Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 11

Sison, Victor Arvin Val B.

92-04481

EDDE 201
Assignment 2

Blended Learning For Basic Education


Distance Education and Online Learning in Basic Education
Distance learning has been recognized by the government as an important
means for providing and extending educational services to the people. The DepEd
through its Drop Out Reduction Program (DORP) has initiated distance learning
initiatives to give students other avenues to continue and pursue secondary
education. The Bureau of Secondary Education has three programs: Open High
School Program (OHSP), Project Effective Alternative Secondary Education (EASE),
and the Internet- based Distance Education Program (iDEP). All three programs
strive to give students better access to education.
The OHSP is a formal print-based distance learning program offering selflearning modules and once a week face-to-face classes for student learning. It gives
students with physical, economic and geographical limitations a chance to have
access to high school education. Project EASE provides students an opportunity to
continue their education through printed self-learning modules. The project caters to
students who are unable to attend regular classes or those who miss classes for
prolonged periods of time due certain circumstances such as untimely sickness and
seasonal work. This system enables them to learn on their own pace based on the
time available to them. iDEP is the online delivery of the DepEds OHSP program
which it hopes to blend with the modular print based approach currently in practice.
The implementation of the various distance learning programs under DORP has
increased student access to education and has significantly reduced the drop-out
rate in the secondary level. From 12.51 % in 2005-2006, down to 7.45% in 20072008("Deped.gov.ph").
The Commission of Information and Communications Technology (CICT)
together with the Bureau of Alternative Learning System (BALS) has also launched
a flagship project called eSkwela which is the ICT supported counterpart of its print
based alternative learning system. The program aims to deliver secondary level
alternative learning to out-of-school youth and adults through the use of interactive
electronic-modules (e-modules). The project hopes to positively increase the
students chances of passing the equivalency test to obtain a high school diploma.
It will also soon offer accreditation and equivalency for elementary students under
the same program. The most recent initiative for online and computer mediated
learning is the Cloud Computing System (CloudTop) of the DepEd and DOST which
is an elearning platform that aims to increase student and teacher access to digital
information and teaching materials( Montes, 2012).

Sison, Victor Arvin Val B.


92-04481

EDDE 201
Assignment 2

The existing government initiatives are geared towards providing increased


access to online learning materials and resources and the creation of online
versions of the governments distance learning programs.
Combination of Face-to-Face learning and Online learning
Advances in information and communication technologies have made online
distance learning an important method for improving access and delivery of
government educational services. These same advances in technology has also
pushed private companies and individuals to provide online learning services and
technologies to traditional learning institutions with the goal enhancing traditional
face-to-face learning with online learning and instruction. These efforts are all inline
with the current ICT4E program of the Department of Education which stresses the
need improve ICT competencies of teachers and students. According to the 3 rd
National ICTs in Basic Education Conference in 2008, the country has a vision of
providing our students with 21st century skills that involves the delivery of digital
age literacy requirements for our learners which include the development of
Inventive Thinking, Effective Communication, Creativity, Collaboration and High
Productivity. Online learning integration for basic education can be seen as a step
towards meeting the DepEds ICT4E program which aims to enhance teaching and
learning.
Free and proprietary web based learning and content management systems
are now available for carrying out blended learning in educational institutions . Open
source learning management systems (LMS) like the Modular Object-Oriented
Dynamic Learning Environment ( MOODLE) and Claroline are popular choices for K12 and higher education institutions around the world. On the other hand, foreign
commercial turnkey solutions for delivering online learning like Blackboard and
WebCT are also popular choices for schools who can afford subscriptions to these
LMSs. In the local scene open source LMSs as well as home grow LMSs are
becoming popular. Local textbook publishers are now also getting into the scene and
are migrating and converting their textbooks into digital formats. They are also
starting to offer their own brand of learning management systems or elearning
systems. Rex bookstore has its Rexinteractive, Diwa publishing has Genyo and
CE publishing has CE-learning, all of them are offering online access to interactive
content and instruction for primary and secondary students. Schools with the knowhow and technology infrastructure are using open source technologies to tap and
leverage freely available online recourses. This system enables them to integrate
and organize web resources to support their learning objectives. Other schools who
can afford per student subscription rates opt for e-learning solutions like Genyo and
Rexinteractive to support their learning objectives.
These LMSs enables content and instruction delivery, collaboration and
communication. Lessons and subject matter content can now be presented using

Sison, Victor Arvin Val B.


92-04481

EDDE 201
Assignment 2

technology without the teacher. Some forms of instruction can now be delivered as
effectively or even more effectively using online technologies. The affordances on
these technologies are causing a shift in K-12 education toward online and blended
learning.

Blended Learning Defined


What is blended learning? Blending, as we know, is mixing of two or more
things to bring out something new. The term blended learning is commonly
associated or synonymous to hybrid learning which means a mix of two modes of
learning, usually between traditional face-to-face and online learning. Dziuban,
Hartman and Moskal (2004) in its study on blended learning note that Blended
learning should be viewed as a pedagogical approach that combines the
effectiveness and socialization opportunities of the classroom with the
technologically enhanced active learning possibilities of the online environment.

A K-12 study on online and blending around the globe,shows that 60% of the
countries in the study had government funding for blended or online programs at the
primary and secondary levels (Babour, Brown, Waters, Hoey, Hunt , Kennedy, Trimm
& , 2011). In the US alone, online learning is growing at a rate of 30% annually
(Watson , 2008). As an emerging trend , there is an increasing demand to have a
clearer definition of what blended learning is as it relates to K-12 or the basic
education sector. A more recent definition of blended learning by Innosight Institute,
in a white paper Classifying K-12 Blended Learning , narrows down the definition
to a formal education program in which a student learns at least in part through
online delivery of content and instruction with some element of student control
over time, place, path, and/or pace at least in part at a supervised brick-andmortar location away from home.

The definition highlights that blended learning:

Is a formal education ( part of the school curriculum and is geared towards


helping student meet defined curriculum learning outcomes)

Involves online delivery of content and instruction ( to differentiate it from


ordinary web resources, it usually involves the use of learning management
systems)

Online learning is supervised at a brick and mortar location that is away from
home ( to differentiate blended learning from a pure online learning which
usually takes place at home or place other than the school)

Sison, Victor Arvin Val B.


92-04481

EDDE 201
Assignment 2

Why Blend?
A recent meta-analysis and review of online learning studies by
Means,Toyama,Murphy,Bakia & Jones (2010) showed that students that received
blended learning achieved better learning outcomes compared to students who
received purely traditional face-to-face instruction and online learning. The study is
careful not to attribute this increased learning on increased access to media but
attributes it to increased student exposure to content and instruction not available to
students engaged in traditional face-to-face instruction.
Blended learning offers students the best of both worlds . Although the
statement can still be qualified as to the extent of quality of both methods, the
combination of face-to-face and online learning has the potential to offer more
learning opportunities for students. ICTs eliminates most physical barriers to
learning and gives students better access to course materials at any time and any
place, and enables a world of possibility not only for access to content and
instruction but also for student collaboration. Blended learning increases access,
flexibility, and convenience to students and has shown to positively affect faculty and
student satisfaction (Dziuban, Hartman & Moskal, 2004). Current practices on
blended learning are found to have a dual effect - what the students learn online
informs what they learn face-to-face, and vice versa (Watson, 2008).
Blended Learning Application Considerations
Schools are identifying learning objectives and outcomes that can be best
accomplished online. Didactic type activities, content delivery, and assessment that
can be effectively and efficiently delivered online are so delivered. Schools that are
designing blended learning are saving valuable face-to-face time for higher order
learning activities, group work, experiential and collaborative work, as well,
entertaining and answering student questions (Means et al. , 2010).
In the blended learning model teachers become facilitators, guides, and
mentors. In this role shift, faculty development is required to equip them to become
skilled facilitators ( Watson, 2008). When it comes to blended learning assessment,
the focus remains on the learning objectives but also makes sure that assessment
methods are available for both face-to-face and online learning activities. Formative
and summative assessments are also integrated for students and teachers (Dziuban
et al. , 2004). Course management technologies also enables teachers and students
to benefit from the automated checking and feedback for assignments and quizzes
submitted online. This enables students to reflect on their mistakes and gives
teachers access to immediate information for guided intervention to improve student

Sison, Victor Arvin Val B.


92-04481

EDDE 201
Assignment 2

performance. These automated mechanisms also frees up time which enables


teachers and student to focus more on teaching and learning.

Emerging K-12 Blended Learning Models


According to the Innosight Institute, a leading researcher on blended learning,
there are four emerging types of blended learning in K-12 schools. These are the: 1.
Rotation Model, 2. Flex Model, 3. Self Blend Model, 4. Enriched Virtual . The
following descriptions are taken from the document Classifying K-12 Blended
learning:
1. Rotation model a program in which within a given course or subject (e.g., math),
students rotate on a fixed schedule or at the teachers discretion between learning
modalities, at least one of which is online learning. Other modalities might include
activities such as small-group or full-class instruction, group projects, individual
tutoring, and pencil-and-paper assignments.
2. Flex model a program in which content and instruction are delivered primarily by
the Internet, students move on an individually customized, fluid schedule among
learning modalities, and the teacher-of-record is on-site. The teacher-of-record or
other adults provide face-to-face support on a flexible and adaptive as-needed basis
through activities such as small-group instruction, group projects, and individual
tutoring. Some implementations have substantial face-to-face support, while others
have minimal support. For example, some flex models may have face-to-face
certified teachers who supplement the online learning on a daily basis, whereas
others may provide little face-to- face enrichment. Still others may have different
staffing combinations. These variations are useful modifiers to describe a particular
Flex model.
3. Self-Blend model describes a scenario in which students choose to take one or
more courses entirely online to supplement their traditional courses and the teacherof-record is the online teacher. Students may take the online courses either on the
brick-and-mortar campus or off-site. This differs from full-time online learning and
the Enriched-Virtual model because it is not a whole-school experience. Students
self-blend some individual online courses and take other courses at a brick-andmortar campus with face-to-face teachers.
4. Enriched-Virtual model a whole-school experience in which within each course
(e.g., math), students divide their time between attending a brick-and-mortar
campus and learning remotely using online delivery of content and instruction. Many
Enriched-Virtual programs began as full-time online schools and then developed
blended programs to provide students with brick-and-mortar school experiences.
The Enriched-Virtual model differs from the Flipped Classroom because in EnrichedVirtual programs, students seldom attend the brick-and-mortar campus every
weekday. It differs from the Self-Blend model because it is a whole-school
experience, not a course-by-course model.

Sison, Victor Arvin Val B.


92-04481

EDDE 201
Assignment 2

Local Blended Learning Practices


The models described above reflect the current models of blended learning
across the globe. The trend for online and blended learning in the country is the use
of open source and proprietary LMSs to deliver content and instruction. Schools like
the Philippine Science High School, UP High School Cebu, Southville International
School and Brent International Manila use Moodle as their online learning platform.
Propriety LMSs are also gaining ground for private and primary and secondary
schools. Subscription to Genyo is currently one of the most popular LMS used for
blending face-to-face learning with online learning. According to the Genyo website,
roughly 300 schools nationwide have opted to become their partners in delivering
online learning and instruction.
Local practices, based on the four models described, fall into the category of
the rotation model . Classroom learning activities are combined with online learning
activities. Students usually spend a number of hours each week in the computer lab
to have access to content and instruction regarding a particular subject (e.g. Math).
Students access course content and materials during lab hours and follow online
instructions. Activities range from educational games, quizzes, blogs, discussion
forums and interactives (Policarpio, 2009). Blended learning also occurs when
lectures are delivered in the classroom and skills are practiced and reinforced online.
Students who want to advance their learning can also have access to content
materials, while students who are having trouble with lessons can take time to review
materials, resources and practice lessons online.
Flipped classrooms is also a form of blended learning being implemented in
local schools. It is also a form of rotation, this time instruction takes place away from
the school, usually at home, and face-to-face time is saved for student practice and
teacher guided projects or activities based on what is learned online(Staker & Horn,
2012). Online delivery of content and instruction in the form of text, podcasts,
interactive websites, videos, and other media are usually accessed at home through
the LMS ( Moodle, Genyo) and what is learned online is reinforced at school through
guided activities facilitated by the teacher. Students who watch lectures or access
rich content that would otherwise be unavailable in the traditional face-to-face model
can experience a deeper connection with the content. Technologies that gives users
the element of control such as replaying media is very advantageous because it
enables users to control the pace of learning. Self-correcting practice tests also
provide adequate feedback and informs the students of their grasp of concepts.
The Moodle learning management system and proprietary LMSs like Genyo
allows for the following blended learning design ("Blended learning designs:," 2011):

Sison, Victor Arvin Val B.


92-04481

EDDE 201
Assignment 2

Lectures or lesson delivery online discussions in class


Lectures or lesson delivery in class discussion online
Lectures and discussions in class and skill practice online
Group work in class individual work online

The eSweka and OHSP, through the iDEP, are programs that have the
potential of maturing into blended learning models which gives students access to
mostly or fully online curriculum with select days of required F2F and classroom
instruction. If they reach this stage and link with students to brick and mortar schools
they may be qualified as an enriched-virtual model.
The blended learning continuum shows the segments of blended learning
models based on being fully traditional to fully online. The table help situate where
most local practices are in terms of the continuum.

Blended Learning Continuum


Fully Online
Fully online Curriculum
with all learning done
online and at Distance
and no F2F component
Fully online curriculum
with options for F2F
instruction, but not
required
Mostly or fully online
curriculum with select
days required in
classroom or computer
lab
Mostly or fully online
curriculum in computer
lab or classroom where
students meet every day
Classroom instruction
with significant, required
online components that
extend learning beyond
the four corners of the
classroom and beyond
the school day
Classroom instruction
integrating

Philippines

Other countries

Possibly for iDEP/OHSP and


eSkwela to evolve into this
model

Chicago Virtual School

Genyo partner schools and


Moodle implementation(UP
High School Cebu, PSHS,
Southville International
School)

The Community High School


of Ann Arbor, Michigan

Sison, Victor Arvin Val B.


92-04481

EDDE 201
Assignment 2

online resources, but limited


or no requirement for
students to be online
Traditional F2F setting
with few or no online
resources or
communication
Traditional Face-to-Face

Table adapted from Promising practices in online learning, Blended learning: The
Convergence of Online and Face-to-Face Education by Watson , J. (2008). North
American Council for Online Learning.

Blended Learning Implementation Components


To implement blended learning, the components for blended learning delivery
must be put in place to effectively integrate blended learning . Schools that opt for
proprietary turnkey solutions like Genyo are provided with the components to
implement blended learning. According to Policarpio (2009) GENYO system
addresses four major areas:
(1) Content. This courseware learning management system is curriculum-based,
providing interactive multimedia resources in the five core subject areas.
(2) Connectivity. GENYO provides expert technical advice on the set-up and
maintenance of infrastructure, which includes hardware, software, and internet
connection.
(3) Community. GENYO provides an avenue for schools, students, teachers, and
parents to create an online learning community.
(4) Change management. To address the concerns about altering attitudes and
teacher competence, GENYO trains teachers on basic ICT skills and e-Learning and
e-Teaching techniques.

Schools adopting the open source model will also have to put a system in
place to address blended learning delivery and must setup systems for: 1. Online
Content Creation and Development, 2. Online Teaching and Learning, 3. Student
Support , and 4. Organization and Management . The school has to determine who
will curate, collate, develop and create content for classes that will be delivered in
blended mode. They will also have to set-up a learning management system to
deliver content and instruction. They will have to learn how to design and implement
blended learning activities. They must determine the possible teaching combinations
for online and offline teaching. They have to identify staff and personnel to support
the schools blended learning initiative. They will also have to manage how to
integrate blended learning activities and processes into their traditional learning and

Sison, Victor Arvin Val B.


92-04481

EDDE 201
Assignment 2

school management processes. The school organization and management must


make sure that good instructional design principles, both online and offline are put
into place.

Blended Learning Challenges


Teacher Involvement and Preparedness
Schools who have implemented blended learning have encountered several
challenges. Policarpio ( 2009) in his paper The Genyo Experience identifies ,
teacher involvement as a key challenge in the Genyo implementation because
teachers viewed blended learning as an additional work load. Blended requires
teachers to gain a certain level of proficiency in navigating online resources including
the LMS. Teaching philosophy will be a contributing factor in the degree of
acceptance and successful implementation of blended learning . New teachers who
are digital natives will be more comfortable with ICTs, but non-digital native teachers
are expected to have difficulties in implementing online learning activities for
students. Blended learning entails many changes for teachers because it requires
teachers to rethink and re-examine their course goals and objectives and how they
will integrate online activities with classroom activities. They will also have to learn
the skill of online and offline facilitation skill as online resources begin to complement
face-to-face learning

Student Preparedness
Teachers and other support staff must help students understand the role of
online learning in the entire learning process. They must be oriented on how the
systems work and informed on the assessment methods for both offline and online
learning. Students must be also encouraged and supported to become independent
learners and take a more active role in their learning.
Infrastructure and Technology Support
Access to PCs and other equipment and accessibility is a challenge for
blended learning programs( Policarpio, 2009). Blended learning requires for the
schools to have computer laboratories as well as a stable internet connection to
facilitate online learning activities. Ideally, students and teachers must also have
access to the internet at home to fully leverage online learning. The necessary
personnel must also be hired or designated to provide technical support and
troubleshoot technology related issues in related to blended learning delivery.

Conclusion
There are clearly many ways and possible combinations for implementing
blended learning. The emerging K-12 blended learning models around the globe give

Sison, Victor Arvin Val B.


92-04481

EDDE 201
Assignment 2

us a glimpse of the potential models for blended learning implementation. Current


local models are also showing promise for enhancing teaching and learning. There
are clearly many challenges for implementing blended learning for basic education.
Government initiatives such as the CloudTop could be a potential answer for public
schools, if it evolves into a national online platform for online learning.
Many schools have embarked and are embarking on blended learning
initiatives. It is clear that new skills are needed to support blended learning. Teacher
support for the blended learning intitiatives are crucial. Teachers must be supported
and equipped with new skills for facilitating online learning. It is also imporatant to
note that redesigning the learning experience is very important, learning institutions
must not rely on just putting content online as a from of blended learning. Schools
must learn how to leverage existing resources to create the best learning
experience.

References:
Babour, M., Brown, R., Waters, L., Hoey, R., Hunt , J., Kennedy, K., Trimm, T., & ,
(2011). Online and blended learning: a survey of policy and practice of k-12 schools
around the world. International Association for K-12 Online Learning. Retrieved from
http://www.inacol.org/research/docs/iNACOL_IntnlReport2011.pdf
(2011). Blended learning designs: A learning science perspective. (2011). [Web
Graphic]. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/eli/events/eli-annualmeeting/2011/blended-learning-designs-learning-science-perspective
Department of Education, (n.d.). " Project dorp: Deped catches dropping out
students." . Retrieved from DepEd website:
http://www.deped.gov.ph/cpanel/uploads/issuanceImg/oct6-dorp.pdf
Dziuban, C., Hartman, J., & Moskal, P. (2004). Blended learning. EDUCAUSE,
Center for Applied Research, Retrieved from
http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ERB0407.pdf
Means, B., Toyama, Y., Murphy, R., Bakia, M., & Jone, K. (2010). U.S. Department
of Education, Office of Planning, Evaluation, and Policy Development. Evaluation of
evidence-based practices in online learning: A meta-analysis and review of online
learning studies . Retrieved from U.S. Department of Education website:
www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/opepd/ppss/reports.html.

Sison, Victor Arvin Val B.


92-04481

EDDE 201
Assignment 2

Montes, M. (2012, February 10). Ph to roll out e-learning project based on cloud newsbytes philippines. Brain Gain Network. Retrieved from
http://www.bgn.org/news/item/2890
Policarpio, J. (2009). The Genyo experience: Issues and challenges of integrating
technology in basic education. Diwa Learning System, Retrieved from
http://elearning.ph/web/userfiles
Staker, H., & Horn, M. (2012). Classifying k-12 blended learning. Innosight Institute,
Inc. Retrieved from http://www.innosightinstitute.org/mediaroom/publications/education-publications

Watson , J. (2008). Promising practices in online learning: Blended learning. North


American Council for Online Learning. Retrieved from
http://www.inacol.org/research/promisingpractices/NACOL_PP-BlendedLearninglr.pdf

Оценить