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The descent with modification - Presentation Transcript

1. The Descent with Modification

2. Evolution
o Life first originated some 3.8 billion years ago.
o Organisms come to exist by the Transfer of Genetic Material, within a
surrounding cell, from one or more parents.
o Descent may occur through:

Simple clonal reproduction

Complex sexual reproduction

3. Lineage
o Results from Descent through Time
o A set of organisms interconnected through time and space by the transfer of
genetic material from parents to offspring.
4. Modification
o A component of Evolution
o Refers to a change in Genetic Material that is transferred from parent/s to
o Such Genetic Material of the offspring is different from the parent/s.
o Occurred through:


Genetic Recombination

5. Population and Species

o The General Units of Evolution
o Species

Groups of Populations that are related to one another by various criteria

and have evolutionarily diverged from such other groups.

o Population

A group of individuals of the same species that is usually geographically


6. Phylogeny
o The evolutionary History or pattern of descent of a group of organisms.
o Commonly represented in a Cladogram
7. Cladogram
o A hypothesis about the lineages and their evolutionary relationships.
8. Conditions of the Species
o Pleisomorphy

The ancestral condition

o Apomorphy

The evolutionary novelty

o Synapomorphy

An apomorphy that unites two or more lineages

o Autopomorphy

An apomorphy that occurs within a single lineage

9. History of Evolution
o Plato
o The observable world is no more than a shadowy reflection of underlying
ideals that are true and eternal for all time.
10. The Great Chain of Being

o The Deity wishing to make this world like the fairest and most perfect of
intelligible beings, framed one visible living being containing within itself all
other living beings of like nature
o -Plato11. Scale of Nature
o Formed by Aristotle from Platos ideal.
o Represents a link in the progressions from the least, to the most perfect of
12. Charles Darwin
o Described as a man who defied his own social and religious background, not only
by espousing a radical concept, but by becoming the instrument that made it
acceptable to many of his compatriots.
13. The Galapagos Islands
o Where Darwin had a great impact on his thinking about Evolution
o Particularly Struck by:

The absence of insect eating warblers and woodpeckers, but finchers

taking their place.

The observation that each island contained its own constellation of


14. Jean-Baptiste de Lamrack

o Proposed the Continuity of Species

Variations among organisms originate because of response to the needs of

the environment

The ability to respond in a particular direction accounts for the adaptation

of new features.

15. Macroevolution
o The evolutionary changes at the species level and above.

16. Microevolution
o Evolution within the population of a species
17. Types of Evolution
o Divergent Evolution
o Convergent Evolution
o Parallel Evolution
18. Divergent Evolution

the evolutionary pattern in which two species gradually become increasingly


o often occurs when closely related species diversify to new habitats

o Large Scale: Responsible for the creation of the current diversity of life on earth
from the first living cells.

Small Scale: Responsible for the evolution of two species from a common

19. Convergent Evolution


Takes place when species of different ancestry begin to share analogous traits
because of a shared environment or other selection pressure.

20. Parallel Evolution

o Occurs when two species evolve independently of each other, maintaining the
same level of similarity.
o Between unrelated species that do not occupy the same or similar niches in a
given habitat.
21. Plant Evolution
22. The Green Plants
o Cellulosic Cell Wall
o Primary Apomorphy of the Viridiplantae:

Chlorophyll B


Stacked Grana


23. Streptophyte
o Gave rise to the Land Plants
o Apomorphy


o Charophyte

A clade within the Streptophytes

Apomorphy: Plasmodesmata




Land Plants

24. Embryophyta Land Plants

o First colonization of Plants on Land during the Silurian Period (400 mya)
o Under Streptophytes/Charophytes
o Apomorphy






25. NonVascular Land Plants

o Hepaticae (Liverworts)

One of the monophyletic groups

Descendents of some of the first land plants

o Mosses
o Apomorphy:


Aerial Sporophyte Axis

o Anthocerotae (Hormworts)
o Apomorphy:

Long-lived Photosynthetic Sporophyte

26. Tracheophyta Vascular Land Plants

27. Apomorphies
o Independent, long-lived sporophyte
o Branched sporophyte
o Lignified secondary walls
o Sclerenchyma
o Tracheary Elements (xylem)
o Sieve Elements (phloem)
o Endodermis
o Roots

28. Lignophytes Woody Plants

29. Apomorphy
o Possesses the

Vascular Cambium

Cork Cambium

30. Spermatophytes
o Seed Plants, a lineage within the lignophytes
o Apomorphy:


31. Angiosperms Pretty Flower Plants

32. Origin of Angiosperms
o Earliest definitive fossils of Angiosperms:

Dispersed Pollen Grains

Earliest Cretaceous Period (140mya)

Flower Fossil Record (130mya)

o Once Angiosperms arose, they rapidly radiated into several, distinct lineages,
replacing gymnosperms as the dominant plant life form on earth.
33. Amborella trichopoda
o The Best hypothesis for the most basal angiosperm lineage

Lacks vessels

Possesses unisexual flowers with a spiral perianth

o aminar stamens

o Separate carpels