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Nuclear

Chemistry
NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY
INTRODUCTION
In

ordinary

chemical

combinations, only the electrons present in


the Outermost orbitlas are involved i.e. they
are transferred from one atoms to the other
atom remain unaffected. However, there are
certain phenomena in which the nucleus of the
atom is involved. The branch of chemistry
dealing with the phenomena involving the
nuclei of the atoms is known as NUCLEAR
CHEMISTRY.

In

fact,

the

only

phenomena

involving the nucleus of an atom is RADIO


ACTIVITY - both natural and artificial.

NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY :
Thephenomenonofspontaneousemissionofcertainkindsofradiations
bysomeelementsiscalledThephenomenonofspontaneousemission
ofcertainkindsofradiationsbysomeelementsis calledradioactivityor
naturalradioactivity.
ARTIFICIAL OR INDUCED RADIOACTIVITY :
Thephenomenoniswhichtheartificialdisintegrationofastable
nucleus leads to the formation of a radioactive isotope is called artificial
radioactivity.
radioactivityornaturalradioactivity.
ARTIFICIAL OR INDUCED RADIOACTIVITY :
Thephenomenoniswhichtheartificialdisintegrationofastable
nucleus leads to the formation of a radioactive isotope is called artificial
radioactivity.

Cause of Radioactivity
Ithasbeenfoundthatthenucleiofthoseatomsarestablewhose
ratiooftheneutronstoprotons(n/pratio)liesintherange1to1.5.Ifnumberof

neutronsisplottedagainstthenumberofprotons,thetablenucleuslieinawell
definedbelt,calledstabilitybeltasshowninFig.thenucleiwithatomicnumber
upto20haven/pratiocloseto1. Thenucleiwithn/prationlyingaboveor
belowthestabilityparticlessothattheirn/prationfallswithinthestabilitybelt.
Lossofparticle(2pand2n)increasesthen/prationwhereaslossofparticles
increasesthenumberofprotonsandhencedecreasesthen/pratio.

Nature and characteristics of Radioactive


Substances
Itisobservedthatanapplyingthefield,theraysemittedfromthe
radioactivesubstancesareseparatedintothreetypescalledrays.
The raysaredeflectedinadirectionwhichshowsthattheycarry
positivechargesthe raysaredeflectedintheoppositedirectionandthe rays
arenotdeflectedatallshowingthattheycarrynocharge.

PROPERTIES OF

a RAYS :

(i)Thedirectionofdeflectionofthe raysintheelectricandmagneticfield
showthattheycarrypositivecharge.Itisfoundthateachparticlecarries
two units of positive charges and has mass nearly four times that of
hydrogenatom.
(ii)Thevelocityofraysisfoundtobenearly1/10the1/20theofthatoflight,
dependinguponthenatureofsource.
(iii) raysionizethegasthroughwhichtheypass.

(iv) rayshavelowpenetratingpower.Theycanpenetratethroughaironlyto
adistanceofabout7cm.
(v) raysaffectaphotographicplateandproduceluminescencewhenthey
strikealinesulphidescreen.

PROPERTIES OF

b RAYS

(i) Thedirectionofdeflectionof raysintheelectricandmagneticfields


showsthattheycarrynegativecharge.Theseparticlespossessthesamecharge
andmassasthatoftheelectrons.
(ii)Thevelocityof raysdependsuponthenatureofthesource.Thespeedof
particles varies from 3% to 99% of that of light i.e. in same cases it
approachesthevelocityoflight.
(iii)Theionizingpowerof particlesisabout1/100thofthatof particles.
(iv)Theirpenetratingpowerisabout100timesgreaterthanthatof rays.
(v)Likerays, raysaffectaphotographicplateandtheeffectismuchhigher.
However,thereisnosignificanteffectonazincsulphidescreenbecomeof
theirlowerkineticenergy.

PROPERTIES OF

g RAYS

(i)Theyarenotdeflectedintheelectricandmagneticfieldsshowingtheseby
thattheydonotcarryanycharge.
(ii)Theytravelwiththesamevelocityasthatoflight.
(iii)Astheydonothaveanymass,theirionizingpowerisverypoor.
(iv)Theirpenetratingpowerisabout100timesmorethanthatof rays.Thus
theycanpenetratethroughleadsheetsasthickas150mm.
(v) rayshaveverylittleeffectonthephotographicplatesorzinc.sulphide
screen.

RATE OF RADIOACTIVE

Nuclear fusions is

definedasaprocessinwhichlighternucleifusetogethertoform aheavier
nucleus.

H11+H11>H12+e10
DeuteriumPosition
Thesplittingofaheavieratomlikethatofuranium235intoa
numberoffragmentsofmuchsmallermassbysuitablebombardmentofhuge
amountofenergyiscalledNUCLEARFISSION.
e.g.Hugeamountofenergy.
Thehalflifeperiodofradioactiveelementisthetimeinwhichhalfof
theoriginalsubstancedisintegrate.
where isdisintegrationconstant.
andNisthenumberofatomspresentatanyinstantoftime.
Theequationisalsowrittenas:

Whereaistheamountoftheradioactivesubstanceinitiallytakenandaxisthe
amountpresentattimet.
radioactiveelementandtheradioactivedisintegrationfollowsfirstorderkinetics
andhencetheexpressionfortherateconstant( ).

WhereNoisthenumberoftheatomstakeninitially.

DISINTEGRATION OR DECAY
The rate of disintegration depends only upon the nature of the
radioactiveelementandtheradioactivedisintegrationfollowsfirstorderkinetics
andhencetheexpressionfortherateconstant( ).

WhereNoisthenumberoftheatomstakeninitially.
andNisthenumberofatomspresentatanyinstantoftime.
Theequationisalsowrittenas:

Whereaistheamountoftheradioactivesubstanceinitiallytakenandaxisthe
amountpresentattimet.
HALF LIFE PERIOD :
Thehalflifeperiodofradioactiveelementisthetimeinwhichhalfof
theoriginalsubstancedisintegrate.
where isdisintegrationconstant.

NUCLEAR FISSION
Thesplittingofaheavieratomlikethatofuranium235intoa
numberoffragmentsofmuchsmallermassbysuitablebombardmentofhuge
amountofenergyiscalledNUCLEARFISSION.

e.g.Hugeamountofenergy.

Nuclear Fusions
Nuclearfusionsisdefinedasaprocessinwhichlighternucleifuse
togethertoformaheaviernucleus.
H11+H11>H12+e10
DeuteriumPosition