie rod of an anchored wall (DIM); 5.8.6.2
= factor of safety against sliding (DIM); 5.6.4
= factor of safety against translation (DIM);
5.8.6.3
= height of pressure surface at back of wall
(FT); 5.5.5.8,5.6.4
= actual height of concrete anchor(FT);
5.5.6.2.1
= height of pressure surface (FT); C5.5.5.5.1
= height from intersection of active and pas
sive failure surfaces to ground surface (FT);
5.8.6.2.1

ht
H

= equivalent height of soil for vehicular load


(FT); 5.5.5.10
= height of nth tier of tiered wall with the
bottom tier being the first tier ( n=1) ( FT);
5.10.1
= height of tributary area, At (FT); 5.9.3
= design height of wall (FT); C5.5.1, 5.7.1

= wall design height (FT); 5.6.4

heg
hn

5-10

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

Hn
Hn+1
H1
H1
H1
H1
H1

k
k
ka
kh
ko
kp
kr
ks
kv
L
L
La

Lb
Le

= vertical distance between, nth level, and, (n


1 )th level of ground anchors (FT); 5.8.6.3
= distance from design grade at bottom of wall
to lowermost level of anchors (FT); 5.5.5.7
= distance from ground surface at top of wall
to uppermost level of anchors (FT); 5.5.5.7
= distance from finished grade to level at which,
Tult , acts on anchor pile (FT); 5.8.6.2.2
= distance from finished grade to level at which,
Tult , acts on pile anchor (FT); 5.8.6.2.3
= distance from finished grade at top of wall to
top level of ground anchors (FT); 5.8.6.3
= vertical distance from bottom of wall to
point of intersection of finished grade be
hind wall face and failure surface for deter
mining internal stability for walls with
inextensible soil reinforcement (FT); 5.9.3
= coefficient of lateral earth pressure (DIM);
5.5.5.1
= ratio of lateral to vertical pressure in wall cell
fill (DIM);5.10.4
= coefficient of active lateral earth pressure
(DIM); 5.5.5.3
= horizontal seismic acceleration coefficient
(DIM); 5.2.2.3
= coefficient of at-rest lateral earth pressure
(DIM); 5.5.5.2
= coefficient of passive lateral earth pressure
(DIM); 5.5.5.4
= lateral earth pressure coefficient of rein
forced soil mass (DIM); 5.9.1
= coefficient of lateral earth pressure due to
surcharge (DIM); 5.5.5.10
= vertical seismic acceleration coefficient
(DIM); 5.2.2.3
= length of soil reinforcement (FT); 5.5.5.8,
5.9.1
= length of footing (FT); 5.5.5.10
= distance from back of wall facing to failure
surface for internal stability analysis(FT);
5.9.1
= ground anchor bond length (FT); 5.8.6.3
= distance from failure surface for internal
stability analysis to rearmost end of soil
reinforcement (FT); 5.9.1

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

Mn
Mp
MARV
N
NS
OCR
p
p
p
pa
pa

pb

pp
P

P
P
Pa
Pa

Pa

Pa

Pa

Pa

= nominal moment strength of reinforced con


crete crib wall member (KIP-FT); 5.10.4
= plastic moment strength of reinforced con
crete crib wall member (KIP-FT); 5.10.4
= minimum average roll value for, Tult (KIPS/
FT); 5.9.3
= number of transverse grid elements of soil
reinforcement within length,Le (DIM); 5.9.3
= stability number (DIM); 5.5.5.6
= overconsolidation ratio (DIM); 5.5.5.2
= lateral pressure in wall cell fill at depth, y
(KSF); 5.10.4
= basic lateral earth pressure (KSF); 5.5.5.1
= load intensity of strip load parallel to wall
(KSF); 5.5.5.10
= maximum ordinate of lateral earth pressure
diagram (KSF); 5.5.5.7
= lateral pressure in wall cell fill next to the
short side of a rectangular cell at depth, y
(KSF); 5.10.4
= lateral pressure in wall cell fill next to the
long side of a rectangular cell at depth, y
(KSF); 5.10.4
= passive lateral earth pressure (KSF); 5.5.5.4
= horizontal earth pressure resultant acting on
the pressure surface at back of wall (KIPS)/
FT); 5.5.5.10
= vertical point load (KIPS); 5.5.5.10
= tangential component of force on wall foot
ing (KIPS); 5.6.4
= active lateral earth pressure resultant per
unit width of wall (KIPS/FT); 5.5.5.3
= active lateral earth pressure resultant per
length of wall under consideration deter
mined by Rankine theory (KIPS); 5.5.5.8
= lateral earth pressure resultant per unit width
of wall acting on pressure surface at back of
wall (KIPS/FT); 5.6.4
= total lateral active earth pressure acting on
an anchor pile over height, Do , and effective
pile width, b (KIPS); 5.8.6.2.2
= total lateral active earth pressure acting on
height, D , per foot width of anchor (KIPS/
FT); 5.8.6.2.1
= design lateral pressure acting on the tribu
tary area of the face of the wall modules

Pa

Pah
Pav
Ph
PH

Pmax

PN

Po

Pp
Pp

Pp

Pp

Pp

Pr

Pr
PT

PTotal

above the level under consideration (KIPS);


5.10.3
= total lateral active earth pressure acting on
height, h , per foot width of anchor or anchor
pile (KIPS/FT); 5.8.6.2.1, 5.8.6.2.2
= horizontal component of, Pa (KIPS/FT);
5.6.4
= vertical component of , P a (KIPS/FT); 5,6,4
= horizontal component of ,Pa (KIPS); 5.5.5.8
= horizontal force at base of continuous foot
ing per unit length of footing (KIPS/FT);
5.5.5.10
= maximum resisting force between wall footing base and foundation soil or rock against
sliding failure (KIPS); 5.6.4
= normal component of passive lateral earth
pressure resultant per unit width of wall
(KIPS/FT); 5.5.5.4
= at-rest lateral earth pressure resultant per
unit width of wall acting on the toe of the
wall footing (KIPS/FT); 5.6.4
= passive lateral earth pressure resultant per
unit width of wall (KIPS/FT); 5.5.5.4
= passive lateral earth pressure, not to exceed
50 percent of the available passive lateral
earth pressure (KIPS); 5.6.4
= total lateral passive earth pressure acting on
height, D, per foot width of anchor (KIPS/
FT); 5.8.6.2.1
= total lateral passive earth pressure acting on
an anchor pile over height, Do , and effective
pile width, b (KIPS); 5.8.6.2.2
= total lateral passive earth pressure acting on
height, h , per foot width of anchor or anchor
pile (KIPS/FT); 5.8.6.2.1, 5.8.6.2.2
= resultant force of unifomly distributed lat
eral resisting pressure per unit width of wall
acting over the depth of footing key required
to provide equilibrium to force, P (KIPS/
FT); 5.6.4
= design lateral pressure from retained fill
(KSF); 5.10.4
= tangential component of passive lateral earth
pressure resultant per unit width of wall
(KIPS/FT); 5.5.5.4
= total lateral load per foot of wall required to
be applied to the wall face to provide a factor

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

5-11

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

Pv
Pv
Pv
q
qa
qb
qc
qs

Q
Qa
Q1
Q2
r
R

of safety equal to 1.3 for the retained soil


mass when stability is analyzed using an
appropriate limiting equilibrium method of
analysis (KIPS/FT); 5.5.5.7
= vertical component of, Pa (KIPS) ; 5.5.5.8
= vertical load per unit length of continuous
footing or strip load (KIPS/FT); 5.5.5.10
= vertical load on isolated rectangular footing
or point load (KIPS); 5.5.5.10
= vertical pressure in wall cell fill at depth , y
(KSF); 5.10.4
= vertical pressure in wall cell fill next to short
side of rectangular cell (KSF); 5.10.4
= vertical pressure in wall cell fill next to long
side of rectangular cell (KSF); 5.10.4
= cone penetration resistance (KSF); 5.3.1
= uniform surcharge applied to the wall back
fill surface within the limits of the active
failure wedge (KSF); 5.5.5.10
= normal component of force on wall footing
(KIPS); 5.6.4
= allowable ground anchor pullout resistance
(KIPS); 5.8.6.3
= normal component of force on wall footing
within distance, B1 (KIPS); 5.6.4
= normal component of force on wall footing
within distance,( B-B1) (KIPS); 5.6.4
= ( x +y ) 0.5 (FT); 5.5.5.10
= reduction factor for determination, of Pp ,
using Figures 5.5.5.4-1 and 5.5.5.4-2 (DIM);
5.5.5.4
= earth pressure resultant per unit width of wall
acting on failure surface of failure wedge
(KIPS/FT); 5.5.5.5
= design reaction force at bottom of wall to be
resisted by embedded portion of wall (KIPS)/
FT); 5.5.5.7
= radial distance from point of load applica
tion to the point on the back of the wall at
which,Dph, is being determined (FT);5.5.5.10
= reaction at assumed point of zero moment in
verticalwall elements at or near bottom of
anchored wall (KIPS);5.8.6.3
= hydraulic radius of wall cell (FT); 5.10.4

Ra

Rb

Rpo

Rpo
RF

RFCR

RFD

RFID

RQD
s
sc
sm
st
Su
Sub
SPT
T
Ta

Tac

Tal

Tf

5-12

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

= hydraulic radius for determining pressures


next to short side of rectangular wall cell
(FT); 5.10.4
= hydraulic radius for determining pressures
next to long side of rectangular wall cell
(FT); 5.10.4
= pullout resistance of soil reinforcement for
level of soil reinforcement under consider
ation (KIPS); 5.9.3
= pullout resistance of wall modules above the
level under consideration (KIPS); 5.10.3
= combined strength reduction factor to ac
count for potential long-term degradation
(DIM); 5.9.3
= strength reduction factor to prevent long
-term creep rupture of soil reinforcement
(DIM); 5.9.3
= strength reduction factor to prevent rupture
of soil reinforcement due to chemical and
biological degradation (DIM); 5.9.3
= strength reduction factor to account for po
tential degradation due to installation dam
age (DIM); 5.9.3
= Rock Quality Designation (DIM); 5.3.1
= horizontal spacing of tie rods (FT); 5.8.6.2.1
= spacing of compression piles (FT); 5.8.6.2.3
= shear strength of rock mass (KSF); 5.5.5.6,
5.7.5
= spacing of tension piles (FT); 5.8.6.2.3
= undrained shear strength of soil (KSF); 5.5.5.6
= undrained shear strength of soil below design grade in front of wall (KSF); 5.5.5.7.2b
= Standard Penetration Test (DIM); 5.3.1
= design force of structural anchor or ground
anchor (KIPS); 5.8.6.1
= long term allowable strength of soil rein
forcement associated with tributary area, At
(KIPS); 5.9.3
= long-term allowable reinforcement / facing
connection design strength per width , b, of
soil reinforcement (KIPS); 5.9.3.5.2
= long-term tensile strength required to prevent rupture of the soil reinforcement (KIPS/
FT); 5.9.3
= wall footing thickness (FT); 5.6.4

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

Th
Thi
Thn
Tk
Tmax
Tn
To

To
Tp
Tph
TT

Tult
Tult
Tult

Tult

Va

Vb

Vn

= horizontal component of ground anchor de


sign force (KIPS); 5.8.6.3
= horizontal component of design force in
anchor at level i (KIPS/FT); 5.5.5.7
= horizontal component of ground anchor design force at, nth , level (KIPS); 5.8.6.3
= width of wall footing key (FT); 5.6.4
= maximum soil reinforcement load (KIPS);
5.9.3
= design force of ground anchor at, nth, level
(KIPS); 5.8.6.3
= tie rod force that provides equilibrium of
horizontal forces acting on the wall over the
height, H+Do (KIPS); 5.8.6.2
= maximum soil reinforcement tensile load at
the wall face (KIPS); 5.9.3
= axial force in tension pile (KIPS); 5.8.6.2.3
= horizontal component of axial force in a
battered tension pile(KIPS); 5.8.6.2.3
= applied test load at failure applied to soil
reinforcement connection (KIPS/FT);
5.9.3.5.1
= ultimate capacity of a structural anchor
(KIPS); 5.8.6.2
= ultimate capacity of an anchor pile (KIPS);
5.8.6.2.2
= ultimate capacity per tie rod of a continuous
pile anchor with tie rods at a spacing, s , or
ultimate capacity of an individual pile an
chor (KIPS); 5.8.6.2.3
= ultimate tensile strength of soil reinforcement determined from wide width tensile
tests for geotextiles and geogrids or rib ten
sile test for geogrid (KIPS/FT); 5.9.3
= total vertical frictional force per unit width
of wall cell perimeter over depth, y (KIPS/
FT); 5.10.4
= total vertical frictional force per unit width
of short side of rectangular cell over depth,
y (KIPS/FT); 5.10.4
= total vertical frictional force per unit width
of long side of rectangular cell over depth,y
(KIPS/FT); 5.10.4
= nominal shear strength of reinforced con
crete crib wall member (KIPS); 5.10.4

Vp

W
W

W
Wc
Wu
x
xw
y
y

= vertical shear force associated with develop


ment of plastic moments in reinforced con
crete crib wall member (KIPS); 5.10.4
= resultant weight of failure wedge per unit
width of wall (KIPS/FT) ; 5.5.5.5
= resultant weight of wall including any foot
ing key, the backfill above the footing, and
any surcharge loads acting above the foot
ing width per unit width of wall (KIPS/FT);
5.6.4
= weight of pile cap and pile cap cover for pile
anchor (KIPS/FT); 5.8.6.2.3
= total weight of wall fill in cell over depth, y
(KIPS); 5.10.4
= segmental facing block unit width from front
to back (IN); 5,9.3.6.3
= horizontal distance from point of load appli
cation to the back of the wall (FT); 5.5.5.10
= horizontal distance from toe of footing to
location at which, W , acts (FT); 5.6.4
= height above base of wall to location of
point of application of, Pa (FT); 5.5.5.8
= horizontal distance from the point on the
back of the wall at which, Dph , is being
determined to a plane which is perpendicu
lar to the wall and which passes through the
point of load application measured along
the back of wall (FT); 5.5.5.10

y
y

= indicator of batter of wall (DIM); 5.10.1


= depth below top of wall cell fill at which
pressures are being determined (FT); 5.10.4

= vertical distance from bottom of footing to

ya

level of application of, Pa (FT); 5.6.4


= vertical distance from the bottom of embed
ment, Do , to the level at which, Pa , acts on
an anchor pile (FT); 5.8.6.2.2

yo

yp

= vertical distance from bottom of wall foot


ing to the level of application of, Po (FT);
5.6.4
= vertical distance from the bottom of embed
ment, Do , to the level at which, Pp , acts on
an anchor pile (FT) ; 5.8.6.2.2
= depth below the surface of earth at pressure
surface (FT); 5.5.5.1

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

5-13

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

z2
z3

a
a
ai
ao
b
b
d
d

5-14

= vertical distance from the wall backfill sur


face to the level at which , Dph , is being
determined (FT); 5.5.5.10
= vertical distance from bottom of footing
elevation or level of applied vertical stress to
level at which, D sv , is being determined
(FT); 5.5.5.10
= vertical distance from finished grade to the
mid-point of , Le , at the level of soil rein
forcement under consideration (FT); 5.9.3
= vertical distance from bottom of footing
elevation or level of applied horizontal force
to level at which, D s H , is being determined
(FT); 5.5.5.10
= depth at which inclined plane for determina
tion of effective width, D1, intersects the
back of wall or pressure surface (FT); 5.5.5.10
= depth of back of wall or pressure surface
overwhich horizontal stress, DsH , from the
applied horizontal force is distributed (FT);
5.5.5.10
= vertical distance from the wall backfill sur
face to the level at which the horizontal earth
pressure resultant is applied (FT); 5.5.5.10
= angle between bottom of wall footing and a
plane passing through the lower front corner
of the footing and the lower front corner of
the footing key (DEG); 5.6.4
= inclination from horizontal of ground an
chor (DEG); 5.8.6.3
= scale effect correction factor (DIM); 5.9.3
= angle between vertical plane and inner
failure surface of Rankine failure wedge
(DEG); 5.5.5.3
= angle between vertical plane and outer fail
ure surface of Rankine failure wedge (DEG);
5.5.5.3
= slope angle of backfill surface behind retain
ing wall (DEG); 5.5.5.2
= slope angle of slope in front of retaining wall
(DEG); 5.5.5.6
= friction angle between backfill material and
back of wall (DEG); 5.5.5.3
= angle of friction between wall footing and
foundation soil or rock (for footings on soil,
d , may be taken as, 2/3 f ) (DEG); 5.6.4

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

Dsh
Dshmax
Dsv
Dsv
Dsv
Dp
Dph
D Pp
D Pp
D Tult
D Wc
e
n
savg

sh
sm
sp
sv

= movement of top of wall required to reach


minimum active or maximum passive earth
pressure by tilting or lateral translation (FT);
C 5.5.1
= horizontal stress at depth, z , due to horizon
tal force at base of continuous footing (KSF);
5.5.5.10
= maximum value for, Ds h , which occurs at the
bottom of footing elevation (KSF); 5.5.5.10
= additional surcharge (KSF); 5.5.5.6
= vertical soil stress at level of soil reinforce
ment under consideration due to concen
trated vertical surcharge loads (KSF); 5.9.3
= vertical stress at depth, z , due to applied
vertical stress (KSF); 5.5.5.10
= constant horizontal earth pressure due to
uniform surcharge (KSF); 5.5.5.10
= horizontal earth pressure on the pressure
surface at back of wall at a distance, z , from
the wall backfill surface (KSF); 5.5.5.10
= force required for equilibrium of soil mass
between structural anchor and anchored wall
(KIPS); 5.8.6.2
= reduction in lateral passive earth pressure
acting on an anchor pile (KIPS); 5.8.6.2.2
= ultimate capacity reduction for a concrete
anchor (KIPS); 5.8.6.2.1
= weight of wall fill in cell over depth, y, not
supported by vertical frictional force at cell
perimeter over depth, y (KIPS); 5.10.4
= angle used in calculating, a i , and, a o , of
Rankine failure wedge (DEG); 5.5.5.3
= Poissons ratio (DIM); 5.5.5.10
= average vertical soil stress at level of soil
reinforcement under consideration due to
weight of soil overburden and distributed
vertical surcharge loads above at level of
soil reinforcement (KSF); 5.9.3
= horizontal soil stress at level of soil rein
forcement (KSF);5.9.3
= vertical soil stress at level of soil reinforce
ment under consideration using the
Meyerhof procedure (KSF);5.9.3
= passive lateral earth pressure at depth H
(KSF); 5.5.5.4
= applied vertical stress (KSF); 5.5.5.10

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

sv
sv
ta

c
f
f

f
fn
r
gc
gf
gr
gs
m
q

= vertical soil stress at level of soil reinforce


ment (KSF); 5.9.3
= vertical soil stress at the mid-point of , Le , at
the level of soil reinforcement under consid
eration (KSF); 5.9.3
= ultimate ground anchor bond stress (KSF);
5.8.6.3
= internal friction angle of reinforced soil mass
or foundation soil,whichever is the least
(DEG); 5.9.2
= resistance factor (DIM); 5.10.4
= angle of internal friction of wall cell fill
(DEG); 5.10.1
= angle of internal friction of soil (DEG); 5.5.5.4
= angle of internal friction of retained soil
(DEG); 5.9.1
= effective angle of internal friction of soil
(DEG); 5.5.5.2
= effective angle of internal friction of founda
tion soil (DEG); 5.6.4
= angle of internal friction of foundation soil
(DEG); 5.10.1
= angle of internal friction of reinforced soil
mass (DEG); 5.9.1
= unit weight of wall cell fill (KCF); 5.10.1
= unit weight of retained soil (KCF); 5.9.1
= unit weight of reinforced soil mass
(KCF);5.9.1
= unit weight of soil (KCF); 5.5.5.1
= tangent of angle of internal friction of wall
cell fill, = tan c (DIM); 5.10.4
= angle from the back face of wall to the
horizontal as shown in Figure 5.5.5.3-1
(DEG); 5.5.5.3

= soil to soil reinforcement interface angle


(DEG); 5.9.2
y, y 1 , y 2 = angle from horizontal to failure surface of
failure wedge (DEG); 5.5.5.5
y
= vertical angle measured from horizontal to
failure surface for internal stability analysis
for walls with extensible soil reinforcement
(DEG); 5.9.3
y
= vertical angle measured from horizontal to
failure surface within retained soil (DEG);
5.9.1

Part B

Service Load Design Method

Allowable Stress Design

5.5

EARTH PRESSURE

5.5.1

General

Earth pressure shall be considered a function of the:

type and unit weight of earth,


water content,
soil creep characteristics,
degree of compaction,
location of groundwater table,
seepage,
earth-structure interaction,
amount of surcharge, and
earthquake effects.

C5.5.1
Walls that can tolerate little or no movement should be
designed for at-rest lateral earth pressure. Walls which
can move away from the mass should be designed for
pressures between active and at-rest conditions, depend
ing on the magnitude of the tolerable movements. Move
ment required to reach the minimum active pressure or the
maximum passive pressure is a function of the wall height
and the soil type. Some typical values of these mobilizing
movements, relative to wall height, are given in Table
C5.5.1-1, where:
D = movement of top of wall required to reach mini
mum active or maximum passive pressure, by
tilting or lateral translation (FT)
H = height of wall (FT)
For walls retaining cohesive materials, the effects of
soil creep should be taken into consideration in estimat
ing the design earth pressures. Evaluation of soil creep
is complex and requires duplication in the laboratory of
the stress conditions in the field as discussed by Mitchell
(1976). Further complicating the evaluation of the stress
induced by cohesive soils are their sensitivity to shrinkswell, wet-dry and degree of saturation. Tension cracks
can form, which considerably alter the assumptions for
the estimation of stress. If possible, cohesive or other fine

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

5-15

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

grained soils should be avoided as backfill and in no


case should highly plastic clays be used.

Type of Backfill

Values of DD /H
Active

Passive

Dense Sand

0.001

0.01

Medium Dense Sand

0.002

0.02

Loose Sand

0.004

0.04

Compacted Silt

0.002

0.02

Compacted Lean Clay

0.010

0.05

Compacted Fat Clay

0.010

0.05

temporarily. If there is no further movement, acitve


pressures will increase with time, approaching the at-rest
pressure, and passive pressures will decrease with time,
approaching values on the order of 40% of the maximum
short-term value. The at-rest pressure should be based on
the residual strength of the soil.

5.5.2

Compaction

For non-yielding walls where activity by mechanical


compaction equipment is anticipated within a distance of
one-half the height of the wall, the effect of additional
earth pressure that may be induced by compaction shall
be taken into account.

C5.5.2
Table C5.5.1-1
Approximate Values of Relative Movements
Required to Reach Active or Passive Earth Pressure
Conditions, Clough (1991)
Under stress conditions close to the minimum active
or maximum passive earth pressures, cohesive soils indi
cated in table C5.5.1-1 creep continually, and the move
ments shown produce active or passive pressures only

Compaction-induced earth pressures may be estimated


using procedures described by Clough and Duncan
(1991).

5.5.3

Presence of Water

If the retained earth is not allowed to drain, the effect


of hydrostatic water pressure shall be added to that of
earth pressure.
Total
Pressure

Earth
Pressure

Water
Pressure

Water

= Table

Depth

Earth
Pressure

Depth Below Water


Table

Depth

Water
Pressure

Total
Pressure
Earth

Water
Pressures

Figure C5.5.3-1 Effect of Groundwater Table

5-16

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS MAY 2008

In cases where water is expected to pond behind a wall,


the wall shall be designed to withstand the hydrostatic
water pressure plus the earth pressure.

ation should be given to address the possibility of excess


pore pressures or soil liquefaction.

Submerged unit weights of the soil shall be used to


determine the lateral earth pressure below the groundwa
ter table.

5.5.5

If the groundwater levels differ on opposite sides of the


wall, the effects of seepage on wall stability and the
potential for piping shall be considered. Pore water
pressures shall be added to the effective horizontal stresses
in determining total lateral earth pressures on the wall.

C5.5.3

5.5.5.1

Basic Lateral Earth Pressure

Basic lateral earth pressure shall be assumed to be


linearly proportional to the depth of earth and taken as:
P = k s z

(5.5.5.1-1)

where:

The development of hydrostatic water pressure on


walls should be eliminated through use of crushed rock,
pipe drains, gravel drains, perforated drains or geosynthetic
drains.
Pore water pressures behind the wall may be approxi
mated by flow net procedures or various analytical meth
ods such as the line-of-creep method as presented in the
US Army Corps of Engineers, EM 1110-2-2502.

5.5.4

Earth Pressure

= basic lateral earth pressure (KSF)

= coefficient of lateral earth pressure taken as,


ko ,for walls that do not deflect or move, or, ka,
for walls that deflect or move sufficiently to
reach minimum active conditions.

= unit weight of soil (KCF)

= depth below the surface of earth at pressure


surface (FT)

Effect of Earthquake

The effects of earthquake may be considered in the


design of retaining walls which support bridge abut
ments, buildings, soundwalls, critical utilities, or other
installations for which there is a low tolerance for failure.
The effects of wall inertia and probable amplification of
active earth pressure and/or mobilization of passive earth
masses by earthquake may be considered.

C5.5.4
The Mononobe-Okabe method for determining
equivalent static seismic loads may be used for gravity
and semi-gravity retaining walls.
The Mononobe-Okabe analysis is based, in part, on the
assumption that the backfill soils are unsaturated and
thus, not susceptible to liquefaction.
Where soils are subject to both saturation and seismic
or other cyclic/instantaneous loads, special consider

The resultant lateral earth load due to the weight of the


backfill shall be assumed to act at a height of h3 above
the base of the wall, where h is the height of the pressure
surface, measured from the surface of the ground to the
base of the wall.

C5.5.5.1
The location of the resultant lateral earth load on the
pressure surface at h3 above the base of the pressure
surface is applicable when the backfill surface is planar
and the backfill is completely above or completely below
the ground water table.
For those situations where the backfill surface is nonplanar and/or the ground water table is located within the
backfill, a trial wedge method of analysis may be used for
the determination of the resultant lateral earth load in
which case the location of the resultant lateral earth load
may be determined by the intersection of a line that is
parallel to the failure surface of the wedge projected from

SECTION 5

RETAINING WALLS

5-17

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

the centroid of the weight of the failure wedge to the plane


of the wall pressure surface. If the projected line is above
the top of the pressure surface, the resultant lateral earth
load may be assumed to act at the top of the pressure
surface.

5.5.5.2

At-Rest Lateral Earth Pressure


Coefficient, ko

For normally consolidated soils and vertical wall, the


coefficient of at-rest lateral earth pressure may be taken
as:

ko = (1 - sin f f )(1 + sin b )

(5.5.5.2-1)

where:
'f

= effective friction angle of soil (DEG)

ko

= coefficient of at-rest lateral earth pressure

C5.5.5.2
The evaluation of the stress induced by cohesive soils
is highly uncertain due to their sensitivity to shrinkageswell, wet-dry and degree of saturation. Tension cracks
can form, which considerably alter the assumptions for
the estimation of stress. Extreme caution is advised in the
determination of lateral earth pressures by assuming the
most unfavorable conditions.

5.5.5.3

Active Lateral Earth Pressure


Coefficient, ka

Values for the coefficient of active lateral earth pres


sure may be taken as:
Coulomb Theory

sin ( Q + f f )
2

ka =

= slope angle of backfill surface behind retain


ing wall (DEG)

G sin 2 Q sin( Q - d )
( 5.5.5.3-1)

For overconsolidated soils, level backfill, and a verti


cal wall, the coefficient of at-rest lateral earth pressure
may be assumed to vary as a function of the
overconsolidation ratio or stress history, and may be
taken as:

0.5

sin(f f +d )sin(f f -b )
G = 1 + (
J

sin(
q
d
)sin(
q
+
b
)


( 5.5.5.3-2)

sinf f

ko = (1 - sin f f )(OCR)

where:
(5.5.5.2-2)

where:

h
Pa

OCR = overconsolidation ratio


Silt and lean clay shall not be used for backfill unless
suitable design procedures are followed and construction
control measures are incorporated in the construction
documents to account for their presence. Consideration
must be given for the development of pore water pressure
within the soil mass. Appropriate drainage provisions
shall be provided to prevent hydrostatic and seepage
forces from developing behind the wall. In no case shall
highly plastic clay be used for backfill.

5-18

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

d
b
O
'f
ka

= height of pressure surface at back of wall


(FT)
= active lateral earth pressure resultant per
unit width of wall (KIP/FT)
= friction angle between backfill material and
back of wall (DEG)
= angle from backfill surface to the horizontal
(DEG)
= angle from the back face of wall to the
horizontal as shown in Figure 5.5.5.3-1 (DEG)
= effective friction angle of soil (DEG)
= coefficient of active lateral earth pressure
(DIM)

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

C5.5.5.3

Rankine Theory

cos b cos f f
2

ka =

(cos b + (cos

b -cos f f )
2

0.5 2

(5.5.5.3-3)
Where d and'f are as defined for Coulombs theory.
For conditions that deviate from those described in Fig
ures 5.5.5.3-2a, 5.5.5.3-2b and 5.5.5.3-2c for Coulombs
theory and Figure 5.5.5.3-3 for Rankines theory, the
active lateral earth pressure may be calculated by using
a trial procedure based on wedge theory.

The Coulomb theory is applicable for the design of


retaining walls for which the back face of the wall inter
feres with the full development of the outer failure surface
in the backfill soil as assumed in the Rankine theory. In
general, The Coulomb theory applies for gravity, semigravity, prefabricated modular walls and non-gravity
cantilevered walls which have relatively steep back faces,
and semi-gravity cantilevered walls with short footing
heels. Both the Coulomb theory and the Rankine theory
are applicable for the semi-gravity cantilevered walls
with long footing heels where the outer failure surface in
the backfill soil as assumed in the Rankine theory can
fully develop. The Rankine theory is applicable for the
design of mechanically stabilized earth walls.

Backfill
Slope

Level

Gravity
Wall

Lateral earth
pressure
distribution

h/3

Pa

Figure 5.5.5.3-1 Notation for Coulomb Active Lateral Earth Pressure

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

5-19

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

Backfill slope

Inner failure surface

Level

Pa

Wedge of backfill
soil slides along
back of wall

Gravity wall

Figure 5.5.5.3-2a Application of Coulomb Lateral Earth Pressure Theories

Surface of sliding

restricted by

top of wall and

heel of footing
Outer failure
surface by
Rankine's
theory
restricted
by wall

Backfill slope

Inner
failure
surface

Level

Pa

Determine lateral
earth pressure on
vertical plane at
heel of footing
'f to 2 'f
3
3
but not greater than

=
___

a b = vertical plane
Semi-gravity wall with short footing heel

Figure 5.5.5.3-2b Application of Coulomb Lateral Earth Pressure Theories

5-20

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

Backfill slope

Inner failure surface

Level

Pa

Wedge of backfill
soil slides along
back of wall

Gravity wall

Figure 5.5.5.3-2a Application of Coulomb Lateral Earth Pressure Theories

Surface of sliding

restricted by

top of wall and

heel of footing
Outer failure
surface by
Rankine's
theory
restricted
by wall

Backfill slope

Inner
failure
surface

Level

Pa

Determine lateral
earth pressure on
vertical plane at
heel of footing
'f to 2 'f
3
3
but not greater than

=
___

a b = vertical plane
Semi-gravity wall with short footing heel

Figure 5.5.5.3-2b Application of Coulomb Lateral Earth Pressure Theories

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

5-21

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

Backfill
slope
Shear zone uninterupted
by stem of wall
(failure wedge)
a

Outer
failure
surface

Level

Pa

Inner failure
surface

b
semi-gravity wall with long footing heel
where:
Pa = lateral earth pressure rsultant per unit width of
___ wall determined by Rankine theory (KIP/FT)
a b = vertical plane
i = (90-'f)+(-) (DEG)
o = (90-'f)-(-) (DEG)
sin
sin = ___
sin 'f

Figure 5.5.5.3-3 Application of Rankine Lateral Earth Pressure Theories with Notation

5-22

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

Passive Lateral Earth Pressure


Coefficient, kp

For non-cohesive soils, values of the passive lateral


earth pressure may be taken from Figure 5.5.5.4-1 for the
case of a sloping or vertical wall with a horizontal backfill
or from Figure 5.5.5.4-2 for the case of a vertical wall and

sloping backfill. For conditions that deviate from those


described in Figures 5.5.5.4-1 and 5.5.5.4-2, the passive
pressure may be calculated by using a trial procedure
based on wedge theory or a logarithmic spiral method.
When wedge theory or logarithmic spiral method are
used, the limiting value of the wall friction angle should
not be taken larger than one-half the effective angle of
internal friction, f .

DEDUCTION FACTOR (R) OF Kp

-0.2

-0.1

0.0

12

.898
.830
.752
.666
.574
.475
.375
.276

.881
.803
.716
.620
.520
.417
.316
.221

.864
.775
.678
.574
.467
.362
.262
.174

11
10

70

80

-0.3
.912
.854
.787
.711
.627
.536
.439
.339

100

-0.4
.929
.881
.824
.759
.686
.603
.512
.414

90

-0.5
.946
.907
.862
.808
.746
.674
.592
.500

-0.6
.962
.934
.901
.860
.811
.752
.682
.600

-0.7
.978
.961
.939
.912
.878
.836
.783
.718

110

10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45

13

-/

120

14

FOR VARIOUS RATIOS OF -/

5.5.5.4

45- f /2

60

7.0
45- f /2

6.0
FAILURE
SURFACE

PT

PP
-

PN

H/3

LOGARITHMIC
SPIRAL

p = k p s H

50

4.0

COEFFICIENT OF PASSIVE PRESSURE, K p

5.0

PASSIVE PRESSURE

PP = k p s H ;
2

3.0

PT = PP SIN
PN = PP cos

NOTE: CURVES SHOWN ARE


FOR

/ f

= -1

2.0

1.0
.8
.6
.5
0

10

20
30
ANGLE OF INTERNAL FRICTION, f , DEGREES

40

45

Figure 5.5.5.4-1 Coefficient of Passive Lateral Earth Pressure for Vertical and Sloping Walls with
Horizontal Backfill ( Caquot and Kerisel Analysis ), Modified after U.S. Department of Navy (1971)

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

5-23

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

For cohesive soils, passive lateral earth pressures may


be estimated by:
Pp = kp gs z + 2c( k p) 0.5

where:
Pp
gs
z
c

(5.5.5.4-1)

= passive lateral earth pressure (KSF)

= unit weight of soil (KCF)

= depth below surface of soil (FT)

= unit cohesion (KSF)

kp = coefficient of passive lateral earth pressure speci


fied in Figures 5.5.5.4-1 and 5.5.5.4-2, as appropriate.

COEFFICIENT OF PASSIVE PRESSURE, Kp

-/f
f
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45

REDUCTION FACTOR (R) OF Kp

90.0
80.0

FOR VARIOUS RATIOS OF -/f

70.0

-0.7

-0.6

-0.5

-0.4

-0.3

-0.2

-0.1

0.0

60.0

.978
.961
.939
.912
.878
.836
.783
.718

.962
.934
.901
.860
.811
.752
.682
.600

.946
.907
.862
.808
.746
.674
.592
.500

.929
.881
.824
.759
.686
.603
.512
.414

.912
.854
.787
.711
.627
.536
.439
.339

.898
.830
.752
.666
.574
.475
.375
.276

.881
.803
.716
.620
.520
.417
.316
.221

.864
.775
.678
.574
.467
.362
.262
.174

50.0

/f = +0.6

/f = + 1

/f = + 0.8

/f = +0.4

/f = +0.2

40.0

30.0

/ f = 0

20.0
/f = -0.2

H
PT

10.0
9.0
8.0

H/3

7.0

FAILURE
SURFACE
90 f
o

PP

LOGARITHMIC
SPIRAL

PN

/f = -0.4

P = KPs H

6.0

PASSIVE PRESSURE
5.0

KPs H ;
2
2

PP =
4.0

/f = -0.6

PT = PP sin ;
PN = PP cos ;

NOTE: CURVES SHOWN ARE


FOR -/f = -1

3.0

/f = -0.8
2.0

PASSIVE
ZONE

/f = -0.9

1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6

10

20
30
ANGLE OF INTERNAL FRICTION, f , DEGREES

40

45

Figure 5.5.5.4-2 Coefficient of Passive Lateral Earth Pressure for Vertical Walls with Sloping Backfill
( Caquot and Kerisel Analysis ), Modified after U.S. Department of Navy (1971)

5-24

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

5.5.5.5

Trial Wedge Method of


Analysis for the Determination
of the Resultant Lateral Earth
Pressure

soil. This movement causes a failure surface to form. It is


assumed that this surface is a plane AM. The wedge of soil
BAM moves downward a small amount along the failure
surface and along the pressure surface. This wedge, whose
weight is,W, is held in equilibrium by the resultant active
pressure, Pa , acting on the surface, AB, and the resultant
force, R, acting on the failure surface, AM. Since the
wedge moves downward along, AB, the force, Pa , acts
with an assumed obliquity,d , below the normal to oppose
this movement. Similarly, the force, R, acts with an
obliquity, f , below the normal because failure is occur
ring along this surface. For any assumed direction of the
failure surface, AM, as defined by angle, y , from the
horizontal, the magnitude of, W, can be determined and
with the directions of ,W, R, and, Pa , known or assumed,
the magnitude of, Pa , can be determined. With the trial
wedge method of analysis, the direction of the failure
surface, AM, is varied until the determined magnitude of,
Pa , is a maximum.

The trial wedge method of analysis is a procedure by


means of which the resultant active and passive lateral
earth pressures may be determined using either Coulombs
or Rankines theories. The only limitation in this method
is that the inner failure surface must be plane or so nearly
plane that assuming a plane surface does not introduce
significant errors. This condition is satisfied when deter
mining active pressures but may not be satisfied when
determining passive pressures when large values of wall
friction and are used. In addition to the conditions shown
in Figures 5.5.5.5. -1 through 5.5.5.5-6 this method can
be applied for conditions where the ground water table is
located within the failure wedge, when seismic accelera
tions are applied to the mass of the failure wedge and
where soils are cohesive.

Figure 5.5.5.5-2 shows the assumptions used in the


determination of the resultant active pressure for a slop
ping ground condition applying Rankine's theory.

Figure 5.5.5.5-1 shows the assumptions used in the


determination of the resultant active pressure for a slop
ing ground condition applying Coulomb's theory. The
pressure surface AB yields by rotating in a counterclock
wise direction about A and may also yield to the left
sufficiently to create an active state of stress in the backfill

Figure 5.5.5.5-3 shows the application of Coulombs


theory for a broken back slope condition for the determi
nation of the resultant active pressure.

Failure wedge
B

Wall

Failure surface
c.g.

Pressure
Surface

'f

Level
A

Figure 5.5.5.5-1 Trial Wedge Method-Active Pressure, Coulomb's Theory

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

5-25

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

In Figures 5.5.5.5-1 through 5.5.5.5-4 the point of


application of the resultant active pressure on the pres
sure surface is determined by passing a line through the
center of gravity (c.g.) of the weight of the failure wedge
which is parallel to the failure surface, AM. The point at

Figure 5.5.5.5-4 shows the application of Rankines


theory for a broken back slope condition for the determi
nation of the resultant active pressure. The direction of
the resultant active pressure is assumed to be parallel to
a line passing through points, V, and, M.

Failure wedge

Pressure
Surface

Inner failure
surface

Wall

c.g.

Outer
failure
surface

Pa

'f
Level

Figure 5.5.5.5-2 Trial Wedge Method-Active Pressure, Rankine's Theory

M
Failure wedge
B

Failure
surface

c.g.

Pressure
Surface

w
Wall

P
A

'f

Level

Figure 5.5.5.5-3 Trial Wedge Method-Broken Back Slope-Active Pressure, Coulomb's Theory

5-26

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

pressure surface. The determination of,W, R, and, Pa1, is


similar to the determination of, W, R, and, Pa , shown in
figure 5.5.5.5-3. In the determination of, Pa2, failure
wedge 2 has the forces,Pa2 ,W2 , and,R2 , acting on it plus
the force, R1 , from failure wedge 1.

which this line intersects the pressure surface, AB, or, AV,
is the point of application of the resultant active pressure.
Figure 5.5.5.5-5 shows the application of Coulombs
theory for a broken back slope condition and a broken

Failure wedge

B
M

Pressure
surface

c.g.
Outer failure
surface

Inner Failure
Surface

Pa

'f

Wall

Level

A
The direction of, Pa , is parallel to a line, VM

Figure 5.5.5.5-4 Trial Wedge Method-Broken Back Slope-Active Pressure, Rankine's Theory

Failure wedge 1
M2

M1
Pressure
Surfaces
B

Failure
wedge 2

c.g. 'f R 1

w1

c.g.
1
Wall

Pa1

B'

R 1 '
f w2

Pa2

Failure
surface
wedge 1

Level

Failure
surface
wedge 2

R 2 '
f
Level

Figure 5.5.5.5-5 Trial Wedge Method-Broken Back Slope and Broken Pressure Surface-Active Pressure,
Coulomb's Theory

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

5-27

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

Pressure
surface
B
Pp

Failure wedge
c.g.

Level

w
Structure

'

Failure surface

Figure 5.5.5.5-6 Trial Wedge Method-Passive Pressure, Coulomb's Theory

Figure 5.5.5.5-6 shows the assumptions used in the


determination of the resultant passive pressure for a
broken back slope condition applying Coulombs theory.
The pressure surface, AB, moves toward the backfill soil
by rotating in a clockwise direction about, A, and may
also translate to the right sufficiently to create a passive
state of stress in the backfill soil. This movement causes
a failure surface to form. It is assumed that this surface is
a plane, AM. The wedge of soil, BAM, moves downward
along the failure surface and also upward relative to the
pressure surface of the structure. This wedge, whose
weight is, W, is held in equilibrium by the resultant
passive pressure, Pp , acting on the surface, AB, and the
resultant force,R , acting on the failure surface, AM. Since
the wedge moves upward along, AB, the force, Pp , acts
with an assumed obliquity,d , above the normal to oppose
this movement. Similarly, the force, R , acts with an
obliquity, f , to the normal in a direction that opposes
movement of the wedge along the failure surface. For any
assumed direction of the failure surface, AM, as defined
by angle y from the horizontal, the directions of, W, R,
and, Pp , are known or assumed, and the magnitude of,Pp,
can be determined. With the trial wedge method of
analysis, the direction of the failure surface, AM, is varied
until the determined magnitude of,Pp , is a minimum. The
point of application of the resultant passive pressure on
the pressure surface is determined by passing a line
through the center of gravity (c.g.) of the weight of the
failure wedge which is parallel to the failure surface, AM.

5-28

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

The point at which this line intersects the pressure surface,


AB, is the point of application of the resultant passive
pressure.

5.5.5.6

Lateral Earth Pressures For


Non-Gravity Cantilevered
Walls

For permanent walls, the simplified lateral earth pres


sure distributions shown in Figures 5.5.5.6-1 and 5.5.5.6
2 may be used. If walls will support or are supported by
cohesive soils for temporary applications, the walls may
be designed based on total stress methods of analysis and
undrained shear strength parameters. For this latter case,
the simplified lateral earth pressure distributions shown
in Figures 5.5.5.6-3, and 5.5.5.6-4 may be used with the
following restrictions:
The ratio of total overburden pressure to undrained
shear strength,NS (see Article 5.5.5.7.2), must be <3
at the design grade in front of wall.
The active lateral earth pressure acting over the wall
height, H, shall not be less than 0.25 times the
effective overburden pressure at any depth, or 0.036
KSF/FT of wall height, which ever is greater.

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

For temporary walls with vertical elements embedded


in granular soil or rock and retaining cohesive soil,
Figures 5.5.5.6-1 and 5.5.5.6-2 may be used to determine
the lateral earth pressure distributions on the embedded
portion of the vertical elements and Figure 5.5.5.6-4 may
be used to determine the lateral earth pressure distribu
tion due to the retained cohesive soil.

The lateral earth pressure distributions in Figures


5.5.5.6-1 thru 5.5.5.6-4 shown acting on the embedded
portion of vertical wall elements shall be applied to the
effective width, b', of discrete vertical wall elements. See
Article 5.7.6 for effective widths of discrete vertical wall
elements to be used.

k a1 s1
k a2 s1 H
H

Soil 1
( s1 ,' f1 )

Finished Grade

Design
Grade

'
k a2 s2

Do

k p2 s2
1

Soil 2
( s2 ,' f2 )
1

Note: The value of ' is negative for the slope shown.

Figure 5.5.5.6-1 Simplified Lateral Earth Pressure Distributions for Permanent Non-gravity Cantilevered

Walls with Vertical Wall Elements Embedded in Granular Soil and Retaining Granular Soil

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

5-29

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

k as
1

Soil
( s , 'f )

Finished Grade

'

D0

Design
Grade

Rock
(s m )
F

Note: The value for ' is negative


for the slope shown.

Pp =

s m(Do+b 2 )
(1-tan ')

where:
b = Actual width of embedded discrete vertical wall element
below design grade in plane of wall (feet)
Pp = Passive resistance of the rock acting on the actual width of the
embedded discrete vertical wall element (KIP/FT)

Figure 5.5.5.6-2 Simplified Lateral Earth Pressure Distributions for Permanent Non-gravity Cantilevered

Walls with Discrete Vertical Wall Elements Embedded in Rock and Retaining Granular Soil

5-30

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

Treat sloping backfill above top of wall


within the active failure wedge as additional
surcharge ( v) for determining the active
lateral earth pressure on the embedded
wall element

k as

Active failure
wedge failure
surface

Design
Grade

Granular
Soil
( s1, 'f )

Do

Cohesive
Soil
( s2 , S u )

F
2Su
( s1 H+ v -2S u )

Figure 5.5.5.6-3 Simplified Lateral Earth Pressure Distributions for Temporary Non-gravity Cantilevered

Walls with Vertical Wall Elements Embedded in Cohesive Soil and Retaining Granular Soil

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

5-31

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

Treat sloping backfill above top of wall


within the active failure wedge as additional
surcharge ( v) for determining the active
lateral earth pressure.

2Su1

Active failure
wedge failure
surface

s
Design
Grade

Cohesive
Soil
( s1 , Su1)

Do

Cohesive
Soil
( s2 , Su2)

2Su2

H+ -2S
u2
s1
v
H+ -2S
s1
v
u1

Note: A portion of negative loading at top of wall due to cohesion


is ignored and hydrostatic pressure in a tension crack
should be considered, but is not shown.

Figure 5.5.5.6-4 Simplified Lateral Earth Pressure Distributions for Temporary Non-gravity Cantilevered

Walls with Vertical Wall Elements Embedded in Cohesive Soil and Retaining Cohesive Soil

5-32

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

For anchored walls restrained by tie rods and structural


anchors, the lateral earth pressure acting on the wall may
be determined in accordance with Article 5.5.5.6.
For anchored walls constructed from the top down and
restrained by ground anchors (tieback anchors), the lat
eral earth pressure acting on the wall height, H, may be
determined in accordance with Articles 5.5.5.7.1 and
5.5.5.7.2.
For anchored walls constructed from the bottom up
and restrained by a single level of ground anchors located
not more than one third of the wall height, H, above the
bottom of the wall, the total lateral earth pressure, PTotal,
acting on the wall height, H, may be determined in
accordance with Article 5.5.5.7.1 with distribution as
sumed to be linearly proportional to depth and a maxi
2PTotal
mum pressure equal to,
. For anchored walls
H
constructed from the bottom up and restrained by mul
tiple levels of ground anchors, the lateral earth pressure
acting on the wall height, H, may be determined in
accordance with Article 5.5.5.7.1.

In developing the lateral earth pressure for design of an


anchored wall, consideration shall be given to wall dis
placements that may affect adjacent structures and/or
underground utilities.

C5.5.5.7
In the development of lateral earth pressures, the
method and sequence of wall construction, the rigidity of
the wall/anchor system, the physical characteristics and
stability of the ground mass to be supported/retained,
allowable wall deflections, anchor spacing and prestress
and the potential for anchor yield should be considered.

2
H
3 1

Lateral Earth Pressures for


Anchored Walls

H1

5.5.5.7

T h1

H1

2
H
3 1

H2

T h2

2
H
3 n+1

Design
Grade

T hn

Design
Grade

Hn+1

2
(H - H 1)
3

Hn

1
H
3

T h1

2
H
Note: H1 <

a) Wall with a single level of anchors

b) Wall with multiple levels of anchors

Figure 5.5.5.7.1-1 Lateral Earth Pressure Distributions for Anchored Walls Constructed from the Top Down
in Cohesionless Soils

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

5-33

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

5.5.5.7.1

Cohesionless Soils

The lateral earth pressure distribution for the design of


temporary or permanent anchored walls constructed in
cohesionless soils may be determined using Figure
5.5.5.7.1-1, for which the maximum ordinate, pa, of the
pressure diagram is determined as follows:
For walls with a single level of anchors :

pa =

5.5.5.7.2

Cohesive Soils

The lateral earth pressure distribution for cohesive


soils is related to the stability number, NS, which is
defined as:

PTotal
2
3

(H -

PTotal

1
3

Ns =

(5.5.5.7.1-1)

For walls with multiple levels of anchors:

pa =

= design reaction force at design grade


at bottom of wall to be resisted by
embedded portion of wall (KIP/FT)

H1 - 31 H n +1 )
(5.5.5.7.1-2)

g sH
Su

where:
g s

= total unit weight of soil (KCF)

= wall design height (FT)

Su

= average undrained shear strength of


soil (KSF)

where:
pa

= maximum ordinate of pressure dia

gram (KSF)

PTotal = total lateral load required to be ap


plied to the wall face to provide a factor
of safety equal to 1.3 for the retained
soil mass when stability is analyzed
using an appropriate limiting equilib
rium method of analysis. Except that
PTotal, shall not be less than 1.44 Pa. (KIP)
Pa

= active lateral earth pressure resultant


acting on the wall height, H, and deter
mined using Coulombs theory with a
wall friction angle, d, equal to zero. (KIP)

= wall design height (FT)

H1

= distance from ground surface at top of


wall to uppermost level of anchors. (FT)

Hn+1

= distance from design grade at bottom


of a wall to lowermost level of anchors (FT)

Thi

= horizontal component of design force


in anchor at level i (KIP/FT)

5-34

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

5.5.5.7.2a

Stiff to Hard

For temporary anchored walls in stiff to hard cohesive


soils ( N s <_ 4), andb= zero, the lateral earth pressure may
be determined using Figure 5.5.5.7.1-1, with the maxi
mum ordinate, pa, of the pressure diagram determined as:
pa = 0.2 g s H to 0.4 g s H
(5.5.5.7.2a 1)
where:
pa

= maximum ordinate of pressure diagram


(KSF)

gs

= total unit weight of soil (KCF)

= wall design height (FT)

For permanent anchored walls in stiff to hard cohesive


soils, the lateral earth pressure distributions described in
Article 5.5.5.7.1 may be used with, PTotal, based on the
drained friction angle of the cohesive soil. For permanent
walls, the distribution (permanent or temporary) result
ing in the maximum total force shall be used for design.

H
4

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

Th1

Design
Grade

3H

Th2

Th3

pa

Figure 5.5.5.7.2b-1 Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution for Anchored Walls Constructed from the Top Down
in Soft to Medium Stiff Cohesive Soils

pa = ka g s H

C5.5.5.7.2a
In the absence of specific experience in a particular
soil deposit, pa=0.3g sH should be used for the maximum
pressure ordinate when the anchors are locked off at 75
percent of the design force or less. Where anchors are to
be locked off at 100 percent of the design force or greater,
a maximum pressure ordinate of pa=0.4g sH should be
used.
For temporary walls the lateral earth pressure distribu
tions in Figure 5.5.5.7.1-1 should only be used for exca
vations of controlled short duration, where the soil is not
fissured and where there is no available free water.

5.5.5.7.2b

Soft to Medium Stiff

The lateral earth pressure on temporary or permanent


walls in soft to medium stiff cohesive soils (NS >
_ 6) and
b =zero, may be determined, using Figure 5.5.5.7.2b-1 for
which the maximum ordinate,pa, of the pressure diagram
is determined as:

(5.5.5.7.2b-1)

where:
pa

= maximum ordinate of pressure diagram


(KSF)

ka

= coefficient of active lateral earth pres


sure from Equation 5.5.5.7.2b-2

gs

= total unit weight of soil (KCF)

= wall design height (FT)

The coefficient of active lateral earth pressure,ka, may


be determined by:

4S
d 1 - 5.14Sub
ka = 1 - u +2 2 (
0.22
g sH
H g s H J
(5.5.5.7.2b-2)

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

5-35

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

where:
Su

= undrained shear strength of retained soil


(KSF)

Sub

= undrained shear strength of soil below


design grade in front of wall (KSF)

gs

= total unit weight of retained soil (KCF)

= wall design height (FT)

= depth of potential base failure surface


below the design grade in front of wall
(FT)

For permanent anchored walls in soft to medium clay,


long-term lateral earth pressures determined using drained
shear strengths and effective stresses may be greater than
pressures determined using undrained strengths and
should be considered in design.

C5.5.5.7.2b
For soils with 4<Ns<6, use the larger , pa , from
Equations 5.5.5.7.2a-1 and 5.5.5.7.2b-1.

The value of, d , is taken as the thickness of soft to


medium stiff cohesive soil below the design grade in front
of the wall up to a maximum value of,Be / 2 , where,Be
, is the width of excavation in front of the wall.

Lateral Earth Pressures For


Mechanically Stabilized Earth
Walls

The lateral active earth pressure resultant applied to


the back of an MSE wall as shown in Figures 5.5.5.8-1,
5.5.5.8-2 and 5.5.5.8-3 shall be determined using the
Rankine theory in accordance with Articles 5.5.5.1,
5.5.5.3 and 5.5.5.5.

Retained
soil

y= h

H=h

Reinforced
soil

5.5.5.8

Soil reinforcement

Figure 5.5.5.8-1 Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution and Resultant for MSE Wall with Level
Backfill Surface

5-36

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

h-H

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

Retained
soil

Pa

Pv

Reinforced
soil

y= h

Ph

Soil reinforcement

Figure 5.5.5.8-2 Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution and Resultant for MSE Wall with Sloping

Backfill Surface

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

5-37

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

h-H

Retained
soil

Failure surface

Pv

Pa

Reinforced
soil

Ph

Soil reinforcement

Figure 5.5.5.8-3 Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution and Resultant for MSE Wall with Broken Back
Backfill Surface
where:
Pa

= active lateral earth pressure resultant per


length of wall under consideration
determined by Rankine theory (KIP)

Ph

= horizontal component of, Pa (KIP)

Pv

= vertical component of, Pa (KIP)

= design height of wall (FT)

= height of pressure surface at back of wall


(FT)

5-38

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

= length of soil reinforcement (FT)

= height above base of wall to location of


point of application of, Pa, see Article
C5.5.5.1 (FT)

= slope of backfill surface behind wall


(DEG)

= notional slope of backfill associated


with broken back backfill surface behind
wall (DEG)

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

5.5.5.9

Lateral Earth Pressures For


Prefabricated Modular Walls

.

.

The lateral active earth pressure for the design of


prefabricated modular walls may be determined using
Coulombs theory as presented in Figures 5.5.5.3-1 and
5.5.5.3-2c.

5.5.5.10

(a + b )

b +

(a + b )

P=

arctan ( a + b ) - arctan b

90
h
h
ph

z =

(
(

(a + b )

arctan

(a + b )

- arctan

(5.5.5.10.1-1)

(a + b )

where:
+

= constant horizontal earth pressure due to


uniform surcharge (KSF)

(
(
(

= uniform surcharge applied to the wall


backfill surface within the limits of the
active failure wedge (KSF)

90 - arctan

(a + b )

(a

)
)

h
- arctan

b
h

b
h

+ b)

)
)

(a + b )

90 - arctan

2 h arctan

b
h

2 h arctan

= coefficient of lateral earth pressure due to


surcharge

b
arctan

2 h arctan

qs

(5.5.5.10.2-2)

Where a uniform surcharge is present, a constant


horizontal earth pressure shall be added to the basic
lateral earth pressure. This constant earth pressure may be
taken as:

k s

.
'

5.5.5.10.1 Uniform Surcharge Loads

Dp

(5.5.5.10.2-1)

Surcharge Loads

Dp = ksqs

' .

- 57.30 a h
- arctan

For active earth pressure conditions, ks , shall be


taken as, ka, and for at-rest conditions, ks , shall be taken
as, ko.

b
h

(5.5.5.10.2-3)
where:

5.5.5.10.2 Uniformly Loaded Strip Parallel


to Wall
The horizontal earth pressure distribution and result
ant applied to the back of a wall due to a uniformly loaded
strip parallel to the wall may be taken as:

D ph =

2p
p

p
z
z
arccot
-arc cot

180
a+b
b

Dph

= horizontal earth pressure on the pressure


surface at back of wall at a distance,z, from the
wall backfill surface (KSF)

= vertical distance from the wall backfill sur


face to the level at which Dph is being deter
mined (KT)

= horizontal earth pressure resultant acting on


the pressure surface at back of wall (KIPS/FT)

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

5-39

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

_
z

= vertical distance from the wall backfill sur


face to the level at which the horizontal earth
pressure resultant is applied (FT)

= height of pressure surface at back of wall (FT)

= load intensity of strip load parallel to wall


(KSF)

= width of strip load (FT)

= distance from pressure surface to near edge


of strip load (FT)

5.5.5.10.3

Point Load

The horizontal earth pressure applied to the back of a


wall due to a vertical point load my be taken as:

D ph =

3x z (
- 1 - 2v )
p
R
p

x -y
2

Rr

(R + z )

y z
3

Rr

(5.5.5.10.3-1)
where:

C5.5.5.10.2
Equations 5.5.5.10.2-1 and 5.5.5.10.2-2 are based on
the assumption that the wall does not move (i.e. walls
which have a high degree of structural rigidity or re
strained at the top combined with an inability to slide in
response to applied loads). For flexible walls, this as
sumption can be conservative.

= vertical point load (KIP)

= radial distance from point of load applica


tion to the point on the back of the wall at
which, Dph , is being determined where,
R = ( x2 + y2 +z2 ) (FT)
0.5

= horizontal distance from the point of load


application to the back of the wall (FT)

_
z

p
Back of wall
or pressure
surface

Design
grade

Figure 5.5.5.10.2-1 Horizontal Earth Pressure on Wall Due to Uniformly Loaded Strip Parallel to Wall

5-40

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

= horizontal distance from the point on the


back of the wall at which, Dph , is being
determined to a plane which is perpendicular
to the wall and which passes through the point
of load application measured along the back
of wall (FT).

C5.5.5.10.3

= vertical distance from the point of load


application to the elevation of the point on the
back of the wall at which, Dph , is being
determined (FT)

Poisson's ratio for soils varies from about 0.25 to 0.5,


with lower values more typical for granular and stiff
cohesive soils and higher values more typical for soft
cohesive soils.

= ( x2 + y2) (FT)

= Poissons ratio (DIM)

The horizontal earth pressure on a wall due to other


vertical load conditions may be approximated by super
imposing the effects of closely spaced point loads which
are equivalent to the actual load in magnitude and distri
bution.

0.5

Equation 5.5.5.10.3-1 is based on the assumption that


the wall does not move. For flexible walls, this assump
tion can be conservative.

x
P

Back of wall
or pressure
surface.

Back of Wall
or pressure
surface

Location
of load
application

Design
grade

Vertical Section

Horizontal Section
at

Figure 5.5.5.10.3-1 Horizontal Earth Pressure on Wall Due to Point Load

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

5-41

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

5.5.5.10.4

Uniformly Loaded Strip


Parallel to Wall Flexible
Walls

strip loads may be distributed with depth as shown in


Figure 5.5.5.10.4-1 and horizontal forces may be distrib
uted with depth as shown in Figure 5.5.5.10.4-2.

For flexible walls, i.e. walls relatively free to move


laterally in response to applied horizontal loads, vertical
d
bf

Pv or Pv'

/2

Footing, BxL

Bottom of
footing
elevation

Applied vertical
stress, v
1

bf

Z2

D1

Back of wall
or pressure
surface

D1

For z z2 , D1

For point load, Ds v =

For z z2 ,

where:

= b1 + z
b +z
D1 = 1
+d
2

For continuous footing or strip load,

p
Ds v = v
D1

D1

= effective width for determining vertical


stress at any depth due to applied vertical load
(FT)

bf

= width of applied vertical stress (FT). For


concentrically loaded footings, bf =B. For
eccentrically loaded footings,bf =B-2e', where,

For isolated footing load,

Ds v =

p v
D1 ( L + z )

pv
, (b f = 0)
( D1 ) 2

Figure 5.5.5.10.4-1 Distribution of Vertical Stress with Depth Due to Applied Vertical Stress ( Continued )

5-42

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

e' , is the eccentricity of the footing load, but


bf shall not be greater than B.

Dsv

= vertical stress at depth, z , due to applied


vertical stress (KSF)

= width of footing (FT)

= length of footing (FT)

= vertical distance from bottom of footing


elevation or level of applied vertical stress to
level at which,Dsv , is being determined (FT)

Pv

= vertical load per unit length of continuous


footing or strip load (KIPS/FT)

z2

= depth at which inclined plane for determi


nation of effective width, D1, intersects the
back of wall or pressure surface (FT)

Pv'

= vertical load on isolated rectangular footing


or point load (KIPS)

sv

= distance from center of width,bf , to back of


wall or pressure surface (FT)

= applied vertical stress (KSF)

Figure 5.5.5.10.4-1 Distribution of Vertical Stress with Depth Due to Applied Vertical Stress ( Continued )

d
bf

Bottom of
Footing
elevation

bf/
2
Footing

PH

Z3

2PH
Z3

45+

'f/
2

Back of wall or
pressure surface

Figure 5.5.5.10.4-2 Distribution of Horizontal Stress with Depth Due to Applied Horizontal
Force ( Continued )

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

5-43

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

Dsh max = maximum value for, Dsh , which occurs at


the bottom of footing elevation (KSF)

where:
bf

= width of footing overwhich horizontal force,


PH, is distributed, (bf = B - 2e', but not greater
B) (FT)

B
e'

= width of footing (FT)


= eccentricity of vertical load on footing (FT)

PH

= horizontal force at base of continuous foot


ing per unit length of footing (KIPS/FT)

Dsh

= horizontal stress at depth,z, due to horizon


tal force at base of continuous footing (KSF)

= vertical distance from bottom of footing


elevation or level of applied horizontal force
to level at which, Dsh , is being determined
(FT)

z3

= depth of back of wall or pressure surface


overwhich horizontal stress, Dsh , from the
applied horizontal force is distributed, deter
mined as shown in figure (FT)

= effective friction angle of soil (DEG)

Figure 5.5.5.10.4-2 Distribution of Horizontal Stress with Depth Due to Applied Horizontal

Force ( Continued )

5.5.5.10.5

Live Load Surcharge

A live load surcharge shall be applied where vehicular


load is expected or possible to act on the surface of the
backfill within a distance equal to the wall height behind
the back face of the wall or pressure surface.
The increase in horizontal pressure due to live load
surcharge may be taken as:
D p = k gsheq

heq

= equivalent height of soil for vehicular load


(FT)

g sheq 0.240 KSF for highway loading


If the vehicular loading is transmitted through a struc
tural slab, which is also supported by means other than
earth, a corresponding reduction in the surcharge loads
may be permitted.

(5.5.5.10.5-1)

5.5.5.11
where:
Dp

= constant horizontal earth pressure due to


live load surcharge (KSF)

gs

= total unit weight of soil (KCF)

= coefficient of lateral earth pressure (DIM)

5-44

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

Lateral Earth Pressures for


Restrained Abutments

For abutments, such as rigid frame abutments or proped


abutments, which do not deflect sufficiently to create an
active wedge in the backfill soil, the lateral earth pressure
distributions shown in Figure 5.5.5.11-1 shall be used
whichever controls. Additionally live load surcharge
effects shall be applied.

0.6h
0.2h

0.2h

BRIDGE DESIGN S PECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

k o s h

0.8kas h

where:
ka
ko

= coefficient of active lateral earth pressure


(DIM)

gs

= unit weight of soil (KCF)

= height of pressure surface at back of wall (FT)

= coefficient of at-rest lateral earth pressure


(DIM)

Figure 5.5.5.11-1 Lateral Earth Pressure at Restrained Abutments

5.5.5.12

Reduction Due to Earth

Pressure

For culverts and bridges and their components where


earth pressure may reduce effects caused by other loads
and forces, such reduction shall be limited to the extent
earth pressure can be expected to be permanently present.
In lieu of more precise information, 50% of the earth
pressure effects may be used to reduce the effects of other
loads.

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

5-45

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS AUGUST 2003

5.6
5.6.1

RIGID GRAVITY AND


SEMI-GRAVITY WALL DESIGN

5.6.2

Design Terminology

Refer to Figure 5.6.1-1 for terminology used in the


design of rigid gravity and semi-gravity retaining walls.

Footing Embedment

Refer to Articles 4.4.5.1 and 4.4.5.2 for minimum


requirements for depth of embedment of footings of rigid
gravity and semi-gravity retaining walls. Additionally,
footings shall be founded at a depth that provides a
minimum of 1.5 feet of cover.

Backfill

Back face
Front face

Stem

Buttress

Counterfort

Footing
cover

Construction
joint

~
Toe

Heel
Footing

Footing key

Figure 5.6.1-1 Terms Used in Design of Rigid Gravity and Semi-Gravity Retaining Walls

5-46

SECTION 5

RETAINING WALLS

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS AUGUST 2003

5.6.3

Earth Pressure, Water Pressure and


Surcharge Loadings

Lateral earth pressure loading on rigid gravity and


semi-gravity retaining walls is a function of the type and
condition of soil backfill, the slope of the ground surface
surface behind the wall, the friction between the wall and
soil, and the ability of the wall to translate or rotate about
its base. For walls with footing keys of depth, Dk , which
is greater than the distance, Bk , from the back face of the
footing key to the backface or heel of the wall footing, the
lateral earth pressure loading shall extend to the level of
the bottom of the footing key. Refer to Articles 5.5.5.1
5.5.5.5 for determination of appropriate design lateral
earth pressures.
No vertical wall structure shall be designed for less
than an equivalent fluid with a unit weight of 36 pounds
per cubic foot, except that the maximum foundation
pressure or maximum pile reactions acting on the heels of
wall footings shall be determined by using an equivalent
fluid with a unit weight of 27 pounds per cubic foot.
In developing the total design lateral pressures, the
lateral pressure due to traffic, permanent point and line
surcharge loads, backfill compaction, or other types of
surcharge loads shall be added to the design lateral earth
pressure. Refer to Article 5.5.5.10 for the determination
of design lateral pressures due to surcharge loads.
The resistance due to passive lateral earth pressure in
front of the wall shall be neglected unless the wall extends
well below the depth of frost penetration, scour or other
types of disturbance. Development of passive lateral
earth pressure in the soil in front of a rigid wall requires
an outward rotation of the wall about its toe or other
movement of the wall into the soil. The magnitude of
movement required to mobilize passive pressure is a
function of the soil type and condition in front of the wall
as defined in Table C5.5.1-1.

5.6.4

Structure Dimensions and External


Stability

Gravity and semi-gravity walls shall be proportioned


to ensure stability against possible failure modes by
satisfying the following stability criteria:
Sliding Factor of safety, FSSL 1.5
Overturning Maximum eccentricity of the result
ant force acting on footing base
Wall footing on soil, emax
Wall footing on rock, emax

B
6
B
4

Bearing capacity
Wall footing on soil, FS 3.0 see Article 4.4.7
Wall footing on rock, FS 3.0 see Article 4.4.8

5.6.4.1

Sliding Stability

In the determination of the, FSSL , the effect of passive


lateral earth pressure resistance in front of a wall footing
or a wall footing key shall only be considered when
competent soil or rock exists which will not be removed
or eroded during the structure life. Not more than 50
percent of the available passive lateral earth pressure
shall be considered in determining the, FSSL .
Refer to Figure 5.6.4.1-1 for procedures to deter
mine the factor of safety against sliding. For wall
footings with a footing key, both horizontal and
inclined sliding planes should be considered to
determine the minimum factor of safety against
sliding. For walls with sloping footings procedures
similar to those shown in Figure 5.6.4.1-1 should be
used to determine the factor of safety against sliding.

The provisions of Article 5.5.3 shall apply.


When groundwater levels may exist above the bottom
of wall footing elevation, consideration shall be given to
the installation of a drainage blanket and piping at the
wall excavation face to intercept the groundwater before
it saturates the wall backfill.
In general, all wall designs should provide for the
thorough drainage of the back-filling material.

SECTION 5

RETAINING WALLS

5-47

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS AUGUST 2003

Wall stem
Footing toe

= arctan

Footing heel
P

Tf

PP

Pmax
Q

Dk
B1

B1
c
Pmax = (Q cos Pp sin ) tan f +
cos
(Pmax + Pp cos Q sin )
FS SL =

P cos

c.

FSSL =
a.

Pmax + Pp

where:

Wall footing without footing key


Wall stem
Footing toe

Footing heel
P

Dk

Tf

Pmax
Q1
B1

Footing key

Q2

Q
B

Q = Q1 + Q2
FSSL =
b.

Pmax + Pp
P

Wall footing with footing key and horizontal


sliding plane
Wall stem

Footing toe

Dk

Pmax

Tf

Footing heel
Pp

Wall footing with footing key and inclined


sliding plane

Footing key

= tangential component of force on wall foot


ing (KIP)
Pmax = maximum resisting force between wall foot
ing base and foundation soil or rock against
sliding failure (KIP)
Pp
= passive lateral earth pressure, not to exceed
50 percent of the available passive lateral
earth pressure (KIP)
Q
= normal component of force on wall footing
(KIP)
Q1
= normal component of force on wall footing
within distance B1 (KIP)
Q2
= normal component of force on wall footing
within distance (B B1) (KIP)
B
= width of wall footing (FT)
B1
= distance from toe of footing to front face of
footing key (FT)
B'
= width of wall footing actually in compres
sion (B= B 2e) (FT)
Tf
= wall footing thickness (FT)
Dk
= depth of wall footing key (FT)

= effective angle of internal friction of foun


dation soil (DEG)

= angle of friction between wall footing and


foundation soil, or rock (for footings on
2
soil, , may be taken as, 3 ) (DEG)
c
= cohesion of foundation soil (KSF)
ca
= adhesion between wall footing and founda
tion soil or rock (KSF)

= angle between bottom of wall footing and


a plane passing through lower front corner
of the footing and the lower front corner of
the footing key (DEG)

B1

Figure 5.6.4.1-1 Procedures to Determine the Factor of Safety Against Sliding

5-48

SECTION 5

RETAINING WALLS

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS AUGUST 2003

5.6.4.2 Overturning

forces are generally not considered in determining the


eccentricity of the resultant force acting on the footing
base. For walls with a footing with a deep footing key the
lateral resisting forces shall be considered in determining
the eccentricity of the resultant force acting on the foot
ing base. In the determination of the eccentricity, the
horizontal resisting force acting on the toe of the footing
shall not exceed the at-rest lateral earth pressure.

Stability of a wall against overturning is evaluated by


determining the eccentricity of the resultant force acting
on the footing base.
For walls with a footing with no footing key or with a
footing with a shallow footing key, the lateral resisting

Pressure
surface

Pav

xw

Pa
W
Pah

cL Footing

Tf

Pmax

Dk

Pp
Q
Tk

Bk

Dk < Tf
Bk > Dk , when Bk < Dk , the pressure surface of height, h , extends to bottom of footing key

e=

QB
2

+ Pah y Pav B Wxw

Figure 5.6.4.2-1

Procedures to Determine the Eccentricity of the Resultant Force Acting on the Wall
Footing Base ( Continued )

SECTION 5

RETAINING WALLS

5-49

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS AUGUST 2003

Pressure
surface

xw

Pav

Pa

Pah

yo

cL Footing
Po

Tf

P
O
Q

Pr

Dk

Pmax
Tk

Bk

Pr = P Po , and ( Pr Pmax ) 0.5Pp

Bk Dk , when Bk > Dk , the pressure surface of height, h, extends to the bottom of the footing.

e=

D
QB
+ Pr ( 2k )
o o
2 + Pah y PavBWxw Py

Q
b. Wall with deep footing key

Figure 5.6.4.2-1

5-50

Procedures to Determine the Eccentricity of the Resultant Force Acting on the Wall

Footing Base ( Continued )

SECTION 5

RETAINING WALLS

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS AUGUST 2003

where:
P a = lateral earth pressure resultant per unit width
of wall acting on pressure surface at back of
wall (KIPS/FT)

= eccentricity of resultant force acting on foot


ing base from center of footing (FT)

= wall design height (FT)

Tk = width of wall footing key (FT)


Pav = vertical component of, Pa (KIPS/FT)
P ah = horizontal component of, Pa (KIPS/FT)

= vertical distance from bottom of footing to


level of application of, Pa (FT)

= height of pressure surface at back of wall (FT)

Bk = distance from heel of footing to back face of


footing key (FT)
Pr = resultant force of uniformly distributed lat
eral resisting pressure per unit width of wall
acting over depth of footing key required to
provide equilibrium to force, P (KIPS/FT)
Pr=P-Po

W = resultant weight of wall, including any footing key, the backfill above the footing, and
any surcharge loads acting above the footing
width per unit width of wall (KIPS/FT)

P o = at-rest lateral earth pressure resultant per unit


with of wall acting on the toe of the wall
footing (KIPS/FT)

xw = horizontal distance from toe of footing to


location at which, W, acts.

y o = vertical distance from bottom of wall footing


to the level of application of, Po (FT)
For other variables, see Figure 5.6.4.1-1

Figure 5.6.4.2-1

5.6.4.3

Procedures to Determine the Eccentricity of the Resultant Force Acting on the Wall

Footing Base ( Continued )

Wall Foundations

See Article 4.45 for procedures to determine the re


quired embedment depth of wall foundations; Articles
4.4.7 and 4.4.8, respectively, for procedures to design
spread footings on soil and rock; and Articles 4.5 and 4.6,
respectively, for procedures to design driven pile and
drilled shaft foundations.

5.6.5

Structure Design

Structural design of individual wall elements shall be


by the service load design method except in special cases
when earthquake forces are considered in which case the
load factor design method may be used. A wall support
ing a soundwall is a special case where earthquake forces
should be considered.

5.6.5.1

Wall Footings

The rear projection or heel of footings shall be de


signed to support the entire weight of the superimposed
backfill, surcharge loads, and a portion of the vertical
component of the lateral earth pressure acting on the
pressure surface located at the heel of the footing, unless
a more exact method is used. The footing of cantilever
walls shall be designed as cantilevers supported by the
wall stem. The footing of counterforted and buttressed
walls shall be designed as fixed or continuous beams of
spans equal to the distance between counterforts or but
tresses.
The critical sections for bending moments in footings
shall be taken at the front and back faces of the wall stem.
The critical sections for shear in the footing shall be taken
at a distance, d, from the front face of the wall stem for the
toe section and at the back face of the wall stem for the heel
section (see Aritcle 8.16.6 when concentrated loads are
present).

SECTION 5

RETAINING WALLS

5-51

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS AUGUST 2003

5.6.5.2

Footing Keys

Shallow unreinforced footing keys shall be propor


tioned such that the key width is at least twice the key
depth. Deep reinforced footing keys shall be designed as
cantilevers supported at the bottom of the footing and
they shall be designed for the load produced by the force,
PR, shown in Figure 5.6.4.2-1b.

5.6.5.3

Wall Stems

The wall stems of cantilever walls shall be designed as


cantilevers supported at the footing. The face walls of
counterfort and buttress walls shall be designed as fixed
or continuous beams. The face walls shall be securely
anchored to the supporting counterforts or buttresses by
means of adequate reinforcement.
Axial loads (including the weight of the wall stem and
frictional forces due to backfill acting on the wall stem)
shall be considered in addition to the bending due to
eccentric vertical loads, surcharge loads and lateral earth
pressure if they control the design of the wall stems.

5.6.5.4

Counterforts and Buttresses

Counterforts shall be designed as rectangular beams.


In connection with the main tension reinforcement of
counterforts, there should be a system of horizontal and
vertical bars or stirrups to anchor the face walls to the
counterfort. These stirrups should be anchored as near to
the outside faces of the face walls, and as near to the
bottom of the footing as practicable.

5.6.5.6

Contraction joints shall be provided at intervals not


exceeding 24 feet and expansion joints at intervals not
exceeding 96 feet for gravity or reinforced concrete walls.
Expansion joints shall be constructed with a joint filling
material of the appropriate thickness to ensure the func
tioning of the joint and they shall be provided with a
waterstop capable of functioning over the anticipated
range of joint movements.

5.6.5.7

Silts and clays shall not be used for backfill unless


suitable design procedures are followed and construction
control measures are incorporated in the construction
documents to account for their presence.

5.6.5.8

Overall Stablility

Refer to Article 5.2.2.3.

NONGRAVITY CANTILEVERED
WALL DESIGN

Reinforcement
5.7.1.

Except in gravity walls, not less than 0.20 square


inches per foot of height or length shall be provided in the
horizontal and vertical directions near the exposed sur
faces not otherwise reinforced to resist the formation of
temperature and shrinkage cracks.
Tension reinforcement at the bottom of the heel shall
be provided if required during the construction stage
prior to wall backfill placement. The adequacy of the
reinforcement shall be checked due to the dead load of the
stem and any other vertical loads applied to the stem prior
to backfilling.

5-52

Backfill

The backfill material behind all retaining walls shall


be free draining, nonexpansive, noncorrosive material
and shall be drained by weep holes with pervious material
or other positive drainage systems, placed at suitable
intervals and elevations. For counterfort walls, there shall
be at least one drain for each pocket formed by the
counterforts.

5.7
5.6.5.5

Expansion and Contraction

Joints

SECTION 5

RETAINING WALLS

Design Terminology

A nongravity cantilevered wall includes an exposed


design height, H, over which soil is retained and an
embedded depth, D, which provides lateral support, see
Figure 5.7.1-1.

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS AUGUST 2003

Finished
grade

Top of wall

Facing

Berm
Finished grade
Design grade
(Bottom of wall)

D0

Discrete vertical
element (soldier pile)
Concrete backfill

Drilled hole

where:
H
D
Do

= design height of wall


= depth of embedment of vertical wall elements for nongravity cantilevered walls (FT)
= calculated embedment depth of vertical wall elements for non-gravity cantilevered walls
required to provide the desired factor of safety by the simplified analysis method (FT)

Figure 5.7.1-1 Terms used in the Design of Nongravity Cantilevered Retaining Walls

SECTION 5

RETAINING WALLS

5-53

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS AUGUST 2003

This type wall may consist of discrete vertical ele


ments, (soldier piles) which extend over the height, H, and
embedment, D, with facing elements over the height, H,
which span between the discrete vertical elements or it
may consist of continuous vertical elements (sheet piles),
which extend over the height, H, and embedment, D,
providing both the facing and lateral support.

Where thin drainage panels are used behind walls,


saturated or moist soil behind the panels may be subject
to freezing and expansion. In such cases, insulation shall
be provided on the walls to prevent freezing of the soil,
or consideration should be given during wall design to
the pressures which may be exerted on the wall by frozen
soil.

5.7.2

5.7.5

Loading

The active lateral earth pressure distributions pro


vided in Article 5.5.5.6 may be used for design. When
determining the value for, ka, for granular soils, the
Coulomb theory should be used with the value for the
wall friction angle, , equal to zero.
The lateral pressure due to traffic, permanent point and
line surcharge loads, backfill compaction or other types
of surcharge loads shall be added to the active lateral earth
pressure. Refer to Article 5.5.5.10 for the determination
of design lateral pressures due to surcharge loads.

5.7.3

Wall Movement

The effects of wall movements on adjacent facilities


shall be considered in the selection of the design lateral
earth pressures. Walls for which little or no movement can
be tolerated should be designed for at-rest lateral earth
pressure.

5.7.4

Water Pressure and Drainage

The provisions of Article 5.5.3 shall apply. Seepage


shall be controlled by the installation of a drainage
medium behind the facing with outlets at or near the
bottom of the wall facing. Drainage panels, when used,
shall maintain their drainage characteristics under the
design lateral earth pressures and surcharge loadings, and
shall extend from the base of the wall to a level not more
than 3 feet below finished grade at the top of the wall.
When timber lagging members are used for the facing, the
provision of gaps between the lagging members is gener
ally sufficient to control seepage. For lagging members
less than 6 inches thick, 3/8 inch gaps may be used, for
lagging members 6 inches or more in thickness, inch
gaps may be used.

Passive Resistance

The passive lateral earth pressure distributions pro


vided in Article 5.5.5.6 may be used for design. When
determining the value for, kp, for granular soils, the
provisions of Articles 5.5.5.4 and 5.5.5.5 may be used.
The embedment of vertical wall elements shall be
designed to support the full design lateral earth, sur
charge and water pressures. In determining the embed
ment depth to mobilize passive lateral resistance, consid
eration shall be given to planes of weakness (e.g., slick
ensides, bedding planes, and joint sets) that could reduce
the strength of the soil or rock determined by field or
laboratory tests. Embedment in intact rock including
massive to appreciably jointed rock which should not fail
through a joint surface, shall be based on the shear
strength, sm, of the rock mass.

5.7.6

Structure Dimensions and External


Stablility

Nongravity cantilevered walls shall be dimensioned


to ensure stability against passive failure of the embed
ded vertical elements such that the factor of safety against
overturning about he bottom of the embedded vertical
elements is greater than or equal to 1.5, FSOT >_ 1.5, when
the simplified lateral earth pressure distributions in Ar
ticle 5.5.5.6 plus any additional surcharge and water
pressures are used.
Where discrete vertical wall elements are used for
support, the width, b, of each vertical element shall be
assumed to equal the width of the flange or diameter of the
structural element for driven sections or elements place
in drilled holes which are backfilled with pea gravel or
lean concrete and equal to the diameter of the drilled hole
for sections encased in structural concrete backfill.
When determining the resultant lateral pressures, both
active and passive, applied to the embedded portion of

5-54

SECTION 5

RETAINING WALLS

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS AUGUST 2003

discrete vertical elements in soil, an effective width of the


vertical elements, b, may be used. For walls with a facing
that is continuous across the vertical elements the effec
tive width shall not exceed two times the width of the
vertical elements (b<_ 2b) . For walls with a facing that is
simply supported at each vertical element the effective
width shall not exceed three times the width of the vertical
elements (b<_ 3b). The effective width used for the verti
cal elements shall not exceed the center to center spacing
of the vertical elements. When determining the resultant
passive lateral pressure applied to the embedded portion
of discrete vertical elements in rock, the width of the
vertical element shall be used.
For vertical elements embedded in soil, the calculated
embedment, Do, shall be increased to determine the
embedment to be used, D, so that,
_ 1.1Do. For vertical elements embedded in rock,
D>
>
_
D Do may be used.
For nongravity cantilevered walls with embedment in
soil, the design height, H, shall be established so that the
finished grade provides a berm in front of the wall face at
least 4 feet wide measured from the face of the wall and
provides a design grade at least 2 feet below finished
grade measured at the face of the wall.
For nongravity cantilevered walls with embedment in
rock the design height, H, shall be established so that
stable conditions will be provided considering the nature
of the rock and slope in front of the wall and the service
life of the wall.

5.7.7

Structure Design

Structural design of individual wall elements shall be


by the service load design method except in special cases,
such as when earthquake forces are considered, in which
case the load factor design method may be used.
The vertical support elements shall be designed for the
full contributory lateral pressures and any vertical loads
if they control the design.
Reinforced concrete facing elements both continuous
and simply supported shall be designed for the full design
lateral pressures, deadload, and any other vertical loads
if they control the design.

Timber or steel facing elements (lagging members)


simply supported at the vertical support elements may be
designed for a reduced bending moment to account for
soil arching except when retaining soft cohesive soils.
When applicable the maximum design moment may be
taken as 0.8 times the calculated moment using the design
lateral pressures. Timber facing elements should be con
structed from stress-grade lumber which has been pres
sure treated with a perservative.

5.7.8

Traffic Barrier

When traffic barriers are placed at the top of nongravity cantilevered walls they shall be constructed on a
support slab which is designed to resist the overturning
due to the design horizontal impact load applied to the
barrier. The support slab shall be designed so only
horizontal and vertical forces are transmitted to the ver
tical support elements of the wall. The support slab
shall be continuous the full length of the wall with no
expansion joints. The horizontal forces from the support
slab applied to the vertical support elements need to be
considered in the design of these vertical support ele
ments. The horizontal force from the support slab shall
be applied to the top of the vertical support elements.
For discrete vertical support elements the minimum de
sign force shall be 20 kips or 3.5 kips times the spacing
of the vertical support elements whichever is greater but
need not exceed 40 kips. For continuous vertical sup
port elements the minimum force shall be 3.5 kips per
foot. These design forces may be considered factored
loads. The design lateral earth pressure from the retained
soil need not be considered to act concurrently with the
above design forces. The calculated embedment, Do,
shall provide a minimum factor of safety against over
turning equal to 1.0 ( FSOT > 1.0 ) for the above loading
using the simplified analysis method.
When traffic barriers are placed at the top of nongravity cantilevered walls embedded in soil or rock, the
minimum design height, H, shall be 6 feet, and the
minimum length of wall and barrier slab shall be 60 feet.

5.7.9

Overall Stability

Refer to Article 5.2.2.3


When conducting a limiting equilibrium method of
analysis, the passive resistance provided by any portion

SECTION 5

RETAINING WALLS

5-55

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS AUGUST 2003

of the wall vertical elements which extend below the


failure surface being evaluated may be used in the
analysis.

5.7.10

Corrosion Protection

Steel vertical support elements should be protected


over their exposed height and a nominal distance below
finished grade with an appropriate coating system.
Steel facing elements and fasteners should be pro
tected with an appropriate coating system.

5.8.
5.8.1

ANCHORED WALL DESIGN


Design Terminology

An anchored wall includes an exposed design height,


H, over which soil is retained and generally an embed

ded depth, D, which may provide vertical and lateral


support plus either structural anchors or ground anchors,
see figures 5.8.1-1 and 5.8.1-2.
This type wall may consist of discrete vertical ele
ments (soldier piles) which extend over the height, H, and
embedment, D, with facing elements over the height, H,
which span between the discrete vertical elements and
one or more levels of anchors or it may consist of continu
ous vertical elements (sheet piles), which extend over the
height, H, and embedment, D, providing both the facing
and vertical and lateral support and one or more levels of
anchors or it may consist of multiple levels of continuous
horizontal elements over the height, H, with anchors at
each level all of which provide the facing and vertical and
lateral support.
The anchors may be either structural anchors or ground
anchors. Structural anchors may consist of concrete
anchors, anchor piles or a pile anchor which are located
a sufficient distance behind the wall to develop lateral

Top of wall

Concrete
Facing

Timber
lagging

Finished grade

Active
pressure
failure
surface
Tie rod

Passive
pressure
failure surface

Discrete vertical
element (soldier pile)

Concrete
anchor

Berm
Concrete backfill
Finished
grade

Design
grade
(Bottom of
wall)

Passive pressure
failure surface

Drilled hole
Active pressure
failure surface
(or critical failure surface)

a) Wall With Concrete Anchor

Figure 5.8.1-1 Terms used in the Design of Anchored Retaining Walls using Tie Rods and
Structural Anchors ( Continued )

5-56

SECTION 5

RETAINING WALLS

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS AUGUST 2003

Top of wall

Finished grade
Concrete
backfill
Drilled
Hole

Timber
lagging facing
H

Tie rod

Berm

Discrete vertical
element (soldier pile)

Finished
grade

Concrete
backfill
D

Design
grade
(Bottom of
wall)

Active
pressure
failure
surface

Anchor
pile

Passive
pressure
failure surface

Drilled hole

Passive pressure
failure surface

Active pressure
failure surface
(or critical failure surface)

b) Wall With Anchor Pile

Top of wall

Finished grade
Pile cap

Waler

Tie rod

Berm
Continuous
vertical elements
(sheet piles)

Finished
grade

Design
grade

Compression
piles
Active pressure
failure surface
(critical failure
surface)

Passive pressure
failure surface

Tension
piles

Pile Anchor
System

c) Wall With Pile Anchor System

Figure 5.8.1-1 Terms used in the Design of Anchored Retaining Walls using Tie Rods and
Structural Anchors ( Continued )

SECTION 5

RETAINING WALLS

5-57

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS AUGUST 2003

Top of wall

Finished grade

Critical failure surface


- internal design

Waler
Leon concrete backfill

Tendon
anchorage

Drilled hole
Ground anchor inclination
Ground anchor tendon
Unb

onde

Timber
lagging
facing

d len

Grout

gth

Bond

ed le

ngth

Berm
Finished
grade

Discrete vertical
element (soldier pile)

Drilled hole

Design
grade
(Bottom of
wall)

Structural Concrete
backfill

a) Wall With Multiple Levels of Ground Anchors and Discrete Vertical Elements

Figure 5.8.1-2 Terms used in the Design of Anchored Retaining Walls using Ground
Anchors ( Tiebacks) ( Continued )

5-58

SECTION 5

RETAINING WALLS

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS AUGUST 2003

Finished grade

Top of wall

Critical failure surface


- internal design
Ground anchor
inclination

Concrete
facing

Ground anchor tendon


Grout

Unbonde
Horizontal
shotcrete
support
element
Finished
grade

d length
Bonded le

ngth

Drilled hole

Design
grade

b) Wall With Multiple Levels of Ground Anchors and Continuous


Horizontal Support Elements (soldier pileless wall)

Figure 5.8.1-2 Terms used in the Design of Anchored Retaining Walls using Ground

Anchors ( Tiebacks) ( Continued )

SECTION 5

RETAINING WALLS

5-59

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS AUGUST 2003

resistance beyond any critical failure surface and tie rods


secured to the wall and structural anchor. Ground anchors
generally consist of prestressing steel elements (tendons)
placed and grouted in drilled holes.These tendons extend
from an anchorage to the wall to an anchor zone (bonded
length) located beyond any critical failure surface behind
the wall. The ground anchor includes an unbonded
length which permits stressing the anchor without trans
ferring forces to the ground within this length and a
bonded length overwhich tendon forces are transferred to
the ground.

5.8.2

Loading

5.8.2.1

The effects of wall movements on adjacent facilities


shall be considered in the selection of the design lateral
earth pressures. Walls that can tolerate little or no move
ment should be designed for at-rest lateral earth pressure.

Walls with Ground Anchors

For the determination of the apparent lateral earth


pressure distributions acting on the wall height, H, the
provisions of Article 5.5.5.7 apply. For the determination
of the active lateral earth pressure distributions acting on
the wall embedment depth, D, the provisions of Article
5.5.5.6 apply. When determining the value for, Ka, for
granular soils, the Coulomb theory should be used with
the value for the wall friction angle, , equal to zero. The
lateral pressure due to traffic, permanent point and line
surcharge loads, backfill compaction or other types of
surcharge loads shall be added to the above lateral earth
pressures. Refer to Article 5.5.5.10 for the determination
of design lateral earth pressures due to surcharge loads.

5.8.3

Wall Movement

The effects of horizontal and vertical wall movements


on the performance of the wall and on adjacent facilities
shall be considered in the development of the wall design.

5-60

Water Pressure and Drainage

The provisions of Article 5.7.4 shall apply.

5.8.5

Passive Resistance

The passive lateral earth pressure distributions, pro


vided in Article 5.5.5.6, may be used in the determination
of the required embedment of the vertical wall elements.
When determining the value for, kp, for granular soils, the
provisions of Articles, 5.5.5.4 and 5.5.5.5 may be used.
The vertical component of the total passive lateral earth
pressure should not exceed the available vertical force
resistance of the wall and the wall anchors.

Walls with Structural Anchors

For the determination of active lateral earth pressure


distributions and additional loadings, the provisions of
Article 5.7.2 apply.

5.8.2.2

5.8.4

SECTION 5

RETAINING WALLS

In determining the required embedment depth to


mobilize passive lateral resistance, consideration shall
be given to planes of weakness (e.g. slickensides, bed
ding planes, and joint sets) that could reduce the strength
of the soil or rock determined by field or laboratory tests.
Embedment in intact rock including massive to apprecia
bly jointed rock which should not fail through a joint
surface, shall be based on the shear strength, sm, of the
rock mass.

5.8.6.1

General

The design of anchored walls includes the determina


tion of the following;


Size, spacing, and depth of embedment of the


vertical wall elements and facing;
Type, capacity, spacing, depth, inclination and
corrosion protection of wall anchors; and
Structural capacity and stability of the wall, wall
foundation and surrounding soil mass for all
intermediate and final stages of construction.

For anchored walls with embedment in soil, the design


height, H, shall be established so that the finished grade
provides a berm in front of the wall face at least 4 feet wide
measured from the face of the wall and which provides a
design grade at least 2 feet below finished grade measured
at the face of the wall. For walls supported in or through
soft clays, the design grade shall be established suffi
ciently below finished grade to prevent heave in front of
the wall.

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS AUGUST 2003

For anchored walls with embedment in rock the design


height, H, shall be established so that stable conditions
will be provided considering the nature of the rock and
slope in front of the wall and the service life of the wall.
Bearing resistance shall be determined assuming that
all vertical components of loads are transferred to the
embedded portion of the vertical wall elements. The
provisions of Articles 4.4.7, 4.4.8, 4.5.6 and 4.6.5 shall
apply.
Where fill is placed behind a wall, either around or
above the tie rods or ground anchors, special designs, and
construction specifications shall be provided to prevent
damage to these elements due to the backfilling opera
tions or due to settlement of subsoil.
For walls in cut where the excavation has advanced to
the level required for the construction of the top level of
anchors, but prior to the installation of the anchors, the
wall shall be analyzed as a temporary non-gravity canti
levered wall and the provisions of Article 5.7 shall apply.
For anchors that are to be load tested against the wall,
consideration of the ability of the retained soil to resist the
anchor test load without excessive deflection of the wall
shall be considered in locating the top level of anchors
and in establishing the design force, T, of the anchors.
Anchored walls must be internally and externally
stable. Internal stability requires the wall anchors to be
located sufficiently behind the wall so that the anchors do
not develop load-resistance from the soil mass retained
by the wall unless the load-resistance is reduced by the
amount developed from the retained soil mass. A wall is
internally stable when any failure surface that passes
between the wall and the wall anchor will have an ad
equate factor of safety with the available anchor resis
tance applied. External stability is satisfied when any
failure surface that passes behind the wall anchors has an
adequate factor of safety. The factors of safety in Article
5.2.2.3 apply.

5.8.6.2

the ultimate capacity, Tult, is greater than or equal to, 2T,


_ 2T.
Tult >
For design of these walls, refer to Figures 5.8.6.2-1,
5.8.6.2-2, and 5.8.6.2-3 and the following procedures;
1. Determine the active lateral earth pressure distribu
tion or at-rest lateral earth pressure distribution if
movements are to be restricted and any additional
loadings. Determine the passive lateral earth pres
sure distribution;
2. Determine the embedment, Do, of the vertical wall
elements that provides a factor of safety equal to 1.0
against rotation about point, O, (level of tie rod);
3. Determine the tie rod force, To, that provides equi
librium of horizontal forces acting on the wall over
the height, H + Do;
4. Determine the tie rod design force, T . For walls with
_ 1.2 To, for
concrete anchors and anchor piles, T >
>
_
walls with pile anchors, T 1.4 To.
5. Design tie rod, tie rod connections, and anchor for
the design force, T. the anchor shall be designed so
that, Tult , of the anchor is greater than or equal to
2 times the design force, T, of the tie rod.
6. For walls with a concrete anchor or anchor piles, if
the passive wedge failure surface of the anchor
encroaches into the active wedge failure surface
behind the wall, determine the force, Pp, required
for equilibrium of the soil mass, abed, between the
anchor and the wall.
7. Determine the embedment, D, for the vertical wall
elements that provides a factor of safety equal to 1.5
against rotation about point, O, (level of tie rod).
Include the driving force, Pp, in the determination
of , D.
8. Design the vertical wall elements assuming a point
of zero moment in the vertical wall elements at
point, b.

Walls with Structural Anchors.

Anchored walls with structural anchors shall be di


mensioned to ensure stability against passive failure of
the embedded vertical elements such that the factor of
safety against rotation about the level of the tie rod is
_ 1.5, and to ensure that
greater than or equal to 1.5, FSR >

When the tie rods are not horizontal, the vertical


component of the tie rod design force, T, shall be consid
ered in the design of the vertical wall elements, tie rod
connections, and anchors.

SECTION 5

RETAINING WALLS

5-61

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS AUGUST 2003

Concrete
anchor

Finished Grade
d

H1

Tie rod
Pa
O
e

Active wedge
failure surface

Passive wedge
failure surface

Wall

Finished
Grade

Design
Grade

Pp
W

R
R

' f
Pa
Forces acting on soil
Mass, abed

Pp
Do

Do

Passive wedge
failure
surface

Assumed point
of zero moment
in vertical wall
elements

Passive
pressure

Active
pressure

Figure 5.8.6.2-1 Anchored Wall with Concrete Anchor

5-62

SECTION 5

RETAINING WALLS

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS AUGUST 2003

Anchor
pile

Finished Grade
d

H1

Tie rod

Pa

Passive wedge
failure surface

Finished
Grade
Design
Grade

Do

Passive wedge
failure
surface

Pp
W

Pp

D o/3

Active wedge
failure surface

' f

Pa
Forces acting on soil
Mass, abed

Passive
pressure

Active wedge
failture
surface

Wall

Do

Assumed point
of zero moment
in vertical wall
elements

Active
pressure

Figure 5.8.6.2-2 Anchored Wall with Anchor Piles

SECTION 5

RETAINING WALLS

5-63

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS AUGUST 2003

Finished grade
Pile cap

a
H1

Tie rod

Active
wedge
failure
surface

Wall
Finished
grade

Design
grade

Tension
piles
Compression
piles

Do

Passive wedge
failure
surface

Pile Anchor
b

Active pressure
Passive
pressure

Assumed point of
zero moment in
vertical wall elements

Figure 5.8.6.2-3 Anchored Wall with Pile Anchor

5-64

SECTION 5

RETAINING WALLS

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS AUGUST 2003

If the wall will support soil or backfill before the


anchor is effective, the wall shall be checked as a nongravity cantilevered wall, see Article 5.7.

= depth of embedment of concrete anchor (FT)

b'

= effective width of concrete anchor (FT)

where :

Concrete Anchors

The ultimate capacity, Tult, of a concrete anchor equals


the total passive lateral earth pressure resistance minus
the total active lateral earth pressure minus any lateral
earth pressure due to surcharge loads acting behind the
_ , it may be assumed
anchor, see Figure 5.8.6.2.1-1. If, d <_ D
2
that the anchor extends to the finished grade and the
ultimate capacity of the anchor is,
Tult = (Pp - Pa) b'

(5.8.6.2-1)

where:
Tult

= ultimate capacity of the concrete anchor


(KIP)

Pp

= total lateral passive earth pressure acting on


height, D, per foot width of anchor (K/FT)

Pa

= total lateral active earth pressure acting on


height, D, per foot width of anchor (K/FT)

= actual height of concrete anchor (FT)

= actual width of concrete anchor (FT)

= horizontal spacing of tie rods (FT)

= depth of concrete anchor cover (FT)

b'

= s for continuous anchors and

b'

b+

h
b
or b + , whichever
2
2

is least but not to exceed, s, for


individual anchors
_ the ultimate capacity, T , of a concrete anchor
If, d > D
ult
2
may conservatively be taken as the total lateral passive
earth pressure acting on the anchor height, h, and effective width, b', minus the total lateral active earth pressure
and any lateral earth pressure due to surcharge loads
acting behind the anchor acting on the anchor height, h,
and effective with, b'. Alternatively, Tult, may be determined from representative full size tests or model tests.
For the determination of the active lateral earth pressure, Pa, and the lateral earth pressures due to surcharge
loads, the provisions of Article 5.7.2 apply.
The passive lateral earth pressure distributions provided in Article 5.5.5.6 may be used for determining, Pp.
When determining the value for, kp, for granular soils, the
provisions of Article 5.5.5.4 and 5.5.5.5 may be used with
the value for the wall friction angle, , assumed equal to
zero.

Finished
grade
c"

c'

Passive wedge
failure surface

Tult

Active wedge
failure surface
Pp

Pa

Active pressure

5.8.6.2.1

Tie rod

e
Passive pressure

Concrete anchor

Figure 5.8.6.2.1-1 Determination of Ultimate Capacity of a Concrete Anchor

SECTION 5

RETAINING WALLS

5-65

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS AUGUST 2003

Concrete
anchor
c
P a'

P 'p

d
d

H1

c"

h'

Finished
grade

Tie rod

Passive wedge
failure surface
wall

Do

Active
wedge
failure
surface

'f
b

Figure 5.8.6.2.1-2 Determination of Reduction of Ultimate Capacity of a Concrete Anchor

The ultimate capacity, Tult, of a concrete anchor should


be reduced when the passive wedge failure surface in front
of the anchor crosses the active wedge failure surface
behind the wall, see Figure 5.8.6.2.1-2. If the anchor is
located between surfaces, bc, and, bf, in Figure 5.8.6.2.1
2, only partial resistance is available. The capacity
reduction, Tult, may be determined as;

h'

= height from intersection of failure surfaces


to ground surface (finished grade) (FT)

b'

= effective width of concrete anchor (FT)

The tie rod connection to the anchor should be located


at the location of the resultant lateral earth pressures
acting on the vertical faces of the anchor.

Tult = (P'p - P'a) b'


5.8.6.2.2

where:

Tult = ultimate capacity reduction for the


concrete anchor (KIP)
P'p

= total lateral passive earth pressure acting on


height, h', per foot width of anchor (K/FT)

P'a

= total lateral active earth pressure acting on


height, h', per foot width of anchor (K/FT)

5-66

SECTION 5

RETAINING WALLS

Anchor Pile

The ultimate capacity, Tult, of an anchor pile is a


function of the moment resistance of the total passive
lateral earth pressure minus the driving moment of the
total active lateral earth pressure and any lateral earth
pressure due to surcharge loads acting on the anchor pile
embedment, Do, and anchor pile effective width, b', see
Figure 5.8.6.2.2-1. If, d <_ b', it may be assumed that the
anchor pile extends to the finished grade and that the
ultimate capacity of the anchor pile is;

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS AUGUST 2003

Tult =

ya

= vertical distance from the bottom of embed


ment, Do, to the level at which, Pa, acts (FT)

Do

= calculated embedment from finished grade


of anchor pile (FT)

= distance from finished grade to top of anchor


pile (FT)

H1

= distance from finished grade to level at


which, Tult, acts on anchor pile (FT)

b'

= effective width of anchor pile (FT)

= embedment from finished grade to be used


for anchor pile (FT)

= total force acting on anchor pile at depth,


Do, required to provide equilibrium of hori
zontal forces acting on the anchor pile (KIP)

( Pp y p Pa y a )
(5.8.6.2.2-1)

( Do H 1 )

where :
Tult

= ultimate capcity of the anchor pile (KIP)

Pp

= total lateral passive earth pressure acting on


height, Do, and effective anchor pile width, b'
(KIP)

Pa

= total lateral active earth pressure acting on


height, Do, and effective anchor pile width, b'
(KIP)

yp

= vertical distance from the bottom of embed


ment, Do, to the level at which, Pp, acts (FT)

Anchor pile
Finished
grade
c'

H1

c"

Active
wedge
failure
surface

Tult
Tie rod

Do

Passive wedge
failure surface

Pp

ya

yp

Pa

Figure 5.8.6.2.2-1 Determination of Ultimate Capacity of an Anchor Pile

SECTION 5

RETAINING WALLS

5-67

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS AUGUST 2003

The passive lateral earth pressure distributions provided in Article 5.5.5.6 may be used for determining, Pp.
When determining the value for, kp, for granular soils, the
provisions of Article 5.5.5.4 and 5.5.5.5 may be used with
the value for the wall friction angle, , assumed equal to
zero.
For the determination of the active lateral earth pressure, Pa, and the lateral earth pressures due to surcharge
loads, the provisions of Article 5.7.2 apply. When determining the active lateral earth pressure, the value for the
wall friction angle, , shall be assumed equal to zero.
When determining the effective width, b', of an anchor
pile, the provisions of Article 5.7.6 apply.

piles embedded in rock, the calculated embedment, Do,


shall be increased to determine the embedment to be used,
D, so that D >_ 1.1 Do.
The ultimate capacity, Tult, of an anchor pile should be
reduced when the passive wedge failure surface in front
of the anchor pile crosses the active wedge failure surface
behind the wall. Where this case occurs, the ultimate
capacity, Tult, may be determined by considering a reduced value for, Pp, acting on the anchor pile. The
reduction in, Pp, is;

Pp = (P'p - P'a) b'


where:

Pp = reduction in lateral passive earth pressure


acting on the anchor pile (KIP)

For anchor piles embedded in soil, the calculated


embedment, Do, shall be increased to determine the
embedment to be used, D, so that D >_ 1.2 Do. For anchor

H1

Finished grade

Tult

Pile cap

Tie rod

bc

bt

Compression
piles

CP

Tension
piles

TP

Figure 5.8.6.2.3-1 Determination of Ultimate Capacity of a Pile Anchor

5-68

SECTION 5

RETAINING WALLS

(5.8.6.2.2-2)

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS AUGUST 2003

= total lateral passive earth pressure acting


on height, h', per foot width of anchor pile
(K/FT)

st

= spacing of tension piles (FT)

H1

= total lateral active pressure acting on


height, h', per foot width of anchor pile
(K/FT)

= distance from finished grade to level at


which, Tult , acts on pile anchor (FT)

= weight of pile cap and pile cap cover (KIP/


FT)

h'

= height from intersection of failure surfaces


to ground surface (finished grade) (FT)

b c

= indicator of batter of compression piles


(DIM)

b'

= effective width of anchor pile (FT)

b t

= indicator of batter of tension piles (DIM)

Cp

= axial force in compression pile (KIP)

Tp

= axial force in tension pile (KIP)

P'p

P'a

5.8.6.2.3

Pile Anchor

Pile anchors generally consist of driven tension and


compression piles and a pile cap for anchoring the tops
of the piles and the end of the horizontal tie rod, see Figure
5.8.6.2.3-1. The ultimate capacity, Tult, of a pile anchor
is a function of the horizontal component of force in the
tension and compression piles. The ultimate capacity of
a continuous pile anchor is;

T ult = s

ph

sc

T ph

st

(5.8.6.2.3.1)

and the ultimate capacity of an individual pile anchor


is;

T ult = C ph +

Tp h

(5.8.6.2.3.2)

where:
Tult

= ultimate capacity of a continuous pile


anchor with tie rods at spacing, s (KIP)
or ultimate capacity of an individual pile
anchor (KIP)

Cph = horizontal component of axial force in a


battered compression pile (KIP)
Tph

= horizontal component of axial force in a


battered tension pile (KIP)

= spacing of tie rods (FT)

sc

= spacing of compression piles (FT)

For the design of the driven piles, the provisions of


Article 4.5 shall apply except that piles may be designed
for sustained tension force. The axial forces, Cp , and, Tp ,
shall be less than or equal to the nominal resistances of the
piles. Lateral earth pressures acting on the piles and pile
cap generally are not considered in determining, Tult .
The pile anchor should be located beyond any critical
failure surface behind the wall.

5.8.6.3

Walls with Ground Anchors

Anchored walls with ground anchors shall be dimen


sioned to ensure that the total lateral load,PTotal, plus any
additional horizontal loads are resisted by the horizontal
component of the anchor design force,T, of all the anchors
and the reaction,R, at or below the bottom of the wall. The
embedded vertical elements shall ensure stability against
passive failure such that the factor of safety against
_ 1.5. In
translation is greater than or equal to 1.5, FSt >
determining the stability of the embedded vertical ele
ments, only the passive resistance below the critical
failure surface or point, o, in Figures 5.8.6.3-1 thru 5.8.6.3
5 whichever is lowest, shall be considered in resisting the
reaction, R, and the active lateral earth pressure below the
critical failure surface or point,o, in Figures 5.8.6.3-1 thru
5.8.6.3-5 whichever is lowest.
When the critical failure surface of the limiting equi
librium analysis associated with the determination of,
PTotal, in Aticle 5.5.5.7 passes a significant distance
below the design grade at the bottom of the wall, then the
ground anchors should be designed to resist the total

SECTION 5

RETAINING WALLS

5-69

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS AUGUST 2003

pa

Finished grade

Wall

Design lateral
earth pressure

1
3

H1

2
3

H1

Critical failure surface

Th1

Design
grade

Ground
anchor

Unb
on
leng ded
th

Finished
grade

bon
ded
leng
th

O
R

Assumed point of zero moment


in vertical wall elements

Note:

Passive
pressure

The critical failure surface


is the failure surface
associated with the
determination of, PTotal .

Active
pressure

Figure 5.8.6.3-1 Anchored Wall with Single Level of Ground Anchors, Critical Failure Surface
Near Bottom of Wall, and

5-70

SECTION 5

RETAINING WALLS

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS AUGUST 2003

pa

Finished grade

Design lateral
earth pressure

H1

Note:

The critical failure surface


is the failure surface
associated with the
determination of, PTotal .

1
3

H1

2
3

Wall

Critical failure surface

1
2

Th1
Finished
grade
Design
grade

Unb

ond

Ground
anchor

ed l

eng
th
bon

ded

leng

th

Note: Point, O, is the assumed


point of zero moment in
vertical wall elements.
Active
pressure

Passive pressure

Figure 5.8.6.3-2 Anchored Wall with Single Level of Ground Anchors, Critical Failure Surface
Near Bottom of Wall, and

H
2
< H1 , H
2
3
SECTION 5

RETAINING WALLS

5-71

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS AUGUST 2003

Finished grade

Critical failure
surface
2 Ptotal
H2

H1

Note:
The critical failture surface
is the failure surface
associate with the
determination
of, P total .

Design
grade

Design lateral
earth pressure

Th1

1
2

Finished
grade

Un
bo
nd
ed
len
Assumed point of
gth
zero moment in
vertical wall elements

Ground Anchor

Bo

nd

Active
pressure

ed

len

gth

Passive pressure

Figure 5.8.6.3-3 Anchored Wall with Single Level of Ground Anchors, Critical Failure Surface
Near Bottom of Wall, and H1

5-72

SECTION 5

RETAINING WALLS

H
3

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS AUGUST 2003

Finished grade
pa
Design lateral
earth pressure

H1

Critical failure surface


Note:

2
3

H1

Wall

H2

Th1

Unb

ond

The critical failure surface


is the failure surface
associated with the
determination of, PTotal .

ed l

Ground
anchor

eng

th
bon

Finished
grade

ded

H3

Design
grade

leng

th

Ground
anchor

2
3

H3

Th2

O
R

Note:
Active
pressure

Point, O, is the assumed


point of zero moment in
vertical wall elements.

Passive
pressure

Figure 5.8.6.3-4 Anchored Wall with Multiple Levels of Ground Anchors and Critical Failure

Surface Near Bottom of Wall

SECTION 5

RETAINING WALLS

5-73

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS AUGUST 2003

Finished grade

H1

Design lateral
earth pressure

Note:
The critical failure
surface is the failure
surface associated
with the determination
of, PTotal .

2
3

H1

Wall

Critical failure
surface

H2

Th1

Unb

ond

ed

Ground
anchor

leng

th
bon

ded

H3

Finished
grade

2
3

H3

Th2

O
Design
grade

leng

th

Ground
anchor

Assumed point of zero


moment in vertical wall elements
where: R = zero

Figure 5.8.6.3-5 Anchored Wall with Multiple Levels of Ground Anchors and Critical Failure Surface a
Significant Distance Below the Bottom of Wall

5-74

SECTION 5

RETAINING WALLS

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS AUGUST 2003

force, PTotal, and the vertical elements of the wall should


be designed as a cantilever from the lowest anchor level
to the bottom of the wall.
For design of these walls, refer to Figures 5.8.6.3-1 thru
5.8.6.3-3 for walls with a single level of anchors and
Figures 5.8.6.3-4 and 5.8.6.3-5 for walls with multiple
levels of anchors and the following procedures;

7. Use the greater of the two embedments, D, in pro


cedures 5 and 6 above;
8. Design the vertical wall elements for all horizontal
and vertical loads. Horizontal supports may be
assumed at each level of ground anchors and at
point, O;
9. Design the ground anchors.

1. Determine the design lateral earth pressure and any


additional horizontal loading acting on the wall
over the design height, H;
2. Determine the passive and active lateral earth pres
sures acting on the embedded vertical wall ele
ments below the point, O, or the critical failure
surface whichever is the lowest;
3. Determine the horizontal component of ground
anchor design force, Th, and reaction, R, that pro
vides equilibrium of horizontal forces above point,
O. For walls with a single level of anchors, take
moments about point, O, to determine, Th1, where
_, point, O,
for walls with, H1, less than or equal to, 2H
is located at the bottom of wall (design grade) and
_ , point, O,
where for walls with, H1, greater than, 2H
H
_
is located, 2 , below the level of the anchors. For
walls with multiple levels of anchors a number of
suitable methods for the determination of, Th, at
each level are in common use. Sabatini, et. al.
(1999) provides two methods which can be used :
the Tributary Area Method, and the Hinge Method.
To determine, R, equate horizontal forces above
point, O, equal to zero;
4. Determine the design force, T, for the anchors at
T
each level, where, T = cosh , and , , equals the incli
nation from horizontal of the anchor;
5. Determine the embedment, D, of the vertical wall
elements required to ensure stability against pas
sive failure;
6. Determine the embedment, D, of the vertical wall
elements required to resist all vertical components
of loads. Only the portion of the vertical wall
elements below the critical failure surface should
be considered in determining the resistance to
vertical loads;

Ground anchors shall be designed to resist pullout of


the bonded length in soil or rock. The allowable pullout
resistance of a straight shaft anchor in soil or rock, Qa , is
computed as;

Qa =

d a Lb
FS

where :
Qa

d
a
Lb
FS

= allowable anchor pullout resistance (KIP)


= diameter of anchor drill hole (FT)

= ultimate anchor bond stress (KSF)

= anchor bond length (FT)


= factor of safety applied to ultimate anchor
bond stress (DIM)

For preliminary design the resistance of anchors may


either be based on the results of anchor pullout load tests;
estimated based on a review of geologic and boring data,
soil and rock samples, laboratory testing, and previous
experience; or estimated using published ultimate soil
and rock to grout bond stresses. Typical values for the
factor of safety, FS, applied to ultimate anchor bond stress
values are 2.0 to 2.5 for soil and 2.5 to 3.0 for rock. Final
design of the bonded length is generally the responsibil
ity of the contractor and is verified by load testing each
ground anchor.
The anchor bonded length shall be located beyond the
critical failure surface in the retained soil mass.
A minimum distance between the front of the bonded
zone of the anchor and the critical failure surface behind
H is needed to ensure that no load from
the wall of 5 feet or _
5
the bonded zone of the ground anchor is transferred to the
retained soil mass by the grout column.
Determination of the anchor unbonded length, incli
nation from horizontal and overburden cover shall con
sider:

SECTION 5

RETAINING WALLS

5-75

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS AUGUST 2003

the location of the critical failure surface in the re


tained soil mass behind the wall,
the minimum length required to ensure minimal
loss of anchor prestress due to long-term ground
movement, but not less than 15 feet,
the depth to adequate anchoring strata,
the method of anchor installation and grouting,
the seismic performance of the wall and anchors.

5.8.10.2

Ground anchors should be protected from corrosion by


complete full-length encapsulation. Encapsulation con
tinuity shall be maintained at transitions in type of
encapsulation including at the wall anchorage.

5.8.10.3
The minimum spacing between ground anchor bonded
lengths should be the larger of three times the diameter of
the bonded length, or 5 feet. If smaller spacings are
required to develop the required anchor design force,
consideration may be given to differing the anchor incli
nations between alternating anchors.

5.8.7

Structure Design

Ground Anchors

Wall Members

The provisions of Article 5.7.10 apply,

5.8.11

5.8.11.1

Load Testing and Lock Off

Structural Anchors

Structural design of individual wall and anchor ele


ments may be performed by service load or load factor
design methods in conformance with Article 3.22. The
provisions of Article 5.7.7 apply.

Consideration should be given to load testing repre


sentative structural anchors when unusual conditions are
encountered to verify the safety with respect to the tie rod
design force.

5.8.8

Tie rods should be secured to the wall with a nominal


force to help establish uniform loading of the tie rods and
anchors.

Traffic Barrier

The provisions of Article 5.7.8 apply

5.8.11.2
5.8.9

The provisions of Article 5.7.9 apply. Failure surfaces


both in front of and behind the wall anchors shall be
evaluated.

5.8.10
5.8.10.1

Corrosion Protection
Tie Rods

Tie rods should be protected from corrosion by com


plete full-length encapsulation and electrical isolation
from the wall and structural anchor at the connections to
these members.

5-76

Ground Anchors

Overall Stability

SECTION 5

RETAINING WALLS

All ground anchors for walls should be load tested with


either a proof test, performance test or creep test. The
maximum test load for an anchor should generally be 1.5
times the design force, T, of the anchor.
Ground anchors for walls are generally locked off
against the wall at a load equal to 0.75 times the design
force, T, of the anchor. Higher lock-off forces may be
considered in order to minimize wall movements or to
develop higher frictional forces between the wall ele
ments and the retained soil mass.
Ground anchors with strand tendons should be locked
-off at a force which produces a stress in the strand of at
least 0.50 fpu of the strand in order to ensure that the strand
wedges at the tendon anchorage maintain a sufficient grip
on the strand to preclude slippage. If this lock-off force
can not be provided, alternative means of restraining the
strand wedges should be provided.

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

5.9

MECHANICALLY STABILIZED
EARTH WALL

MSE walls shall be designed for external stability of


the wall system as well as internal stability of the rein
forced soil mass behind the facing. MSE wall system
design requires knowledge of short and long-term prop
erties of the materials used as soil reinforcement as well

as the soil mechanics which govern MSE wall behavior.


Structural design of the wall facing may also be required.
The design provisions provided herein for MSE walls
do not apply to geometrically complex MSE wall sys
tems such as tiered walls (walls stacked on top of one
another with various offset distances of the front face) or
walls with varying soil reinforcement length over the
height of the wall.

Finished
grade

Pressure surface
for external
stability

Top of wall
for design

Retained soil
f , f

Reinforced soil mass,


r, r , k r

Wall facing
panels or
units

Active Zone
La

Resistant Zone
Le
Failure surface
for external
stability

Berm
Width
Finished
grade
Wall facing
connection

Embedment
Depth

Failure surface for


internal stability

Leveling pad
Soil Reinforcement Length, L

Limits of wall
for design

Wall Base Width, B

Figure 5.9.1-1 MSE Wall Element Dimensions Needed for Design.

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

5-77

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

5.9.1

Structure Dimensions

MSE wall element dimensions needed for design are


shown in figure 5.9.1-1
MSE walls shall be dimensioned to ensure that the
minimum factors of safety required for sliding and over
turning stability are satisfied as well as the eccentricity of
the base reaction not exceeding the maximum allowed. In
addition, the minimum factors of safety for foundation
bearing capacity and soil reinforcement pullout resis
tance shall be satisfied, as well as overall stability require
ments as provided in Article 5.2.2.3.
The soil reinforcement length shall be calculated
based on external and internal stability considerations.
Soil reinforcement length, L , shall be as a minimum 70
percent of the wall height,H , and not less than 8 feet. The
soil reinforcement length shall be uniform throughout
the entire height of the wall, unless substantiating evi
dence indicates that variation in length is satisfactory or
additional length is required locally to resist concen
trated loads. External loads such as surcharges may
increase the minimum soil reinforcement length. Greater
soil reinforcement lengths may also be required for walls
founded on soft soil sites and to satisfy global stability
requirement.
The minimum embedment depth of the bottom of the
reinforced soil mass shall be based on bearing capacity,
settlement and stability requirements, also the effects of
frost heave, scour, proximity to slopes, erosion, and the
potential future excavation in front of the wall shall be
considered. In addition to general bearing capacity,
settlement, and stability considerations, the minimum
embedment required shall consider the potential for local
bearing capacity failure under the leveling pad or footing
due to higher vertical stresses transmitted by the facing.
The minimum embedment depth shall be 2 feet or, 0.1H,
whichever is greater. The lowest level of soil reinforce
ment shall be located a minimum of 0.5 feet below the
level of the finished grade in front of the wall.
A minimum horizontal berm 4 feet or, 0.1H, wide
whichever is greater shall be provided in front of walls
founded on slopes.
For walls constructed along rivers and streams, embed
ment depth shall be established at a minimum of 2 feet
below potential scour depth as determined in accordance
with Article 5.3.5.

5-78

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

5.9.2

External Stability

The length of soil reinforcement for MSE walls shall


be determined to ensure stability against failure modes by
satisfying the following stability criteria:

Sliding Factor of safety, FSSL 1.5

Overturning factor of safety,FSOT 2.0, and


- Maximum eccentricity of the resultant force
L
acting on the base of wall, emax
6

Bearing capacity - factor of safety, FS 2.0.

Stability determinations shall be made assuming the


reinforced soil mass and facing to be a coherent gravity
mass. The design lateral earth pressure acting on the
pressure surface at the end of the soil reinforcement shall
be determined in accordance with Article 5.5.5.8 using
the friction angle and unit weight of the retained soil. For
battered walls with an inclined pressure surface,
Coulombs theory may be used assuming the wall friction
angle, d , equals, b , orB. For standardized wall designs
a friction angle equal to 34 degrees may be assumed for
the retained soil and 30 degrees for the foundation soil.
In developing the total design lateral pressures acting
on the pressure surface, the lateral pressure due to sur
charge loads shall be added to the design lateral earth
pressure. Refer to Article 5.5.5.10 for the determination
of design lateral pressures due to surcharge loads.
When groundwater levels may exist within the rein
forced soil mass and/or retained soil, they shall be consid
ered in stability determinations.
The resistance due to passive lateral earth pressure in
front of an MSE wall shall be neglected in sliding and
overturning stability determinations.
For external stability determinations the weight and
dimensions of the facing elements are typically ignored,
although they may be included.
For external stability determinations traffic surcharge
loads shall be considered to act beyond the end of the
reinforced soil mass.

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

5.9.2.1

Sliding Stability

The factor of safety against sliding , FSSL , shall be


determined by summing the horizontal resisting forces of
the wall and dividing that sum by the summation of
driving forces acting on the wall. The horizontal resisting
forces typically only consist of the normal force acting on
the base of the wall times the coefficient of sliding
resistance. The normal force acting on the base consists
of the weight of the reinforced soil mass, surcharge loads
acting on the top of the reinforced soil mass, and the
vertical component of the design lateral pressure acting
on the pressure surface. The coefficient of sliding resis
tance used to calculate the frictional resistance at the base
of the wall shall be the minimum of the following deter
minations:

Tan at the base of the wall, where is the


friction angle of the reinforced soil or the foun
dation soil, whichever is the least.

Tan r if continuous or near continuous soil


reinforcement layers are used, where, r , is the
soil to reinforcement interface angle for the
bottom of the lowest soil reinforcement layer. If
site specific data for Tan r is not available, use
0.67 Tan for the coefficient of sliding
resistance.

The summation of driving forces acting on the wall


typically consists of the horizontal component of the
design lateral pressure acting on the pressure surface.

5.9.2.2

Overturning Stability

The factor of safety against overturning, FSOT , shall


be determined by summing the resisting moments about
the toe of the wall and dividing that sum by the summa
tion of the driving moments about the toe of the wall. The
lower front corner of the reinforced soil mass is typically
assumed as the toe of the wall. The resisting moments are
typically provided by the weight of the reinforced soil
mass, surcharge loads acting on the top of the reinforced
soil mass, and the tangential component of the design
lateral pressure acting on the pressure surface. The
driving moment is typically provided by the horizontal
component of the design lateral pressure acting on the
pressure surface.

The eccentricity of the location of the resultant force


acting on the base of the wall shall be determined and
compared with the maximum allowable eccentricity.

5.9.2.3

Bearing Capacity

The provisions of Article 4.4.7 apply. Allowable bear


ing capacities for MSE walls shall be determined using a
minimum factor of safety of 2.0 for Group 1 loading
applied to the ultimate bearing capacity. The width of the
footing for determining the ultimate bearing capacity
shall be considered to be the length of the soil reinforce
ment at the foundation level.
Bearing pressures shall be computed using the
Meyerhof distribution, which considers a uniform base
pressure distribution over an effective base width, B' =
L-2e . When the value fore, is negative,B' = L . Where soft
soils are present or if on sloping ground, the difference in
bearing stress determined for the wall reinforced soil zone
relative to the local bearing stress beneath the facing
elements shall be considered when evaluating bearing
capacity. This is especially important where concrete
wall facings are used due to their weight. Furthermore,
differential settlements between the facing elements and
the reinforced soil zone of the wall due to concentrated
bearing stresses from the facing weight on soft soil could
create concentrated stresses at the connection between
the facing elements and the wall soil reinforcement. In
both cases, the leveling, pad shall be embedded ad
equately to meet bearing capacity and settlement require
ments or dimensioned and designed to keep bearing
stresses beneath the leveling pad and the remainder of the
wall as uniform as possible.

5.9.2.4

Overall Stability

Overall stability analyses shall be performed in accor


dance with Article 5.2.2.3. Additionally for MSE walls
with complex geometrics, compound failure surfaces
which pass through a portion of the reinforced soil mass
shall be analyzed, especially where the wall is located on
sloping or soft ground where overall stability is marginal.
Factors of safety and methods of analysis provided in
Article 5.2.2.3 are still applicable. The long-term strength
of those levels of soil reinforcement extending beyond a
failure surface should be considered as restoring forces in
the limit equilibrium slope stability analysis.

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

5-79

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

5.9.3

Internal Stability

Internal stability design is dependent on the soil


reinforcement extensibility and material type. In general,
inextensible soil reinforcement consists of metallic strips,
bar mats or welded wire mats, whereas extensible soil
reinforcement consists of geotextiles or geogrids.
Inextensible soil reinforcement reaches its peak strength
at strains lower than the strain required for the reinforced
soil to reach its peak strength. Extensible soil reinforce
ment reaches its peak strength at strains greater than the
strain required for the reinforced soil to reach its peak
strength. Internal stability failure modes include soil
reinforcement rupture (ultimate limit state), soil rein
forcement pullout (ultimate limit state), and excessive
elongation under the design load (serviceability limit
state). The serviceability limit state is not evaluated in
current practice for internal stability design. Internal
stability is determined by equating the tensile load ap
plied to the soil reinforcement to the allowable tension for
the soil reinforcement, the allowable tension being gov
erned by soil reinforcement rupture and pullout.
The load in the soil reinforcement is determined at two
critical locations, i.e. at the zone of maximum stress and
at the connection with the wall face, to assess the internal
stability of the wall system. Potential for soil reinforce
ment rupture and pullout are evaluated at the zone of
maximum stress. The zone of maximum stress is assumed
to be located at the boundary between the active zone and
the resistant zone. Potential for soil reinforcement rup
ture and connection failure are evaluated at the connec
tion of the soil reinforcement to the wall facing.
For the determination of the horizontal forces and
pullout resistance within the reinforced soil mass for
permanent or temporary MSE walls, a friction angle of
34 may be assumed for the reinforced soil mass. Backfill
for the reinforced soil mass shall consist of material free
from organic material and substantially free of shale or
other soft, poor durability particles and shall not contain
slag aggregate or recycled materials such as glass, shred
ded tires, portland cement concrete rubble, asphaltic
concrete rubble or other unsuitable material, and shall
conform to the following requirements:

5-80

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

For MSE walls with inextensible soil reinforcement


(Metallic soil reinforcement),

Gradation Requirements
Sieve Size

Percentage Passing

California Test

6"

100

202

3"

78-100

202

#4

*--

202

#30

0-60

202

#200

0-25

202

Property Requirements
Test

Requirement

California Test

Sand Equivalent

12 min.

217

Plasticity Index

10 max.

204

Minimum Resistivity

1500 ohm - cm
min.

643

Chlorides

<500ppm

422

Sulfates

<2000 ppm

417

pH

5.5 to 10.0

643

* If 12 percent or less passes the #200 sieve and 50


percent or less passes the #4 sieve, the Sand Equivalent
and Plasticity Index requirements shall not apply.
For MSE walls with extensible soil reinforcement
(geosynthetics),

Gradation Requirements
Sieve Size

Percentage Passing

California Test

2"

100

202

#4

50-80

202

#40

0-30

202

#200

0-15

202

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

5.9.3.1
Property Requirements
Test

Requirement

California Test

Sand Equivalent

30 min.

217

Plasticity Index

10 max.

204

Durability Index

35 min.

229

pH

4.5 to 9.0

643

For the determination of the horizontal forces and


pullout resistance within the reinforced soil mass for
temporary MSE walls, a friction angle of 28 may be
assumed for the reinforced soil mass. Backfill for the
reinforced soil mass shall consist of material free from
organic material or other unsuitable material, and shall
conform to the following requirements:

Gradation Requirements
Sieve Size

Percentage Passing

California Test

* 6"

100

202

** 4"

100

202

# 200

0-50

202

Property Requirements
Test

Requirement

California Test

Sand Equivalent

8 min.

217

Plasticity Index

15 max.

204

* Minimum
Resistivity

1500 ohm - cm
min.

643

* Chlorides

< 500 ppm

422

* Sulfates

< 2000 ppm

417

* pH

5.5 to 10.0

643

** pH

4.5 to 9.0

643

*Applies only for MSE walls with inextensible soil


reinforcement
** Applies only for MSE walls with extensible soil
reinforcement

Determination of Maximum Soil


Reinforcement Loads.

The maximum soil reinforcement load, Tmax, shall be


determined using the Coherent Gravity method for walls
with inextensible soil reinforcement and the Simplified
Coherent Gravity Method for walls with extensible soil
reinforcement. For both these methods, the load in the
soil reinforcement is obtained by multiplying a lateral
earth pressure coefficient,Kr, by the vertical soil stress,sv,
at the level of the soil reinforcement and applying the
resulting horizontal soil stress, sh , to the tributary area,
At , for the soil reinforcement as follows:
Tmax = sh At

(5.9.3.1-1)

At = b t ht

(5.9.3.1-2)

sh = sv Kr + Dsh

(5.9.3.1-3)

Where, D s h , is the horizontal soil stress at the level


of soil reinforcement under consideration due to concen
trated horizontal surcharge loads, see Article 5.5.5.10.4,
bt , is the width of the tributary area and,ht , is the height
of the tributary area. For walls with face panels, the width
of the tributary area is generally equal to the panel width
or a multiple of the panel width. The height of the
tributary area depends on the location of the level of soil
reinforcement under consideration. For the top level of
soil reinforcement, ht , equals the distance from the top
of wall to the level of soil reinforcement plus one half the
distance to the next lower level of soil reinforcement. The
top of wall is considered the level at which the finished
grade intersects the back of the wall face. For intermediate
levels of soil reinforcement, ht , equals one half the
distance to the next higher level of soil reinforcement
plus one half the distance to the next lower level of soil
reinforcement. For the bottom level of soil reinforcement,
ht , equals one half the distance to the next higher level
of soil reinforcement plus the distance to the bottom of
wall. The bottom of the wall is generally considered to be
the level of the top of leveling pad under the face of the
wall.
The vertical soil stress, sv , and the lateral earth
pressure coefficient , Kr , shall be determined in accor
dance with Articles 5.9.3.1.1. and 5.9.3.1.2, for
inextensible and extensible soil reinforcement respec
tively.

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

5-81

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

5.9.3.1.1

Inextensible Soil Reinforcement

The Coherent Gravity Method shall be used to deter


mine, sv , as follows:
sv = sm + Dsv

(5.9.3.1.1-1)

Where, sm , equals the vertical soil stress at the level


of soil reinforcement under consideration due to the
weight of the soil overburden, distributed vertical sur
charge loads above the reinforced soil mass and lateral
earth pressure acting on the pressure surface and using the
Meyerhof procedure, and where, D sv , equals the vertical
soil stress at the level of soil reinforcement under consid
eration due to concentrated vertical surcharge loads, see
Article 5.5.5.10.4.
The lateral earth pressure coefficient , Kr , shall equal
the at-rest lateral earth pressure coefficient, Ko , at the
level of the top of the wall and vary linearly with depth
to a value equal to the active lateral earth pressure
coefficient at a depth of 20 feet below the top of the wall,
and remain constant at this value for depths greater than
20 feet from the top of the wall. The at-rest lateral earth
pressure coefficient, Ko , shall be determined in accor
dance with Article 5.5.5.2 assuming,b, equal to zero. The
active lateral earth pressure coefficient, Ka , shall be
determined in accordance with the Coulomb Theory and
Article 5.5.5.3 assuming,b , d , and,q , all are equal to zero.

5.9.3.1.2

Extensible Soil Reinforcement

The Simplified Coherent Gravity Method shall be


used to determine, sv , as follows:
sv = savg + Dsv

(5.9.3.1.2-1)

Where, savg , equals the average vertical soil stress at


the level of soil reinforcement under consideration due to
the weight of the soil overburden and distributed vertical
surcharge loads above the level of soil reinforcement, and
where, Dsv , is as noted in Article 5.9.3.1.1.
The lateral earth pressure coefficient, Kr , shall equal
the active lateral earth pressure coefficient which shall be
determined in accordance with the Coulomb Theory and
Article 5.5.5.3 assuming, b , d , and, q , all are equal to
zero.

5-82

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

5.9.3.2.

Determination of Maximum Soil


Reinforcement Load at the Wall
Face

The maximum soil reinforcement tensile load at the


wall face,To , shall be equal to, Tmax , for the correspond
ing level of soil reinforcement for all wall systems regard
less of facing and soil reinforcement type.

5.9.3.3.

5.9.3.3.1

Determination of Soil

Reinforcement Length for

Internal Stability

Location of Zone of Maximum


Horizontal Soil Stress

The location of the zone of maximum horizontal soil


stress for wall systems with inextensible and extensible
soil reinforcement, which forms the boundary between
the active and resistant zones and which is assumed to be
the failure surface for internal stability, is determined as
shown in Figure 5.9.3.3.1-1. For all wall systems, the zone
of maximum horizontal soil stress shall be assumed to
begin at the back of the facing elements at the toe of the
wall.
For wall systems with extensible soil reinforcement,
the zone of maximum horizontal soil stress, as defined by
the angle,y , from horizontal, should be determined using
the Coulomb theory. In applying the Coulomb theory,
the back of the wall facing elements shall be assumed to
be the pressure surface and, d , the wall friction angle shall
be assumed equal to, b , or ,B, where,b , equals the slope
of the backfill surface behind the wall face and, B, is the
notional slope of the backfill associated with a broken
back backfill surface behind the wall face as shown in
Figure 5.5.5.8-3.
Concentrated surcharge loads shall be considered in
the determination of the location of the zone of maximum
horizontal soil stress.

5.9.3.3.2

Soil Reinforcement Pullout

Design

The soil reinforcement pullout resistance shall be


checked for adequacy at each level against pullout failure
for internal stability. Only the effective pullout length
which extends beyond the potential failure surface for

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

0.3 H1

Bilinear zone of maximum horizontal soil


stress/failure surface for internal stability.
Upper portion is parallel to back of wall
face.
L

H1

Active zone

Resistant zone

Soil reinforcement

H1

* Minimum horizontal distance,increase


as required when concentrated surcharge
loads are present.
L

Linear zone of maximum horizontal


soil stress/failure surface for
internal stability.

Active zone

Resistant zone

Soil reinforcement

Figure 5.9.3.3.1-1 Location of Potential Failure Surface for Internal Stability Design of MSE Walls

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

5-83

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

internal stability shall be used in the determination of


pullout resistance. The minimum effective pullout length
shall be 3 feet. In the determination of the vertical soil
stress at each level of soil reinforcement, only permanent
loads should be considered.
The pullout resistance provided at each level of soil
reinforcement shall provide a minimum factor of safety
against pullout equal to 1.5 as determined by the follow
ing equation:

FS po =

R po

(5.9.3.3.2-1)

Tmax

Where, FSpo , is the factor of safety against pullout of


the soil reinforcement under consideration, Tmax , is the
maximum soil reinforcement load in the soil reinforce
ment under consideration, and, Rpo , is the pullout
resistance of the soil reinforcement under consideration
and is determined as follows:

Finished
grade

Pullout Resistance Factor, F *

Potential
failure
surface

0.4

Tan r

1.5

Le
2

Le

s
trip
ds
be
Rib

Smooth strips

Wall
face

Depth Below Ground Surface, Feet


20

Level of soil
reinforcement
under consideration

Figure 5.9.3.3.2-1 Pullout Resistance Factor for Steel Strip Soil Reinforcement

5-84

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

For geosynthetic soil reinforcement,


Rpo = F*LeCBasv

(5.9.3.3.2-2)

Where, F*, is the pullout resistance factor, Le , is the


length of soil reinforcement in the resistant zone,C, is an
overall soil reinforcement surface area geometry factor
and is equal to 2 for strip, grid, and sheet type soil
reinforcements, B , is the width of the soil reinforcement,
a , is a scale effect correction factor and is equal to one or
less, sv , is the minimum vertical soil stress at the level of
soil reinforcement under consideration within the length,
Le .

The values for, F* , and, a , are product specific and


should be determined by appropriate testing. In the
absence of product specific values a default value of
0.67 Tan r may be assumed for, F*, and default values
of 0.8 and 0.6 may be assumed for, a , for geogrids and
geotextiles respectively.
For steel strip soil reinforcement,
Rpo = 2F* Le Bsv

(5.9.3.3.2-3)

Where, F* ,Le , and,B, are as defined for geosynthetic


soil reinforcement and, sv , is the vertical soil stress at
the mid-point of, Le , at the level of soil reinforcement
under consideration.

Finished
grade

Pullout Achorage Factor, FAC

Potential
failure
surface

10 12

16

20

Le

Level of soil
reinforcement
under consideration

r =34 o

Le

r =28 o

Wall
face

Depth Below Ground Surface, Feet


20

Figure 5.9.3.3.2-2 Pullout Anchorage Factor for Steel Grid Soil Reinforcement

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

5-85

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

The values for, F*, and, sv , are based on the depth,


z , below the ground surface (finished grade) as shown in
Figure 5.9.3.3.2-1.
For steel grid soil reinforcement,
Rpo = FAC NB d bnetsv

The values for, FAC and, sv , are based on the depth,


z , below the ground surface (finished grade) as shown in
Figure 5.9.3.3.2-2.
For welded wire faced walls with grid type soil rein
forcement with longitudinal wire spacing greater than six
inches center to center, the values for, FAC , shall be
determined from pull-out tests but shall not be greater
than those values shown in Figure 5.9.3.3.2-2
The value for, dbnet , may be determined by the
following relationship:
d bnet = (

0.5

(5.9.3.3.2-5)

Where, Agross , is the cross sectional area of the trans


verse grid element before any sacrificial steel loss due to
corrosion and, Anet , is the cross sectional area of the
transverse grid element at the end of the design service
life after the design sacrificial steel loss has occurred.
For steel grid soil reinforcement, the spacing between
transverse grid elements shall be uniform throughout the
length of the soil reinforcement. The transverse grid
element spacing may vary between levels of soil rein
forcement but the spacing shall not be less than 6 inches
nor more than 30 inches.

5-86

Reinforcement Strength Design

The strength of the soil reinforcement needed, for


internal stability, to resist the maximum load applied
throughout the design life of the wall shall be determined
at every level within the wall height.

(5.9.3.3.2-4)

Where, FAC , is the pullout anchorage factor, Le , is


the length of soil reinforcement in the resistant zone , N,
is the number of transverse grid elements of the soil
reinforcement within the length, Le , B , is the length of
the transverse grid elements, dbnet , is the net diameter
of the transverse grid elements after consideration for
corrosion loss, and,sv , is the vertical soil stress at the mid
point of, Le , at the level of soil reinforcement under
consideration.

2( Agross + Anet )

5.9.3.4

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

Therefore, for the maximum load at each level of


reinforcement,
Tmax T a

( 5.9.3.4-1)

Where, Tmax , is determined in accordance with Article


5.9.3.1 and , Ta , is the long-term allowable strength of the
soil reinforcement associated with the tributary area , At
, used in determining, Tmax . T a , shall be determined in
accordance with Article 5.9.3.4.2.1 for steel reinforce
ment and Article 5.9.3.4.2.2. for geosynthetic reinforce
ment.
The difference in the environment occurring immedi
ately behind the wall face relative to the environment
within the reinforced backfill zone and its effect on the
long-term durability of the soil reinforcement/connec
tion shall be considered when determining, Ta , since, To,
equals, Tmax .

5.9.3.4.1

Design Service Life

Requirements

Soil reinforcement, including connections to the fac


ing, in MSE walls shall be designed to have a corrosion
resistance/durability to ensure a minimum design service
life. For permanent walls with steel soil reinforcement, a
design service life of 50 years is a minimum. For perma
nent walls with geosynthetic soil reinforcement, a design
service life of 75 years is a minimum. The greater design
service life for geosynthetic soil reinforcement is due to
the large influence creep has on the long-term strength of
geosynthetic soil reinforcement. For temporary walls, a
design service life of 5 years is a minimum.

5.9.3.4.1.1 Steel Reinforcement


The structural design of steel soil reinforcements and
connections shall be made on the basis of, Fy , the yield
strength of the steel, and the net cross-sectional area of the
steel at the end of the design service life.

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

Steel soil reinforcement and steel connection ele


ments for permanent walls shall be galvanized with a
minimum coating thickness of 2 ounces per square foot
applied in conformance with ASTM A 123. This coating
shall be assumed to provide 10 years of service life.

Gradation Requirements

The net cross-sectional area of the soil reinforcement,


Anet , shall be determined as follows:
Anet = Agross - Acorrosion loss

Sieve Size

Percentage Passing

California Test

6"

100

202

3"

75-100

202

#4

0-25

202

# 200

0-5

202

(5.9.3.4.1.1-1)

Where, Anet , is the cross-sectional area of the soil


reinforcement at the end of the design service life,Agross
, is the cross-sectional area of the ungalvanized soil
reinforcement at the start of the design service life , and,
Acorrosion loss , is the cross-sectional area of the soil
reinforcement lost due to corrosion over the design ser
vice life.

Property Requirements
Test

Requirement

California Test

Plasticity Index

6 max

204

Minimum Resistivity

1500 ohm - cm
min.

643

Chlorides

< 500 ppm

422

Sulfates

< 2000 ppm

417

pH

5.5 to 10.0

643

Acorrosion loss , shall be determined by applying a


corrosion loss rate to the exposed surface of the soil
reinforcement for the remaining design service life after
the depletion of the galvanization.
When the backfill for the reinforced soil mass con
forms to the requirements in Article 5.9.3, a corrosion loss
rate equal to 1.1 mils per year may be used to determine,
Acorrosion loss .
When the backfill for the reinforced soil mass con
forms to the following requirements for select granular
backfill, a corrosion loss rate equal to 0.5 mils per year
may be used to determine, Acorrosion loss .
Select granular backfill for the reinforced soil mass
shall consist of material free from organic material and
substantially free of shale or other soft, poor durability
particles and shall not contain slag aggregate or recycled
materials such as glass, shredded tires, portland cement
concrete rubble, asphaltic concrete rubble or other un
suitable material, and shall conform to the following
requirements:

The above corrosion loss rates account for potential


pitting mechanisms and much of the uncertainty due to
data scatter. These corrosion loss rates are not applicable
in applications where:

the MSE wall will be exposed to a marine or other


chloride rich environment;

the soil reinforcement is continuously connected


in a direction parallel to a source of stray currents
such as from nearby underground power lines or
adjacent electric rail lines;

the backfill material is aggressive; or

the galvanizing coating thickness is less than


specified.

Each of these situations creates a special set of condi


tions which should be specifically analyzed by a corro
sion specialist.
Epoxy coatings are not considered equivalent to gal
vanizing.

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

5-87

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

5.9.3.4.1.2 Geosynthetic Reinforcement


The durability of geosynthetic reinforcements is in
fluenced by environmental factors such as time, tempera
ture, mechanical damage, stress levels, and chemical
exposure (e.g., oxygen, water, andpH , which are the most
common chemical factors). Microbiological attack may
also affect certain polymers, though in general most of the
polymers used for carrying load in soil reinforcement
applications are not affected by this. The effects of these
factors on product durability are dependent on the poly
mer type used (i.e. resin type, grade, additives, and manu
facturing process) and the macrostructure of the rein
forcement. Not all of these factors will have a significant
effect on all geosynthetic products. Therefore, the re
sponse of geosynthetic reinforcements to these long-term
environmental factors is product specific.
However, within specific limits of wall application,
soil conditions, and polymer type, strength degradation
due to these factors can be anticipated to be minimal and
relatively consistent from product to product, and the
impact of any degradation which does occur will be
minimal. Even with product specific test results, RFID
and RFD shall be no less than 1.1 each.
For conditions which are outside these defined limits
(i.e. applications in which the consequences of poor
performance or failure are severe, aggressive soil condi
tions, or polymers which are beyond the specific limits
set), or if it is desired to use an overall reduction factor
which is less than the default reduction factor recom
mended herein, then product specific durability studies
shall be carried out prior to use. These product specific
studies shall be used to estimate the short-term and longterm effects of these environmental factors on the strength
and deformational characteristics of the geosynthetic
reinforcement throughout the reinforcement design life.
Wall application limits, soil aggressiveness, polymer
requirements, and the calculation of long-term reinforce
ment strength are specifically described as follows:
1)
Structure Application Issues: Applications for
which the consequences of poor performance or failure
are severe consist of walls which support important struc
tures, critical utilities, or other facilities for which the
consequences of poor performance would be severe. In
such applications, a single default reduction factor shall
not be used for design.

5-88

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

2)
Determination of Soil Aggressiveness: Soil
shall be considered aggressive when any one of the
following conditions exist:

the maximum soil particle size is greater than


0.75 inches unless full scale installation damage
tests are conducted in accordance with ASTM D
5818,

the pH of the soil is less than 4.5 or greater than


9.0,

the design temperature at the all site is greater


than 85F, and

the soil organic content (determined by


AASHTO T267-86) for material finer than the
No.10 sieve is greater than one-percent.

The effective design temperature is defined as the


temperature which is halfway between the average yearly
air temperature and the normal daily air temperature for
the warmest month at the wall site. Note that for walls
which face the sun, it is possible that the temperature
immediately behind the facing could be higher than the
air temperature. This condition should be considered
when assessing the design temperature, especially for
wall sites located in warm, sunny climates.
A single default reduction factor shall not be used in
aggressive soil conditions. The environment at the face,
in addition to within the wall backfill, shall be evaluated,
especially if the stability of the facing is dependent on the
strength of the geosynthetic at the face, i.e., the
geosynthetic reinforcement forms the primary connec
tion between the body of the wall and the facing.
The chemical properties of the native soil surrounding
the reinforced soil backfill shall also be considered if
there is potential for seepage of ground water from the
native surrounding soils to the reinforced soil backfill. If
this is the case, the surrounding soils shall also meet the
chemical criteria required for the backfill material if the
environment is to be considered non-aggressive, or ad
equate long-term drainage around the geosythetic rein
forced soil mass shall be provided to ensure that chemi
cally aggressive liquid does not enter into the reinforced
backfill.

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

3)
Polymer Requirements: Polymers which are
likely to have good resistance to long-term chemical
degradation shall be used if a single default reduction
factor is to be used, to minimize the risk of the occurrence
of significant long-term degrtadation. The polymer ma
terial requirements provided in Table 5.9.3.4.1.2A shall
therefore be met if detailed product specific data as
described in FHWA Publication No.FHWA SA-96-071
Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls and Reinforced
Soil Slopes Design and Construction Guidelines Ap
pendix B, and in FHWA Publication No. FHWA SA-96
072 Corrosion/Degradation of Soil Reinforcements for
Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls and Reinforced
Soil Slopes is not obtained. Polymer materials not
meeting the requirements in Table 5.9.3.4.1.2A could be
used if this detailed product specified data extrapolated
to the design life intended for the structure is obtained.
4)
Calculation of Long-Term Reinforcement
Strength: for ultimate limit state conditions.
Tal =

Tult b
RF

(5.9.3.4.1.2-1)

where,
RF = RFID RFCR RFD

(5.9.3.4.1.2-2)

Tal, is the long-term tensile strength required to pre


vent rupture of the reinforcement, b, is the width of the
reinforcement, Tult , is the ultimate tensile strength of the
reinforcement determined from wide width tensile tests
(ASTM D 4595) for geotextiles and geogrids, or rib
tensile test for geogrids (GRI: GG1, but at a strain rate of
10 percent per minute), RF, is a combined strength
reduction factor to account for potential long-term deg
radation due to installation damage, creep and chemical
aging, RFID is a strength reduction factor to account for
installation damage to the reinforcement, RFCR is a
strength reduction factor to prevent long-term creep
rupture of the reinforcement, and RFD is a strength
reduction factor to prevent rupture of the reinforcement
due to chemical and biological degradation. The value
selected forTult shall be the minimum average roll value
( MARV) for the product to account for statistical vari
ance in the material strength.
Values for, RFID , RFCR , and, RFD , shall be deter
mined from product specific test results. Even with
product specific test results, RFID , and, RFD , shall be
no less than 1.1 each.

Guidelines for how to determine, RFID , RFCR , and,


RFD , from product specific data are provided in FHWA
Publication No. FHWA SA-96-071 Mechanically Sta
bilized Earth Walls and Reinforced Soil Slopes Design
and Construction Guidelines- Appendix B, and in FHWA
Publication No. FHWA SA-96-072 Corrosion/Degrada
tion of Soil Reinforcements for Mechanically Stabilized
Earth Walls and Reinforced Soil Slopes. For wall appli
cations which are defined as not having severe conse
quences should poor performance or failure occur having
nonaggressive soil conditions, and if the geosyntethic
product meets the minimum requirements listed in Table
5.9.3.4.1.2A, the long-term tensile strength of the rein
forcement may be determined using a default reduction
factor for, RF , as provided in Table 5.9.3.4.1.2B in lieu
of product specific test results.
TABLE 5.9.3.4.1.2A Minimum Requirements for
Geosynthetic Products to Allow Use of Default Reduc
tion Factor for Long-Term Degradation
Polymer
Type

Property

Test Method

Criteria to Allow
Use of Default RF*

Polypro
pylene

UV Oxidation
Resistance

ASTM D4355

Min.70% strength
retained after 500 hrs
in weatherometer

Polyethyl UV Oxidation
ene
Resistance

ASTM D4355

Min.70% strength
retained after 500 hrs
in weatherometer

Inherent Viscosity
Method (ASTM
D4603 and GRI Test Min.Number Average
Polyester Hydrolysis Resistance Method GG8**) or
Molecular Weight of
Determine Directly
25,000
Using Gel Permeation
Chromatography
Polyester Hydrolysis Resistance

GRI Test Method


GG7

Max.of Carboxyl End


Group Content of 30

All
Survivability
Polymers

Weight per Unit Area


(ASTM D5261)

Min.270 g/m

% Post-Consumer
All
Recycled Material by
Polymers
Weight

Certification of
Material Used

Maximun of 0%

*Polymers not meeting these requirements may be used if


product specific test results obtained and analyzes in accordance
with FHWA Publication No. FHWA SA-96-071 Mechanically
Stabilized Earth Walls and Reinforced Soil Slopes Design and
Construction Guidelines Appendix B, and in FHWA Publication
No. FHWA SA-96-072 Corrosion /Degradation of Soil Rein
forcements for Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls and
Reinforced Soil Slopes are provided.
**These test procedures are in draft form. Contact the
Geosythetic Research Institute, Drexel University in Philadelphia,
PA.

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

5-89

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

TABLE 5.9.3.4.1.2B Default and Minimum Values for


the Total Geosyntheic Ultimate Limit State Strength
Reduction Factor, RF

Total Reduction
Factor, RF

Application
All applications, but with product
specific data obtained and analyzed in
accordance with FHWA Publication
No. FHWA SA-96-071 "Mechanically
Stabilized Earth Walls and Reinforced
Soil Slopes Design and Construction
Guidelines"-Appendix B, and FHWA
Publication No. FHWA SA-96-072
"Corrosion/Degradation of Soil
Reinforcements for Mechanically
Stabilized Earth Walls and Reinforced
Soil Slopes"

All reduction factors


shall be based on
product specific data.
RFID and RFD shall not
be less than 1.1

Permanent applications not having


severe consequences should poor
performance or failure occur,
nonaggressive soils, and polymers
meeting the requirements listed in
Table 5.9.3.4.1.2A, provided product
specific data is not available

7.0

Temporary applications not having


severe consequences should poor
performance or failure occur,
nonaggressive soils, and polymers
meeting the requirements listed in
Table 5.9.3.4.1.2A, provided product
specific data is not available

3.5

The allowable reinforcement tension, Ta , is deter


mined by multiplying the allowable tensile stress by the
net cross-sectional area of the steel soil reinforcement
after corrosion losses. Therefore,
Ta = FS Fy Anet

(5.9.3.4.2.1-3)

where , Fy , and, Anet , are as defined in Article


5.9.3.4.1.1
The minimum thickness of steel strip soil reinforce
ment shall be 4 millimeters before galvanizing. The
minimum thickness if connection elements of bolted
connections or splice plates of bolted splices before
galvanizing shall be 10 gage. Corrosion losses need not
be considered for the faying surfaces of bolted connec
tions or bolted splices of strip soil reinforcements.
The transverse and longitudinal wires of grid type soil
reinforcement shall be sized in accordance with ASTM A
185. The size of transverse wires shall not be greater than
the size of the longitudinal wires of a grid. Except for walls
with exposed welded wire facing the minimum size
longitudinal wires for grid reinforcement shall be W11
and their maximum center to center spacing shall be 8
inches maximum. For walls with exposed welded wire
facing, the minimum size longitudinal wires for grid
reinforcement shall be W8, at 6 inch maximum center to
center spacing or W11 or 12 inch maximum center to
center spacing.

5.9.3.4.2.2. Geosynthetic Reinforcements


5.9.3.4.2

Allowable Stresses

5.9.3.4.2.1 Steel Reinforcements


The allowable tensile stress for steel reinforcements,
connections, and splices, Fa , shall be as follows:
Permanent Structures, Fa = 0.55Fy , (5.9.3.4.2.1-1)
Temporary Structures,Fa = 0.75Fy , (5.9.3.4.2.1-2)
The global safety factor,FS, of 0.55 applied to,Fy , for
permanent structures accounts for uncertainties in struc
ture geometry, fill properties, externally applied loads,
the potential for local overtress due to load
nonuniformities, and uncertainties in long-term rein
forcement strength.

5-90

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

The allowable tensile load for geosynthetic reinforce


ment is determined as follows:
Ta =

Tal
FS

(5.9.3.4.2.2-1)

Where, Tal , is the long-term reinforcement strength as


determined in Article 5.9.3.4.1.2 and, FS , is a global
safety factor which accounts for uncertainties in structure
geometry, fill properties, externally applied loads, the
potential for local overstress due to load nonuniformitiies,
and uncertainties in long-term reinforcement strength.
For permanent walls, a, FS, of 1.5 shall be used. For
temporary walls, a, FS, of 1.3 may be used along with a
minimum value for, RF, equal to 3.5. Note that the
uncertainty of determining long-term reinforcement

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

5.9.3.5.1

Connection Strength for Steel


Soil Reinforcements

strength is taken into account through an additional


factor of safety, which is typically about 1.2, depending
on the amount of creep data available, through the creep
extrapolation protocol provided in Appendix B of the
FHWA-SA-96-071, Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls
and Reinforced Soil Slopes Design and Construction
Guidelines.

Connections shall be designed using the strength


design method to resist a factored load from the soil
reinforcement equal to 2.0 times,Ta , of the connected soil
reinforcement.

5.9.3.5 Soil Reinforcement/Facing


Connection Strength Design

The capacity of the designed connection shall be


verified by load tests of actual connections. A connection
may be considered adequate when:

The connection of soil reinforcement to MSE wall


facing elements shall meet the following minimum crite
ria:
the tensile force resisiting capacity shall be at least
2.0 times the design allowable tensile force of the
connected soil reinforcement at a total displace
ment wihtin the connection not exceeding 0.75
inches,
the connection shall engage directly all longitudi
nal tensile force resisting elements of the soil rein
forcement,
the connection shall not rely on frictional force
resistance where the frictional force depends on the
constant force of gravity,
the design of the connection shall be such that
relative displacement between face elements due to
differential settlement at the wall face does not
result in a significant reduction in the capacity of
the connection,
the design of the connection shall be such that after
a level of soil reinforcement has been connected
and all elements necessary to complete the connec
tion are in place, but before backfill covers the soil
reinforcement, the connection can be visually in
spected and a determination made that all elements
of the connection are properly in place, and
the design of the connection shall be such that there
is an adequate force resistance path from any face
element to at least one soil reinforcement connec
tion.

TT 2.0Ta

(5.9.3.5.1-1)

Where, TT , is the applied test load at failure of the


connection or at 0.75 inches displacement within the
connection whichever is the least. When the soil rein
forcement is connected to the facing at multiple closely
spaced locations, group action shall be considered in the
test set-up when verifying the connection capacity. The
material strengths of the test connection samples shall be
determined and the value for,TT , shall be corrected when
these determined material strengths exceed the minimum
specified strengths for these materials.
Connection materials shall be designed to accommo
date losses due to corrosion in accordance with Article
5.9.3.4.1.1. Potential differences between the environ
ment at the face relative to the environment within the
reinforcement soil mass shall be considered when assess
ing potential corrosion losses.

5.9.3.5.2

Connection Strength for

Geosynthetic Soil

Reinforcements

The long-term allowable geosynthetic connection


strength, Tac , on a load per width, b, of reinforcement
basis shall be determined as follows:

Tult b CRCR

Ta

(5.9.3.5.2-1)

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

5-91

Tac

FS RFD

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

5.9.3.6

Where:
Tac
Tult

= long-term allowable reinforcement/


facing connection design strength per
width , b, of reinforcement (KIPS)
= minimum average roll value (MARV)
of ultimate tensile strength of soil rein
forcement (KIP/FT)

= width of soil reinforcement under


consideration (FT)

CRCR

= long-term connection strength re


duction factor to account for reduced
ultimate strength resulting from con
nection (DIM)

Facing elements shall be designed to resist the hori


zontal forces specified. In addition to these horizontal
forces, the facing elements shall also be designed to resist
potential compaction stresses occurring near the wall
face during erection of the wall. The facing element shall
be designed such that they do not deflect laterally or
bulge beyond acceptable limits.

5.9.3.6.1

RFD

= reduction factor to prevent rupture of


reinforcement due to chemical and bio
logical degradation (DIM)

FS

= global safety factor which accounts


for uncertainties in externally applied
loads, the potential for local connec
tion overstress due to wall settlement
or load nonuniformities, and uncer
tainties in long-term connection
strength. (DIM)

Values for, CRCR , and,RFD , shall be determined from


product specific test results. Note that the environment
at the wall face connection may be different than the
environment away from the wall face in the wall backfill.
This shall be considered when determining,CRCR , and,
RFD . The minimum value for, RFD , shall be 1.1, the
minimum value for, FS, shall be 2.0.
Guidelines for determining, CRCR , and, RFD , from
product specific data are provided in Corrosion/Degra
dation of Soil Reinforcements for Mechanically Stabi
lized Earth Walls and Reinforced Soil Slopes, Federal
Highway Administration, No. FHWA-NHI-00-044, 2001
and Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls and Rein
forced Soil Slopes Design and Construction Guidelines,
Federal Highway Administration, FHWA-NHI-00-043,
2001.

Design of Facing Elements

Design of Stiff or Rigid


Concrete, Steel, and Timber
Facings

Concrete and steel facing elements shall be structur


ally designed in accordance with Sections 8 and 10
respectively using the strength design method provi
sions. The basic design factored load shall be a distrib
uted horizontal load acting on the entire back face of the
face element the resultant of which is equal 1.8 times the
sum of the,Ta , values of the soil reinforcement connected
to the face element. The location of the resultant of this
distributed load shall be at the location of the resultant of
the, Ta , values of the same soil reinforcement.
Top of wall facing elements which support a traffic
barrier support slab shall be designed for a horizontal line
load acting at the top rear of the facing elements and equal
to 1.9 kips per foot. This load is to be considered a factored
load, and does not need to be combined with the basic
design factored load specified above.
Loads from any appurtenances attached to the facing
elements shall be considered.
Timber facing elements shall be structurally designed
in accordance with Section 13 using the working stress
design method. The basic service load shall be a distrib
uted horizontal load acting on the entire back face of the
face element the resultant of which is equal to the sum of
the, Ta , values of the soil reinforcement connected to the
face element. The location of the resultant of this distrib
uted load shall be at the location of the resultant of the,
Ta , values of the same soil reinforcement.
Loads from any appurtenances attached to the facing
elements shall be considered. Timber facing elements
shall not be used to support a traffic barrier support slab.

5-92

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

In the design of concrete, steel and timber facing


elements the locations of the connected soil reinforce
ment are considered support locations in resisting the
basic design horizontal load.
The maximum vertical spacing of soil reinforcement
connected to the facing elements equals 30 inches. The
minimum distance from the top or bottom of a facing
element to a level of soil reinforcement equals 5 inches.
The minimum specified compressive strength, fc , for
concrete facing elements equals 4000 psi.

5.9.3.6.2

Design of Flexible Wall Facings

Welded wire, expanded metal, or similar facing panels


shall be designed in a manner which prevents the occur
rence of excessive bulging as backfill behind the facing
elements compresses due to compaction stresses or self
weight of the backfill. This may be accomplished by
limiting the size of individual panels vertically and the
vertical spacing of the levels of soil reinforcement, and by
requiring the facing panels to have an adequate amount
of vertical slip between adjacent panels. The top of
flexible facing panels at the top of the wall shall be
connected to a level of soil reinforcement to provide
stability to the top-facing panel. The maximum vertical
spacing of soil reinforcement connected to the facing
panels equals 20 inches for permanent walls and 30
inches for temporary walls. The maximum horizontal
clear spacing between soil reinforcement elements within
a level shall be 12 inches. For welded wire facing panels
the minimum wire size shall be W8 for permanent walls
and W6 for temporary walls, the maximum center to
center spacing of vertical wires shall be 6 inches and of
horizontal wires shall be 9 inches. Secondary facing
panels shall be provided when necessary to prevent loss
of backfill material through the facing panels. Steel
facing panels for permanent walls shall be galvanized
with a minimum coating thickness of 2 ounces per square
foot applied in conformance with ASTM A123.
Geosynthetic facing elements shall not, in general, be
left exposed to sunlight ( specifically ultraviolet radia
tion) for permanent walls. If geosynthetic facing ele
ments must be left exposed permanently to sunlight, the
geosynthetic shall be stabilized to be resistant to ultra
violet radiation. Furthermore, product specific test data
shall be provided which can be extrapolated to the
intended design life and which proves that the product

will be capable of performing as intended in an exposed


environment.
Flexible wall facings shall not be used to support a
traffic barrier support slab.

5.9.3.6.3

Design of Segmental Concrete


Block Facings

Segmental concrete block facings shall be designed


considering facing stability which shall include an evalu
ation of the maximum vertical spacing between rein
forcement layers, the maximum allowable facing height
above the uppermost reinforcement layer, inter-unit shear
capacity, and resistance of the facing to bulging. The
maximum vertical spacing between reinforcement layers
shall be limited to twice the width, WU , of the proposed
segmental concrete facing unit or 30 inches, whichever is
less, the maximum facing height above the upper most
reinforcement layer shall be limited to 1.5 times,WU , or
18 inches, whichever is less, and the maximum depth of
facing below the bottom reinforcement layer shall be
limited to the width,WU , where,WU , is the segmental
facing block unit width from front to back.
The minimum specified compressive strength of seg
mental concrete block facing units shall be 4000 psi. The
water absorption limit of segmental concrete block fac
ing units shall be 5 percent maximum. Blocks shall also
meet the additional requirements of ASTM C90 and
C140.
When the segmental concrete block facing supports a
traffic barrier support slab, the provisions of Article
5.9.3.6.1 shall apply.

5.9.3.6.4

Corrosion Issues for MSE

Facing Design

Steel to steel contact between the soil reinforcement


connections and the concrete facing steel reinforcement
shall be prevented so that contact between dissimilar
metals (e.g., bare facing reinforcement steel and galva
nized soil reinforcement steel) does not occur. Steel to
steel contact in this case can be prevented through the
placement of a nonconductive material between the soil
reinforcement face connection and the facing concrete
reinforcing steel.

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

5-93

BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS A UGUST 2004

5.9.3.7

Drainage

MSE walls in cut areas and side-hill fills with estab


lished ground water levels should be constructed with
drainage blankets in back of and beneath the reinforced
zone. Internal drainage measures should be considered
for all structures to prevent saturation of the reinforced
backfill or to intercept any surface flows containing
aggressive elements such as deicing chemicals.
For MSE walls utilizing metallic soil reinforcements
supporting roadways which are chemically deiced in the
winter, an impervious membrane should be placed below
the pavement and just above the first level of soil
reinforcement to intercept any flows containing deicing
chemicals. The membrane should be sloped to drain away
from the facing to an intercepting longitudinal drain
outletted beyond the reinforced zone. Typically, a mini
mum membrane thickness of 30 mils should be used. All
seams in the membrane shall be welded to prevent leak
age.
For MSE walls utilizing metallic soil reinforcement
which support a slope which supports a roadway which is
chemically deiced in the winter, provisions shall be made
to prevent runoff from reaching the soil reinforcement at
the back of the face panels at the toe of the slope. As a
minimum, an impermeable cap shall be placed on the face
of the slope and a continuous coping/gutter which is
keyed into the slope shall be constructed at the toe of
slope/top of wall.

5.9.3.8

5.9.3.8.1

Special Loading Conditions

Traffic Loads and Barriers

Traffic loads shall be considered in accordance with


the criteria outlined in Article 5.5.5.10.5. Traffic loads
should be positioned to maximize their effects.
When traffic barriers are placed at the top of MSE walls,
they shall be constructed on a support slab which is
designed to resist the overturning due to the design
horizontal impact load applied to the barrier. The support
slab shall be designed so only horizontal and vertical
forces are transmitted to the face elements of the wall. The
support slab shall be continuous the full length of the wall
with no expansion joints. The horizontal forces from the
support slab applied to the top of the face elements of the
wall shall be in accordance with Article 5.9.3.6.1.
As a minimum, the top level of soil reinforcement shall
be designed for a tensile load at the wall face equal to 1.9
kips per foot of wall. This load is to be considered a
factored load for which the, FSpo , shall be equal to or
greater than 1.0 and the load shall be less than or equal to,
1.33Ta , of the soil reinforcement. the minimum length of
the top level of soil reinforcement shall be 16 feet.
When traffic barriers are placed at the top of MSE walls,
the minimum height wall shall be 6 feet and the minimum
length of wall shall be 40 feet.

5.9.3.8.3

Hydrostatic Pressures

For Structures along rivers and canals, a minimum


differential hydrostatic pressure equal to 3 feet of water
shall be considered for design. This load shall be applied
at the high-water level. Effective unit weights shall be
used in the calculations for internal and external stability.

Concentrated Dead Loads

Concentrated dead loads shall be incorporated into


the internal and external stability design by using a
simplified uniform vertical distribution of 2 vertical to 1
horizontal to determine the vertical component of stress
with depth within the reinforced soil mass as shown in
Figure 5.5.5.10.4-1. Figure 5.5.5.10.4-2 shows how con
centrated horizontal dead loads may be distributed within
and behind the reinforced soil mass. Depending on the
size and location of the concentrated dead load, the
location of the boundary between the active and resistant
zones may need to be adjusted.

5-94

5.9.3.8.2

SECTION 5 RETAINING WALLS

Situations where the wall is influenced by tide or river


fluctuations may require that the wall be designed for
rapid drawdown conditions, which could result in differ
ential hydrostatic pressure considerably greater than 3
feet or alternati