Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 89

1

EUROCODE 7 AND ITS IMPACT


ON EXISTING DESIGN AND
TESTING OF PILES
BCA-GeoSS EC7 Seminar
24 April 2015
Dr Darren Chian Siau Chen
National University of Singapore

Objectives
Worries of a Geotechnical Engineer in Singapore
How do I design according to EC7?
How do I know if I have designed correctly?
How can I take advantage of EC7 to my favour?

Introduction
Change in Design Approach
Working state design:
Analyse expected working condition, then apply factor

of safety
Limit state design
Analyse various unexpected conditions, where loadings
are increase and resistances are reduced using partial
factors.

Prior to Eurocode 7
+

Working
Load

Fwl

Rs

Rb

Eurocode 7
,
,

+
/ +

&

Permanent +
Variation Loads

Fd = G Gk + Q Qk

/
Rs

,
,

,
,

Rb

Site Investigation for Piles


Recommended minimum depth of

investigation below the base of the deepest


pile, za, as shown in figure on right:
where bg is the smaller width of the pile
group on plan and DF is the base diameter
of the largest pile.
The depth za may be reduced to 2m if the
foundation is built on competent strata with
distinct (i.e. known) geology. With indistinct
geology, at least one borehole should go to
at least 5m. If bedrock is encountered, it
becomes the reference level for za.
Greater depths of investigation may be
needed for very large or highly complex
projects or where unfavourable geological
conditions are encountered.

Eurocode 7 Geotechnical Framework

Design Methods/Considerations
Design of piles shall be based on either:
Empirical or analytical calculations
Static load tests/dynamic load tests
Ground tests

Design of Piles in Compression


Pile Groups:
Bearing resistance failure of the piles failing individually
and acting as a block shall both be checked.
Generally a pile block can be analysed as a single large
diameter pile.
The lower of these two to be taken as the design bearing
resistance (Rd).

General Procedure to Design for EC7


Calculate design action
Compute resistance
from soil parameters

Derive resistance from


load test / ground test

Convert resistance to characteristic values using


model factor or correlation factors
Compute characteristic shaft
and base resistance
Determine required penetration depth of pile where
total characteristic resistance design action

10

General Procedure to Design for EC7


Calculate design action
Compute resistance
from soil parameters

Derive resistance from


load test / ground test

Convert resistance to characteristic values using


model factor or correlation factors
Compute characteristic shaft
and base resistance
Determine required penetration depth of pile where
total characteristic resistance design action

11

ULS Design Value of Actions


Permanent actions, Gk
Fixed, doesnt change much.
Variable actions, Qk
Change at different times.
Favourable
Action that will make fdn less susceptible to ULS condition.
Unfavourable
Action that will make fdn more susceptible to ULS condition
Design values of actions, Fd

Fd = G Gk + Q Qk
where G and

are partial factor

12

Action Partial Factors


Action

Symbol

Set
A1

A2

1.35

1.0

Favourable

1.0

1.0

Unfavourable

1.5

1.3

Unfavourable

Permanent

Variable
Favourable

13

Which Sets to Use?


Two combinations to be checked:

Combination 1:
A1 + M1 + R1

Combination 2:
A2 + (M1 or M2) + R4

where + implies: to be combined with.


Combination 1: Increase loading
Combination 2: Reducing resistance
In Combination 2, set M1 is used for calculating resistances of

piles or anchors and set M2 for calculating unfavourable actions


on piles owing e.g. to negative skin friction or transverse loading.

14

Design of Piles in Compression


Design Axial Compression Load (Vd):
Determined, using the load partial factors for Combination
1 and 2, from the characteristic applied loads and the self
weight of the pile and includes any downdrag, heave or
transverse loading on the pile, as appropriate.
Common practice to assume that the weight of the pile
cancels the weight of the overburden at the foundation
base. This is permitted by EC7, provided the two cancel
approximately.
The implication of this is to reduce the effect of the pile
weight in the design or omitting the weight of pile
completely.

15

Design of Piles in Compression


Pile weight may not cancel the weight of the overburden if:
downdrag is significant (as it reduces the effective stress
at the base of a pile);
the soil is light, such as a pile through peat; or
the pile extends above the surface of the ground.

16

Example:
Action from superstructure:
- Permanent unfavourable action = 1000 kN
- Variable unfavourable action = 500 kN
Self-weight of pile = 200 kN
Total permanent unfavourable action = 1000 + 200
= 1200 kN
Total variable unfavourable load = 500 kN
Set A1:
Design Action, Vd = 1.35Gk + 1.5Qk
= 1.35 (1200) + 1.5 (500) = 2370 kN
Set A2:
Design Action, Vd = 1.0Gk + 1.3Qk
= 1.0 (1200) + 1.3 (500) = 1850 kN

17

General Procedure to Design for EC7


Calculate design action
Compute resistance
from soil parameters

Derive resistance from


load test / ground test

Convert resistance to characteristic values using


model factor or correlation factors
Compute characteristic shaft
and base resistance
Determine required penetration depth of pile where
total characteristic resistance design action

18

General Procedure to Design for EC7


Calculate design action
Compute resistance
from soil parameters

Derive resistance from


load test / ground test

Convert resistance to characteristic values using


model factor or correlation factors
Compute characteristic shaft
and base resistance
Determine required penetration depth of pile where
total characteristic resistance design action

19

Characteristic Values of Ground Properties


A cautious estimate of the value affecting the occurrence

of the limit state

Orr and Farrell,


1999

20

Characteristic Value (Xk)


Statistical methods:
Students method (author is actually Gossett)

where t = Student value


n = no. of test results
V = coefficient of variation [std deviation() / mean value(Xm)]

21

Characteristic Value (Xk)


Statistical methods:
Schneiders method

where kn = factor (=0.5 for one half a std deviation below mean)

22

Characteristic Value (Xk)


Example:
The characteristic value of the undrained shear strength, cu

is to be determined from 10 triaxial tests: 20 kPa, 25 kPa,


23 kPa, 27 kPa, 35 kPa, 15 kPa, 18 kPa, 32 kPa, 25 kPa
and 26 kPa.

23

Characteristic Value (Xk)


Students method:
cu,ave = 24.6 kPa, = 6.059 kPa, V = 0.246
t with 10 test results, 95% confidence = 2.228

cuk = 24.6 - 6.059 x 2.228 / sqrt(10) = 24.1 kPa

Scheniders method:
cuk = 24.6 - 0.5 x 6.059 = 21.6 kPa

24

Characteristic Value (Xk)


Say, lets take

cu = 1.0 (Set M1)


cu = 1.4 (Set M2)
Therefore,
For M1: cu,d = 21.6 / 1.0 = 21.6 kPa
For M2: cu,d = 21.6 / 1.4 = 15.4 kPa

25

Characteristic Value (Xk)

26

Characteristic Value (Xk)

27

Characteristic Value (Xk)

28

Compute Resistance from Soil Parameters


Shaft Resistance Per Unit Area:
Undrained: qs,cal = cuk
Drained: qs,cal = Ks 'v0 tan = 'v0
Base Resistance Per Unit Area:
Undrained: qb,cal = Nc cuk , where Nc = 9
Drained: qb,cal = q Nq
Note:
qb 10 MPa (bored pile)
18 MPa (driven pile)

29

General Procedure to Design for EC7


Calculate design action
Compute resistance
from soil parameters

Derive resistance from


load test / ground test

Convert resistance to characteristic values using


model factor or correlation factors
Compute characteristic shaft
and base resistance
Determine required penetration depth of pile where
total characteristic resistance design action

30

Derive Resistance from Tests


Pile Load Test:
Select pile type, design load tests, carry out load
tests
Determine the measured pile resistance, Rcm
from the load tests
Ground Tests:
Select pile type, design load tests, carry out insitu
tests (e.g. CPT, SPT, etc)
Determine the pile shaft and base resistances, Rs
and Rb from correlations

31

General Procedure to Design for EC7


Calculate design action
Compute resistance
from soil parameters

Derive resistance from


load test / ground test

Convert resistance to characteristic values using


model factor or correlation factors
Compute characteristic shaft
and base resistance
Determine required penetration depth of pile where
total characteristic resistance design action

32

Convert Resistance to Characteristic Value


Model Factor:
Obtain characteristic base resistance per unit area, qbk
and shaft resistance per unit area, qsk by dividing the
calculated values by a model factor (MF):
qbk = qb,cal/MF and qsk = qs,cal/MF
where:
MF = 1.4 (without pile load test), or
= 1.2 (with pile load test)

33

Convert Resistance to Characteristic Value


Correlation Factor:
Pile Load Test
Obtain characteristic resistance, Rcm by dividing the
measured values by correlation factors ():

Rck = min(Rcm,mean/1, Rcm,min/2)


Ground Test
Obtain characteristic base resistance per unit area, qbk
and shaft resistance per unit area, qsk by dividing the
derived values by correlation factors ():
qbk = min(qb,mean/3, qb,min/4)
qsk = min(qs,mean/3, qs,min/4)

34

Convert Resistance to Characteristic Value


The factor used to determine Rck from the Rcm values,

accounts for the uncertainty in determining bearing


resistance for the working piles from the results of a limited
number of load tests on similar piles installed in similar
ground at a finite number of locations on the site.
The uncertainty depends on the number of test results
available, so reduces as the number of test results
increases.
Rck is the minimum value obtained applying the values to
the mean and average of the load test results.
Ultimate load test and working load test generally 2.5 to 3
times and 1.5 to 2 times working load respectively, subject
to structural capacity of the pile not being exceeded.

35

Convert Resistance to Characteristic Value


Static Pile Load Test
Number of pile load tests

Factor 1 on mean Rcm

1.55

1.47

1.42

1.38

1.35

Factor 2 on lowest Rcm

1.55

1.35

1.23

1.15

1.08

Note:
For structures having sufficient stiffness and strength to transfer loads from
weak to strong piles, the above factors may be divided by 1.1.

Dynamic Impact Test


Number of tested piles

10

15

20

Factor 5 on mean Rcm

1.94
(1.65)

1.85
(1.57)

1.83
(1.56)

1.82
(1.55)

1.81
(1.54)

Factor 6 on lowest Rcm

1.90
(1.62)

1.76
(1.50)

1.70
(1.45)

1.67
(1.42)

1.66
(1.41)

Note:
Bracket values are values when using dynamic impact tests with signal
matching. Other notes available in NA to SS EN 1997-1:2010.

36

Convert Resistance to Characteristic Value


Ground Test
Number of profiles of tests 1

10

Factor 3 on mean value

1.55

1.47

1.42

1.38

1.36

1.33

1.30

Factor 4 on lowest value

1.55

1.39

1.33

1.29

1.26

1.20

1.15

Note:
For structures having sufficient stiffness and strength to transfer loads from
weak to strong piles, the above factors may be divided by 1.1.

37

General Procedure to Design for EC7


Calculate design action
Compute resistance
from soil parameters

Derive resistance from


load test / ground test

Convert resistance to characteristic values using


model factor or correlation factors
Compute characteristic shaft
and base resistance
Determine required penetration depth of pile where
total characteristic resistance design action

38

Compute Characteristic Resistances


For pile load test, separate Rck into base and shaft

components, Rbk and Rsk, where possible.


Calculate the characteristic shaft and base resistances

from:
Rbk = Ab qbk and Rsk = qsk As
where:
Ab = the nominal plan area of the base of the pile
As = the nominal surface area of the pile
Obtain the design resistances for each resistance set:

Set R1: Rd = Rbk + Rsk or Rd = Rck


Set R4: Rd = Rbk/b + Rsk/s or Rd = Rck/t

39

Resistance Partial Factors


Driven Piles
Set
Resistance

Symbol

R1

R4 without
explicit
verification
of SLS

R4 with
explicit
verification
of SLS

Base

1.0

1.7

1.5

Shaft
(compression)

1.0

1.5

1.3

Total/combined
(compression)

1.0

1.7

1.5

Shaft in tension

s,t

1.0

2.0

1.7

40

Resistance Partial Factors


Bored Piles
Set
Resistance

Symbol

R1

R4 without
explicit
verification
of SLS

R4 with
explicit
verification
of SLS

Base

1.0

2.0

1.7

Shaft
(compression)

1.0

1.6

1.4

Total/combined
(compression)

1.0

2.0

1.7

Shaft in tension

s,t

1.0

2.0

1.7

41

Resistance Partial Factors


Continuous Flight Auger (CFA) Piles
Set
Resistance

Symbol

R1

R4 without
explicit
verification
of SLS

R4 with
explicit
verification
of SLS

Base

1.0

2.0

1.7

Shaft
(compression)

1.0

1.6

1.4

Total/combined
(compression)

1.0

2.0

1.7

Shaft in tension

s,t

1.0

2.0

1.7

42

Design Methods/Considerations
R4 with or without explicit verification of SLS?
If serviceability is verified by load tests carried out on
more than 1% of the constructed piles to loads not less
than 1.5 times the representative load or if settlement at
serviceability limit state is of no concern.
Resistance is verified by a maintained load test taken to
the calculated, unfactored ultimate resistance.
Use the lower factors from R4 with explicit verification of
SLS.

43

General Procedure to Design for EC7


Calculate design action
Compute resistance
from soil parameters

Derive resistance from


load test / ground test

Convert resistance to characteristic values using


model factor or correlation factors
Compute characteristic shaft
and base resistance
Determine required penetration depth of pile where
total characteristic resistance design action

44

Example 1: Compression

0.6m diameter
bored pile

Gk = 1000kN
Qk = 300 kN

0m

1. Calculate design action:


Assume: ignore self weight of pile
Set A1: G = 1.35, Q = 1.5

Sand
k = 32
k = 19kN/m3
4m

Design action = 1.35x1000+1.5x300

= 1800kN
Set A2: G = 1.0, Q = 1.3
Clay
Shaft: cuk = 80kPa
Base: cuk = 100kPa

Design action = 1.0x1000+1.3x300

= 1390kN

Pile base level?

45

Example 1

0.6m diameter
bored pile

Gk = 1000kN
Qk = 300 kN

0m

2. Compute resistance:
Assume: Pile load test carried out
with verification of SLS

Sand
k = 32
k = 19kN/m3
4m

Apply model factor, MF=1.2.


Set R1: s = 1.0, b = 1.0
For sand layer,
Clay
Shaft: cuk = 80kPa
Base: cuk = 100kPa

Design shaft resistance, Rs,d1


= [K tan x As,1] / MF / s
= [0.7 tan x (DL1)] / 1.2 / 1.0
= [0.7x(18x4/2)x(tan32)x(x0.6x4)] / 1.2
= 98.94kN
Pile base level?

46

Example 1

0.6m diameter
bored pile

Gk = 1000kN
Qk = 300 kN

0m

2. Compute resistance:
Sand
k = 32
k = 18kN/m3

For clay layer,

Design shaft resistance, Rs,d2


= [ cu x As,2] / MF / s
= [0.49x80x(x0.6xL2)] / 1.2 / 1.0
= 61.58 L2 kN

4m

Design base resistance, Rb,d


Clay
Shaft: cuk = 80kPa
Base: cuk = 100kPa

= [9 cu x Ab] / MF / b
= [9x100x(x0.62/4)] / 1.2 / 1.0
= 212.06 kN
Set R1: Total resistance

= 98.94 + 61.58 L2 + 212.06


= 311 + 61.58 L2 kN

Pile base level?

47
0.6m diameter
bored pile

Example 1

Gk = 1000kN
Qk = 300 kN

0m

2. Compute resistance:
Assume: Pile load test carried out
with verification of SLS

Sand
k = 32
k = 19kN/m3
4m

Apply model factor, MF=1.2.


Set R4: s = 1.4, b = 1.7
For sand layer,
Clay
Shaft: cuk = 80kPa
Base: cuk = 100kPa

Design shaft resistance, Rs,d1


= [K tan x As,1] / MF / s
= [0.7 tan x (DL1)] / 1.2 / 1.4
= [0.7x(18x4/2)x(tan32)x(x0.6x4)] / 1.68
= 70.67kN
Pile base level?

48

Example 1

0.6m diameter
bored pile

Gk = 1000kN
Qk = 300 kN

0m

2. Compute resistance:
Sand
k = 32
k = 18kN/m3

For clay layer,

Design shaft resistance, Rs,d2


= [ cu x As,2] / MF / s
= [0.49x80x(x0.6xL2)] / 1.2 / 1.4
= 43.99 L2 kN

4m

Design base resistance, Rb,d


Clay
Shaft: cuk = 80kPa
Base: cuk = 100kPa

= [9 cu x Ab] / MF / b
= [9x100x(x0.62/4)] / 1.2 / 1.7
= 124.74 kN
Set R4: Total resistance

= 70.67 + 43.99 L2 + 124.74


= 195.41 + 43.99 L2 kN

Pile base level?

49

Example 1

0.6m diameter
bored pile

Gk = 1000kN
Qk = 300 kN

0m

3. Determine penetration depth:

Sand
k = 32
k = 19kN/m3

Set A1 vs Set R1:

1800kN = 311 + 61.58 L2 kN


1800 311 = 61.58 L2
L2 = 24.18m

4m

Set A2 vs Set R4:


Clay
Shaft: cuk = 80kPa
Base: cuk = 100kPa

1390kN = 195.41 + 43.99 L2 kN


1390 195.41 = 43.99 L2
L2 = 27.16m
Hence, total penetration depth

= 27.16 + 4 = 31.16m

Pile base level?

50

Which Sets to Use?


Two combinations to be checked:

Combination 1:
A1 + M1 + R1

Combination 2:
A2 + (M1 or M2) + R4

where + implies: to be combined with.


Combination 1: Increase loading
Combination 2: Reducing resistance
In Combination 2, set M1 is used for calculating resistances of

piles or anchors and set M2 for calculating unfavourable actions


on piles owing e.g. to negative skin friction or transverse loading.

51

Which Sets to Use?


Two combinations to be checked:

Combination 1:
A1 + M1 + R1

Combination 2:
A2 + (M1 or M2) + R4

Question:
+ implies:
toCombination
be combined with.
Wouldntwhere
the use
of M2 in
2 reduce the
negative skin friction? Unconservative approach??
Combination 1: Increase loading
Combination 2: Reducing resistance

In Combination 2, set M1 is used for calculating resistances of

piles or anchors and set M2 for calculating unfavourable actions


on piles owing e.g. to negative skin friction or transverse loading.

52

Material Partial Factors


Soil Parameter

Symbol

Set
M1

M2

Angle of shearing resistance1

'

1.0

1.25

Effective cohesion

c'

1.0

1.25

Undrained shear strength

cu

1.0

1.4

Unconfined strength

qu

1.0

1.4

Factor is applied to tan '

53

Example 2: Downdrag
Gk = 300 kN

Surcharge placed at ground level which is


sufficient to mobilise limiting negative skin
friction between the pile and the soft clay.

Soft clay
cuk = 20 kPa

Stiff clay
cuk = 50 kPa
Cuk.neg = 20 kPa

Simpson and Driscoll, 1998

54

Example 2: Downdrag
Characteristic applied load, = V#

= 300kN.
Characteristic downdrag force, = D#

=DL* q,= 0.3 5 20


= 94.2 kN.
Characteristic shaft resistance, = R #

= 0.3 50 L2
= 47.1L2 kN.

55

Example 2: Downdrag
Combination 1(F) - downdrag force taken as action
Partial factors for actions :
Note: Downdrag is classified as a
'permanent' action because its
Vertical load, V:
3 = 1.35
variation is always in the same
Downdrag, D:
3 = 1.35
direction (monotonic) until the
action attains a certain limit value
(EC1, 1.5.3.3).

Partial factors for resistances:

Shaft resistance, R:

= 1.0

Total design vertical load = F = V + D

= V# 3 + D# 3
= 3001.35 + 94.21.35
= 532.2 kN.

56

Example 2: Downdrag
Combination 1(F) - downdrag force taken as action
Design shaft resistance = R
= R # /
= 47.1 L2 / 1.0.
Require
R F .
Hence
47.1 L2 / 1.0 532.2 kN.
L2 11.29 m.
Design force for concrete shaft = F = 532.2 kN.

57

Example 2: Downdrag
Combination 1(S) - settlement taken as action
Partial factors for actions:
Vertical load, V: 3 = 1.35
Any partial factor applied to settlement would have no
effect in this case.
Partial factors for resistances:

Shaft resistance, R: = 1.0


Partial factor for unfavourable soil strength transmitting
effect of settlement to pile = 1.0.
Hence design downdrag force = 94.2 kN.

58

Example 2: Downdrag
Combination 1(S) - settlement taken as action
Total design vertical load = F = V + D
= V# 3 + 94.2
= 3001.35 + 94.2
= 499.2 kN.
Design shaft resistance

=R
= R # /
= 47.1 L2 / 1.0.

59

Example 2: Downdrag
Combination 1(S) - settlement taken as action
Require
R F .
Hence
47.1 L2 / 1.0 499.2 kN.
L2 10.6 m.
Design force for concrete shaft = F = 499.2 kN.
It is necessary to satisfy both Combinations 1 and 2, but

the choice of force or displacement as the action is open


to the designer.

60

Example 2: Downdrag
Combination 2(F) - downdrag force taken as action
Partial factors for actions:
Vertical load, V:
3 = 1.0
Downdrag, D:
3 = 1.0
Partial factors tor resistances:

Shaft resistance, R:

= 1.3

(R4 with explicit verification of SLS)

Total design vertical load = F = V + D

= V# 3 + D# 3
= 3001.0 + 94.21.0
= 394.2 kN.

61

Example 2: Downdrag
Combination 2(F) - downdrag force taken as action
Design shaft resistance = R
= R # /
= 47.1 L2 / 1.3.
Require
R F .
Hence
47.1 L2 / 1.3 394.2 kN.
L2 10.88 m.
Design force for concrete shaft = F = 394.2 kN.

62

Example 2: Downdrag
Combination 2(S) - settlement taken as action
Partial factors for actions :
Vertical load, V:
3 = 1.0
Settlement:
3 = 1.0
Partial factors for resistances:

Shaft resistance, R:

= 1.3

When settlement is taken to be the action, downdrag effect

is transferred to the pile using the soil strength, which


therefore acts in an unfavourable manner.

63

Example 2: Downdrag
Combination 2(S) - settlement taken as action
EC7, 2.4.2 (11) says that a partial factor less than 1.0 must
be applied in such cases. It could be taken to be 1 / 89
from Material Table (or 1 / from Resistance Table). This
would give 1 / 1.4 = 0.714 (or 1 / 1.3 = 0.769).
Assumption that the displacement would mobilise all the
available shaft adhesion in the soft clay. The characteristic
value of this (D# ) is 94.2 kN, as shown earlier.

64

Example 2: Downdrag
Combination 2(S) - settlement taken as action
D = 94.2 / ,
= 94.2 / 0.714
= 131.9 kN
Total design vertical load = F = V + D

= V# 3 + D# 3
= 3001.0 + 131.9
= 431.9 kN.

65

Example 2: Downdrag
Combination 2(S) - settlement taken as action
Design shaft resistance = R
= R # /
= 47.1 L2 / 1.3.
Require
R F .
Hence
47.1 L2 / 1.3 431.9 kN.
L2 11.92 m.
Design force for concrete shaft = F = 431.9 kN.

66

Example 2: Downdrag
Summary of results

Calculation
1(F) downdrag force taken as
action
1(S) settlement taken as action

:; (m)
11.29

<= (?)
532.2

10.60

499.2

2(F) downdrag force taken as


action
2(S) settlement taken as action

10.88

394.2

11.92

431.9

67

Which Sets to Use?


Two combinations to be checked:

Combination 1: Answer: Combination 2:


Partial factor M2 is applied onto the soil parameter
A1 c+u)M1
+ downdrag
R1
A2 is
+ transferred
(M1 or M2)
+ R4
(e.g.
when
effect
to the

pile using
the+
soil
strength,
is multiplied
where
implies:
to beDowndrag
combined with.
with the M2 partial factor.
Caution: 1:
Engineer
Combination
Increaseshould
loadingnot double factor for the
same
resistance.
Combination 2: Reducing
resistance

In Combination 2, set M1 is used for calculating resistances of

piles or anchors and set M2 for calculating unfavourable actions


on piles owing e.g. to negative skin friction or transverse loading.

68

Design of Piles in Compression


Static Pile Load Test
Number of pile load tests

Factor 1 on mean Rcm

1.55

1.47

1.42

1.38

1.35

Factor 2 on lowest Rcm

1.55

1.35

1.23

1.15

1.08

Ground Test
Number of profiles of tests 1

10

Factor 3 on mean value

1.55

1.47

1.42

1.38

1.36

1.33

1.30

Factor 4 on lowest value

1.55

1.39

1.33

1.29

1.26

1.20

1.15

Dynamic Impact Test


Number of tested piles

10

15

20

Factor 5 on mean Rcm

1.94

1.85

1.83

1.82

1.81

Factor 6 on lowest Rcm

1.90

1.76

1.70

1.67

1.66

69

Design of Piles in Compression


Static Pile Load Test
Number of pile load tests

Factor 1 on mean Rcm

1.55

1.47

1.42

1.38

1.35

Factor 2 on lowest Rcm

1.55

1.35

1.23

1.15

1.08

Question:
it worthwhile
pile
Number Is
of profiles
of tests to
1do more
2 static
3
4 load
5 tests?
7

10

Factor 3 on mean value

1.55

1.47

1.42

1.38

1.36

1.33

1.30

Factor 4 on lowest value

1.55

1.39

1.33

1.29

1.26

1.20

1.15

Ground Test

Dynamic Impact Test


Number of tested piles

10

15

20

Factor 5 on mean Rcm

1.94

1.85

1.83

1.82

1.81

Factor 6 on lowest Rcm

1.90

1.76

1.70

1.67

1.66

70

Design of Piles in Compression


Static Pile Load Test
Number of pile load tests

Factor 1 on mean Rcm

1.55

1.47

1.42

1.38

1.35

Factor 2 on lowest Rcm

1.55

1.35

1.23

1.15

1.08

Ground Test
Number of profiles of tests 1

10

Factor 3 on mean value

1.55

1.47

1.42

1.38

1.36

1.33

1.30

Factor 4 on lowest value

1.55

1.39

1.33

1.29

1.26

1.20

1.15

Dynamic Impact Test


Number of tested piles

10

15

20

Factor 5 on mean Rcm

1.94

1.85

1.83

1.82

1.81

Factor 6 on lowest Rcm

1.90

1.76

1.70

1.67

1.66

71

Design of Piles in Compression


Static Pile Load Test
Number of pile load tests

Factor 1 on mean Rcm

1.55

1.47

1.42

1.38

1.35

Factor 2 on lowest Rcm

1.55

1.35

1.23

1.15

1.08

Answer:
Ground TestReduction of factor from 1.55 to 1.35
Number of
profiles ofintests
1
2 bearing
3
resistance
4
5
by
7
Increase
characteristic
Factor 3 on mean value
1.55 15%.
1.47 1.42 1.38 1.36 1.33
Factor Beneficial
4 on lowest value
1.55 have
1.39 many
1.33 piles
1.29 to1.26
when you
install1.20
within the zone of similar soil profile.

Dynamic Impact Test


Number of tested piles

10

15

20

Factor 5 on mean Rcm

1.94

1.85

1.83

1.82

1.81

Factor 6 on lowest Rcm

1.90

1.76

1.70

1.67

1.66

10
1.30
1.15

72

Design of Piles in Compression


Static Pile Load Test
Number of pile load tests

Factor 1 on mean Rcm

1.55

1.47

1.42

1.38

1.35

Factor 2 on lowest Rcm

1.55
1.35
1.23
Question:

1.15

1.08

Is it worthwhile to do more dynamic impact


Dynamic Impact Test
tests?
Number of tested piles

10

15

20

Factor 5 on mean Rcm

1.94
(1.65)

1.85
(1.57)

1.83
(1.56)

1.82
(1.55)

1.81
(1.54)

Factor 6 on lowest Rcm

1.90
(1.62)

1.76
(1.50)

1.70
(1.45)

1.67
(1.42)

1.66
(1.41)

Note:
Bracket values are values when using dynamic impact tests with signal
matching. Other notes available in NA to SS EN 1997-1:2010.

73

Design of Piles in Compression


Static Pile Load Test
Number of pile load tests

Factor 1 on mean Rcm

1.55

1.47

1.42

1.38

1.35

Factor 2 on lowest Rcm

1.55

1.35

1.23

1.15

1.08

Number of tested piles

10

15

20

Factor 5 on mean Rcm

1.94
(1.65)

1.85
(1.57)

1.83
(1.56)

1.82
(1.55)

1.81
(1.54)

Factor 6 on lowest Rcm

1.90
(1.62)

1.76
(1.50)

1.70
(1.45)

1.67
(1.42)

1.66
(1.41)

Dynamic Impact Test

Note:
Bracket values are values when using dynamic impact tests with signal
matching. Other notes available in NA to SS EN 1997-1:2010.

74

Design of Piles in Compression


Static Pile Load Test
Number of pile load tests

Factor 1 on mean Rcm

1.55

Factor 6 on lowest Rcm

1.90
(1.62)

1.76
(1.50)

1.70
(1.45)

1.67
(1.42)

1.66
(1.41)

Answer:
1.47
1.42
1.38
1.35
Requires a fair number
of 1.35
dynamic
test with
signal
Factor 2 on lowest Rcm
1.55
1.23
1.15
1.08
matching analysis in order to reduce value of
correlation factor.
Dynamic Impact Test
Note: Take lower of the two categories of factors.
Number of tested piles
2
5
10
15
20
Beneficial when you have many piles to install
Factor 5 on mean Rcm
1.94
1.85
1.83
1.82
1.81
within the zone
of
similar
soil
profile.
(1.65)
(1.57)
(1.56)
(1.55)
(1.54)

Note:
Bracket values are values when using dynamic impact tests with signal
matching. Other notes available in NA to SS EN 1997-1:2010.

75

Design of Piles in Compression


Model Factor vs Correlation Factor
Model Factor, MF = 1.4 (without pile load test), or

= 1.2 (with pile load test)


Correlation Factor,
Static Pile Load Test
Number of pile load tests

Factor 1 on mean Rcm

1.55

1.47

1.42

1.38

1.35

Factor 2 on lowest Rcm

1.55

1.35

1.23

1.15

1.08

76

Design of Piles in Compression


Model Factor vs Correlation Factor
Model Factor, MF = 1.4 (without pile load test), or

= 1.2 (with pile load test)

Question:
Correlation
Factor,
Which
gives a more aggressive design?
Static Pile Load Test
Number of pile load tests

Factor 1 on mean Rcm

1.55

1.47

1.42

1.38

1.35

Factor 2 on lowest Rcm

1.55

1.35

1.23

1.15

1.08

77

Design of Piles in Compression


Model Factor vs Correlation Factor
Model Factor, MF = 1.4 (without pile load test), or

= 1.2 (with pile load test)


Correlation Factor,
Static Pile Load Test
Number of pile load tests

Factor 1 on mean Rcm

1.55

1.47

1.42

1.38

1.35

Factor 2 on lowest Rcm

1.55

1.35

1.23

1.15

1.08

78

Design of Piles in Compression


Model Factor vs Correlation Factor
Model Factor, MF = 1.4 (without pile load test), or

= 1.2 (with pile load test)


Answer:
Model factor
is often
more aggressive as the factor is
Correlation
Factor,

generally lower.
Static Pile Load Test
Number of pile load tests

Factor 1 on mean Rcm

1.55

1.47

1.42

1.38

1.35

Factor 2 on lowest Rcm

1.55

1.35

1.23

1.15

1.08

79

Design of Piles in Compression

80

Design of Piles in Compression

Answer:
Implied FoS from EC7 lower than BS. Shorter piles are
expected? Not necessary.
Application of characteristic value onto soil parameters (i.e.
cautious estimate) may bring the design of pile using EC7
closer to BS.

81

Structural Capacity
Eurocode 2:
Partial factors for concrete and steel for ULS:
Design Situations

c for concrete

s for reinforcing steel

Persistent & Transient

1.5

1.15

Accidential

1.2

1.0

The recommended values of c and s in the serviceability

limit state (SLS) is 1.0.


The partial factor for concrete c given above should be
multiplied by a factor, kf, for calculation of design resistance
of cast in place piles without permanent casing. The
recommended value is 1.1.

82

Structural Capacity
Eurocode 2:
Bored piles
Arrangement of reinforcements to allow free flow of concrete.
Min. diameter for longitudinal bars not be less than 16 mm.
At least 6 longitudinal bars.
Clear distance between bars should not exceed 200 mm
measured along the periphery of the pile.
Permit ease of flow of concrete.

83

Structural Capacity
Eurocode 2:
Bored piles
Cast-in-place bored pile
cross-section, Ac

Min area of longitudinal


reinforcement, As,bpmin

Ac 0.5 m2

As 0.5% Ac

0.5 m2 < Ac 1.0 m2

As 25 cm2 (0.25 - 0.5% Ac)

Ac > 1.0 m2

As 0.25% Ac

Note: Prior recommendation was As 0.5% Ac .

84

Structural Capacity
Eurocode 2:
Concrete

Note:
Factor of 0.85 for flexure and axial loading
(NA to EC2 3.1.6)
Factor of 0.6 due to less ductile properties of
plain concrete (NA to EC2 12.3.1)

fcd = fck / c
= 0.85 fck / 1.5 [driven]
= 0.85 fck / (1.5 x 1.1) [bored-reinforced]
= 0.60 fck / (1.5 x 1.1) [bored-unreinforced)]

Steel
fyd = fyk / s
= fyk / 1.15
Structural capacity of pile > Design Action/Load
Q = fcd Ac + fyd As
>
Fd = G Gk + Q Qk
= 0.515 fck Ac + 0.87 fyk As [bored-reinforced]
= 0.364 fck Ac [bored-unreinforced]

85

Structural Capacity
Eurocode 2:
Concrete
fcd = fck / c
= 0.85 fck / 1.5 [driven]
= 0.85 fck / (1.5 x 1.1)
[bored-reinforced]
BS 8004
and SS CP4:
=Q0.60
fck / (1.5
x c1.1)
[bored-unreinforced)]
= (0.4
fcu A
+ 0.75
fy As)/FoS [bored-reinforced]

SS CP65:
Steel
fyd = fyk / s Q = 0.25 fcu Ac [bored-unreinforced]
Note: fcu fck & fy fyk
= fyk / 1.15
Structural capacity of pile > Design Action/Load
Q = fcd Ac + fyd As
>
Fd = G Gk + Q Qk
= 0.515 fck Ac + 0.87 fyk As [bored-reinforced]
= 0.364 fck Ac [bored-unreinforced]

86

Structural Capacity
Eurocode 2:
Table 3.1 Strength characteristics for concrete

87

Structural Capacity
Eurocode 2:
Table 3.1 Strength characteristics for concrete

Cylinder: fcm = fck + 8 (MPa)


Cylinder fck 0.8 fck,cube
Note: Strength of a cylinder is approx. 0.8 that of a cube.
Research has shown that the ratio of strength of a cylinder
vs cube increases (>0.8) as the strength of concrete
increases.

88

Structural Capacity
Hence,
Bored - reinforced section:
Q = fcd Ac + fyd As
= 0.515 fck Ac + 0.87 fyk As
0.412 fck,cube Ac + 0.87 fyk As
Bored - unreinforced section:
Q = fcd Ac
= 0.364 fck Ac
0.291 fck,cube Ac
Note: In CP4 and CP65,
Q = (0.4 fcu Ac + 0.75 fy As)/FoS [bored-reinforced]
Q = 0.25 fcu Ac
[bored-unreinforced]

89

THANK YOU

Dr Darren Chian Siau Chen


National University of Singapore
sc.chian@nus.edu.sg

Оценить